Title: Recommendations for the control of insect pests of crucifers in the Hastings area
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Title: Recommendations for the control of insect pests of crucifers in the Hastings area
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Norris, Dale M.
Publisher: Potato Investigations Laboratory,
Copyright Date: 1956
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076261
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: 136953356 - OCLC

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', / -POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
Hastings, Florid

Mimeo Report 57-5 to October 1, 1956


RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF CRUCIFERS IN THE HASTINGS AREA
D. M. Norris, Jr.

General Control Considerations

In order to consistently produce cabbage and the other cruciferous crops that
are free from insect damage and contamination, a thorough insect control program
must be conducted. Due to the nature of these leafy vegetable crops, a preventative
approach to the control of insects is generally the best. If insect populations are
allowed to become established, especially in heads of cabbage, then the cause is
frequently lost. In such a control effort, insecticides are the dominant means to
be utilized; however, the important roles of parasites and predators, cultural
methods, climatic influences, and legal aspects should always be kept in mind since
their use can greatly reduce the need for insecticides (See Mimeo Report 57-3).

Toxicity of Insecticides to Humans, Other Animals, and Plants

Insecticides should be handled with respectful caution. In nearly all cases,
the materials that are deadly to insects are likewise deadly to humans, other
animals, and even some plants. Insecticides differ markedly in their degree of
toxicity to various forms of life and therefore some must be handled with much more
care than others. Parathion, TEPP, systox, EPN, and endrin represent the most toxic
extreme in insecticides. While methoxychlor, certain miticides, and plant-derived
insecticides such as pyrethrins are classified as of distinctly lesser toxicity.
Nevertheless, these of the latter group are poisons and must be treated as such. In
using insecticides, there are two rules that the grower should never violate in
order to maintain the welfare of all parties concerned. These are as follows:

Follow the instructions on the label of the insecticide container to
the "letter".

This includes the instructions for the safety of the person apply-
ing the insecticide. It pertains to the dosage applied per acre, and
to the established interval that must be allowed between the last appli-
cation and harvest in order to assure compliance with residue tolerances.
Laxity in any of these respects fosters needless loss of human life,
damage to crop plants, production expense, liability to federal and
state reprimand, and possible confiscation of valuable farm produce.

If there are questions pertaining to any phase of the use of insecti-
cides, that are not answered after reading the label carefully, then
consult a specialist in entomology before proceeding.

Such persons should have the needed information at hand or know
where to obtain it and thus avoid complications that may result from
careless use of these poisons.







Wetting Agents and Spreader-Stickers

Due to the waxy nature of cruciferous foliage, special considerations must be
given to the formulation of the insecticides. Dusts are good for use on cabbage,
but sprays are just as effective, if a good spreader-sticker or wetting agent is
added to the spray. In some cases there is an excess of emulsifying agent in the
insecticide emulsion concentrate, then no spreader-sticker is needed. Use any good
spreader-sticker at the recommended amount given on the attached label.

Detailed Control Program for Insects on Crucifers

The chief insect problems of cruciferous crops are (1) aphids and (2) the var-
ious "worms". Adequate control of the aphids should be obtained for the entire
growing season with one to three applications of systox(demeton) at the recommended
dosage (Table 1). It is certainly not necessary to apply systox according to the
regular schedule used in the past for parathion and DDT. If a final application of
systox is made at or just before the 21-day limit period prior to harvest, there
should be no need for further dusts or sprays for the control of aphids. If however,
aphids do give trouble, then use parathion as prescribed up to seven days before har-
vest and TEPP up to one day before harvest. (It is of paramount importance to honor
these days-before-harvest limits; failure to do so may well result in confiscation
of your produce somewhere on the way to market and in a federal or state reprimand.)

In controlling "worms" on crucifers, DDT may still provide satisfactory control
and should be used where such is the case. If resistance to DDT is evident, then
use toxaphene as recommended until 21 days prior to harvest. During the 21-day
period, rotenone may be used to hold the "worms" in check.

The important point to remember with regard to the control of "worms" on cru-
cifers is to get them under control while they're small.

All the materials included in these recommendations are compatible with each
other and, when convenient and necessary, may be incorporated in the same spray
solution.

Table i.- Control Program for Insect Pests Common on Cabbage, Cauliflower, and
Broccoli Plants in the Hastings Area.
Insect Insecticide Amount in Time of last
formulation 100 gals./A or application General comments
total dust/A ibede harvest
Aphids Systox (demeton) Apply when aphids
emulsion concentrate 1-1 pints 21 days appear on cabbage, etc.
(2 Ibs. actual/gal.) One application should
control aphids for 5-6
weeks. Rain will not
affect the effectivene
Handle With Care!!!
2% parathion dust 20-30 lbs. 10 days, broccoli
25- parathion 7 days, cabbage
emulsion concentrate 1 pint and cauliflower __ _
Parachion emulsion Don't need wetting
(4 Ibs. ctual/gal.) pint Ag
..... -I pint s we ting agen' .
SAF dust 30-3 Ibs.1 day Mus be fesh.
Sj ir TLY rii s 0-35 I III l IIII.










Table 1.- Continued
Insect Insecticide Amount in Time of last
formulation 100 gals./A or application General comments
total dust/A before harvest
Arnyworms 10 taphene dust 25-30 l bs.
70;6 toxahpene "
emulsion concentrate 1 int
Cabbage 0 toap hene usT 2-30 TbS. 21 days Tbet loopers when
?loper -07 tojaphene small and on the
emulsion concentrate 1 pint outside.
5 DDT dual 5I lbs. 7 days, cabbage
25 DDT emulsion 1-4 days, broccoli
concentrate 1 quart and cauliflower
1 rotenone dust .36 --lbs. For worm control
5F rotenone 0 days less than 7 days
wettable powder 4 lbs. before harvest.
cabbage 25% parathion 7 days, cabbage
rebworm emulsion concentrate 1 pint and cauliflower
2% parathion dust 20-Z bs. 10 day, broccoli
25. DUT emulsion. 7 "ays; cabbage use a wetting
concentrate 1 quart 14 days, broccoli agent.
5IT-T M dust 2535 Ibs. and cauliflower
tworms 10 toxaphene dust 25-30 lbs. To protect newly
707 toxaphene -21 days transplanted
emulsion concentrate 1 pint____ ___ cabbage, a toxa-
S5% T 2M d30u Ibs -- phene bait or
25% DDT emulsion granular formula-
concentrate 1 quart 7 days, cabbage tion can be
iamond- 5% DDT dust 25-30 Ibs. 14 days, broccoli applied to the
back moth 25 DMT emulsion and cauliflower tops of rows.
-arvae concentrate 1 quart .
imported 10% toxaphene dust 25-30 lbs. Late application
cabbage 7% toxaphene 21 days of toxaphene may
orm emulsion concentrate 1 pint leave an undesir-
T ust -30 Ibs. 7 days, cabbage able taint on the
5% Di emulsion- 14 days, broccoli vegetable.
concentrate 1 quart and cauliflower
1 otenonne dust 3035 1bs. or worm control
5% rotenone------ 0 days less than 7 days
wettable powder 4 lbs. _______ before harvest.
eaf- 25% parathion 7 days, cabbage A serious pest
miner emulsion concentrate 1 int and cauliflower only in certain
Sparathion dust bs. 0 days, broccoli years.
ole emulsion pp. to surface
crickets concentrate of soil 2-3 weeks
and (2 Ibs. actual/gal.) 12 gals. before planting
reforms epachlor musion seedbed; disk in
concentrate immediately and
(2 lbs. actual/gal.) 1-2 gals. thoroughly.




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