AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
castings ARC Research Report PR78-2
I.F.A.S. huitf Fcda
CABBAGE TRANSPLANT PRODUCTION IN THE HASTINGS AREA
D. R. Hensel, J. R. Shumaker, D. P. Weingartner, R. B. Workman
LOCATION OF SEEDBED: Seedbed should be well drained and of excellent texture with
no roots, stems or clods on the surface for best seeding and plant emergence.
Flooding of seedbeds for only short times can result in a high incidence of disease
including black rot, damping off, wire stem, etc. Seedbeds are best planted on land
not in cabbage production the previous year or where large numbers of cruciferous
weeds are present to avoid carry-over diseases and nematodes. Seedbeds near pro-
duction areas, especially those downwind, are often infected by wind-blown disease
LIMING AND FERTILIZATION: The pH should be checked by soil test. A pH of 6.0 to
6.5 is optimum. Either high calcium lime or dolomite should be applied if pH is
under 5.9. The amount and type of lime will depend upon how much the pH needs to
be raised and the ratio of calcium to magnesium.
An equivalent of 800 pounds 6-8-8 per acre should be broadcast and worked into
the root zone area before seeding. Avoid banding fertilizer directly under seeding
row. After leaching rains, additional fertilizer may be applied preferably after
seedlings have emerged. If fertilizer is applied with watering cart, excess salts
should be rinsed from plants with clear water.
NEMATODES: A survey performed by the Division of Plant Industry several years ago,
showed nearly all cabbage fields in the Hastings area to be infested with sting,
root-knot, or stubby root nematodes. Sting nematode was particularly damaging
during the relatively dry 1977 seedbed season. Symptoms of nematode damage on
cabbage seedlings vary from stunting and unthrifty growth to seedling death.
Chemical treatment for nematode control in cabbage seedbeds is generally adviseable
in the Hastings area.
NEMATODE CONTROL IN SEEDBED: Standard Rate/acre in-the-row fl oz/chisel/
Fumigants (40 in. spacing) 1000 linear feet
1. D-D 8-10 gal 79-97
Telone II 6-8 gal 46-62
Method: Inject to depth of 10-12 inches following bedding. Optimum soil
moisture for fumigation in Hastings area is less than 10% by weight (i.e. very dry
soil). A waiting period is required following fumigation. Consult label for
Note Multipurpose soil fumigants are available which, if properly used, can
reduce weed and disease problems as well as nematodes. Consult the Nematode Control
Guide pages VI-16 and 17 for details.
Nonvolatile lbs formulation/acre oz/10-12 inch
Nematicides in-the-row band/1000 linear ft
(40 in. spacing)
2. Mocap 10G 20 25
Nemacur 15G 20 25
Method: Bed rows and shape seedbed. Apply nematicide in 10-12 inch band to
surface of bed. Incorporate into top 4-6 inches of seedbed. Reshape bed if needed
and plant seed. One effective means of incorporation following application of
granules is to pull a single unit of a rolling cultivator slowly over the bed.
These chemicals work best if soil moisture is near capacity. Do not apply Mocap in
the seed furrow. Both chemicals can be applied at planting.
SEED: Use only fresh, high quality seed with a high germination percent. All
cabbage seed should be hot water treated at 1220 F for 25 minutes to control black
rot and blackleg. All other crucifers planted in the same seedbed should be treated
also. Treatment is the same for brussels sprouts. Treat for 20 minutes: broccoli,
cauliflower, collard, kale, kohl rabi, mustard, rutabaga, and turnip.
SEEDBED MAINTENANCE: The seedbed should be inspected every 1-2 days for irrigation
needs, diseases, insects, discing after heavy rains, etc. Do not use farm equip-
ment from production areas in the seedbed without decontamination by washing thor-
oughly. Do not use irrigation water from open ditches or other sources which may
be carrying disease organisms.
DISEASE CONTROL: Important diseases in cabbage seedbeds include downy mildew,
damping off, and wire stem. Each is most damaging if seedlings are attacked before
the first true leaves are formed. Lower temperatures and long periods of dew in the
fall favor development of mildew. The seedling diseases can be reduced, but not
eliminated, by maintaining adequate drainage in the seedbed and by initiating a
fungicide spray program before they occur. Effective nematode control can help
reduce damping off and wire stem. Begin applying fungicides (Manzate D, Dithane
M-22 Special, or Bravo) as seedlings emerge. Repeat applications on a 5-7 day
schedule, making certain that seedlings are thoroughly covered. Repeat sprays
CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL: Preplant, Perennial Weed Control--weeds that live for 3 or
more years and are already established in and around seedbed area. Common examples
are Bermudagrass and Nutsedge. Eradication well in advance of planting seedbed is
essential and in some cases, must be completed a full year before planting depend-
ing on weeds, chemicalss, rate, number applications, etc.
General Recommendation: (1) Nutsedge and Broadleaved species -- 2-4-D
(2) Grass species -- dalapon (Dalpon, Basfapon)
Check label for specific weed problem, rate, time schedule, etc.
Post Plant, Preemergence Control--
Crops Herbicides Lb/A (Actual) Sandy Soil Remarks
Cauliflower (Cabbage Only) 4 See footnote (1)
Randox + Vegadex
(Cabbage Only) 4 to 6 See footnote (2)
Vegadex 4 to 6 See footnote (3)
Dacthal 10 1/2
Tok 4 to 6 See footnote (4)
Mustard, (Collards Only) 4 to 6 See footnote (3)
Turnips ----------------------.-----------------_- _
Dacthal 10 1/2
(1) Randox is more effective against grasses than broadleaf weeds.
(2) Combine Randox with Vegadex for mixed grass and broadleaf weed populations.
The amount of either chemical in the mixture should not exceed the amount
suggested for that chemical separately. Adjust proportion of each according
to weed species.
(3) Vegadex is more effective against broadleaf weeds than grasses.
(4) Good soil moisture is important.
INSECT CONTROL: The major pest of cabbage seedbeds is the mole cricket. It is
common throughout the area and flies readily making controls difficult as many mcre
in each night. Mole crickets do not feed heavily on cabbage seedlings as evidenced
by the usual tunneling across the row rather than along it. The only crop attrac-
tive to mole crickets at Hastings, of many planted through the years, has been
endive. Mole cricket damage to cabbage consists mainly of uprooting and drying out
of the plants. To control mole crickets use a water drench, weather permitting, to
wash down tunnels. If considerable feeding damage occurs, drenches containing
diaxinon or parathion at 0.5 lb. actual per acre can be used. Do not increase
dosage as plant damage may occur. Baits are effective and should be applied during
the late afternoon to reduce drying. Baits with a corn meal carrier are very
attractive to the insect. Aphids and worms are not problems in seedbeds and insec-
ticides are, generally, not needed. Do not apply pesticides prior to transplanting
as residues may be contacted by field workers. Any insects present will, usually,
be dislodged or destroyed in the transplanting process. Disc under seedbeds
immediately after use to prevent insect and disease buildup and dispersion to other
PESTICIDE USE AND SAFETY: Follow all directions on the pesticide label for use and
safety at all times. The label, usually, contains the latest information on the
product unless it has been carried over from the previous season. If a dosage
range is given, the lower range is for small pest infestations, small plant size,
or for easier to control pests of a group. If there are any questions on the label,
call the County Agricultural Extension Director for the latest information.
September 5, 1978