Group Title: Field day (Potato Investigations Laboratory)
Title: Field day.
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Title: Field day.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Potato Investigations Laboratory,
Publication Date: 1959
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076392
Volume ID: VID00002
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POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Hastings, Florida
Myrtle 2-5921


FIELD DAY
March 24, 1959






PROGRAM


Subject


E.N. McCubbin

A.H. Eddins

R.B. Workman

D.L. Myhre

C.B. Hall


Potato and Cabbage Production

Potato Diseases

Control of Insects

Potato Irrigation and Soil Fertility Research

Potato Storage and Chipping Qualities


Refreshments were kindly donated by the following f

Armour Fertilizer Works, Jacksonville
DeLorenzo & Steflik, Hastings
Dyer Box Company, Hastings
Kilgore Seed Company, Plant City
Niagara Chemical Division, Leesburg
Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation, Orlando
Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Company, Jacksonville





AY:7 7


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Speaker


Page


2-3


5-6

7-9


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POTATO AND CABBAGE PRODUCTION
E.N. McCubbin


Potato Variety Tests: Eleven varieties.and 15 USDA seedling selections listed below
were planted in 13-hill plots 1-9-9 and fertilized with 2,400 pounds of a 6-8-8
fertilizer/A. Yields as well as desirable and undesirable tuber characteristics of
the various varieties and selections will be recorded and compared at harvest.


Merrimack
P1ngo
Plymouth
Saco
Delus
Cherokee
Fundy


8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.


Red Pontiac
Tawa
Red LaSoda
WC 41956
B 2368-4
B 3677-1
B 355-35


Potato Seed and Fertilizer Rates: Sebago potatoes were planted 1-7-59 at five dif-
ferent seeding rates an2 each seeding rate was fertilized with .8, .9, 1,0, 1.1 and
1.2 pounds of 6-8-8 fertilizer per pound of seed. Two-ounce cut seed were planted
and there were 25 treatments as noted below. Yields and grades of potatoes from the
different treatments will be recorded and compared.
a a. .i l' 1 .rrM^* il --- - -----. - -- -. -^_.
Lbs. of Spacing of Seed Poun of Fertilizer er Pound of Seed
Seed per in 40-inch Rows 0.8 0.9 1.0 -1.1 7 1.2
Acre in Inches .. .. =
!Acre in .. .... Pounds of Fertilizer per Acre
1,500 13.09 1,200 1,350 1,500 1,650 1,800
2,000 9.84 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400
2,500 7.89 2,000 2,250 2,500 2,750 3,000
3,000 6.52 2,400 2,700 3,000 3,300*U 3,600*
3,500 5.61 ,. 2800 3,15 350 3850" 4,200
*Amounts above 3,000 lbs./A applied 60 days after planting.

During two of the last three years best rate of seeding Sebago potatoes after
deducting costs of seed, fertilizer, picking-up, hauling, grading, packaging and
selling was 2,500 pounds of seed/A. Best rate of fertilizer for this seeding rate
was 1.0 to 1.1 pounds of fertilizer per pound of seed. Because of unfavorable
growing and marketing conditions in 1958 best rate of seeding Sebago potatoes was
2,000 pounds of seed/A and the best rate of fertilizer with this seed was 1.1 pounds
of fertilizer per pound of seed.

Herbicides for Weed Control in Potatoes and Cabbage: Potato plots planted 1-8-59
were given the following preiemergence herbicidal treatments in 100 gallons water/A.


1. Premerge, 1 gallon
2. Premerge, i gallon
3. Pentachlorophenol(40%), l1 gallons
4, Pentachlorophenol(h40), 1 gallon


5. Vegadex, 1 gallon
6. Vegadex, 2 gallon
7. Check(no treatment)


Cabbage plots transplanted 12-1-58 were given the following herbicidal treatments in
50 gallons of water/A five days after transplanting:


1. Vegadex, 4 quarts
2. Vegadex, 3 quarts


3. Vegadex, 2 quarts
4. Check(no treatment)


2368-13
3725-1
3602-4
2938-22
929-23
3692-4
313-21


22.
23.
24.
25.
26.


B 60o0-
B 3010-T!
6536
644Sebago
Sebago












Cabbage Variety Tests: Fifteen varieties
transplanted to 27-foot plots 12-1-58 and
Yields and desirable head characteristics

1. Copenhagen Market
2. Round Head 4A
3. Racine Market
h. Badger Market
5. Greenback
6. Midseason Market
7. Glory of Enkhuizen
8. Marion Market
9. Marion Market
10. Marion Market
11. Resistant Glory
12. Round Red Dutch
13. Marion Market
lh. Ferry's Round Dutch
15, Wisconsin Badger Ballhead


and strains of cabbage listed below were
fertilized with 7-9-9 at 1,800 pounds/A.
will be noted and compared at harvest.

Kilgore Seed Company
Ferry-Morse Seed Company
Wisconsin Seed Company
Wisconsin Seed Company
Ferry-Morse Seed Company
Ferry-Morse Seed Company
Ferry-Morse Seed Company
Corneli Seed Company
Ferry-Morse Seed Company
Wisconsin Seed Company
Ferry-Morse Seed Company
Ferry-Morse Seed Company
Wisconsin Seed Company
Ferry-Morse Seed Company
Wisconsin Seed Company


Fertilizer Requirements of Cabbage: This study involved a split plot test in which
soil of main plots were limed to adjust the pH reactions to h.7, 5.3, 5.8 and 6.1.
Main plots were then fertilized uniformly with a 7-9-9 fertilizer at the rate of
1,850 pounds/A and transplanted to cabbage. Each main plot was then divided into
eight subplots and given the following supplemental nutrient treatments.

1. Check (no additional nutrients).
2. 1 Sidedressing (150 lbs. nitrate of soda/A).
3. 2 Sidedressings (150 lbs. nitrate of soda/A).
h. 3 Sidedressings (150 lbs. nitrate of soda/A).
5. 1/h Pint starter solution applied per plant at transplant time
containing 1 gallon 20-20-20 liquid fertilizer in 100 gals. water.
6. 1/h Pint starter solution applied per plant at transplant time
containing 15 pounds nitrate of soda-potash in 100 gals. water.
7. 3 Foliar-nutritional sprays (6-2/3 lbs. nu-green-100 gals. water/A).
8. 3 Foliar-nutritional sprays (20 lbs. nitrate of soda-potash-
100 gals. water/A).

In 1958 plants grown in plots at pH 6.1 significantly outyielded those grown in
plots of soil at pH h.7. Plants grown in soil at pH 6.1 produced their best yield
when sidedressed once with nitrate of soda 18 days after transplanting. Plants
grown in plots of soil at pH reactions lower than 6.1 required more than one side-
dressing to produce maximum yields of cabbage. Plants in plots treated with starter
solutions and foliar-nutritional sprays yielded less than plants in side-dressed
plots.









POTATO DISEASES
A.H. Eddins

Potato Seed Piece Treatments
Freshly-cut nondormant Sebago seed pieces were dipped into solutions of dor-
mancy-breaking chemicals, antibiotics and fungicides December 30, 1958 and planted
the next day. Chemicals and amounts of each used in 100 gallons water to make the
dipping solutions are listed below. This is the third year the seed treatment tests
have been made.
Dormancy-breaking Chemicals Fungicides Anti.botics
Ethylene Chlorhydrin 6.6 qts. Zineb 2.0 lbs. Agrimycin 9.3 oss.
Ammonium thiocyanate(NHISCN) 6.0 lbs. Maneb 1.5 lbs. Agri-strep 4.5 ozs.
Potassium thiocyanate(KSCN) 7.7 lbs. Phygon 1.0 lb. Phytomycin 6.4 ozs.
Potassium gibberellate 0.1 ppm. Captan h.0 lbs.

TEST 1.- The antibiotics and fungicides were used alone and in eleven different
combinations. The soil was moist when the potatoes were planted. Rainfall three
days after planting totaled 2.h8 inches and the soil became very wet. Little or no
seed piece rot developed regardless of treatment. Stand of plants six weeks after
planting varied from 95 to 100 percent in the different treatments and check. Yield
and quality of potatoes produced by seed receiving different treatments will be com-
pared at harvest.

TEST 2.- None of the dormancy-breaking chemicals hastened germination of non-
dormant Sebago seed stored in a refrigerator at 380 F. 27 days before treatment and
that stored in a barn at h00-7h4 F. 19 days before treatment. Storage temperatures
before treatment and the dormancy-breaking chemicals had little or no effect on plant
stands except ethylene chlorhydrin which depressed the stand slightly.

TEST 3.- There were no significant differences in stands of plants produced by
nondormant cut Sebago seed treated with ammonium thiocyanate and held 16 hours at
600 and 700 F. in incubators and at 570 to 670 F. before it was planted.

Potato Sgab Control With Chemicals
Tests are being conducted on a growers farm where excessive losses from potato
scab have occurred to determine the effectiveness of soil treatment with Terraclor
(PCNB) and Urea Formaldehyde 85 (U.F. 85) for control of the disease. The materials
were applied to knocked-down rows in two bands after which the rows were bedded for
planting. PCNB was used at 30 and 50 pounds per acre and the UF 85 at 30 and h0 gal-
lons per acre. Percentage potato tubers affected with scab in the treated and non-
treated plots will be determined at harvest.

Resistance of Potato Varieties and Seedlings to Corky Ringspot
Five replicates of 16 seed pieces each of 13 USDA potato seedlings and 13 vari-
eties are planted in soil infested with the corky ringspot virus. Tubers of each
seedling and variety will be examined for symptoms of corky ringspot at harvest.

Results of similar tests conducted for the past eight years have shown that some
seedlings and varieties are immune or have a high degree of resistance to corky ring-
spot. At present resistant Pungo, Plymouth and Merrimack are recommended for trial
planting by growers in corky ringspot-infested fields where susceptible Sebago and
Red Pontiac cannot be grown profitably.










CONTROL OF INSECTS
Ralph B. Workman

Control of the Southern Potato Wireworm Conoderus fall.i Lane.- Parathion at two
pounds actuaL py-r acre disked into the upper five inches of soil at the Potato
Investigations Laboratory has given excellent control of all wirewormis present
at time of application.

Wireworms affected by Parathion first undergo a period of increased ac-
tivity. Following this, the head becomes turned upwards, the proleg of ti~
next to last abdominal segment is extended, and the wireworm is unable to .'e-
main upright or to use its legs in movement. Wireworms never recover fro-;, ;js
condition, although, they may exhibit turning or twisting motions for one to
two weeks before death finally occurs.

Laboratory tests, conducted by placing wireworms in small amounts of soil
treated with various concentrations of 20 different insecticides, showed that
only three chemicals gave co.,lete wireworm control at rates of two pounds
actual and under per acre--Parathion, Diazinon, and Thimet. These three in-
secticides were tested at one and two pounds actual per acre under field con-
ditions and all gave complete wirewonn kill. Final data will be furnished by
the rating of potato tubers grown in the treated plots.

The addition of wireworms to soil samples taken from the field plots have
shown that Parathion lasts from 3 to 5 weeks in the station soil. Thimet and
Diazinon are still giving effective control after seven weeks.

Tests underway also include the application of Parathion, Diazinon, and
Thimet as foliar sprays, with a portion of the spray directed onto the tops and
sides of the rows as a possible alternate or additional. control measure after
the potatoes are growing. Results of these tests will be judged by tuber ex-
amination at harvest.

Insecticide Control of Cabbage Insects.- Nineteen insecticides were tested for
the control of insects attacking cabbage. These chemicals included:

DDT Toxaphene Sevin Ethion
Endrin Diazinon Thimet Kepone
Parathion Dylox Thiodan Phosphamidon
Phosdrin Guthion Delnav Trithion
Systox Malathion Dibrom

The insecticides were applied weekly as a preventative program and all
gave good control of the low infestation of cabbage worms (mostly cabbage
looper) present. DDT, Delnav, and Kepone were the only chemicals giving poor
control of aphids.

Cold weather during the growing season was probably the most important
factor in the low infestation of cabbage worms this year. Low temperatures
kept adult activity almost at a standstill, thus few worms were produced.












Cabbage worms are easiest to control when they are small. Recent work in
Canada Wilh cutworms shoved that Endrin -wa 35 times as toxic to foiurth-instar,
:1 'imes os toxic to fi.ftCh-instar, and three times as toxic to freshly molted
i.x h-insr ar larvae as to mature feeding sixth-instar cutworms. A similar
situation exists with the cabbage looper. It is easy to control them when small
but the l.rge fully grown worms are almost impossible to control economically.

Two species of aphids were present during the cabbage season, the green peach
Ephid acd the cabbage aphid. Green peach aphids are found on the undersides of the
bo-ttom leaves of the cabbage pJlant. In large numbers they reduce the vitality and
growth of the plant. Good control is obtained with Parathion at the recommended
dosage. The spray or dust should cover both sides of the leaves.

Cabbage aphids are grayish-green and appear on the upper leaves and head of the
plant. These aphids are more difficult to control as they get down between the
io.ves where they are protected f.rom direct contact with insecticides. In limited
t.:a:., P.rathion, Phosdrin, Systox, Guthion, and Phosphamido. gave complete kill of
all aphids contacted by the spray. Control of small infestations is easiest.


Miscellaneous. -

Calibration of Sprayers for 0O-inch Rows.-

Spray boom with six nozzles per row:
Collect spray from one nozzle over 0OO feet traveled
by sprayer.
Multiply amount in quarts and tenths by h9 to obtain
gallons delivered per acre.
If spray is collected from two nozzles multiply by 2h.5.

Five nozzles per row:
Multiply amount from one nozzle by 0o.8.

Three nozzles per row:
Multiply amount from one nozzle by 2h.5.


Mosquito Control with Exhaust "Foggers".- Kerosene or diesel oil con-
taining 5% of an insecticide is used. Recommended insecticides are:

DDT 25EC 1 part to h parts diluent.
Malathion 57EC 1 part to 10 parts diluent.









IRRIGATION AND SOIL FERTILITY RESEARCH ON POTATOES
D. L. Myhre

1. FURROW SUB-IRRIGATION.- A split plot experiment includes 4 soil moisture levels
and 8 band and broadcast fertilizer treatments. Soil moisture tension and
content at various depths in the centers of the rows, and location of water
table are being measured in the plots. Yield of Sebago potato tubers will be
determined at harvest. Also, the effects of soil moisture and fertilizer treat-
ments on chemical composition of the tubers, including free amino acids, globu-
lin proteins, ascorbic acid, soluble carbohydrates, and mineral constituents,
will be studied.
Soil Moisture Levels:
1 = Very high; rows 1-4 from irrigation furrow.
2 = High; rows 5-8 from irrigation furrow.
3 = Medium; rows 9-12 from irrigation furrow.
4 = Low; rows 13-16 from irrigation furrow.
Fertilization Treatments:
A = 2,700 Ibs.7A of 7-9-9 in bands.
B = 2,200 lbs./A of 7-9-9 in bands.
C = 2,200 lbs./A of 7-9-9 broadcast.
D = 1,100 lbs./A of 7-9-9 broadcast + 1,100 lbs./A of 7-9-9 in bands.
E = 1,650 lbs./A of 7-9-9 broadcast + 550 lbs./A of 7-9-9 in bands.
F = "E" + 500 lbs./A of 7-9-9 sidedressed Feb. 17.
G = "B" + 500 lbs./A of 7-9-9 sidedressed Feb. 17.
H = "C" + 500 lbs./A of 7-9-9 sidedressed Feb. 17.
In 1958, band application of 2,200 lbs./A of 7-9-9 fertilizer resulted in
higher yields of Red Pontiac tubers in 8 rows adjacent to irrigation furrows
while broadcast application resulted in higher yields in 8 rows adjacent to
drainage furrows.

2. FERTILIZATION OF POTATOES.-
a. Sidedressing and Foliar Spray Test.- Sebago potatoes were planted
Jan. 14 in Bladen loamy fine sand and fertilized with 2,200 lbs./A of 7-9-9 ap-
plied in 2 bands. The plants were sidedressed with 30 lbs./A of nitrogen on
Mar. 3 using 7 different fertilizer materials, including 6-8-8, 7-9-9, 10-0-10,
ammonium nitrate, nitrate of soda-potash, urea, and nitrate of soda. An ad-
ditional treatment includes 10-20-10 foliar spray applied at the rate of 1 gal.
in 100 gals. of water/A on Mar. 17 and 24, 2 gals. on Mar. 31 and Apr. 7, and 3
gals. on Apr. 14 and 21. Yield of tubers will be determined at digging time.
In 1958, sidedressings of 6-8-8, ammonium nitrate, 10-0-10 and 7-9-9 in-
creased yields significantly. Eight weekly applications of 10-20-10 foliar
sprays on potato plants fertilized with 1,500 and 2,200 lbs./A of 7-9-9 caused
a slight increase of foliage and darker green color of leaves, but no increase
in yield of tubers.

b. Potassium Gibberellate (Plant Growth Regulator).- Tests were continued
to determine effects of dipping cut and whole Sebago seed in 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5,
and 10 p.p.m. potassium gibberellate (0.5%) solutions. Also, other potato
plants will be sprayed with 5 and 10 p.p.m. of potassium gibberellate 70 days
after planting.
Whole seed dipped in 1 p.p.m. increased yields 1,560 lbs./A or 6.1%, but
all other treatments reduced yields in 1958.










c. Calcium Deficiency of Potato Plants.- An abnormal condition was observed
in young leaves of potato plants growing in several fields in the Hastings area.
The plants were somewhat bushy and rosette in appearance. The new, young leaves
in the crown of the plants were severely distorted, the tips turned upward, and
the margins scorched, necrotic, and curled upward. This abnormal growth was
first observed on Feb. 10 and became progressively more severe until Feb. 27.
Very few symptoms were observed in the new growth after receiving a rainfall
totaling 2.5 inches between Feb. 26 and Mar. 2. Further development of the
symptoms in the new growth was prevented by foliar sprays of either calcium
chloride or calcium nitrate at the rate of 2 lbs. in 100 gals. of water/A
applied twice, h days apart.

d. Muriate-Sulfate Experiment.- This experiment is being continued to deter-
mine the influence of muriate and sulfate sources of potash and date of digging
on yield and quality of Sebago potatoes. The plots were planted on Jan. 8 and
will be harvested at 90 days (Apr. 8) and 116 days (May h) after planting. The
fertilizer treatments (2,500 lbs./A at planting) are as follows:
1 = All Muriate of Potash in 6-8-8 applied in bands.
2 = All Sulfate of Potash in 6-8-8 applied in bands.
3 = Muriate and Sulfate in 6-8-8 applied in bands.
h = Muriate and Sulfate in 6-8-4 applied in bands.
$ = Muriate and Sulfate in 6-8-12 applied in bands.
6 = Muriate and Sulfate in 6-8-8 broadcast application.
Previous similar tests have shown that potato yields were increased in 2 of
the last 5 years by using sulfate instead of muriate of potash. No apparent
significant yield differences occurred in the other 3 years. In 1958, the nitro-
gen content of leaves was lower in Sebago and Red Pontiac potato plants ferti.
lized with muriate than those fertilized with sulfate of potash. The potassium
content of the tubers was higher in those which had been fertilized with the
muriate form of potash.

3. IMPROVING OLD LAND FOR POTATO PRODUCTION.-
a. Cover Crops.- The residual effects of 8 cover crop treatments on improve-
ment of physical condition, exchange capacity, organic matter content, and yield
and quality of potatoes are being studied in soil mapped as Bladen loamy fine
sand.
Sart, cattail millet, corn, corn and velvet beans, regular hegari, sesbania,
and volunteer grass and weeds added 6.8, 3.1, 3.0, 3.0, 2.6, 2.4, and 2.h tons/A,
respectively, of oven-dry tops and roots to the soil. In other observational
cover crop plots, cocklebur and FS-1 hybrid sorghum added 2.8 and 5.9 tons/A,
respectively.

b. Potato-Small Grain Crop otation.- The effects on soil improvement and
yield of potatoes following year of loriland oats and 1 year Florida Black
rye in the cropping system are being investigated.
In 1957, Red Pontiac and Sebago potatoes following rye yielded 31 and 39%,
respectively, more than potatoes following potatoes. In 1958, yields of Sebago
and Red Pontiac tubers in the second year following rye were increased 11 and h%,
respectively.










c. Breaking Hardpan and Leveling Land.- Yield and quality of Sobago and
Red Pontiac potatoes will be determined in areas where the hardpan had been
broken four years ago and in an adjacent undisturbed area.
Breaking the organic hardpan and mixing it thoroughly with the top soil adds
nutrients and appear to have an aggregate-forming effect which improved the
physical condition of the soil. This special Urnd preparation resulted in an
increase in yield of 10%, 1%, and 10% in the first, second, and third potato
crops, respectively. The quality of the crop was also superior compared to the
undisturbed area.

d. Sawdust Experiment.- Insufficient soil porosity in old, continuously
cultivated olls is one 1 the chief reasons why old land is less productive than
new land. The turning under of a summer cover crop provides organic matter to
the soil which aids in aggregation but does not produce as desirable physical
condition as the original physical condition existing in most flatwood virgin
soils. The effect of incorporating sawdust into the soil on improvement of
physical conditions, and subsequent plant growth and yield of potatoes is being
investigated. The experiment is located on Bladen loamy fine sand on the
G. V. Leonard farm. The pine sawdust treatments were applied on July 5, 1958 and
include 0, 10, and hO tons/A on oven-dry basis. Portions of the plots were
fertilized on Jan. 26, 1959 with 0, 75, 150, and 300 lbs./A of supplemental
nitrogen from ammonium nitrate. Observations to date indicate no differences in
growth of potato plants due to treatment. However, areas which received hO tons
of sawdust per acre tend to compact less and drain more readily after heavy rains
than the nontreated areas.

h. SPECIEIC GRAVITY OF POTATO TUBERS,- Specific gravity measurements will be made
on potEoes grown orsomeoel~Theabove experiments and other tests in order to
determine the influence of various soil and cultural factors on specific gravity
of potatoes and develop methods for improving this important quality of potatoes.
Results from previous years show that specific gravity increased with maturity
and was higher in tubers grown by using sulfate as the source of potash in the
fertilizer.










POTATO STORAGE AND CHIPPING QUALITIES
C. B. Hall



EVALUATION OF VARIETIES FOR CHIPPING QUALITY

Of the eight varieties tested, Saco, Kennebec, Antigo and Herrimack were of

higher specific gravity than Sebago but did not differ from it in chip yield or

color. Merrimack and Kennebec were higher in dry weight than the Sebago.


INFLUENCE OF SOURCE OF POTASH ON CHIPPING QUALITY

The source of potash (muriate vs sulfate) had no influence on the specific

gravity and dry weight content of the tubers or on the yield, color and oil con-

tent of the chips.


POTATO STORAGE EXPERIMENTS

1. Influence of storage temperature and potato maturity on chipping and

storage life.- Potatoes stored at 400 and 500 F. developed considerable sugar

which was not removed by reconditioning for three weeks at 700 F. Chips made

from these potatoes were much darker in color than is acceptable and had a burned

flavor. The earliest harvested potatoes (three harvests at nine day intervals)

lost more weight during storage and produced darker chips.


2. Influence of chemical dp on storage life.- Applications of dehydroacetic

acid (0.5 and 1.5% of the sodium salt) were injurious to the skin of tubers held

at 50, 60,and 700 F. Instead of prolonging the storage life by controlling decay,

the material actually shortened the life due to the injury of the skin.


300 copies




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