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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Section Aryenne
        Section 1
        Section 2
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    La reine Shasyan Dokht
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    The Puranas
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
    Table of Contents
        Page 219
        Page 220
    Advertising
        Page 221
        Page 222
Full Text





ACTES


DU


HUITIEME CONGRESS INTERNATIONAL
DES ORIENTALISTES,


TENU EN 1889

A STOCKHOLM ET 1 CHRISTIANIA.





SECTION II: ARYENNE.
SE FASCICULTE.


LEIDE,
E, J. BRILL.
1893.



















II.

SECTION ARYENNE.


















ACTES



HUITIEME CONGRESS INTERNATIONAL
DES ORIENTALISTES.


TROISIPME PARTIE.










ACTES


DU


HUITIEME CONGRESS INTERNATIONAL
DES ORIENTALISTES,


TENU EN 1889

A STOCKHOLM ET A CHRISTIANIA.





TROISIPME PARTIES.

SECTION II: ARYENNE.


LEIDE,
E, J. BRILL.
1893.


S- ;; TjFLf-Faejr~~









































































IMPRIMERIE DE E. J. BRILL, LEIDE,





















La reine Shasyan Dokht


par

JAMES DARMESTETER.


VIIIe CongrBs international des Orientalistes. Section aryenne.


















La reine Shasyan Dkht.


Le vieux manuscrit pehlvi, connu sous le nom de Shah Nama
pehlvi, qui se trouve dans la Bibliotheque du savant Dastir de
Bombay, Jamaspji Minochibrji Jamasp Asana, content entire
autres textes une 6numBration des principles villes de 1'Iran,
accompagn6e de quelques details historiques sur chacune d'elles.
J'y trouve les lignes suivantes:
,,Les villes de ShAs et de ShAstar furent bAties par Shasyan
D6kht, femme de Yazdkart (Yazdegerd), fils de Shthpihr:
elle 6tait fille du ResB Galdtd, le roi des Juifs, et fut mare
de Bahram G6r".
Plus loin, A propos de la ville de Jai, il est dit:
,La ville de Gai fut foul6e aux pieds des d'616phants par le
maudit Alexandre. Il y avait 1l une colonies de Juifs. Ils y
furent 6tablis sous le regne de Yazdkart, fils de Shhhpihr,
sur le d6sir de ShasyAn D6kht, sa femme" 1).
Ces lines me semblent particulierement instructives pour
l'histoire d'un prince qui pr6sente une 6nigme psychologique,
Yazdegerd I 2), dit le m6chant (dafr 3), bazagar), la bete d'hor-
reur de la l6gende sassanide (399-410).

1) Shatrosthn Shis Af Shastar Shasyan (?) D6kht nisht i Yazdkart Shhhpihran
kart, cilgn barth i Rashgalitak YahAtin Shah amci i Vahram i G8r yahvint
(fol. 24 b).
Shatr8stfn i Gai gujastak Alaksandro pilp.... kart; manishnt Yahitan tamman
yahvAnt pun khfit8 Yazdkart I ShAhpfhran min khvahishni Shasyan D8kht kiash
nasAA yahvfiut (fol. 25 b).
2) II y a en trois Yazdegerd: Yazdegerd I, 399-420; Yazdegerd II, 438-457;
Yazdegerd III, 623-636. Le premier a Wtd le pare de Bahrhm G6r; e'est done de
lui qu'il s'agit ici.
Les sources arabo-persanes ne sont pas d'accord sur le pere de Yazdegerd I, qni,









James Darmesteter.


La chronique persane (Tabari, etc.), qui pour tous les rois
sassanides, meme apres le r6cit des cruaut6s les plus atroces, n'a
que des paroles d'admiration attendrie, sort pour Yazdegerd I
de sa courtisanerie banale et prend l'accent de la haine la plus
ambre. On l'accuse d'avoir applique au mal ,,son intelligence
p6n6trante, sa belle instruction, ses connaissances variess,
d'avoir m6pris6 la science chez les autres, tout en vantant la
sienne; dur et tyrannique, il traitait la plus petite faute comme
le dernier des crimes; ne se fiant a personnel, repoussant toute
intercession comme v6nale, tel enfin que ses sujets ne pouvaient
se d6fendre de sa malice ,,qu'en se conformant exactement aux
bonnes lois et aux r6gles de conduite des rois ant6rieurs" 1). Ce
passage, don't il serait si facile de tirer un portrait de roi
id6al, ami de la science dans un pays de superstition, connais-
sant trop bien les courtisans pour ne pas les m6priser et essayant
de reliever les moeurs par l'implacable s6v6rit6 du justicier,
prouve du moins que si Yazdegerd 6tait un tyran, il ne 1'6tait
pas a l'ordinaire faqon des Sassanides et 6tait sorti de la routine
d'un despite perse.
Comme le remarque M. Noldeke, le portrait de Yazdegerd
trahit une rancune sacerdotale. Aussi ne faut-il pas s'6tonner de
voir les chroniqueurs chr6tiens parler de lui en tous autres
terms, l'appeler ,,le bon et compatissant Yazdegerd, le chr6tien,
b6ni entire les rois" ? 11 avait rachet6 les prisonniers remains que
les Huns avaient jets sur le march d'esclaves de la Perse;
avait autoris6 les Chr6tiens a se r6unir en synode g6n6ral A
S6leucie, et cela sous la pr6sidence d'un 6vqque sujet de Byzance
(f6v. 410); avait laiss6 le Catholicos Jabhallahh reliever 1'6glise
de Kt6siphon 2) et songeait meme, dit-on, A se convertir au
Christianisme, ayant 6t6 6clair6 par les miracles d'Abdas, 6veque
de Perse, et de Maruthas, 6v6que de M6sopotamie.

selon les unes est Bahram KirmAnshah, selon les autres Shbhpihr (II ou III),
selon Tabari Shhhpihr II (le grand Sapor): notre texte tranche en faveur de Sapor,
probablement de Sapor II.
3) Sic, et non dabs, comme propose M. Noldeke. Shatr6stfn i Hamadin Yazdkart
1 ShahpfhrAn kart manshan Yazdkart i dafr karitAnand: ,la ville de Hamadfn fut
fondue par Yazdkart, fils de ShThpfhr, que l'on appelle Yazdkart Dafr" ibidd., fol.
26 b).
1) Tabari, tr. Nl6deke, 72.
2) Noldeke, ibid., 75, notes.








La reine Shasyan Dbkht.


Pourtant il ne voulait pas plus 6tre 1'instrument des Chr6-
tiens que celui des Mages. A la fin de son regne, les Chr6tiens
remuerent, croyant leur jour venu. Abdas incendia le temple
du feu d'Ahvyz: Yazdegerd lui ordonna de le rebAtir, menaqant
de mettre A feu toutes les 6glises de Perse. Abdas refusa et fut
mis A mort. Nombre de Chr6tiens abjurerent. La persecution, qui
continue avec fureur sous Bahrim, semble avoir 6t6 b6nigne
sous Yazdegerd. L'opinion chr6tienne mod6r6e donnait d'ailleurs
tort A Abdas: ,quand St. Paul vit Athenes pleine d'idoles", dit
Th6odoret, ,il ne les abattit pas; il prAcha leurs adorateurs" 1).
Aussi ces persecutions, qui n'6taient en r6alit6 que des measures
d'ordre public, ne suffirent pas A ramener les Mages A Yazde-
gerd: ce n'6tait pas leur esprit qui animait la repression.
Les Juifs no sont pas moins favorables A Yazdegerd le m6-
chant que les Chr6tiens. Le Talmud le montre en rapports cor-
diaux avec les Juifs, invitant A sa cour les chefs des trois
grandes 6coles de Sura, Pumbedita, Nehardea et tenant presque
un language judaisant: ,,j'6tais une fois devant Yazdegerd", conte
1'Exilarque Houna, fils de Natan; ,,il m'a arrange ma ceinture et
l'a mise plus bas qu'elle n'Btait, en me disant: vous autres Juifs,
vous Ates une nation de pritres et un people saint )"; ce qui
revient A dire: Juifs et Zoroastriens sont un, l'ideal du Juif tant
d'etre qadosh, comme celui du Zoroastrien est d'etre as8avan
(saint): votre ceinture est un kosli; mettez le done bien come
nous, c.-A-d. sans doute, exactement entire la parties du corps qui
appartient a Ormazd et celle qui appartient A Ahriman 3).
Notre texte pehlvi prend A present tout le caractere d'un
texte historique authentique. Rien d'6trange A ce que l'admira-
teur des Juifs, I'ami de Houna, mit la couronne sur la t6te
d'une Juive. D'ailleurs, la fille du R6sh GalHta 6tait la pre-
mikre des jeunes filles juives; le REsh Galfta, repr6sentant de la
famille de David, 6tait ce que le patriarche grec ou arm6nien est
A present dans la hierarchie ottomane: c'etait un chef de nation,
sorte de vassal de la couronne; son empire s'6tendait hors de
Perse: il 6tait le chef moral de tous les Juifs de l'univers.
Notre texte, en donnant le nom de la reine, don't malheu-

1) Histoire ecolis., V, 38.
2) Dr. N. Brill, Jahrbuck filr Jiidische Geschichte und Literatur, 96.
3) Gujastak Abalish, ed. Barthilemy, p. 38.








James Darmesteter.


reusement la lecture est douteuse, ne donne pas celui de son
pere. Peut-etre 6tait-ce le Houna, fils de Natan, cit6 plus haut
car un Exilarque de ce nom a r6gn6 1), de 410 A 420, c.-a.-d.
dans les dix dernieres ann6es de Yazdegerd. Il est vrai que
Bahrim G6r est n6 en 408, c.-a.-d. avant l'av6nement de Houna.
Le texte lui aura donn6 ce titre par advance ou peut-6tre s'agit-
il de son pred6cesseur Kahana (390-410).
Yazdegerd semble avoir 'trouv6 des influences juives a son
berceau. Sa grand' mare, la mere de Sapor, qu'il n'a pu con-
nattre (Sapor ayant v6cu 70 ans et Yazdegerd 6tant nB dans
le dernier tiers de la vie de Sapor), mais don't il a d-i entendre
parler, 6tait grande amie des Juifs: c'est IfrA Hormazd, c6klbre
dans le Talmud comme protectrice de Raba. Une des femmes de
Sapor II, celle qui semble avoir 6t6 sa femme en titre, car les
Actes 8yriaques lui donnent le titre de Reine, fut 6galement
judaisante et c'est a son instigation qu'aurait 6clat6 la troisieme
persecution, celle de 341. La reine 6tant tomb6e malade, disent
ces Actes, les Juifs, don't elle 6tait grande amie, lui persuade-
rent que Tharba, scour de Saint-Sim6on, recemment mis a
mort, lui avait jete un sort. Sainte-Tharba, sa soeur et une
servante furent done mises A mort et la reine recouvra la sant6
en passant entire les cadavres mises A pieces. Rien ne prouve
que cette reine judaisante ait 6t0 la mere de Yazdegerd: mais cette
16gende, jointe A celle d'Ifrh Hormazd, prouve bien l'existence
d'influences juives dans le s6rail.
La 16gende de BahrAm G6r, ce h6ros favori de l'6popBe, aussi
populaire que son pere 1'etait peu, semble avoir pourtant con-
serve une trace de son origine juive. Dans le discours d'av6ne-
ment que Firdaust met dans sa bouche, il se vante de descendre
par sa mere de la reine Shamiran. Or Shamirhn, ou la S6mi-
ramis persane, n'est autre que H6mAi, fille de Bahman ) et
mere de DarAb. Mais Bahman avait eu H6mai de la juive
ShahrAzAd (Cihrlazd), une des captives amenees de Jerusalem par
Bokht Nasr, et dans laquelle la sagacity de M. de Goeje a
reconnu A la fois l'origine de la Shahrazkd des Mille et une
Nuits et le representant de la reine Esther. C'est A la priere

1) Brill, 1.1.
2) Ho6mMi CihrAz&d, ou Shamirin, fille de Bahman* (Hamzah d'Ispahan, 38).









La reine Shasyan D8kht.


de cette juive que d'apres les chroniques arabo-persanes le roi de
Perse aurait rendu la liberty aux Juifs exiles de J6rusalem. Done
la 16gende, en faisant descendre de Shamiran la mere de Bahram,
rappelait sans le savoir l'origine juive de la reine mere. I1 est
probable que c'est au temps mmme oi Shasyan D6kht rebut la
couronne des mains du nouvel Assu6rus, que l'historiographie de
cour imagine de la rattacher Shamlran et A la reine Esther. Elle
ne se trompait pas absolument; car si CihrizAd-Asturiah 6tait de
sang royal, comme descendant du roi Saul, la reine Shasyan Dokht,
comme fille du Rdsh GalCit, devait, dans la th6orie de 1'Exilar-
quat, descendre aussi du sang royal juif, mais par David.
I1 est A present permis de se demander si le syncretisme et
le synchronisme strange des chroniqueurs arabo-persans, qui
font de Nabuchodnozor et de Cyrus des lieutenants de Lohrasp
et de Gfshtasp et font 6pouser une juive par le lgendaire
Bahman, date de 1'6poque arabe, comme on est port A le croire
A premiere vue. C'est lI au fond une 6poque tardive et oi la
coordination des traditions juives avec les traditions iraniennes
n'offrait plus guere d'int6ret. D'ailleurs, l'attribution de la destruc-
tion de Jerusalem A LohrAsp par le Minokhired prouve que ce
syneretisme remote A 1'epoque sassanide. Je ne vois pas d'6poque
et d'occasion plus favorable A la formation de ce syncr6tisme que
l'avdnement au tr6ne de Shasyan D6kht, la nouvelle Esther. Etant
de sang royal juif, on en fit une descendante d'Esther: mais
Esther avait 6pous6 un roi de Perse; ce roi, n6cessairement
ant6rieur A Alexandre, ne pouvait guere 6tre que Bahman,
car Gfshtasp a 6pous6 une grecque: de la I'assimilation de
Bahman avec AssuBrus et par suite avec Artaxerxes longue-
main (Bahman dirhz dast). Selon d'autres textes, ce serait
le pere de GushtAsp, Lohrasp, qui aurait 6pouse la juive; et
c'est Gfishthsp qui par amour pour sa mere aurait d6livr6 les
Juifs. C'est A cette version que se rattache la destruction de
Jerusalem par Lohrasp et la transformation de Nabuchodnozor
et de Cyrus en lieutenants de Lohrasp et de Gushtasp. De l1
aussi la 14gende (d'origine juive sans doute et adoptee par les
Arabes; sous les Persans elle devait faire peu de fortune) qui fait
de Zoroastre, contemporain de Gfshtasp, un disciple de J6r6mie 1).


1) J. Darmesteter, Le Zend-Avesta, tr. frangaise, III, XLI.










198 James Darmesteter, La reine Shasyan D6kht.

Tout ce syncr6tisme, comme on volt, a pour centre et point
d'attache le marriage de la reine Esther avec un roi de Perse
et probablement pour occasion historique le marriage de Yazde-
gerd avec une nouvelle Esther ').


1) C'est peut-Stre au souvenir d'Esther qu'est due la predilection de la reine
Shasyan D6kht pour Shds (Suse). Elle ne bAtit pas Sase, qui dtait plus vieille que
la plus vieille dynastic perse; mais elle put la rebAtir, le roi Sapor Fayant 6crasse,
un demi-siacle auparavant, sous le pied des dliphants, pour chftier une rebellion.
Dans le style des chroniques persanes, bltir une ville signifie souvent ,y bitir".
La colonies d'Ispahan comptait encore 15000 Ames au temps de Benjamin de Tu-
dMle verss 1170). Elle compete h present environ 300 families. Elle ne fut pas crdde,
mais sans doute ddveloppde par Shasyfn D6kht: car un sicle auparavant Sapor II
avait ddport6 & Ispahan les Juifs de Van, apres la conquite de 'Armenie.




















The Purnas,

By

MANILAL N. DVIVEDI.


VIlle CongrBs international des Orientalistes.- Section aryenne.


















The Puranas.


The introduction of Sanskrta on the field of European lin-
guistic studies marks an era of great importance in the history
of the world. The last fifty years have witnessed the advance-
ment of research, with a rapidity unparalleled in history. Dazzled
with the glory of modern achievements, in various departments
of science, we extol the present at the expense of the past.
Nay, this habit of looking at history has grown almost into
learned fashion, and advocates of ancient wisdom have hardly
the chance even of a hearing. When man, the apex of evolu-
tion, is believed to develop from his pithecoid ancestor, only
in the quaternary period, the possibility of secondary or even
tertiary man can hardly be looked upon as anything better than
a fairy tale. And yet, gentlemen, I wish to address you one
subject entirely concerned with some of these fairy tales, I mean
the Indian Purdnas, which speak of a humanity much beyond
all recognized geological or historical limit. They are fairy tales
indeed, but every tale has some foundation in truth. The
truth underlying these tales would appear to be imbedded in
strata not yet reached by the diggings of philology and com-
parative mythology. Without attempting to deprive the illus-
trious discoveries of the present century of any of their glorious
plumes, I may venture to question the right to their proper
ownership.
Comparative philology and mythology have achieved grand


Pour l'impression de ce M6moire, on a suivi en general l'orthographe du ma-
nuscrit,
Note de la RaDACTION.








Manilal N. Dvivedi.


results, each in its own department, no doubt; but the problem
of the beginning of civilization and religion is where it ever
was; and the hope of demonstrating a thesis of universal belief
is as much a chimera as the idea of establishing a universal
language. Why is it so? Are these questions so hopelessly beyond
philosophy and research? or is there something intrinsically
wrong with the methods adopted by those who have made
these questions the object of special study? Admitting the al-
most insurmountable difficulty of the task, there is reason to
believe that the methods followed are so remarkably defective
that results which, from the materials at our disposal, we must
already have achieved, are ever eluding our grasp. Nothing is
so urgently needed in this age of isms and ologies, as a simple
basis of universal belief. It is remarkable that research in almost
all departments of inquiry is tending to a certain uniformity of
conclusion. It requires but a careful dovetailing of the various
results into a systematic whole. It is time for doctors and di-
vines to break open the shells of their creed; it is time for
philologists and antiquarians to dive deeper into solar-myths and
word-resemblances; it is time for sceptics and scientists to break
the charmed circle "this much and no more". It is only when
all beliefs will melt into that unity which ignores all false
distinctions, that the reign of love will dawn upon this earth.
All arts and sciences have their idols, as Lord Bacon well
remarks. Though the age of idolatry is nearly at an end the
one great idol which continues to command unmitigated homage
from orientalists is the chronology of the old Testament. All
logic has been sacrificed at the altar of this deity. When geol-
ogy has now clearly demonstrated the existence of our earth
alone from millions and billions of years; when the existence
of submerged continents like Atlantis and Lemuria is shown
to be a historical fact; when even the theory of cycles would
derive ample confirmation from the theory of the occasional
inclination of the earth's axis as the only possible explanation
of the sudden changes in the face of the globe from the poles
to the equator; and lastly when even the old Testament is
shown to be a dead-letter rendering of the Hebrew Kabala and
the Assyrian and Babylonian tiles and tablets; when then
are all these proofs there is no reason whatever to regard books









The Puranas.


declaring our earth as old as time, and putting forth the theory
of cyclic Kalpas, Yugas, Pralayas, as mere fictions of primitive
fancy. Again, when eminent anthropologists are inclined to
give "a local habitation and a name" to Miocene, and even
Eocene, men, besides entirely repudiating the theory of simian
descent; and when astronomy has almost all its great names
from Copernicus to Flammarion in favour of the plurality of
inhabited worlds; there appears, indeed, the most slender reason
for holding up to ridicule records showing man to be a descend-
ant of his ancestors or prototypes Pitrs in other plan-
ets; and making his development and progress greatly depend-
ent on sidereal influences. But, apart from these considera-
tions, even internal evidence does not justify the conclusion
that the Vedas and Purdnas are mere fairy tales for the amuse-
ment of primitive human beings. The high condition of so-
ciety and civilization described in several well-known and im-
portant passages, the highly metaphysical and mystical thought
and language found in numerous hymns, are strong arguments
against any such inference. It hardly stands to reason that men,
who, by the very nature of the circumstances, are not allowed
to be Huxleys, Haeckels, or Spencers, can be Shakesperes,
Wordsworths, nay, even Kants and Berkleys! If the Siktas of
the Veda cannot be shown to be hallucinations of wild imagina-
tion, the Purdnas, which are assumed to be compositions of
an entirely modern date, can hardly be such. The gross imagery
of myths and fictions is not a result of the disease of language,
nor of the love of exaggeration either. Dr. Goldstiicker has
already raised his powerful voice against this mode of giving
preference to modern imaginations over the interpretations of
Pydsa, Sdyana, and others; and I may be permitted to add
that if the arguments put forth by that learned orientalist had
been attended to, oriental research would, this day, have been
at the head of all research in general. It is simply ridiculous
to seriously put forth that the great Vydsa so far misunderstood
the import of the Vedic FiSnu, and his trivikrama, as to fab-
ricate, in his selfish love of exaggeration, an ugly dwarf
actually trampling the demon Bali, under his tiny foot! In-
stances of this kind may be multiplied without number, but
this one is enough to illustrate the manner of explaining dif-









Manilal N. Dvivedi.


ficulties. All this is the result of our having swallowed the
dead-letter chronology of the old Testament, and its natural
corollary that the present must be, and is, the first humanity
and the first civilization, our earth has ever seen.
These, gentlemen, are the results of erudite labour extend-
ing over a century. The fault all lies with the methods adopted,
and with the prejudices and preconceptions which are allowed
to sway learned opinion. I hold that the Vedas are the histo-
rical record of a past humanity, containing many useful hints
and lessons for our use; that the Upanisads are the key to
the understanding of these records; and the Purdnas the broad
clear light by which to read and decipher them. It is not
possible to demonstrate, and language is not always the surest
proof, that the Upanisads are subsequent to the hymns, and
the Purdnas (i. e. their subject-matter) are mere fictions of
modern priestcraft. If it can be shown that the Purdna8 are but
another form of the Vedas; and that the Vedas in their turn
are not the first edition of primitive thought, all our present
theories on the contents of either must lose their validity and im-
portance. I have, unfortunately, very little time to substantiate
these statements in a satisfactory manner, but I hope to lay
before you certain facts which will render this hypothesis pos-
sible, if not absolutely certain.
It is always necessary to be well acquainted with the key
before approaching the lock, or lighting the lamp to examine
the contents under the lock. It is, however, not possible, just
now, to lay before you all the points of importance from the
Upanisads, and read the Paurdnjika KaltIs, and the Vedic
Siktas, accordingly. In order to illustrate the meaning of my
argument I shall adduce a few of the many remarkable instan-
ces. Let us begin with the history of creation as given in the
Purdnas. The universe in that undifferentiated condition which
cannot be described in words, and which is beyond even the
ether or the prothyle of modern science, the UpaniSads only
describe by Sat, esse, and explain it by Avydkrta, that which
is not defined, and Brahma, that which is infinite. Brakma is
the Purusa, sacrifice of whose members is symbolic of creation,
if creation it can be called, in the Rgveda. The Vedic Purusa,
the Upanisad-Sat, is the Nara of the Purdn.as. It is pertinent









The PurAnas.


to explain why undifferentiated cosmic matter is symbolized
by Purusa or Nara. In order to understand this very import-
ant symbol it is necessary to bear in mind the meaning of
the UpaniSad-Sat or -Brahma, which is unity Advaita im-
plying inseparable union of Thought and Being, or spirit and
matter, approximately speaking. The vital difference between
modern and ancient science is at this point. Dead matter as
such does not exist for the latter, and spirit and matter are
aspects of one and the same thing. So then, when the in-
describable Nara, i. e. Sat, which is both matter and spirit or
is neither, begins to assume some definite form; when, in
fact, without having, as yet perfectly differentiated, it becomes
something coextensive with Space, it is called Ndrd, something
born of Nara. Ndrd means water according to Manu; and it is
a symbol of the all-pervading and visible but undifferentiated
cosmic substance. The original Nara having evolved Ndrd from
itself becomes Ndrdyana one lying upon the waters, in fact
brooding over them. Thus begins the first manifestation of
cosmic energy. The original unmanifest Nara is Ndrdyana in
its manifest aspect. Ndrdyana has for his support or couch,
a serpent under the waters, a very significant symbol, as
will appear from the names Sesa and Ananta given to it. The
word seSa means remainder, and has a reference to the scient-
ific fact that evolution in every new Kalpa proceeds from the
Sesa or remaining of the preceding Kalpa, a fact having a
parallel in the seeds, birds and animals of Noah's arc at the
Deluge. Thus as Seba alludes to a portion of time, Ananta
alludes to eternity. Ananta means the endless, and endless time
represented by a circle, is best symbolized by the coil of a
serpent biting his own tail. Hence, undifferentiated cosmic sub-
stance beginning to differentiate into form, from the remaining
of a previous Kalpa, or from the dark womb of eternity, is
best symbolized by Ndrdaya.a brooding over the waters (ndrd)
on his couch of the Sesa or the Ananta. If the serpent is a
symbol of eternity the lotus is of self-generation, in almost
all ancient religions. Evolution always proceeds by differentiation
called Vdch in the Fedas, and Jabda in the Upanidads; which
corresponds to the Verbum or Logos of the Kabala. That this
differentiation is spontaneous is broadly hinted at by Jankara








Manilal N. Dvivedi.


in his Bahdya on the Sutra IkSaternddabdam which deals with
that text of the C kdndogya which represents Brahma as looking
about with the desire to be many. ankara says that the looking
about only proves that the substance of the Cosmos is not dead
matter (Pradldna); and does not refer to any special creation,
which, as he elsewhere demonstrates, is always spontaneous.
The lotus springing forth from the navel of Ndrdyana, with
the self-existent Svdyambhu on it, is a symbol of the visible
cosmos spontaneously arising from invisible eternity. The Svd-
yambhu is called Hirnyagarbka as well. It is the golden egg
which again is a beautiful symbol of the mysterious process of
spiritual evolution. Turning to the Upanigads we find Hirnya-
garbha as the name of that thread of spirituality (S8trdtmd)
which runs through the Lingadeha of the cosmos. Hence, we
at once understand that the golden egg of the Purdnas is
nothing more than the manifestation of spiritual life in the
cosmos, by mysterious self-generation. When this first germ of
life begins to develop into various beings, the Svdyambhu,
which is the Hirnyagarbka in its spiritual manifestation, is
called Prajdpati, the progenitor of all. Prajdpati is the same
as the Firdt of the Upalniads, the samasti, the sum total of
all beings, jivas. Prajdpati is the father of the various Ku-
mdras and Manus and through them, of men, and all beings.
But of this hereafter. He is called Brahmd as well. Now, Brak-
man, neuter, is the great noumenon, and is in a sense, one
with all phenomena. Hence, Brahman, the unmanifest, becomes
Brahmd, the manifest. But Brahman is also a name of the Veda,
the great treasure of secret learning and power, which, there-
fore, is identified with Brakmd, the symbol of the Cosmos.
Vdch also, the emblem of differentiation, which is a synonym
of the Veda as well, is identified with Brahmd, the first Vdck,
the first Logos. As the Vedas are four in number, so has
Brahmd four faces, but beyond this mere coincidence, there is
a reason well-known to the Tdntrikas, why the first Logos is
four-faced, why in fact it represents a square. It is the sign of
materiality and perfection, and the first material manifestation
of cosmic energy is well symbolized by the four-faced Svd-
yamb6u Brahmd, the Ivar of the Upanidads, the first Logos.
We may here enter upon a short digression. Vdck is syn-









The PurAnas.


onymous with the Veda, and is the Ineffable name revealed to
the initiate through the Vedas and the UpaniSads. If Brahmd,
the father of Vedic lore, should be in love with his issue Vdch,
the supreme mystery, the myth has nothing of that phallic
element which many are inclined to see in it. That Brahim
being guilty of this incest should lose his share in yajnas, is
very plain after this explanation, for, formalism and dead-
letter worship has nothing whatever to do with real esoteric
knowledge, jndna. All religious books from the Vedas to the
Purdnas teach this truth in every word; and it has to be care-
fully laid at heart by all students of ancient wisdom.
That Bra/md is an emblem of the manifest cosmos is borne
out by yet another statement in the Purdnas. The periods of
cosmic activity and rest are described as the days and nights
of Brakmd. Each of these is called a Kalpa, during which 14
Manus are said to succeed one another. The period from Manu
to Manu is called a Manvantara. Manu means one who has
manas, the mind. How in cosmic evolution the mind comes
into being is a question belonging to the details of the cos-
mogony of the Upanisads. It may be remarked en passant that
the evolution of the material side of the cosmos from the Td-
masa (gross), and of the semi-spiritual or intelligent side from
the Sdttvika (passive), parts of the five elements: Akdda, Vdyu,
fejas, Jala, Prtvhm, is perhaps more accurate than evolution
from the well-known states of matter from prothyle downward.
Manas is a part of the antakkarana, the issue of the sdttvika-
side of the elements, but it is not exactly the mind; for, it
is only the principle that cognises under the control of a yet
higher principle which is more allied to real jndna than to
matter, and is called Buddhi. So then, beings with manas are
Manu. Though the Microcosm is a copy of the Macrocosm, and
though every being is made up of three parts which may
roughly be described as the material, intellectual, and spir-
itual, otherwise described by the medical school of Montpellier
as the material substance, vital force, and intimate sense; still
beings in whom the second is most manifest, are entitled to be
called Manu, man. Manu is thus a symbol of humanity,
and Brahmd is Prajdpati, the father, through him, the Adam
Kadmon of the Kabala. When the Purdnas, with their theory









Manilal N. Dvivedi.


of cycles, say of several Manus, and several humanities, as
having already preceded the present one, they are not very
far from those researches of geology which demonstrate to us
the existence of submerged continents and their respective civ-
ilizations. And if again, they derive man from Manus and Pitrs,
and thus repudiate the theory of simian descent, notwithstand-
ing their clear acceptance of the theory of filiation by the
perhaps more logical theory of metempsychosis, they are not
quite without support from eminent anthropologists like De
Quatrefages and others who regard the human species as an
entirely independent group.
It will be remembered that every Manvantara is followed by
a Pralaya. Mdnvantarika-pralaya extends up to the Svarloka, i. e.
possibly up to the sidereal regions occupied by our solar system.
At every Manvantara the sun is formed anew, or some other
sidereal body takes its place; and a number of corresponding
changes takes place in all the members of the whole system.
Hence, the Purdnas clearly giving a list of the D/ruvas, Sap-
tardis, Indras, etc., for every Manvantara, are not dealing in mere
gossip, but real facts of nature. The duration of a Manvantara
will thus appear to depend on the life of the sun. If we ex-
press in terms of our solar years the number of sidereal years
necessary for our sun to become only a planet of Alcyone or
some other star, the number of years over which a Manvantara
is said to extend, will not appear at all exaggerated. The theory
of the plurality of worlds is the pivot of Paurdnika and Vedic
astronomy; and if in these days of a thousand and one theories
about the origin and radiation of the sun's heat, we find the
Purdnas regarding that luminary as the source of life Prdna -,
there is very little room for surprise. The planet which, how-
ever, is more directly concerned with the life of our planet, is
the moon. These facts are clearly set forth in the Vedas and
the UpaniSads. Passage to the sun which is variously, and each
time most significantly, described as Devaydna, Archimdrga,
Uttardyana, is the way to mokca; whereas passage to the moon
oppositely called Pitrydna, Dltumamdrga, Dakein.dyana, is the way
to re-incarnation and re-birth. The terms "re-incarnation" and "re-
birth" require a bit of explanation. MokSa as absolute cessation
of evolution or re-incarnation is, as will be seen from the FiSgu









The Puranas.


Purdna, the Bhagvadgd, and other books, an absurdity, and
an impossibility. Beings transferred to the sun stand the chance
of passing to higher sidereal localities, and thus transcending
the possibility of being thrown back on this earth, at least
for a Manvantara. It is the reverse with beings carried to the
moon. The sun is thus the Heaven par excellence, the way to
mokca proper. These questions lead to side-issues of a highly
metaphysical character as to the nature of the being to be
carried from world to world, the machinery of this carriage,
the all-important and central law of Karma or causes which
regulate such transportation; but these we cannot wait to deal
with at present. These questions are very well treated in the
Upanigads, and it is enough for us here to note that the sun
is the Heaven, the source of all life, as given in the Vedas,
the Upanidads, the Purdn.as, and all Indian religious books.
The sun refers to the physical as well as the spiritual sun,
but even the exoteric rendering will help us a great deal in
solving several difficulties. The first thing which this will help
us to explain is why the present Manu is the son of Vivasvat,
the sun, from whom he derives his name Vaivasvaa; and why
the theory of Avatdras also becomes logically feasible.
But the chief help we derive from these explanations is in
relation to ViSnu, the second member of the Indian Trinity,
Trimurti, and the myths connected with the name. The Heaven
of this god which in Rgveda I, 154 is described as full of gri
nrnga go is, indeed, none other, on the authority of Ydska,
Durgdchdrya, and 5' a,.',, than the sun, the fountain of rays
(go) protruding (buiri grnga) to the worlds around, the dead-
letter interpretations of the later Sampraddyas, which make go-
loka the heaven of Vis.u full of long-horned cows, notwith-
standing. The way to Goloka, the Devaydna, is the Vaitarani-
of the Garuda Purdna, for, the being only swims (vitr) through
space and passes to the sun, through his rays, in other words
through the cosmic currents of Prd.*a proceeding from him.
This is scientific, or at least intelligible enough, but the dead-
letter river Vaitaraji, with the cow go -, to assist the jiva
by her tail, is a puzzle which passes all solution. The real
explanation, just given, is to be found in the UpaniSads; but
not to look for it, and say that the Garuda Purdna is all








Manila N. Dvivedi.


fancy, priest-craft, exaggeration, or even some philological
jugglery, is only to cut the knot instead of untying it. What
is the Garuda? He is the vehicle of ViSnu, as Hamsa is that
of Bra/nhd. Hamsa, in mystic language, is the inverted form
of the secret word ajapd soham, which means the great
unity Brahmad, wherein subject and object are one. It is the Nd-
rdyana of the Purdnas, the sustainer of the lotus and the lotus-
born. Hence, Hamsa is rightly the vehicle of the lotus-born
Bramad. It is this mysterious Hamsa alone who is able to make
the unmanifest, manifest, as spirit and matter, to separate water
from milk in the dead-letter myth. Similarly is the eagle an
emblem of eternity. It is even sacred to the Egyptian Horus,
the god of time, the son of Osiris, the sun Vinu. In India
this sole bird having the power to soar up to the sun, un-
dazzled by his splendour, is, with Viknu upon its back, the
emblem of the Mdnvantarika cycle. It is the fabulous Phaenix
which burns itself to death and comes to life again. If we re-
member at this point the meaning of moka, it will be plain,
why the Purdna treating of the dead is consecrated to Garuda.
It is now evident that, when Garuda is the vehicle of Vineu,
the spiritual sun, Aruna the charioteer of Aditya, the physical
sun, must be his cripple brother. In all these explanations,
the dead-letter of the myths will never yield its real essence
to any amount of philological twisting.
As VdcA is the female counterpart of Brahmd, so is Luxmi 1)
of ViSu. Visnu as the sun, the source of life, is evidently the
god who protects and gives prosperity. His Logos Vdci -
is, therefore, called Luxmi, the goddess of all good. The gold-
en filaments of the lotus which always blooms under the sun,
serve as an emblem of prosperity, and Luxmi receives a num-
ber of epithets derived from the lotus, such as Kamald, Ka-
maldlayd, Padmd, etc. The importance of the sun in the In-
dian religion, and his identity with FiShu will explain, why
Visnu is the sole god of Heaven, and why it is he who is
always invoked in those ceremonies for the dead, known as
Srdddlas. We have already alluded to the fact that Vinwu as
the sun, the source of all life, and as the final abode of the


1) Sic, et de meme dans la suite.








The Puranas.


righteous, is the only god who has a right to incarnate him-
self on earth. Hence, the theory of the well-known Avatdras,
which, though ten in number, are, perhaps justly, said to be
innumerable, in the Bkdgavata and other Purdnas. But the Avatd-
ras limited even to ten, are not quite without significance,
in the order in which they are given, before the hypothesis
of modern evolution tracing man from the fish upward. The
sun, with its rays protruding downwards and sowing the seeds of
life Prdna everywhere, will further explain the allegory
of the ASvattha, the tree sacred to Yisnu, described in the
Yedas, the Upanisads, and the Bhagvadguid, with its roots in
heaven and its branches protruding downwards. "He who un-
derstands this tree, understands the whole of the Feda", well
says the Gitd.
When VYisnu is identified, as in the Vi.Sn- and Bralma-
vaivarta-Purdnas, with Ndrdyana, the UpaniSad-Brahma, it is
he who undertakes the churning of the great ocean of milk.
We have already explained that water is the symbol of all-
pervading space; and the churning of the ocean to obtain the
fourteen Ratlnas is, therefore, a cosmic myth relating to the
invisible, differentiating into the visible. If this ocean is said
to consist of milk, it is only an approximate idea of the first
materialization of the invisible substance into nebulous forms,
and the expression "milky way", the Svargangd of the Purdn.as,
survives to this day as a witness of this mode of symbolizing.
The double evolution of matter and spirit from the womb of
eternity, is well symbolized by the demons and gods standing
each at either extremity of the great serpent of eternity, used
as a cord in the act. The demons, sons of Diti, finiteness, are
symbolic of matter as opposed to spirit, Devas, the sons of
Aditi or infinity, the eternal Sat. The history of cosmogony
is the history of spirit falling into matter, and matter re-
ascending to spirit. All myths from the Fedic Indra and Vrtra,
to the Paurdnika Vidnu and Hiroyakaiipu and his brood, are but
symbols to express the same idea in its physical, astronomical,
metaphysical, or spiritual aspect. The mountain used as the
churning-rod is a symbol of the eternal Vdc or ~abda, dif-
ferentiation, which is the cause of cyclic evolution. This Vdck
is often described in the Fedas as a cow, and if we remember








Manilal N. Dvivedi.


the Egyptian Isis, we shall at once be able to see that cosmic
matter in the act of differentiation is almost everywhere sym-
bolized by that prolific animal. It will also explain why the
cow is so sacred even to the present day in India; for, as
with the Egyptians, the Jews, and other nations of antiquity,
it is customary with the Indians to respect all sacred animals
and trees. This very animal is the Kdmadughd of FViSu, the
cow that fulfills all desires. Divested of its dead-letter cover
the meaning is as plain and scientific, as reason could have
it. Differentiation is in Paurdnika language, or UpaniSad mys-
ticism, only an idea, a mere kdma; and the Cosmos is nothing
more than divine ideation. To convert the ideal into the real
is the grand mystery. It is the only key to the Kdmadughd of
ViY~uz, which is also, often, the sole help of great adepts like
Yasigtha, Visvdmitra, Jamadagni, and others. The Kalpataru is
another of the gems obtained from the grand churning. It is
the tree that fulfills all desires, but more properly, it is the
tree that comes to life at every Kalpa. The other gems are but
members of this tree, the manifest cosmos, and may be easily
understood. Thus we at once see that the myths about ViSnw
are no fabrications, nor any result of misunderstanding the
meaning and office of the Vedic deity of the same name. The
Paurd iika myths prove, by the help of the UpaniSad-key, to
be mere commentaries of the Yedic hymns, which, in their
turn, cease, when read by the light of this commentary, to
be the first edition of the childish poetry of primitive men.
An examination of the myths connected with the third mem-
ber of the trinity, iva, will confirm the same conclusion. Siva
is, no doubt, connected with Budra, the god of fire and whirlwind,
as described in the Sdtarudriya and other hymns. But it is
important to see how Rudra the ferocious becomes Siva the
beneficent. Again will the Upaniads and the Tantras help us.
Fire is the great arcana, the mystery of mysteries, sufficient
to effect everything. It is this mysterious fire that is the
varetyya bkarga of savitr, in the Macrocosm; and the third eye
of Siva, the eye which burns everything to ashes, in the Mi-
crocosm. Every initiate becomes ,iva, and has his third or
inner eye so far opened, as to consume, with the fire thereof,
the phenomenal, aspect of nature into ashes. It is the awakening








The Puranas.


of this fire that serves all purpose; and hence, ,iva is the god of
all knowledge, of any description, whatever. Kailda is, in Tdn-
trika books, the name of the seat of knowledge, the brain;
and it is quite natural that the Purdnas should speak of this
place as the abode of this god. That which the Vedas call
Vdck, the Yoga Kundalini, the Nydya Iclhd, the Sdnkhya Prakrti,
the Tantras call Sakti. Sakti is the consort of Siva, and the
power capable of effecting everything. When by proper yoga,
Sakti unites with Siva, the issue of the union is Gajdnana. As
Kaildsa is the emblem of the thousand-rayed padma plexus -
in the pineal gland, and Siva and Sakti of the microcosmic fire
of power and wisdom, so is the elephant an emblem of jndna;
and the son of Siva and Sakti is, therefore, with an elephant's
head. After this explanation it is plain that the wives of this
son of Siva should be none other than Siddhii, the power to
accomplish everything, and Buddhi, the highest wisdom. It is
easy to understand iva and his accompaniments, if we follow
a similar train of thought, never forgetting that iva is a
symbol of the terrestrial as well as cosmic and microcosmic
fire. The birth of Skanda or Kdrtikeya, is full of meaning, and
is plainly, in its physical as well as metaphysical aspects,
suggestive to any one, who tries to penetrate beyond mere
words. The Ndgas of iva is another of these very transparent
symbols. They are emblematic of adeptship and high knowledge.
The Purdnas are full of tales about Ndgas, good, bad, and in-
different, but it is easy to see that the serpent is in all ancient
religions the threefold symbol of eternity, wisdom, and wicked-
ness. Even the Tempter in the garden of Eden is a serpent,
who, though tempting to sin, gives, at the same time, the
fruit of knowledge. All this, however, is the right-hand or
DakSina worship of ,iva, the eternal mystic fire. It is the left-
hand or Vdma worship of fire that is most dangerous. It is fire
that energizes the universe and manifests itself as heat, light,
electricity, magnetism, etc. Rightly used, it is the source of
all prosperity; wrongly applied, it is the cause of woe and
wickedness. Siva, the god of the left-hand occult fire, is worshipped
as Biairava, the terrible; and his consort is called by names
like Kdli, Kardli, etc., significant of the "tongues of fire" in
the Veda. It is these whose worship is supposed to be grossly








Manilal N. Dvivedi.


phallic. It is not, however, possible to see as much phallicism
as many feign to see in the linga and yoni, worshipped as
emblems of Siva and Sakti throughout India. If the Babylo-
nian Mylitta and the Phoenician Astarte afford us reason to
regard the linga- and yoni-worship of India as of foreign origin,
the presence of these symbols in all ancient religions of the
world, strongly militates against such view. Moreover, the
proper explanation of these universal symbols deprives them of
the phallic element which many see in them; and reveals their
real character as symbols of truths physical and metaphysical.
The all-pervading Sat is everywhere represented by a circle
whose circumference is everywhere and the centre nowhere. A
point in this circle makes it the yoni, the source of the phe-
nomenal universe, the Prakrti of the Sdnkkya, and matter in
differentiation of modern science. This point becoming a line
is the linga, the spiritual noumenon which is the cause of all
so-called material phenomena. This line falling upon another
is a symbol of creation in its doubly phenomenal aspect, and,
with the circumference, now removed, it is the same as the
Egyptian Tau, the Christian Cross, and the Indian Svasiika,
all symbols of the perfect phenomenal world. Linga and yoni
are thus emblematic of scientific facts. The well-known Srichakra,
and all similar diagrams with a number of triangles forming
yonis round a central point which is the linga, are symbols
of cosmic truths, highly suggestive and full of meaning. This
phase of the Indian religion will at once account for the enor-
mous number of gods as given in the Purd.*as, as also for the
nature and import of the much-ridiculed idol-worship of the
heathens. It is evident that, when the Purdnas echoing the spirit
of the Vedic text: EBkam Sat viprdba/udkh Vadanti declare:
Sarvadevanamas8kdrah KeSavam prati gachhati, they plainly allude
to the one indescribable Sat as the only God, whose manifesta-
tions are the various deities and idols which are only sym-
bols of physical, metaphysical, spiritual and cosmic truths,
and no outcome of poetical solar-myths or unconscious disease
of language. The number of gods can now be imagined
to be as large as cosmic facts to explain. Any one who has
carefully examined any ancient place of idol-worship will
agree with me in saying that under every idol there is


214









The Purknas.


always some yantra, diagram in the form of the srickakra,
BhuvaneSvarichakra, or any similar chakra, as an emblem of
some cosmic energy, being itself the real object of worship.
But I think I am trespassing upon your very valuable time.
From the very few and necessarily meager accounts I have
been able, at present, to lay before you, I hope to have estab-
lished that the Purdnas, when read by the light of the Upa-
nisads, become a clear commentary on the Vedas which, in
their turn, cease to be the first edition of an imaginary prim-
itive humanity. The day of philology is at an end; sym-
bology must reign supreme in the domain of ancient religions
research. Symbology is the language of humanity, nay, it is
the language of nature. It is pre-eminently the universal-language,
known to antiquity; and nothing but a clear and steady study
of its alphabets can lead us nearer that day in the history of
the world where all the different creeds will melt into one com-
mon basis of universal belief and love. Remember, gentlemen,
that Vdck, the Logos or the Word, is described in the Vedas as
of four kinds: Pard, Pagyanti, Madltyamd, and Vaikkari. Pard
is the Logos of the supreme Sat, and is ever incomprehensible
and invisible. Pagyanii is the second Logos the Isvar of the
Advaita, the Christos of the Kabala -, which is the language
of intuition, the universal language known to all in the same
form and manner. M11,dl7,/ iaii is the third Logos corresponding
to the cosmic as well as individual Lingadeka, and capable of
being acquired by all in a semi-intuitional manner, by practice.
The last, Vaikhari, is the fourth, not intelligible to one another,
being the confusion of tongues described in the Bible. Yaikhari
is the only form of language known to us, but it is necessary
to read nature by the universal mystery-language, the Pas2anti,
and understand the true universal religion of unity and love.
Any one who understands this language, the real Devabkhdd,
the Girvana, is called a Jvija, twice-born; not one invested
merely with the sacrificial thread. Even in these days when all
old institutions are fast dying out, the boys in any indigenous
Indian village-school will be heard to begin their lessons with
a prayer to Vdck, the goddess of learning and wisdom, wherein
her fourfold nature is beautifully described by calling her
the mare of the Eternal All, lame in three of her legs,









216 Manilal N. Dvivedi, The PurAnas.

and able, though moving about only with the help of one,
to fetch, if rightly managed, the water of supreme knowledge
even from the dark depths of Pdtdla. Indeed, gentlemen, it
is time we should endow this one-legged mare with her other
legs, never mind even if artificial crutches at the beginning,
and should ride over the noble animal, past the mere blocks
of words and myths, and penetrate into the Pdtdla of Eternal
Truth.











ACTES


DU



HUITIEME CONGRESS INTERNATIONAL

DES ORIENTALISTES,


TENU EN 1889

A STOCKHOLM ET A CHRISTIANIA.





SECTION II: ARYENNE.
2E FASCICULE.


LEIDE,
E, J. BRILL.
1893.

















Table des matikres

de ]a

TroisiBme Partie.



II.

Section aryenne.
Pages.
Archaeological Research in India. By JAs. BURGESS. . . .. 1
Uber die neue Ausgabe des Rig-Veda mit SAyana's Commentar. Von
F. MAX MiLLER... .... . . . . 49
Professions interdites par le Bouddhisme, par LION FEER . . 63
Apergu de 1'6tude de la langue arm6nienne en Europe, par G. D'ESOFF. 73
The Biography of B'aga. By HERBERT BAYNES .. . . . 83
Etwas fiber die ungarlkndischen Zigeuner. Von P. HUNFALVY. . 91
Der dialekt der sogenannten Shahbazgarhi-redaktion der vierzehn
edikte des kinigs Apoka. Von KARL FERDINAND JOHANSSON. . 115
La reine Shasyan Dbkht, par JAMES DARMESTETER . . . 191
The PurAnas. By MANILAL N. DVIVEDI .... . . .199



Fautes a corriger.

Page 105, line 23: den lisez dem
S 119, dern. ligne: einerse ,, einerseits,
,, 120, ligne 13: 1881. 1886
S 178, ,, 30: laulicher lautlicher


Nota.
La IIe parties du MAmoire de Monsieur JonANssoN (c.-k-d. le rest annonce a la
pago 190) a paru t Upsala chezz Akademiska Bokhandeln), au prix de Mk. 2.50.










Publications de E. J. BRILL k Leide.


Abdo-'l-Wshid al-Marr6koshf, The
history of the Almohades, preceded by a
sketch of the history of Spain, from the
times of the conquest till the reign of Ydsof
Ibn-Teshufin, and of the history of the
Almoravides. Edited from a Ms. in the
University library of Leyden, by R. IozY.
2d Ed., revis. a. corr. 1881. 80,. f4.75
Abou All al-Hosain b. Abdallah
b. Sinfo on Avicenne, Trait6s mys-
tiques. Texte arabe public d'aprls les Ma-
nuscrits du British Musdum, de Leyde et
de ]a Bibliothbque Bodleyenne avec l'ex-
plication en francais par A. F. MEHREN.
ler Fascicule. L'Alldgorie mystique Hay ben
Yaqzan. 1889. fol. ........ fl.75.
Abu Bekr ibno-'l-Anb-tri, Kitabo-
'l-ad h ad sive liber de vocabulis arabicis
quae plures habent significationes inter se
oppositas. Edid. atque indicibus instr.
M. Tir. IIouTSMA. 1881. 8. ... f4.20.
Abu Ishdft As-ShirAzt, At -Tan-
bIh (Jus Shafiiticum) quem c odice Lei-
densi et codice Oxoniensi edidit A. W.
T. JUYNBOLL. 1S79. 8 ..... f5.25.
Ad-Dhahabi (SCHAMSO 'D-DIN ABU AUn-
ALLAH MOHAMMED liB AIMEDD, Al-
Mosclhtabih. E codd. Mss. edit. a P. DE
JONG. 1881. 8. ........... f9.-.
AlfLriibi's philosophische Abliandlungen
aus Londoner, Leidener und lerliner Hand-
schriften herausgeg. von FR. I)ITERICI.
(Arab. Text.) 1890. 8 ...... .f3.-.
Al-Beladsori (ImAn AHiiMED IN JAHIJA
IBN DJABun), Liber expuagnationis regionuim
queen e cod. Leid. et cod. musei Brit. ed.
M. J. DE GOEJE. 1866. 4. .... fl1.-.
Al-Hamdani's Geographic der Arabi-
schen Halbinsel nach den -Iandschriften von
Berlin, Constantinopel, London, Paris und
Strassburg zum ersten Male herausg. von D.
H. MiiLLER. 1884-91. 2 Bde. f14.--.
Al-Maihhari, Analectes sur 1'hist. et la
littdrature des Arabes d'Espagne, publids par
R. DozY, G. DUGAT, L.KREHL etW. WRIGHT.
1855-61. 2 vol. 40 . . f56.5.
Anecdota Syriaca. Collegit edidit ex-
plicuit J. P. N. LAND. 1862-75. 4 vol.
40. . . . . . . . f 3 .50.
Annales auctore ABU DJAFAR MOHAMMED
IBN DJARIR at-Tabari, quos ediderunt
J. BARTH, TH. NOLDEKE, P. DE JONG,
E. PRYM, H. THORBECKE, S. FRkaNKEL,
I. GUIDI, D. H1. MOLLER, M. TI. HOUTSMA,
STANISLAS GUARD, V. ROSEN et M. J.
DE GOEJE. Ser. I: Tom. I-V, 1; Ser. II:
Tom. I--Il; Ser. III: Tom. I-IV.-
1879-92. .......... f110.55.


Bfasim le forgeron et HX rfun er-
Rachid. Texte Arabe en dialeccte d'Egypte
et de Syrie. Public d'apris les Mss. de
Leide, de Gotha et du Caire ctaccompagne
d'une traduction et d'uu glossaire par le
comte CARLO DE LANDBERG. I: Texte,
traduetion et proverbs. 1888. 81. f3.-
Bibliotheca geographorum arabicorum
ed. M. J. DE GOEJE. C(am indict glossar.
et add. 1870-92. 7 vol. 8.. f 75.-.
Briinnow, R. E., Die Charidschiten
hunter den ersten Omayyaden. Ein Beitrag
zur Geschichte des erstenislamischen Jahr-
hunderts. 1884. 80 . . . f 1.75.
Catalogue de Manuscrits arabes provenant
d'une bibliotheque priv e a El-Medina et
appartenant h la nmaison E. J. Brill. R6-
digd par CARLoLANDBERG. 1883. o. f3.-.
Catalogus codicum Arabicorum
Bibliothecae Academiae Lug-
duno-Blatavae. Editio 2a. Auctt. M.
J. DE GOEJE et M. TI. HoUTSrei. Vol. 1.
1888. 8. ..... .. .... 9.-.
Diwan Poltae A)bu-'1-Walid Mos-
lim ibno-'l-Walid al-An9dri cog-
nouine Cario-'l-gha-aw ni, quem e
codice Leidensi edidit, multis additamentis
auxit et glossario instruxit Mh. J. DE
GoEJE. 1875. 40 . . . . f11.70.
Dozy, R. P. A., Notices sur quelques
miauuscrits arabes, avec un fac-simild de
1'6criture d'Al-Makrizi. 1851. 80. f3.50.
-- Reeherches sur l'histoire et la littdra-
ture de 1'Espagne pendant le moyen-age;
31ice dditiou augmentec et entibrement re-
fondue. 1881. 2 vol. . . f 9.50
-- Le Cid d'apris de nouveau documents.
Nouvelle edition. 1860. 80. . f3.50.
-- Lettre k Mr. Fleischer contenant des
remarques critiques et explicatives sur le
texte d'AI-Makkari. 1871. 80... f2.75.
-- Le calendrier de Cordone de l'annie
961. Texte Arabe et ancienne traduction
Latino. 1873. 8.......... f2.-.
--- Die Israeliten za Mekka von Davids
Zeit his in's fiinfte Jahrhundert unsrer
Zeitreehnung. Aus dem Hlliind. iibersetzt.
1864. 8 . . . . . . fl.75
-- Essai sur l'histoire de 'lIslamisme.
Trad. dn Hollandais par V. CHAUVIN. 1879.
8. ............... f3.75.
-- Supplement anx dictionnaires Ara-
bes. 1880. 2 vol. relies. 40. . f75.-.
-- Corrections sur les texts du Bayuno
'l-Mogrib d'lbn-Adltiri (de Maroc), des
fragments de ]a chronique d'Arib (de
Cordoue), et du Hollato 's-siyara d'Ibno-'l-
Abbdr. 1883. 8.......... fl.80.










Publications de E. J. BRILL h Leide. Suite.


Dozy, R. et Dr. W. H. Engel-
mann, Glossaire des mots espagnols et
portugais ddrivCs de l'Arabe. 2e edition revue
et tris-considdrablement augmentde. 1869.
80 .. . . ......... f5.75.
Edrisi, Description de l'Afrique et de
1'Espagne. Texte arabe public pour la pre-
miere fois d'apres les Mss. de Paris et d'Ox-
ford, avec une traduction, des notes et
un glossaire, par R. Dozy et M. J. DE
GOEJE. 1866. roy. 8 .. .f 8.75.
Firdusii liber regum qui inscribitur Schah-
name editionem Parisiensem diligenter re-
cognitam et emendatam lectionibus variis et
additamentis editionis Calcuttensis auxit no-
tis maxirnam partem critics illustravit J. A.
VULLERS.I--111.1877-84.gr.8.f3.5.5
Fraenkel, S., Die Aramiischen Friemdwsr-
ter im Arabischen. 1886. gr. 8.. .f 5.25.
Goeje, M. J. de, Das alte Bett des Oxus
Ami-Darja. M. e. K. 1875. 80. f 1.50.
-- Mgmoires d'Histoire et de Giographie
Orientales. 2e ed. 1886. No. 1. Meimoire sur
les Carmathes du Bahrain et lea Fatimides.
80 . . . . . . . ... f 3.- .
Ibn 'Abd el-Kerim 'Ali RizA vou Siraz,
Das TArikbh-i Zendije. Ileransg. von
ERNST BEER. 1888. 8. ... . fl.75.
Ibn-Adhcir (de Maroc), Histoire de
l'Afrique et de l'Espagne, intitulde Al-
Bayino 'l-Mogrib, et Fragments de la
chronique d'Arib (de Cordone); le tout
public pour la premiere fois, prec6dg d'une
introduction et accompagn6 de notes et
d'un glossaire, par R. P. A. DozY. 1848-
1851. 2 vol. 8. . . . . f 16.-.
Ibn al Anbari's AsrAr al CArabiya,
herausgegeben von Dr. C. F. SEYBOLD.
1886. gr. 8'. ..... . . .. f 3.-.
Ibn-Badroun, Commentaire historique
sur ;e poemc d'lbn-Abdoun, public pour
is premiere fois, prcdd6 d'une introduc-
tion et accompagn6 de notes, d'un glos-
saire et d'un index des noms propres, par
R. P. A. DozY. 1846. 8 .. f 10.-.
Ibno 'l-Kaisardni (Anu'L-FADHIL Mo-
HAMMED IBN TaHIR AL-MAKDrsi), Homo-
nyma inter nomina relative, quake cam
appendice Abu Musae Ispahanensis e codd.
Leyd. et Berolin. edidit P. BE JONG. 1865.
80. . . . . ..... . . f .50.
Ibn-Wa-dhih qui dicitur Al-Ja'qubi, his-
toriae. Edid. indicesque adjecit M. TH.
HorrseA. Vol. I: Historia ante-islamica.
Vol.1I: Historiaislamica. 1883. 80., 15.-.
'Imad ed-din el-khtib, 'i1J -'iiA
.%M i tl IxJl J (Conquote de la
Syrie et de la Palestine) par Salah ed-din,
public par le come CARLo DE LANDBERG.
Vol. I. Texte arabe. 1888. 80.. f 9.-.


1Kitab al-Masalik wa'l-MamAlik
(Liber viarum et regnorum) auctore Abu'l-
KAsim Obaidallah ibn Abdallah ibn Khor-
dAdhbeh et excerpt e Kitab al-Kharadj
auctore Kodrma ibn Dja'far quake cum ver-
sione gallica edidit, indicibus et glossario
instruxit M. J. DE GOEJE. 1889. 8. f'9.50.
Landberg, C., Proverbes et dictons du
people Arabe. Materianx pour servir a la
connaissance des dialectes vulgaires, recueil-
lis, traduits et annotds. Vol. I: Province
de Syrie. Sect. de Saydh. 1883.8. f3 .-.
Lexicon geographicum, cui titulus est



.E3, e duobus codd. ross. arabice ed.
T. G. J. JUYNBOLL. 1850-64. 6 vol.
8.. ............... f 1.-.
Livre desMerveilles de l'Inde, par le
capitaine Bozorg fils de ChahriyAr de Ram-
hormoz. Texte arabe public d'apris le Ms.
de M. SCHEFER, collationnd sur le Ms. de
Constantinople par P. A. v D. LITH. Trad.
fran9. par L. MARcEL I)DEVI. Av. 4 pi.
color, tires du Ms. arabe de Harri de
la collection de M. SCHEFER. 1883-1886.
gr. in-4. ..... ........ f 12.-.
N'l1deke, Th., Geschichte der Perser
und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden. Aus
der arabischen Chronik des Tabari iibers.
u. mit ausfiihrl. Erliuter, u. Erginz. ver-
sehn. 1879. 8........... f .-
Primeurs .Arabes prisenties par le
comte DE LANDBERG. Fasc. 1.1886.80. fl.2O.
Fasc. II. 1889. 80. . . . . f 3.-.
Recueil de Textes relatifs A l'histoire
des Seldjoucides. Publ. par M. TH. HlOUTSA.
Vol. I: Histoire des Seldjoucides du Kerman,
par Muhammed Ibrahim. (Texte person.)
1886. . . . . .. .... f3.50.
Vol. II: Histoire des Seldjoucides de l'Iraq,
par al-BondAri d'apres Imid ad-din al-KA-
Stib al.lsfahint. (Texte arabe.) 1889. f5.25.
Sacadja b. Jfsuf al-Fajjfimi, Kitib al-
Amhnht wa'l-1ctiqadat. Herausgege-
ben von S. LANDAUER. 1880. 8. f 4.75.
Scriptorum arabum loci de Abbadi-
dis nune primum editi a R. P. A. DozY.
1846-1863. 3 vol. 40 ... .. f 14.-.
Spitta-Bey, G., Contes arabes moder-
nes recueillis et traduits. 1883. 80. f3.75.
Veth, P. J., Liber as-Sojutii de nomini-

bus relatives, inscriptas ._jLJUI _.J, ara-
bice editus, cum annotation critical et sup-
plementis. 3 tom. in 2 vol. 1840-1851.
40... ........... . .-.
Wright, W., Opuscula arabica, collected
and edited from Mss. in the University li-
brary of Leyden. 1859. 80 .... f2.-.


Imprimerie do E. J. BRILL h Leide.




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