Title: Tile drainage, irrigation, and row shape management alternatives for potato production on flatwood soils
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 Material Information
Title: Tile drainage, irrigation, and row shape management alternatives for potato production on flatwood soils
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Hensel, D. R.
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center,
Copyright Date: 1981
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076380
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: 145506121 - OCLC

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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
SHastings, Florida

Hastings ARC Research Report PR1981-9 t HUME LIOJirty 1981

TILE DRAINAGE, IRRIGATION, AND ROW SHAPE 4ANAGEMfNIVAWll9I 1IVES
FOR POTATO PRODUCTION ON FLAWOOD SOILS
D. R. Hensel, Center Dir actor U. of F
i.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida
Soil irrigation and drainage in the Hastings-ared Is very mlpurLdnL part of
management in the production of vegetable crops. The soils are predominantly
low-flatwood type which have normally high water table and very poor internal
drainage. The texture may vary but in general the soils are very high in fine
sand, low in silt and clay. They are also low in organic matter content.

Predominately the water-furrow seepage type irrigation method has been used
for irrigation and drainage. The potato rows are bedded 10 to 12 inches high and
40 inches apart. Water furrows are placed every 60 ft. The seepage method will
irrigate satisfactorily but provides very poor drainage. Loss of both yield and
quality can occur whenever heavy rains appear particularly over a long period
during the growing season.

The ARC Hastings installed the first experimental drainage tile lines in
the fall of 1973. These were placed on 60 ft. spacings 24 inches below soil
level. Conventional rows and cross cuts were maintained to remove excess surface
water during rainy periods. The tile system permitted 18 rows in a 60 ft. spacing
compared to 16 on the conventional since water furrows are eliminated. This
increased the row length from 11,616 to 13,068 feet per acre which is 12.5%
increase in usable growing area.

Irrigation from both the systems is_ comparable. Water tables were main-
tained at 8 inches below alley depth in the center of the beds. During a typical
rain, the water table would raise quickly in both systems. After the surface
water was removed, the tile system would consistently lower the water table to
the irrigating depth in only 12 hours whereas the conventional water furrow
method would take 2 days or 5 times as long.

Potato yields ranged from 35 to 56% higher with the tile during the first
few seasons. During seasons with heavy rainfall, the differences could be
greater. During dry seasons the tile system has produced yields equal or better
than the conventional.

Since the shape of the high rows in the Hastings area is unique -- one that
is to prevent plant damage during heavy rains -- the necessity of using high rows
on tiled land becomes questionable. Experiments were begun in 1979 to determine
whether comparable yields could be obtained on flat rows. Also high rows are
subject to washing after rains and several bedding operations are required during
the growing season. The necessity of this also becomes questionable if potatoes
are planted on flat rows.

A summary of several experiments is presented in Table 1. The data are
based on tile drainage systems and where excess surface water from rains was
properly controlled. Conclusions are: 1) Row widths of less than 40 inches







did not consistently increase yields. 2) Flat rows produced yields equal to
ridged rows. 3) No till management can be adapted to flat row plantings.
4) Deep planting on flat rows did not increase yields.



Table 1. Summary of Flat Row Experiments on Tile
at ARC-Hastings.


1979 Row Shape and Width Experiment

Treatment Yield cwt/A

Ridged row 40 inches 326
Flat row 40 inches 329 -
Flat row 36 inches 305



1979 Flat Row Width and Harvest Date Experiment

Harvest Date Yield cwt/A
(Days after planting) Row Width inches

32 36 40

88 209 206 213
105 224 243 244
119 237 270 258



1980 Row Shape and Tillage Trials 40 inch rows

Yield cwt/A

Shape Tilled No tilled

Ridged 345
Flat 315 321



1981 Row Shape and Tillage Trials 40 inch rows

Yield cwt/A

Shape Tilled No tilled

Ridged 243 204
Flat 263 251
Flat (planted deep) 260 257











PLANTING SYSTEMS





Conventional Ridged Rows




40-" -



Flat Plantlng
Flat Planting


- A -


-- 40" ---


Flat Planted Covered




', 4 40"



Flat Deep Planted
Flat Deep Planted


S-----40"-----


-A -


-A -




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