AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
Hastings ARC Research Report PR79-3 November-1979
CABBAGE INSECT CONTROL IN THE HAST GS AREA
R. B.' Workman, Assoc. Entomolo ist JAN l4 1980
FOLLOW ALL DIRECTIONS FOR USE AND SAFETY O THE PESTICE BEL A ALL TIMES. -
:" l^ -iv. oTr 41 '!C-
Cabbage Insecticide Amount/ Cutoff
insects (E-Emulsible) acre* (days)
Dibrom oE 1 qt. 1 One application of a systemic aphicide
Dimethoate 2.67E 1-1 1/2 pts. 3 applied when the leaves begin to cup
Cabbage Meta-Systox-R 2E 1 1/2 pts. 7 usually gives season long control.
aphid Monitor 4E 1 pt. 35 Good coverage is important. Curled and
Parathion 8E 1/2 pt. 10 yellowed heads cannot be cleaned up.
Phosdrin 2E 1 pt. 1 Aphids are not attracted to headed
SYstox 2E 1 1/2 pts. 21 cabbage--srays are not needed.
Bacillus Cids: Bactur, Dipel. Thuricide Etc. Follow label directions.
Cabbage LannateNudrin908 1/2-1 lb. 1 Lare worms more difficult to control.
looper Monitor 4E 1 ipt. 35 Broccoli-l3 days cauliflower-28 days.
Other Dibrom 8E 1 t. 1 Compounds for loopers will control
worms, Parathion 8 1/2 t. 10 most species. Cutworm control is best
cutworms Phosdrin 23 1 ot. 1 applied prior to transplanting.
Diamond- Ambush E 3.2-6. ozs. 1 Eergency registration obtained from
back moth Pounce .E 3 2-4 ozs. 1 EPA to last until September 1. 1980.
M.Cricket Diazinon 43 1 pt. 7 Drench or spray. Do not increase
Cutworm Parathion 8E 1/2 pt. 10 dosge. Burning may result.
(seedbed) Baits ADaly during late afternoon.
adjust dosage for different formulations (2, 4E, 8E, WP, Etc.).
SeP.-Nov: 10-12 insect species present--Vay with field and year. Mole crickets
re'- attracted to cabbage seedbeds. They uproot small plants and cut off transplants.
'u:Trforms, from cover crop, damage transplants. They remain in the soil during the
.-~, feed at night, cutting plants off near the soil level. Drenches or sprays will
catrol. Fall armyworms and corn earworms from corn and sorghum summer crops feed
in cabbage buds and bore into heads where pesticides do net penetrate well. Cabbage
r:ear corn-sorghum fields is damaged most. Bacillus compounds do not control. Im-
ported cabbageworms and cabbage loopers feed on leaves and head.
Dec.-Jan: Cold weather limits insect feeding to warm periods. Insecticide use can
be reduced or eliminated. Inspect fields for insects to see if treatment is
Feb.-Jun: Aphids become numerous early. Diamondback larvae, 1/3 in. long, yellow-
ish-green, feed in buds making many small holes which enlarge as plants mature. Cab-
bage webworms feed in buds, webbing leaves together. Plants often fail to make a
head. Imported cabbageworms are velvety-green. Adults are white butterflies. Cab-
bage looper numbers peak in Apr.-May. Regular pesticide applications are needed when
populations begin to increase. Large loopers are very difficult to control.
and light colored).
effective on aphids
bage loopers in May
A minute wasp attacks aphids at Hastings (aphids become swollen
It does not give adequate control of cabbage aphids but is
on potatoes. A virus disease (black larvae) destroys most cab-
with low numbers reappearing later.
Insecticides: Effective controls for a number of insects are not available. Few
new insecticides are being developed as costs are high and registration is difficult.
Lack of effective pesticides must be countered by the best use of available products
and methods. Following the devastating injury caused by diamondback moth larvae last
year, an emergency registration was obtained from EPA on Ambush and Pounce for this
season. Numerous letters of support, grower petitions, pages of test data, and
assistance from the State Department of Agriculture were necessary to obtain this
registration. These materials have been among the most effective insecticides tested
on cabbage worms in Florida.
Insecticide Use: Inspect fields weekly for insects. During periods of high insect
activity, regular insecticide application will be better than waiting until damage
occurs. Worm damage reduces yield, quality, and crop return. If insects or numbers
become large, control is difficult, often requiring more pesticide use than if
regular treatments had been made. Use fresh pesticides each season. Opened insecti-
cides may deteriorate rapidly. Do not use ineffective pesticides, skimp on dosage,
or treat during unfavorable weather. Conduct control tests occasionally at your farm
to see how materials perform under your conditions. Keep records of materials used,
dates, and results.
Insecticide Application: Use proper material and dosage for particular insect with
thorough coverage. Doubled dosages will not give increased control and may leave
high residues. Best coverage = best control. Good weed control is necessary for
spray penetration. Use good agitation. Do not leave spray mixtures overnight in the
tank. Spreader-stickers aid plant penetration and contact of small insects. Too
much will cause insecticide runoff. 50 gals/A with 3 nozzles, 2 on drops,/row will
give effective control. Nozzles on drops, aimed to give spray contact to the under-
sides of the leaves, are necessary for the best control. Use enough pressure to
* cover all leaf surfaces. The most damaging insects of cabbage feed in the buds or
begin development on the lower sides of the leaves. If you do not get good control,
determine why before applying another treatment.
Assessment of Insect Control: Most insecticides remain toxic for several days after
application. Control may be by direct contact of the insect, contact by the insect
walking or crawling over the insecticide deposit, or by ingestion of the pesticide by
feeding on the plant. Cold weather may delay control. Wait several days before
checking insect control. Examine the plants to see how many insects remain and what
kind they are. Check plant damage to see if it is new or old. Fresh insect frass
indicates insect presence. Old frass indicates that the insect is dead, pupating, or
has moved to another location. Large, mature insects are most difficult to control
but will usually cease feeding and pupate within a week or so.
Harvest: Fewer wrapper leaves will reduce insecticide residues and insect damage.
Do not treat a field prior to harvest just to clean it up. Inspect first. Treat-
ment may be unnecessary. After final cutting, chop and disc field to reduce disease
and insect buildup and movement to nearby fields.
Pesticide Safety: Follow label precautions. Keep pesticides and containers locked
up when not using or until disposal to prevent accidents or misuse. Do not conta-
minate water by spraying, cleaning of equipment, or disposal of wastes. Do not
breathe pesticide fumes or dusts. Do not get pesticides on clothes or person without
immediate removal. Keep records of all pesticide use including kind, amount, method,
date used, etc.