Title: Control of insect pests of crucifers in the Hastings area
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 Material Information
Title: Control of insect pests of crucifers in the Hastings area
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Norris, Dale M.
Publisher: Potato Investigations Laboratory,
Copyright Date: 1957
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076266
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: 136947281 - OCLC

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POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Hastings, Florida
Mimeo Report 58-5 October 1, 1957


CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF CRUCIFERS IN THE HASTINGS AREA1,2
D. M. Norris, Jr.

General Control Considerations
In order to consistently produce cabbage and the other cruciferous crops that
are free from insect damage and contamination, a thorough insect control program
must be conducted. Due to the nature of these leafy vegetable crops, a preventive
approach to the control of insects is generally the best. If insect populations are
allowed to become established, especially in heads of cabbage, then the cause is fre-
quently lost. In such a control effort, insecticides are the dominant means to be
utilized; however, the important roles of parasites and predators, cultural methods,
climatic influences, and legal aspects should always be kept in mind since their use
can greatly reduce the need for insecticides (See Mimeo Report 58-3).

Toxicity of Insecticides to Humans, Other Animals, and Plants

Insecticides should be handled with respectful caution. In nearly all cases,
the materials that are deadly to insects are likewise deadly to humans, other
animals, and even some plants. Insecticides differ markedly in their degree of
toxicity to various forms of life and therefore some must be handled with much more
care than others. Parathion, TEPP, systox, EPN, and endrin represent the most toxic
extreme in insecticides. While methoxychlor, certain miticides, and plant-derived
insecticides such as pyrethrins are classified as of distinctly lesser toxicity.
Nevertheless, these of the latter group are poisons and must be treated as such. In
using insecticides, there are two rules that t=e grower should never violate in order
to maintain the welfare of all parties concerned. These are as follows:

Follow the instructions on the label of the insecticide container to the
"letter". .
This includes the instructions for the safety of the person applying
the insecticide. It pertains to the dosage applied per acre, and to the
established interval that rust be allowed between the last application and
harvest in order to assure compliance with residue tolerances. Laxity in
any of these respects fosters needless loss of human life, damage to crop
plants, production expense, liability to federal and state reprimand, and
possible confiscation of valuable farm produce.

If there are questions pertaining to any phase of the use of insecticides
that are not answeTred after rat.g the label careruy, then consul a
specialist in en'omology be fo proceding.

Such persons should have the needed information at hand or know where
to obtain it and thus avoid complications that may result from careless us
of these poisons. ERE


1Revision of Mimeo Report 57-5. 9
2Portions of included data are in the process of publication.










Wetting Agents and Spreader-Stickers

Due to the waxy nature of cruciferous foliage, special considerations must be
given to the formulation of the insecticides. Dusts are good for use on cabbage,
and sprays are effective, if a good spreader-sticker or wetting agent is added to
the spray. In some cases there is an excess of emulsifying agent in the insecticide
emulsion concentrate, then no spreader-sticker is needed. Use any good spreader-
sticker at the recommended amount given on the attached label.


Detailed Control Program for Insects on Crucifers

The chief insect problems of cruciferous crops are (1) aphids and (2) the
various "Worms".

Aphid Control.
Adequate control of aphids should be obtained by using systox
(demeton) at the recommended dosage (Table 1). It should not be
necessary to apply systox according to the regular weekly schedule
used for DDT and parathion. Applications of systox every 10-1 days
should provide excellent control of all aphid species.

The interval between the last application of systox and the first
harvest is still 21 days. Because of this long period, the last appli-
cation should be just prior to the beginning of the 21-day interval.
This late treatment should provide satisfactory control of aphids
through 2 or 3 cuttings of cabbage. During the harvest period, the use
of parathion at seven-day intervals, just after each weekly harvest, will
provide aphid control when the systox control runs out.

Worm Control.
Excellent control of "worms" on cabbage can be obtained by using
endrin at lU-day intervals up until the first cupping of the leaves in
the formation of the head. After this time, parathion dust, or parathion
+ toxaphene dust, is recommended on a seven-day schedule. These appli.
cations should be made immediately after each weekly cutting. If this
proposed control program is followed rigidly throughout the season, a
very clean crop of cabbage should be grown. If treatments at less than
seven-day intervals are deemed necessary, phosdrin or rotenone is recom-
mended.

The most important point in controlling cabbage worms" is to start
before the worms do and follow these recommendations to the letter.

In using endrin, the farmer must abide by the ruling of no use on
cabbage after the first signs of heading. Anyone that ignores this
interval before harvest is asking for trouble.







Control Program
Broccoli Plants


for Insect Pests Common on Cabbage, Cauliflower, and
in the Hastinas Ama-


Insecticide Amount in Time of last
Insect formulation 00 gals/Aor application General Comments
... ... total dust/A before harvest
Aphids Systox (demeton) Apply when aphids appeal
emulsion concentrate 1.1l pints 21 days on cabbage, etc. One
(2 lbs. act./gal.) application should con-
trol aphids for 1-2
weeks. Rain will not
affect the effectiveness
Handle With Caru!it
g parathion dust 20-30 lbs. 10 days,broccoli;
2 parathion 7 days, cabbage
emulsion concentrate 1-2 pints and cauliflower
arathion emulsion DBon' need wattng'
( lbs. act./gal.) -pint ent
ase n-pitatti. ,ne,
Shi' dust l. 1 Pday r "0. 1 dea.s
ndrin emulsion At first signs Use at 1-day intervals.
orms (1.6 Ibs. act./gal.) 1 pint of heading(cup.
2 end in dust i.20Q ibs'' piint of leaves)
10, toxa:ene dust 0 is. '
x txaphene 7 days
ulsion concentrate 1-2 pints
cabbage ndrin emulsion At first signs Use at 14-day intervals.
Looper (1.6 lbs. act.gal. 1 int of heading(cup-
2 endrin dust 20 Ibs. ping of leaves)
Sparathion dust -0 lbs. 7 das Use u ehea ing dMM
harvest at 7-day inter-
vals apply just after
each weekly harvest.
L toxaphene dust 5-30 bs.- Get loopers when small
7% toxaphene 7 days and on the outside.
ulsion concentrate 1-2 pints
T dust 6bs. 7 days, cabbage;
2 DDT emulsion 14- days,broccoli
concentrate 1 quart and cauliflower ______
M5 phosdrin Use at 3- day intervals
emulsion 1-2 pints I days for best results.
1 rotenone dust 30-35 bs. For worm control less
5 rotenone 0 days than 7 days before
wettable powder 4 lbs. harvest.
cabbage Endrin emulsion At first signs Use at l4-day intervals.
ebworm (1.6 Ibs. actual.) 1 pint of heading(cup-
2 endrin dust 1>-Zu' Ibs. ping of leaves)
257 parathion 7 dars, cabbage
emulsion concentrate 1.2 pints and cauliflower;
i parathion dust ZO-Z5 i bs. 10 daWshbroocoli
2!- DDT emulsion -7 days, cabbage Use a wetting agent.
concentrate quart 1 days,broccoli
5 D' dust 25 -"0 ibS. and cauliflower


Table 1.-







Table 1.- Continued
Insecticide Amount in Time of last
Insect formulation 100 galsaI application General Comments
_______total dustA before harvest
Cutworms Endrin emulsion At first signs of Use at 14-day
(1.6-1bs. act./gal.) 1 pint heading (cupping intervals.
-2A endrin dust -- 1S-2 Ts.; of leaves)
l0S toxaphene dust T5o30 16s.' T protect newly
70o toxaphene 7 days transplanted cabbage,
emulsion concentrate 1-2 pints a toxaphene bait or
r5 DuI dust 25-30. i s. 7 days, cabbage; granular formulation
257 0 I emulDsion -14 days, broccoli can be applied to the
concentrate 1 quart and cauliflower tops of rows.
Diamond- Endrin emulsion At first signs of Use at 14-day
back moth (1.6 lbs. act./al.) 1 pint heading (cupping intervals.
larvae endrin dust 120 lbs. of leaves)
5 DD dust .2-30 bs. 77 days, cabbage; To protect newly
025 DDT emulsion 14 days, broccoli transplanted cabbage,
concentrate 1 quart and cauliflower a toxaphene bait or
granular formulation
can be applied to the
. tops of rows.
Imported Endrin emulsion At first signs of Use at 14-day
cabbage (1.6 lbs. act.gal.) 1 pint heading (cupping intervals.
worm 2 endrin dust 1-.20 lbs. of leaves)
2 parahion dust 30 Ibs. 7 days se duri heading and
harvest at 7-day inte?
vals apply just after
........each weekly harvest.
10A toxaphene dust 25-30 bs. Late application of
70M toxapnene 7 days toxaphene may leave
emulsion concentrate 1-2 pints an undesirable taint
5% DDT dust 2-30 lbs. 7 days, cabbage; on the vegetable.
5X DDT emulsion 14 days, broccoli
concentrate 1 quart and cauliflower
S5X phosdrin Use at 3-T day inter-
emulsion 1-2 pints 4 dans vals for best results.
I% rotenone dust 3-35 Ibs. For worm control less
5~ rotenone 0 dys than 7 days before
wettable powder 4 Ibs. harvest.
Leaf- 25% parathion 7 days, cabbage A serious pest only
miner emulsion concentrate 1-2 pints and cauliflower; in certain years.
S2 parath'ion dust OOM 'a. 10 days, broccoli
Mole Aldrin emulsion Apply to surface of
crickets concentrate soil 2-3 weeks before
and (2 lbs. act./gal.) 2 gals. planting seedbed;
ireworms Heptachlor emulsion disk in immediately
concentrate and thoroughly.
(2 Ibs. act./gal.) 2 gals.


300 copies




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