I University of Florida Libraries
A YEAR BOOK OF THE CHURCH
AND SOCIAL SERVICE IN
THE UNITED STATES
The Church and Social Service
In the United States
THE COMMISSION ON THE CHURCH AND SOCIAL
SERVICE OF THE FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE
CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN AMERICA
HARRY F. WARD
ASSOCIATE SECRETARY OF THE FEDERALq COB6NIIL COMMISSION AND
SECRETARY OF THE METHODIST FEDERATION FOR SOCIAL SERVICE
METHODIST BOOK CONCERN
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
3 1262 07064 8893
Copyright, 19x6, by
THE COMMISSION ON THE CHURCH AND SOCIAL SERVICE
THIS Year Book is an attempt to bring together, from
various sources, information which may be needed by reli-
gious and social workers concerning the social service move-
ment in the churches.
Those who can furnish corrections and additional informa-
tion are earnestly requested to send them to the office of the
Federal Council Commission on the Church and Social
Service, 105 East Twenty-second Street, New York City.
HARRY F. WARD
January I, 1916.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DIRECTORY OF CHURCH SOCIAL SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS ..... 9
CHAPTER I. THE SOCIAL SERVICE MOVEMENT IN THE
CHURCHES. ................................ 13
A brief summary of the origins and development of the
Social Service Movement in the Churches:-In the religion
of Israel-In the life and teachings of Jesus-In prim-
itive Christianity-In the Reformation-In National Move-
ments-In the Evangelical Revival-In the Modern
Missionary Awakening-In the Present Federation of the
CHAPTER II. CHURCH SOCIAL SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS ...... 24
An account of the Church Social Service Agencies,
their work and plans.:-With Secretaries--Federal Council
-Presbyterian-Protestant Episcopal. Other Denomina-
tions in the Federal Council with and without organized
agencies-Social Service through Interchurch Organizations:
-Local Forms of Federation-The Country Church Move-
ment-Missionary Education Movement-Young Men's
Christian Association-Young Women's Christian Asso-
ciation-International Peace and Arbitration-Home and
Foreign Missions-Other Religious Bodies-Movements in
CHAPTER III. PUBLICATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY ........... 101
Lists of the printed matter of the various church social
service agencies:-Federal Council Commissions-Baptist-
estant Episcopal-Other Church Bodies-Missionary Edu-
cation Movement-Young Men's Christian Association-
Young Women's Christian Association-Recent Reading and
8 Table of Contents
Study Books-Significant Books of I9I4-I5.--General-
Social Christianity-The Socialized Church-Community
Human Interest-Adapted for Study Classes.
CHAPTER IV. METHODS AND PROGRAMS .................... 131
A summary of the Methods and Programs suggested
by the various agencies for churches and groups of
churches:-Organizing the Local Church for Community
Ministry-Community Study-Educational Activities--Sug-
gested Programs:--in the city-in the town-in the village-
in the country-Selecting a Minimum-Cooperative Effort
-Denominational District Bodies.
CHAPTER V. COOPERATING AGENCIES. ...................... 184
A directory of those general organizations most liable
to be needed by church workers for information and as-
sistance in the following fields :-Recreation and Social
Centers-Child Welfare-Boys' and Girls' Work-Organ-
ized Charity-Health-Social Hygiene-Immigration-The
Prisoner-Colored Race-Labor Legislation and Labor-
Women in Industry-Housing-Civics-Surveys and Ex-
hibits-Other general bodies.
CHAPTER VI. THE VOICE OF THE CHURCHES............... 197
The utterances of various church bodies on the following
Topics:-The Social Creed-Industrial and Social Condi-
tions-Social Justice-Civic Action-Capital-Labor-In-
dustrial Democracy-Class Struggle-Social Movements-
Wealth and Property-Unearned Increment in Land Values
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF THE ASSOCIATED SECRETARIES. . 246
DIRECTORY OF CHURCH SOCIAL SERVICE ORGAN-
I. CONNECTED WITH THE FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES
OF CHRIST IN AMERICA
A. With Executive or Field Secretaries
Commission on the Church and Social Service representing
constituent bodies of the FEDERAL COUNCIL; Rev.
Charles S. Macfarland, Secretary, 612 United Charities Build-
ing, 105 East 22nd Street, New York City.
BaPTrsT-Department of Social Service and Brotherhood,
Rev. Samuel Z. Batten, Secretary, 1701 Chestnut Street,
CONGREGATIONAL-Social Service Commission, Rev. Henry
A. Atkinson, Executive Secretary, 14 Beacon Street, Boston,
METHODIST EPIScoPAL-Federation for Social Service, Rev.
Harry F. Ward, Secretary, 72 Mount Vernon Street, Boston,
PRESBYTERIAN-Department of Social Service and Immigra-
tion, J. E. McAfee, Secretary, 156 Fifth Avenue, New York
City; Country Church Work, Warren H. Wilson, Secretary,
156 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL-Joint Commission on Social Service,
Rev. Frank M. Crouch, Executive Secretary, The Church
Missions House, 281 Fourth Avenue, New York City.
B. Organized Agencies without Field Secretaries
CHRISTIAN-Commission on Social Service of the American
Christian Convention, Rev. O. W. Powers, Secretary, Dayton,
DISCIPLES OF CHRIST-Commission on Social Service and
the Country Church, Prof. Alva W. Taylor, Secretary, Bible
College, Columbia, Mo.
FRIENDS-Social Service Commission, Prof. Rufus M. Jones,
Chairman, Haverford College, Haverford, Pa.
10 Directory of Social Service Organizations
GERMAN EVANGELICAL-General Synod, Commission on Social
Service, Rev. J. Stilli, 633 East Market Street, Louisville, Ky.
LUTHERAN, EVANGELICAL-General Synod, The Inner Mission,
F. H. Knubel, President, 48 Hamilton Terrace, New York
METHODIST EPISCOPAL, SOUTH-Rev. John M. Moore, 8Io
Broadway, Nashville, Tenn.
REFORMED, IN U. S.-Rev. Charles E. Schaeffer, I5th and
Race Streets, Philadelphia, Pa.
UNrrED PRESBYTERIAN-Committee on Social and Industrial
Conditions. Rev. H. H. Marlin, Secretary, 5151 Penn Avenue,
C. No Organized Agencies, but for information the following
Correspondents may be addressed
BAPTIST, FREE-Prof. Alfred W. Anthony, Lewiston, Maine.
BAPTIST, NATIONAL CONVENTION-Prof. R. B. Hudson, Selma,
BAPTIST, SEVENTH DAY-Pres. Boothe C. Davis, Alfred
University, Alfred, N. Y.
EVANGELICAL ASSOCIATION-Bishop S. C. Breyfogel, 836
Center Avenue, Reading, Pa.
METHODIST EPISCOPAL, AFRICAN-Bishop Cornelius Shaffer,
3742 Forest Avenue, Chicago, Ill.
METHODIST EPISCOPAL ZION, AFRICAN-Bishop Alexander
Walters, 208 W. 134th Street, New York City.
METHODIST EPISCOPAL, IN AMERICA, COLORED-Rev. N. C.
Cleaves, Columbia, S. C.
METHODIST PROTESTANT-Pres. H. L. Elderdice, Westminster
Theological Seminary, Westminster, Md.
MENNONITE-Rev. S. K. Mosiman, Bluffton, Ohio.
MORAVIAN-Rev. Edward S. Wolle, 601 N. I8th Street,
PRESBYTERIAN, IN THE U. S. (SOUTHERN)-Prof. James R.
Howerton, Lexington, Va.
REFORMED, IN AMERICA-William T. Demarest, 25 East 22nd
Street, New York City.
REFORMED EPISCOPAL-Rt. Rev. Samuel Fallows, 2344 Monroe
Street, Chicago, Ill.
Directory of Social Service Organizations 11
REFORMED PREsBYTERIAN-General Synod, Rev. J. L. Chest-
nut, Cedarville, Ohio.
UNITED BRETHREN-Rev. C. Whitney, United Brethren
Building, Dayton, Ohio.
UNITED EVANGELICAL-Rev. J. W. Messinger, Williamsport,
WELSH PRESBYTERIAN-Rev. Robert E. Roberts, 223 Twin
Street, Rome, N. Y.
II. NOT CONNECTED WITH THE FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE
CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN AMERICA
UNITARIAN-Department of Social Service and Public Ser-
vice, American Unitarian Association, Rev. Elmer S. Forbes,
Secretary, 25 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass.
UNIVERSALIsT-Social Service Committee of the Universalist
Church, Rev. Clarence R. Skinner, Secretary, Universalist
Publishing House, 359 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass.
ROMAN CATHOLIC-Social Service Commission of the Ameri-
can Federation of Catholic Societies, Rev. Peter E. Dietz,
Secretary, American Academy of Christian Democracy, Hot
Springs, N. C.
JEWISH-Central Conference of American Rabbis, Rabbi
Solomon Foster, Committee on Synagogue and Industrial
Relations, 90 Treacy Avenue, Newark, N. J.
III. SOCIAL SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS IN CANADA AND ENGLAND
SOCIAL SERVICE COUNCIL OF CANADA-Joint Secretaries, Rev.
J. G. Shearer, Confederation Life Building, Toronto, Ont.,
and Rev. T. Albert Moore, Wesley Buildings, Toronto, Ont.
BAPTIsT-Department of Social Service, no General Secre-
tary at present time.
CHURCH OF ENGLAND-Committee on Moral and Social Re-
form, Secretary, Rev. R. L. Bridges, St. James Parish House,
METHODIST-Department of Social Service and Evangelism,
General Secretary, Rev. T. Albert Moore, Wesley Buildings,
12 Directory of Social Service Organizations
PRESBYTERIAN-Board of Social Service and Evangelism,
SGeneral Secretary, Rev. J. G. Shearer, Confederation Life
Building, Toronto, Ont.
INTERDENOMINATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL SERVICE
UNIONS-Miss Lucy Gardner, 92 St. George's Square, London,
BAPTIST UNION-Social Service Section, Edward E. Hayward,
Hon. Secretary, Baptist Church House, Southampton Row,
London, W. C.
CATHOLIC SOCIAL GUILD-Mrs. V. M. Crawford, Secretary,
Io5 Marylebone Road, London.
CHRISTIAN SOCIAL UNIoN-L. V. Lester-Garland, 26 Nor-
folk Square, London, W.
CONGREGATIONAL UNION SOCIAL SERVICE COMMITTEE-Rev.
William Reason, Secretary, Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street,
London, E. C.
FRIENDS SOCIAL UNION-J. St. G. Heath, Secretary, Wood-
brooke Settlement, Selly Oak, Birmingham.
NATIONAL CONFERENCE UNION FOR SOCIAL SERVICE-Rev. H.
H. Johnson, The Orchardcroft Road, Evesham, England.
PRESBYTERIAN SOCIAL SERVICE UNION-Rev. J. A. Wilson,
Secretary, 21 Rowlandson Terrace, Sunderland.
PRIMITIVE METHODIST UNION FOR SOCIAL SERVICE-Rev. E. B.
Storr, Secretary, 49 Oakwood Road, Blackhill, Co. Durham.
UNITED METHODIST CHURCH SOCIAL SERVICE UNION-Rev.
W. G. Peck, Secretary, 18 Wellington Street, Blackburn.
WESLEYAN METHODIST UNION FOR SOCIAL SERVICE-Rev.
Henry Carter, Central Buildings, Westminster, S. W., and
W. H. Armstrong.
A Year Book of the Church and
Social Service in the United States
THE SOCIAL SERVICE MOVEMENT
IN THE CHURCHES1
THE roots of the present social service movement in the
churches run down into the religion of Israel. The
influence of the Old Testament has been one of the great
permanent forces making for democracy and social justice.
SOCIAL INFLUENCE OF THE PROPHETS
The prophets are the beating heart of the Old Testament.
Modern study has shown that they were the real makers
of the unique religious life of Israel. The constructive
sociology of the Bible is to be found largely in the Hebrew
Law, which aimed to prevent the enslavement of the
Hebrew people, both legal and economic, by securing
economic independence for the family. Its underlying con-
ception is that of the nation as one great family. Its
fundamental idea is Brotherhood. The prophets were the
moving spirits in the working of this idea into the national
life. They presented religion in ethical and therefore in
social terms. They were almost indifferent to its cere-
'The material for this chapter has been largely taken, by
permission, from the two books of Prof. Walter Rauschen-
busch: Christianity and the Social Crisis, and Christianizing the
Social Order (Macmillan). Quotation marks, without reference,
indicate matter taken unchanged from these sources.
14 Year Book of Church and Social Service
monial side, but turned with passionate enthusiasm to moral
righteousness as its true domain. Their religious concern
was not restricted to private religion and morality, but
dealt prominently with the social and political life of their
nation. Their sympathy was wholly and passionately with
the poor and the oppressed, of whom they were the out-
spoken champions. They proclaimed a primitive democracy
based upon an approximately equal distribution of the
land. They cherished a large ideal of the ultimate per-
fection of their people. They looked for the Day of
Jehovah; it was to them what the social revolution is to
modern radicals, but it was expressed in terms of moral
justice rather than in economic prosperity. It was to come
by divine help and not by mere social evolution. They
rose above the kindred prophets of other nations through
their moral interest in national affairs, and their spiritual
progress and education were intimately connected with their
open-eyed comprehension of the larger questions of con-
temporary history. When the nation lost its political self-
government and training, apocalyptic dreams and bookish
calculations, together with a narrow religious individualism,
took the place of the sane political program and the wise
historical insight of the great prophets, and Judaism became
a decadent system.
SOCIAL MESSAGE OF JESUS
The social program and the social hopes of the prophets
were fulfilled in Jesus. His ministry was largely con-
cerned with human needs. His central teaching of the
kingdom of God is a collective conception involving the
whole social life of man. He desires to replace a society
resting on coercion, exploitation, and inequality with one
resting on love, service, and equality. Like the prophets,
he is indifferent to ritual and sternly insistent on conduct
as a test of religion. It is not simply that his social teach-
ings are significant, but that his whole teaching, like his life,
is social. Behind the social hope of the prophets he puts
the power of the categorical imperative. He instils it
with the dynamic of the law of brotherhood as the revela-
Social Service Movement in Churches 15
tion and expression of the divine. His was a revolutionary
consciousness. His attack on the leaders and authorities of
his day was of revolutionary boldness and thoroughness.
"Jesus was not a mere social reformer. Religion was
the heart of his life, and all that he said on social rela-
tions was said from the religious point of view. He has
been called the first socialist. He was more; he was the
first real man, the inaugurator of a new humanity. But
as such he bore within him the germs of a new social
and political order. He was too great to be the Savior
of a fractional part of human life. His redemption extends
to all human needs and powers and relations. Theologians
have felt no hesitation in founding a system of speculative
thought on the teachings of Jesus, and yet Jesus was never
an inhabitant of the realm of speculative thought. He
has been made the founder and organizer of a great ecclesi-
astical machine, which derives authority for its offices and
institutions from him, and yet 'hardly any problem of exegesis
is more difficult than to discover in the Gospels an adminis-
trative or organizing or ecclesiastical Christ.' "
"There is at least as much justification in invoking his
name to-day as the champion of a great movement for a
more righteous social life. He was neither a theologian,
nor an ecclesiastic, nor a socialist. But if we were forced
to classify him either with the great theologians who
elaborated the fine distinctions of scholasticism; or with
the mighty popes and princes of the church who built up
their power in his name; or with the men who are giving
their heart and life to the propaganda of a new social
system-where should we place him ?"
THE EARLY CHURCH
Primitive Christianity, while under the fresh impulse of
Jesus, was filled with social forces. In its later history
the reconstructive capacities of Christianity were paralyzed
by alien influences which penetrated from without and
clogged the revolutionary moral power inherent in it.
'Peabody, Jesus Christ and the Social Question.
16 Year Book of Church and Social Service
Other-worldliness, asceticism, and monastic enthusiasm,
sacramental and ritual superstitions drifted in from con-
temporary heathen society. From Greek intellectualism came
a dogmatic bent. The union of church and state was a
reversion to pagan religion. The curse of despotism, which
lay upon all humanity, affected the church, resulting in the
lack of political rights and interests among the mass of
Christian people and the disappearance of the original
democracy of the church organization.
The church still concerned itself with some works of
charity, but it did not find a wider social mission until the
"The religious reform movements of the Middle Ages
were very closely connected with wider social causes: the
changes created by the Crusades, the consequent rise of
commerce, the growth of luxury, the transition to a money
basis in industry, the rise of the cities, and the develop-
ment of a new city proletariat. The movements of Francis
of Assisi, of the Waldenses, of the Humiliati and Bons
Hommes, were all inspired by democratic and communistic
ideals. Wyclif was by far the greatest doctrinal reformer
before the Reformation; but his eyes, too, were first opened
to the doctrinal errors of the Roman Church by joining
in a great national and patriotic movement against the
alien domination and extortion of the church. The Bohemian
revolt, made famous by the name of John Huss, was quite
as much political and social as religious. Savonarola was
a great democrat as well as a religious prophet."
"The prime cause of the Reformation was the smolder-
ing anger of the Northern nations at their financial ex-
ploitation by the Italian papacy. Luther's great manifesto
'to the Christian Nobility of Germany' was a tremendous
social, educational, and ecclesiastical reform program. He
secured the support of the princes and nobles because he
said with a thundering voice what all felt about the extor-
tion and oppression of the ecclesiastical machine. At the
Diet of Worms in 1521 nearly all the German states were
Social Service Movement in Churches 17
friendly to him, but they cared nothing for his doctrinal
differences, and would have been best pleased if he had
"The glorious years of the Lutheran Reformation were
from 1517 to 1525, when the whole nation was in commo-
tion and a great revolutionary tidal wave seemed to be
sweeping every class and every higher interest one step
nearer to its ideal of life. When it became 'religious' in
the narrower sense, it grew scholastic and spiny, quarrel-
some, and impotent to awaken high enthusiasm and noble
life. The scepter of leadership passed from Lutheranism
to Calvinism and to regenerated Catholicism. Calvinism
had a far wider sphere of influence and a far deeper effect
on the life of the nations than Lutheranism, because it
continued to fuse religious faith with the demand for political
liberty and social justice."
Out of the Reformation came other significant social
movements. The Peasants' Rising in 1525 in Germany
embodied the social ideals of the common people; the
Anabaptist movement, which began simultaneously, expressed
their religious aspirations; both were essentially noble and
just; both have been most amply justified by the later course
of history; yet both were quenched in streams of blood
and have had to wait till our own day for their resurrection
in new form.
The next social expression of religion was in certain
national movements. The greatest forward movements in
religion have always taken place under the call of the
great historical situations.
"Nations rise to the climax of their life and humanity
unfolds its enormous dormant capacities only when religion
enters into a living and inspiring relation to all the rest
of human life. Under an impulse which was both religious
and national the little Netherlands, hardly three million
people on marshy soil, resisted the greatest and richest
and most relentless power of Europe for eighty years,
leaped to the van of European sea power, and became the
18 Year Book of Church and Social Service
leader in the great political coalitions of Europe. Under
the same unity of religious and political enthusiasm Sweden,
with only a million men on rocky and snowbound soil, came
to the rescue of Protestantism under Gustavus Adolphus and
dictated terms to Europe. England would have been glad
to help, but was held down by the selfish dynastic policy of
James I. Thus in past history religion has demonstrated its
capacity to evoke the latent powers of humanity, and has
in turn gained a fresh hold on men and rejuvenated its
own life by supporting the high patriotic and social ambitions
of an age."
THE EVANGELICAL REVIVAL
The next striking manifestation of the social end of
Christianity was in connection with the Evangelical Revival
in the eighteenth century. The later English historians
all bear witness to the fact that no other force has so
deeply affected the modern developments of English life.
In that revival Methodism was born, and "it became a
social factor of first significance." It changed directly
and indirectly the whole face of English communal life,
and lifted into new light the mighty problems with which
England had soon to occupy herself. The Methodist class-
meeting gave the personal touch to the charity of England
and together with the village chapel prepared the Eng-
lish working men for political and social democracy.
Probably no four or five factors together have had the
same social significance "for the future of England's empire
as the Methodist phase of the Evangelical Revival." 1
Along with that must be put the social significance of
the rise of the Evangelical Party in the Church of Eng-
land. These two together originated the movement against
slavery, the movement for prison reform, and reform in
poor relief. They threw their forces into the struggle for
the Reform Bill and the repeal of the Corn Laws, which
gave democracy a living chance, and then, even though they
1Social Meaning of Modern Religious Movements in England,
T. C. Hall.
Social Service Movement in Churches 19
had to turn against their allies, they led the fight against
factory slavery and secured the first labor legislation.
MODERN SOCIAL PROPHETS
The next step in the social expression of religion was
the work of that group, some of whom called themselves
Christian Socialists, who proved once again that the wider
social outlook is almost invariably the condition for the
prophetic gift. The men of our own age who have had
something of the prophet's vision and power of language
and inspiration have nearly all had the social enthusiasm
and faith in the reconstructive power of Christianity.
Maurice and Kingsley, Ruskin and Carlyle, Lamennais and
Mazzini and Tolstoy were in their measure true seers of
God, and they made others see.
THE MISSIONARY AWAKENING
The direct spiritual successors of the English group of
modern social prophets were the men who developed the
settlement movement and the Forward Movement in modern
city church work, such men as Toynbee and Barnett on
one hand and Hugh Price Hughes and John Clifford on the
other. It was out of this settlement and institutional church
movement on both sides of the Atlantic, a movement to
apply the gospel to all the needs and activities of life, that
the present social service movement was organized. It is
a product of the modern missionary awakening, of that
spirit which in the last century sent one group across the
seas to the darkness of heathen lands and another group
down into the darkness of Christian cities. Both groups
found themselves compelled to apply the gospel to social
The social work of foreign missions has been not the
least of its triumphs. In our own cities those who were
laboring to apply the gospel to the whole of life found
that it must reach out and transform the surroundings
as well as the people; that if it was to be effective in
individual life it must also reach the social, industrial,
20 Year Book of Church and Social Service
and political conditions which were so largely affecting life.
Thus the Salvation Army developed its manifold social
ministry, and in all denominations the men who were de-
veloping a social ministry in their churches gradually came
together behind a common program and common methods,
forming the present denominational organizations.
In the United States the pioneers of Christian social
thought to whom a tribute of honor is due are Washington
Gladden, Josiah Strong, and Richard T. Ely. "These men
had matured their thought when the rest of us were young
men, and they had a spirit in them which kindled and
compelled us." The honors of leadership in various phases
of organized effort are fairly distributed among different
denominations, as shown in the following statements from
The Protestant Episcopal Church, for instance, failed to take
any leading part in the older social conflicts with alcoholism
and with slavery, but in the present struggle against industrial
extortion it has furnished far more than its share of workers
and leaders. The Church Association for the Advancement of
the Interests of Labor (C. A. I. L.) organized by a few
ministers in 1887, was probably the first organization of social
Christianity in this country.
The Brotherhood of the Kingdom, formed in 1893, was one
of the earliest organizations of social Christianity in the country.
Its early members were all Baptists, and it might have become
the organization of Baptist radicals, but it chose the broadest
interdenominational bases on principle, and the denomination
thus gets no credit for an enterprise born of its best spirit.
By the establishment of its Department of Church and Labor
in 1903 the Presbyterian Church has won a preeminence which
all may envy, but which none will grudge, for its work has
been nobly free from denominational selfishness and has bene-
The Congregationalists, Baptists, Disciples, Unitarians, and
Universalists, with their sib and kin, represent the principles
of pure democracy in church life. That is their spiritual
charisma and their qualification for leadership in the democrati-
zation of the social order. Their loose-jointed organization
makes united action more difficult for them than for other
churches, but they have been prolific of men whose freedom
Social Service Movement in Churches 21
of thought and resolute love of justice showed that they had
been suckled with the milk of independency.
The honor of making the first ringing declaration in a
national convention belongs to the Methodist Episcopal Church.
Every General Conference of the Church since 1892 had been
memorialized by some minor body pleading for action. In
Igo8 no less than thirteen Annual Conferences besides various
preachers' meetings presented memorials. The bishops in a
cautious way devoted a large part of their episcopal address
to the subject. The Committee on the State of the Church
presented a brave and outspoken report, culminating in a kind
of Bill of Rights for labor, and ending in a splendid summons
to all the militant forces of this great Church to do their part
in the pressing duty of the hour.
Immediately after the Methodist General Conference, in
December, 90o8, the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ
in America was organized at Philadelphia, representing and
uniting thirty-three Protestant denominations. This organiza-
tion marked an epoch in the history of American Protestantism.
But no other session created so profound an interest as that
devoted to "Social Service." The report of the Commission
was heard with tense feeling, which broke into prolonged and
enthusiastic applause at the close. The Bill of Rights adopted
by the Methodist Conference was presented with some changes
and adopted without the slightest disposition to halt it at any
Nearly every great denominational convention since that time
has felt the obligation to make a serious pronouncement on the
social questions. In several cases the social creed of the Federal
Council was adopted; for instance, by the Congregational Council
in 191o. When any change was made, it was in the direction
of increased emphasis.
One of the first results of the formation of the Federal
Council of the Churches of Christ in America was the
organization of a Commission on the Church and Social
Service. This has coordinated the work of the various
denominations, and in this field there have been taken the
most significant steps toward realizing the fundamental
unity of Christendom. It is significant that in 1906, "when
the Congregationalists, the United Brethren, and the Meth-
odist Protestant bodies, together comprising over a million
22 Year Book of Church and Social Service
members, were on the point of entering into organic union,
a creed was adopted in which one of the five articles was
wholly devoted to the social duty of the Church: 'We believe
that according to Christ's law men of the Christian faith
exist for the service of man, not only in holding forth the
word of life, but in the support of works and institutions of
pity and charity, in the maintenance of human freedom, in
the deliverance of all those that are oppressed, in the enforce-
ment of civic justice, and in the rebuke of all unrighteous-
ness.' In the Men and Religion Movement of 190o, nothing
was more remarkable than the response of the men of the
churches to the social service message and program.
In the last two years the social movement in the churches
has both deepened and widened its influence. It is express-
ing itself in the Roman Catholic Church and in the Jewish
communion, as well as in the Protestant denominations. It
is deeply entrenched in the educational work of the young
people's societies, the Sunday-school, and the theological
During this period the denominational agencies have per-
fected their plans. Their general methods are: first, to
produce and circulate printed matter; second, to conduct
information bureaus, giving suggestions as to reading and
material available for sermons and speeches and workable
plans for local community service by churches; third, to carry
on a large speaking propaganda which is country-wide in its
influence, has gained large publicity, and has extended and
increased the influence of the church in many quarters.
The interdenominational alliance of social service agencies
has also been greatly strengthened in the past two years.
The Secretarial Council1 holds regular meetings, with the
result that the literature of one denomination is available
for all, a common body of printed matter has developed,
methods are standardized, and a joint educational scheme is
promoted. Joint aid has been rendered to local communities,
and the united force of the churches has been thrown behind
legislative issues in several states. The period has been one
'See pages 24-26.
Social Service Movement in Churches 23
of seed-sowing and the preparation of educational material.
Large concrete results are to be expected from now on.
It may fairly be said that one result of social service
activities in the churches in the past few years is a changed
attitude on the part of many church-members concerning
the purpose and function both of the church and of Christi-
anity. A social consciousness and a social conscience have
been developed within the churches. Their social will is
strengthening and they are determined to make the gospel
real, to carry it to its uttermost conclusion in the social order
as in the individual life.
CHURCH SOCIAL SERVICE ORGANIZA-
WITH EXECUTIVE OR FIELD SECRETARIES
THE FEDERAL COUNCIL COMMISSION ON THE CHURCH AND
HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION
THE Federal Council, including thirty evangelical denom-
inations and communions as constituent bodies, operates
in the interest of Social Service through the Commission
on the Church and Social Service, appointed at the
organization of the Council in Philadelphia, 1908. At
Philadelphia the previous Committee on the Church and
Modern Industry gave utterance to a message which was
unanimously adopted by the Council, has become historic,
has since been reaffirmed by practically all the leading
church assemblies and received with gladness by social
leaders and workers in all spheres of service.
The Commission on the Church and Social Service was
thoroughly organized, and in the spring of 1911 the Rev.
Charles S. Macfarland was elected as its Secretary, its offices
being in association with those of the Federal Council.
Dr. Macfarland, now the General Secretary of the Federal
Council, also serves as the Secretary of the Commission, in
association with the denominational social service secretaries,
all of whom are Associate Secretaries of the Federal Council
Commission, forming what is known as the Secretarial
The offices of the Commission contain a large Social
Service Library, which adds all the latest books, has on file
about two hundred social and industrial magazines and
Church Social Service Organizations 25
papers, and contains the literature pertaining to social work
issued by all the movements, both religious and general.
Its most important work is that of correlating and coordi-
nating the various denominational commissions and move-
ments; and it has already gone a long way in bringing the
denominational work into unity.
Its first Interdenominational Conference was held at
Boston in June, 1911, and consisted of representatives of the
evangelical denominations which were definitely organized
in the interest of Social Service. This preliminary Con-
ference requested that Secretaries Macfarland, Atkinson,
Crouch, Stelzle, and Ward arrange for an Interdenomina-
tional Conference to which all the constituent bodies of the
Federal Council should be invited to send delegates. In
accordance with this action, at an Interdenominational Con-
ference held at Chicago, November, 1911, seventeen denom-
inations were represented by delegates elected or appointed
by denominational action, and the agreement was that the
various denominational committees and departments should
cooperate through the Federal Council Commission.
A third Conference, with a large attendance representing
nearly all the constituent denominations of the Federal
Council, was held at Chicago in December, 1912.
A Secretarial Council was recommended, to consist of
the denominational secretaries of those Commissions having
such executives, with the understanding that the Secretary
of the Federal Council Commission should represent in the
Council all the other denominations which did not have
The Commission has voted that these secretaries be made
Associate Secretaries of the Federal Council Commission,
subject to the acceptance of the arrangement by the denom-
inational organizations. These Associate Secretaries are as
follows: Henry A. Atkinson, Secretary of the Congrega-
26 Year Book of Church and Social Service
tional Commission on Social Service; Samuel Z. Batten,
Secretary of the Baptist Department of Social Service and
the Brotherhood; Frank M. Crouch, Executive Secretary of
the Protestant Episcopal Joint Commission; Rev. Charles O.
Gill, Secretary of the Federal Council Commission on the
Church and Country Life; Harry F. Ward, Secretary of the
Methodist Federation for Social Service; and Rev. Warren
H. Wilson of the Board of Home Missions of the Presby-
terian Church. Through this Council the denominational
agencies are working together, issuing their literature in
common, dividing the work and cooperating at every possible
point, both nationally and locally, and each Secretary, so far
as it does not interfere with his denominational interests, is
making his work interdenominational.
GENERAL PLAN OF WORK
The whole work of the Commission is proceeding in this
way, conceiving its function to be that of bringing the
denominational forces to work together, rather than con-
sidering itself as an independent body. Its "Plan of Work"
has been approved and adopted by the Executive Committee
of the Federal Council, the Interdenominational Social
Service Conference at Chicago, the various denominational
Commissions or Committees, and was also approved by the
Federal Council in session at Chicago, December, 1912.
The Commission is made up of about 125 of the leading
social workers of the nation, who represent distinctively
the view-point of the churches, and some of the important
items in its current program are as follows:
Close relationship is being established with the theological
seminaries, the schools for training social workers, and
other institutions of learning, in the particular interest of
training men and women for a social service which will
have the distinctively spiritual point of view.
The Commission is working in close relationship with all
the national agencies for social reform, including the National
Child Labor Committee, the Playground and Recreation
Association, the American Association for Labor Legislation,
and all other like organizations. It cooperates with the
Church Social Service Organizations 27
National Conference of Charities and Correction, the
Southern Sociological Congress, and similar movements in
conducting departments of the Church and Social Service.
Plans are arranged to cooperate with the Industrial and
Social Service Departments of the International Committee
of the Young Men's Christian Association, and the newly
created Industrial Department of the Young Women's Chris-
tian Association, and the Young People's Society of Chris-
tian Endeavor and kindred societies, so that the work of
these important agencies may be fully available for the use
of the churches.
One of its most important movements is its nation-wide
campaign for one-day-in-seven for industrial workers, which
has been unanimously approved by the constituent bodies
and also officially by the American Federation of Labor.
Labor Sunday was appointed by the Federal Council at the
suggestion of the Federation of Labor. The secretaries of
the Commission are received as fraternal delegates at the
annual sessions of the American Federation of Labor and
also of the Women's Trade Union League.
The Commission also participated in many ways in the
Men and Religion Forward Movement, and has assisted in
the conservation work of its Social Service Committees.
The various Secretaries of the Council are developing
social evangelism and civic revivals, and they are available
for the services of Church Federations and other organiza-
tions in local communities for this purpose.
Several important investigations have been made, particu-
larly of the industrial conditions in the steel industry at
South Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and the industrial warfare at
Muscatine, Iowa. Secretary Henry A. Atkinson also pre-
pared a report on the industrial situation in Michigan and
Colorado, and a committee of the Massachusetts Federation
of Churches prepared for the Commission a report on the
situation at Lawrence, Massachusetts. At the present time
a committee is making an investigation of the situation
revealed at Paterson, New Jersey. A committee has also
been instructed to report on prison conditions.
The literature of the Commission is assuming large pro-
28 Year Book of Church and Social Service
portions, and includes the reports of these investigations,
study courses and bibliographies, social service catechisms,
and similar material for the guidance and instruction of
pastors and church classes, covering social questions and
presenting them from the point of view of the obligation
and opportunity of the churches. Arrangements are being
made to secure the publication of handbooks jointly with
other organizations issuing common publications, especially
those issuing Home Mission, Industrial, and Social Service
Handbooks like the Missionary Education Movement, and the
Association Press. The Secretaries themselves contribute
to the literature on Social Service, new books having recently
appeared, by Secretaries Ward, Batten, Macfarland, Gill,
The churches are also working increasingly together in
local communities. Most of the Federation of Churches
are formed with community problems and social uplift as
The conservation of the Men and Religion Forward
Movement has largely been through the Social Service
In some cities, Social Service Secretaries have been en-
gaged to give their whole time to the work of the federated
The Commission on the Church and Social Service has the
cooperation of other commissions and departments of the
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America,
including the Commission on the Church and Country Life,
the Commission on Federated Movements, the Commission
on State and Local Federations, the Commission on Peace
and Arbitration, the Commission on Temperance, and the
Commission on Christian Education, which has assisted in
preparing social service material for study courses.
The Washington office of the Federal Council, in charge
of Dr. H. K. Carroll, Associate Secretary, also serves the
interest of the Commission, and through the work of Dr.
Carroll in securing new chaplains for the navy an organiza-
tion has been formed under the title of Religious Welfare
League for the Army and Navy, the President of which is
Church Social Service Organizations 29
Chaplain Orville J. Nave, Los Angeles, California, and the
Secretary, Dr. Carroll.
The Commission on the Church and Social Service also
works in sympathetic relation with the Federal Council
Commission on Evangelism, both of these commissions realiz-
ing that their work is a common one.
During the Panama-Pacific Exposition an exhibit was
maintained by the Commission, and its work was also set
forth by daily illustrated lectures in a hall connected with
the exhibit under the direction of Mr. G. B. St. John.
Literature describing the work of the churches in asso-
ciation with the Federal Council may be obtained on applica-
tion to the Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, Secretary, 612
United Charities Building, 105 East 22nd Street, New York.
THE FEDERAL COUNCIL COMMISSION
Organization for 1915
REV. JOSIAH STRONG, Chairman
PROF. GEORGE W. RICHARDS, Recording Secretary
COMMITTEE OF DIRECTION
Prof. Edward T. Devine
Rev. Henry A. Atkinson
Rev. Samuel Z. Batten
William F. Cochran
Rev. Frank M. Crouch
Shelby M. Harrison
Miss Louise Holmquist
Rev. J. Howard Melish
Rev. Ernest H. Abbott
Rt. Rev. C. P. Anderson
Roger W. Babson
Mrs. O. Shepard Barnum
Bishop William M. Bell
Bishop S. C. Breyfogel
Pres. Franklin E. Brooke
Rev. Frank Mason North
William B. Patterson
Rev. Josiah Strong
Rev. Charles L. Thompson
Charles R. Towson
Rev. Harry F. Ward
Rev. Warren H. Wilson
Rev. Charles F. Carter
Miss Winifred Chappell
Pres. George C. Chase
Rev. Orrin G. Cocks
George W. Coleman
Harris R. Cooley
William K. Cooper
30 Year Book of Church and Social Service
Pres. Boothe C. Davis
Rev. Jonathan C. Day
Rev. Edwin Heyl Delk
John J. Eagan
Prof. Edwin L. Earp
Richard H. Edwards
Pres. H. L. Elderdice
H. D. W. English
Prof. Daniel Evans
Bishop Joseph S. Flipper
Rev. Samuel M. Gibson
Rev. Levi Gilbert
Rev. Washington Gladden
John M. Glenn
Rev. Teunis E. Gouwens
Prof. Thomas C. Hall
Rev. W. H. Hamblin
Rev. William I. Haven
Rev. W. F. Heil
Prof. James R. Howerton
Prof. C. H. Johnson
Prof. Rufus M. Jones
Rev. O. F. Jordan
Paul U. Kellogg
Howard A. Kelly, M.D.
Rev. J. H. Kendall
J. W. Kline
Rev. William E. Lampe
John B. Lennon
Rt. Rev. Edwin S. Lines
Owen R. Lovejoy
Prof. F. E. Lumley
Bishop Francis J. McConnell
Rt. Rev. John N. McCormick
Rev. J. E. McCulloch
Mrs. R. W. MacDonnell
Miss Mary E. McDowell
A. J. McKelway
Pres. David McKinney
Rev. H. H. McNeill
Prof. C. J. Maphis
Rev. H. H. Marlin
Rev. J. W. Messinger
Rev. Alfred E. Meyer
James Alexander Miller
Pres. S. K. Mosiman
Rev. C. J. Musser
Rev. H. H. Peters
Rev. John P. Peters
Rev. O. W. Powers
Rev. H. H. Proctor.
Prof. H. F. Rall
James A. Rath
Prof. Walter Rauschenbusch
Rev. John A. Rice
Prof. George W. Richards
Mrs. Raymond Robins
Miss Helen J. Sanborn
A. M. Scales
Rev. Doremus Scudder
Miss Vida D. Scudder
Herbert N. Shenton
Miss Florence Simms
Willard L. Small
Rev. Leslie W. Sprague
Prof. Edward A. Steiner
Rev. Charles Stelzle
Chancellor D. S. Stephens
Rev. Paul M. Strayer
Rev. Carlyle Summerbell
Very Rev. W. T. Sumner
Rev. E. Guy Talbott
Prof. A. W. Taylor
Prof. Graham Taylor
Rev. John A. Thurston
Rev. Worth M. Tippy
Rev. A. J. Turkle
Rev. Samuel Tyler
Rev. T. W. Wallace
Bishop Alexander Walters
Rev. George T. Webb
Rev. A. E. Webster
Pres. Herbert Welch
Church Social Service Organizations
Rev. Gaylord S. White Miss Carolena M. Wood
Rt. Rev. C. D. Williams Robert A. Woods
John Williams Rev. E. S. Woodring
Rev. Leighton Williams Hon. Clinton R. Woodruff
Rev. G. B. Winton Rev. Benjamin Young
Rev. Edward S. Wolle Rev. James F. Zwemer
REV. HENRY A. ATKINSON......14 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass.
REV. SAMUEL Z. BATTEN... 1701 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
REV. FRANK M. CROUCH .........281 Fourth Avenue, New York
REV. CHARLES O. GILL ......104 North 3d Street, Columbus, Ohio
REV. HARRY F. WARD.... 72 Mount Vernon Street, Boston, Mass.
REv. WARREN H. WILSON ..........156 Fifth Avenue, New York
REV. CHARLES S. MACFARLAND, Secretary
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICE AND BROTHERHOOD OF THE
NORTHERN BAPTIST CONVENTION
THE people called Baptists by their very history and
fundamental principles should be interested in the Social
Gospel and in Social Service. The beginnings of the modern
Baptist churches are found in the Anabaptist movement
of the sixteenth century. It has become quite evident to
the student of history that this was quite as much a social
as a religious movement. The leaders of the new faith
preached the kingdom of God; they threw their emphasis
upon what was called "the gospel of the common man";
they believed that the gospel was a matter of experience
and life; and they earnestly sought to establish justice in
church and society. Their doctrines were in advance of
the times and it fared hardly with them. From one cause
and another the social emphasis was largely lost. And so
far as the social gospel is concerned the Baptists have
differed in no essential respect from other Christian bodies.
It is true that the Baptist principle was developed in some
of its bearings, and great emphasis fell upon the negative
idea-the separation of church and state. In its political
82 Year Book of Church and Social Service
bearing the Baptist principle meant democracy in govern-
ment; and impartial historians give great honor to the
Baptists for their services in this respect.
In all of their history Baptists have been active in various
lines of practical effort. It was .perhaps natural that they
should be among the first in modern times to take an active
interest in missions. Baptists were among the pioneers in
Sunday-school work. During the American Revolution
Baptists almost to a man supported the colonists and advo-
cated independence. In all times they have been active in
general philanthropy. But in this respect it can hardly
be said that they have been conspicuous above others on
The social emphasis early ceased among the Baptists
and the social gospel dropped out of the current of Baptist
life; so far as the social aspects of the gospel are concerned,
Baptists have differed in no essential respect from other
bodies of Christians. In fact, strangely enough, it may be
said that Baptists have been somewhat tardy in their accept-
ance of the modern idea of social service.
Twenty years ago a little company of Baptists, ministers
and laymen, met in Philadelphia and organized "The
Brotherhood of the Kingdom." In its spirit and aims we
find the following: "The Spirit of God is moving men in
our generation toward a better understanding of the ideas
of the kingdom of God on earth. Obeying the thought of
our Master, and trusting in the prayer and guidance of his
Spirit, we form ourselves into a Brotherhood of the King-
dom, in order to reestablish this idea in the thought of the
church and to assist in its practical realization in the
"Each member shall lay special emphasis on the social
aims of Christianity, and shall endeavor to make Christ's
teaching concerning wealth operative in the church."
"On the other hand the members shall take pains to
keep in contact with the common people, and infuse the
religious spirit into efforts for social amelioration."
This was one of the very first organized expressions of
the new social spirit that is now so manifest in our land.
Church Social Service Organizations 88
And it is significant that it was inspired by the idea of the
kingdom of God as a divine human society on earth.
The Brotherhood within a year broadened its scope and
became interdenominational. Through all these years the
members have thrown great emphasis upon the social aspect
of the gospel. And a number of the Baptist members of
the Brotherhood have been very active in developing the
Social Service idea within the Baptist fellowship. Among
the early Baptist members who have been active in this line
may be mentioned: Dr. George Dana Boardman, Prof. W.
N. Clarke, Prof. Walter Rauschenbusch, Dr. Leighton Wil-
liams, Prof. Spencer B. Meeser, Prof. Samuel Z. Batten.
Until the last few years the Baptists have had no organiza-
tion which represented them as a body in their whole work
for the Kingdom. We had a number of organizations repre-
senting the church; but each organization represented one
department of the work, as the Foreign Missionary Society,
the Home Mission Society, the Publication Society, etc.
In May, 1905, at St. Louis, during the meeting of the Home
Mission Society, Rev. S. Z. Batten, then of Lincoln, Nebraska,
offered the following resolution:
Whereas, Our Lord Jesus Christ has come to redeem the
world and to fulfil the kingdom of God; and whereas the
Christian is interested in everything that concerns man's
moral progress, and is called to act as the mediator between
all classes of people.
Therefore, resolved: That a committee of seven be ap-
pointed to study the relation of the church to the social
questions of our time and to endeavor to bring about more
harmonious relations between the Christian people and work-
ing men; and Resolved: That this committee shall have
power and be authorized to bring any questions of pressing
importance to the attention of our Baptist people and to
secure their support in behalf of such social and reform
This resolution was referred to the Executive Committee
of the Home Mission Society. The next year, at Dayton,
this Committee reported as follows:
"At the meeting last year the Society referred to the
34 Year Book of Church and Social Service
Board a resolution introduced for the appointment of a
committee to study the relation of the church to the social
questions of our time. After much consideration your
Board is not prepared to recommend that the Society should
assume responsibility for the appointment of such a com-
mittee, thereby practically creating a department of Christian
Economics, with the numerous debatable questions-involved,
requiring more time for their just consideration than is
available in the brief and crowded annual session of the
Society. It seems, however, that matters of this character
may be very properly considered by the General Conven-
tion of the Baptists of North America to which it is re-
spectfully suggested they be referred." The Baptists were
not ready to approve this new interest and nothing could
In the meantime the Northern Baptist Convention was
being organized to represent the denomination in their
whole work for the Kingdom. The first regular meeting
of the Convention was held at Oklahoma City in May, 1908.
During the Convention a conference of representative men
decided that a resolution be presented, calling for the crea-
tion of a Social Service Commission, and the following was
offered and adopted by the Convention:
Resolved: That we request the Northern Baptist Con-
vention to appoint a committee of seven to study what is
being done in the field of social service. To report the
results from time to time to the churches through the
religious press, and to report the total results to the Con-
vention of 1909, together with such recommendations based
thereon as may be deemed advisable.
As time has gone by and the work has developed other
lines of interest and effort have been committed to the
Commission, such as the Country Church and Temperance.
Two years later the Commission was increased to fifteen,
and it was made a department of the Convention. In 1913
the Commission was further increased by the addition of
The Commission during all the earlier years depended
wholly upon volunteer workers. But it did much to promote
Church Social Service Organizations 35
the social service idea and to develop an active interest
in the church. The Commission has presented a compre-
hensive report each year, defining social service, outlining a
program of action, and suggesting practical lines of effort.
In May, 1912, at the meeting of the Convention held in
Des Moines, the resolution was adopted, recommending to
the American Baptist Publication Society the consideration
of this work, and authorizing the Commission to make such
arrangements with the Society as seemed desirable for
carrying on this work.
In the following September, at a meeting of the Board of
the American Baptist Publication Society, a Department of
Social Service and Brotherhood was created, and Prof. S.
Z. Batten, of Des Moines College, was elected Secretary.
The work of social service is thus fully recognized by the
denomination and is placed on an equality with all other
departments of work.
The Commission is securing the creation of State Com-
missions in all the territory of the Convention; thus far
nearly every state has acted favorably. In several states,
efficient work has been done. The Commission is issuing
much literature of various kinds bearing upon social service.
It is issuing a number of volumes for social service study
under the general title, "The Social Service Series." The
Commission has also been active in promoting the interests
of the Country Church. Two years ago the Convention
urged every church to develop a "constructive program for
service of the social needs of the community, either singly or
in the largest possible cooperation with others." To meet
this demand the Commission has submitted and the Con-
vention has approved "The Social Service Program"; this
suggests some definite and practical lines of social effort in
the Church, in the Family, in the Community, and in
Industry. The Commission, cooperating with the Commis-
sion on Religious and Moral Education, has worked out a
comprehensive system of Social Studies for Sunday Schools,
Young People's Society, Adult Classes, Brotherhoods, and
Study Groups dealing with many phases of Social Study,
such as "The Social Ideals of the Old Testament," "The
36 Year Book of Church and Social Service
Social Teaching of Jesus," "The Social Awakening," "The
Principles of Social Service," "Social Institutions," "Social
Duties," "Social Problems," "Community Study," "Voca-
The Commission has not sought to build up another
organization to do social service work in the churches or
in communities. It has sought rather to infuse the social
service spirit into existing organizations, to indicate ways
whereby these organizations can become socially effective,
to gear up the devotion of our people to the social task of
their communities, and to promote the practical efficiency of
existing agencies. The objectives of the Social Service
Department are as follows:
To make known the principles of social Christianity..
To interpret the gospel of Jesus Christ in terms of human
life and social redemption.
To arouse the spirit of social service in all of our churches.
To secure the cooperation of our churches with all other
agencies doing social service work.
To suggest lessons in social service study for our people.
To outline definite and constructive programs for our
churches in their work for community betterment.
To interpret the spirit and aims of the churches to the
industrial workers of our land.
To show that the Christian gospel leads to social effort
and that true social effort is essentially Christian.
To represent the denomination in an official capacity at
all meetings where Labor and Social Service are discussed.
The Department seeks to realize this objective by the
By the discussion of social service work in the meetings
of our churches.
By the consideration of the work of social service at
associational meetings and state conventions.
By holding conferences and conventions at such times
and places as seem necessary.
By distributing and publishing literature bearing upon
By preparing social service study lessons and by corre-
By the utilization of a speakers' bureau.
SChurch Social Service Organizations 37
By cooperating with the theological seminaries in the
work of seminary extension.
By giving special attention to the country church in its
relation to community service.
By conducting headquarters with a reference library and
card index covering all phases of the work.
The members of the Commission are:
S. Zane Batten, Chairman, l7oI Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
George W. Coleman, Boston, Mass.
Mrs. George H. Ferris, Philadelphia, Pa.
John E. Franklin, Colorado Springs, Colo.
Charles J. Galpin, Madison, Wis.
Mrs. E. J. Goodspeed, Chicago, Ill.
Rivington D. Lord, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Shailer Mathews, Chicago, Ill.
Mrs. Helen B. Montgomery, Rochester, N. Y.
Loran D. Osborn, Boulder, Colo.
Harold Pattison, New York City.
W. Edward Raffety, Kansas City, Kans.
Geo. T. Webb, Secretary, 1701 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
Walter Rauschenbusch, Rochester, N. Y.
W. Quay Rosselle, Philadelphia, Pa.
Henry K. Rowe, Newton Center, Mass.
Louis J. Sawyer, San Francisco, Cal.
Alfred W. Wishart, Grand Rapids, Mich.
The Commission has the following departments in charge
of special committees:
Department of Prison Reform
Dr. S. Z. Batten, Mrs. E. J. Goodspeed, Dr. A. W. Wishart.
Department of Rural Communities
Mr. C. J. Galpin, Rev. L. J. Sawyer, Prof. W. Edward Raffety,
Mrs. H. B. Montgomery, Prof. H. K. Rowe.
Department of Immigration and Foreign Speaking People
Dr. Harold Pattison, Mr. George W. Coleman, Dean Shailer
Department of Temperance and Social Hygiene
Dr. W. Quay Rosselle, Dr. S. Z. Batten, Rev. R. D. Lord, Dr.
George T. Webb.
38 Year Book of Church and Social Service
Department of Social Education
Mrs. George H. Ferris, Mr. John E. Franklin, Dr. George T.
Webb, Prof. L. D. Osborn, Prof. H. K. Rowe.
Department of Industrial Problems
Mr. John E. Franklin, Prof. Walter Rauschenbusch, Rev. R. D.
Lord, Prof. L. D. Osborn.
Department of the Home and the Child
Prof. W. E. Raffety, Mrs. G. H. Ferris, Mrs. H. B. Mont-
gomery, Mr. G. W. Coleman.
Department of International Peace and National Security
Dr. S. Z. Batten, Dean Shailer Mathews, Rev. A. W. Wishart.
Department of Lord's Day
,Rev. L. J. Sawyer, Rev. R. D. Lord, Dr. Harold Pattison.
Each department is making a special study of its own topic.
It is gathering information and is preparing this for presen-
tation to the people. It is cooperating in all ways possible
with other agencies in promoting the special subject, and it
serves as our representative on bodies having these ends in
In 191I, at Philadelphia, at the meeting of the Baptist
World Alliance, a resolution signed by a number of dele-
gates was presented, calling for the appointment of a World
Alliance Social Service Commission. The Commission or-
ganized by electing Dr. John Clifford, of London, President,
and a Vice-President for each country in the Alliance. A
central Executive of five was created, consisting of Pres.
M. G. Evans, Pres. E. Y. Mullins, Prof. Walter Rauschen-
busch, and Prof. S. Z. Batten as Chairman, and the Rev. J. W.
Graves as Secretary. Efforts are being made, and with
marked success, to secure the creation of a Commission in
each country of the globe. Many things indicate that the
Baptist body throughout the world is accepting the Social
Gospel and is taking an active interest in Social Service.
The Commission publishes a number of leaflets which will
be sent to all who desire copies.
Church Social Service Organizations 89
SOCIAL SERVICE COMMISSION OF THE CONGREGATIONAL
Henry A. Atkinson, Executive Secretary; Office, 14 Beacon
Street, Boston, Mass.
The members of the Commission are:
Rev. Charles R. Brown, New Haven, Conn.; Prof. Fred B.
Hill, Northfield, Minn.; Rev. Arthur E. Holt, Manhattan, Kans.;
Rev. Hastings H. Hart, New York, N. Y.; Rev. Albert W.
Palmer, Oakland, Cal.; Mr. John G. Jennings, Cleveland, Ohio;
Mr. J. E. Annis, Chattanooga, Tenn.
The purpose of the Commission is to serve the causes of
Industry, Country Life, Social Service, Organized Charity,
Men's Work, and Social Purity.
This Commission is a development from the work of the
Department of Labor and Social Service of the Congrega-
tional Brotherhood of America which it has incorporated.
This Department grew out of the feeling that the time had
come for action on the vital issues of our time, upon which
all the great fellowships of American churches have taken
For over nine years the Congregational Churches, through
their representative bodies, had been proposing the establish-
ment of a department dealing with industrial conditions.
The need was keenly felt, the practical difficulty being that
there was no organization to become responsible for such
At the National Council held in Boston, October, 1911,
the Congregational Brotherhood of America was requested
"to assume the function of executive agency for the churches
in order to promote the study and knowledge of local indus-
trial conditions and relations, to enlist them and their
memberships in practical efforts for the improvement of
living and working conditions in accordance with Christian
principles." It was also voted that the Brotherhood be
requested to appoint a Secretary of Labor and Social Service,
and institute such other means as may be employed for the
effective exercise of this executive function.
The Brotherhood was voted the endorsement and coopera-
40 Year Book of Church and Social Service
tion of all the churches participating in the action of their
The new Department was introduced by the Moderator of
the National Council in the following terms:
The Congregational Churches by their democratic constitu-
tion, as well as by their Christian loyalty, have always been in
closest sympathy with human and social situations. In move-
ments for the betterment of society, Congregationalism has
The minutes of National Councils are usually considered dry
reading, but those of the Congregational Churches are certainly
inspiring, for they have to do not only with the vitalities of
our faith, but with the needs of our world. The first Council
in Oberlin, in 1871, dealt with such questions as "The Unity
of the Church," "The Consolidation of the Benevolent Societies,"
"The Recent Treaty with Great Britain," "Indian Affairs in
Oregon," "Intemperance and Caste," and every Council since
then has demonstrated the warm and pulsing heart-beat of our
interest in the amelioration of unjust and unrighteous conditions,
while affording the evidence of our united prayers for the
That man to man the warld o'er
Shall brothers be for a' that.
It is therefore in the lines of our denominational tradition
and development, that beneath the urgency of new occasions
which teach new duties, we should emphasize our conviction,
and accentuate our definite interest in the present social and
labor situation, when ethics as well as economics are clamoring
for recognition, sympathy, and acceptance on the part of all
right-minded, not to say Christian people. This we have done
by asking the Brotherhood, our young, virile, and growing
fellowship, to be for our denomination representative, inter-
preter, and inspire. It means a new recognition of the study
of these imperative questions, for Congregationalism has slight
respect for zeal without knowledge. It means a more efficient
participation in the tragic human struggle, enlisting the full
weight of our denominational prestige upon the side of sympathy,
honor, righteousness; it means the kindling of a quicker, hotter
passion within our own communion for the weal of humanity,
and the setting at work in more effective relationships of the
eternal principles of our gospel.
Church Social Service Organizations 41
The Department adopted for its industrial platform the
declaration of principles made and adopted by the Federal
Council of the Churches of Christ in America in 1908, and
announced as its functions:
To arouse our churches to a sense of obligation for the
best community interests;
To impress the importance of social service;
To help secure more perfect justice for all men;
To bring about a closer cooperation of our churches
with the other agencies and organizations which are working
for social uplift;
To direct the awakened social spirit into lines of greater
To gather information as to what needs to be done, as
well as what is being done, by our churches and brother-
hoods for labor and social service;
To bring about a better understanding.between organized
capital, organized labor and organized religion;
To apply the gospel of Jesus Christ to the industrial needs
of our day.
First among the declaration of principles upon which our
new department is founded is this:
We stand for equal rights and complete justice for all
men in all stations of life.
This department is going to help men to understand each
other better; the employer to understand the employee; the
employee to understand the employer, and the public to under-
stand both. It is going to help all three find a basis for
working out justice to them all-to help them be just to
We are seeking to realize our objective by the following
(1) By discussion of social service problems in public
(2) Through literature printed and distributed.
(3) Through the study course we are offering.
(4) By the utilization of our speakers' bureau.
(5) By presentation of these subjects at the state con-
ferences of our churches.
42 Year Book of Church and Social Service
(6) By means of conventions and special group con-
It was at the National Council of 1913 that the work of
the Department of Labor and Social Service was merged
into a large undertaking. At this gathering a social service
commission of nine members was added to the denominational
agencies, to promote the welfare of the country life and
church, to deal with city problems and progress, and to
improve industrial conditions and relations. Toward these
ends the Congregational Brotherhood turned over its national
work to this commission, and dropping its national organiza-
tion, decided to devote its energy to its state and local
brotherhoods. Women are thus made eligible to participate
in the direction of the social and community work in which
they have always borne so large a part.
The Rev. H. A. Atkinson is the executive secretary of the
Social Service Commission. While his special function and
that of the Social Service Commission will be to inspire,
inform, rally, and deploy Congregationalists in applying the
common faith to the improvement of the social conditions
of the common life, yet their function was also specified
to be cooperation with the Federal Council of the Churches
of Christ in America, and with any and all other fellow-
ships at work to promote that righteousness, -peace, and
joy in which the "kingdom of the Father" consists.
The clear conviction of the denomination finds expression
in the new creed adopted at Kansas City:
We hold it to be the mission of the church of Christ to
proclaim the gospel to all mankind, exalting the worship of
the one true God, and laboring for the progress of knowledge,
the promotion of justice, the triumph of peace, and the realiza-
tion of human brotherhood. Depending, as did our fathers, upon
the continued guidance of the Holy Spirit to lead us into all
truth, we work and pray for the transformation of the world
into the kingdom of God; and we look with faith for the
triumph of righteousness and for life and glory everlasting.
At the meeting of the National Council at New Haven,
Church Social Service Organizations 48
October 20-27, 1915, the Commission reported in part as
The Commission has brought facts and conditions to the
attention of the churches and pastors, and has been instru-
mental in working out plans whereby the facts gathered and
the information offered have been made available. The cor-
respondence has steadily increased, and a large amount of
literature has been published and distributed. A library
file has been made in which has been collected the latest
information upon the principal topics of social service, to-
gether with references and comments. Thus a large amount
of literature has been accumulated. The demand for liter-
ature and guidance in the matters committed to our care
has been increasing constantly. To meet this demand hun-
dreds of letters giving detailed programs have been written,
and besides we have published and distributed thirty different
leaflets and pamphlets.
A series of stereopticon lectures have been made and are
offered for the use of our churches; and a speakers' bureau
contains the names of a large number of persons who are
competent to speak on social service subjects and are will-
ing to give a part of their time to the churches.
Social Service Commissions have been appointed in the
following states: California, Oregon, Kansas, Illinois,
Michigan, Ohio, South Dakota, Connecticut, New York,
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, Alabama, and
Oklahoma. These are cooperating with the national Com-
mission. Correspondence has been undertaken and plans
devised whereby commissions will be formed under the
direction of the State Conferences of the remaining states.
With a commission in each state cooperating with the
national Commission and the national Commission cooperat-
ing through the Federal Council with its constituent bodies,
there is being created a valuable and efficient piece of
SECRETARIAL VISITATION. The Secretary has responded to
calls for addresses and conferences from practically every
state in the Union; has attended eleven state conferences,
44 Year Book of Church and Social Service
a large number of local associations, and several inter-
INVESTIGATIONS. A study was made through the Secretary
of the bitter strike of the miners in the Michigan copper
country. Report of this study was sent to the members of
the Commission and was printed in the Congregationalist,
as well as a number of labor papers.
The Secretary also made a study on the ground of the
coal miners' strike in Colorado. This report was likewise
submitted to the Commission and after the findings were
authorized, an article concerning the' strike was printed in
the Congregationalist and widely commented upon through-
out the country. The reports of these two investigations
were combined and published by the Federal Council of
the Churches under the title "The Church and Industrial
Study was made of two plants where profit-sharing schemes
are in operation. A pamphlet is in the process of prepara-
tion and will be issued later upon this important subject.
Study was made of rural conditions at several points in
the South and in three townships in Wisconsin. In con-
nection with this a detailed study was made of conditions
among the Negroes in Memphis, Savannah, Mobile, and
The Secretary served on a committee in Boston charged
with the task of investigating and reporting to the mayor
on the burlesque theaters, also on a committee appointed
by the Laymen's Missionary Movement to report and make
available for the churches the present conditions among
the immigrants in the state of Massachusetts.
A study was made of the report of the Immigration
Commission of Massachusetts; the pictures used in this
report were secured from the Commission, slides made, and
a lecture prepared. This lecture and the slides have been
duplicated and are now being used by the Young Men's
Christian Association, the Social Service Commission of the
Unitarian Churches, as well as the Massachusetts Federa-
tion of Churches.
Church Social Service Organizations 45
At the request of the Home Missionary Society the
Secretary went to the Cceur d'Alene district in northern
Idaho and made a detailed study of this region, where for
a number of years we have had Congregational churches,
but where, owing to the industrial and social conditions, the
churches have not been successful. The preliminary report
of this situation was made before the Executive Committee
of the Home Missionary Society.
SURVEYS. A community study was made of the parish of
the Clinton Avenue Church, Brooklyn, under the direction
of the Secretary of this Commission.
The report was adopted, and by vote of the Council the
work of the Social Service Commission was made a part
of the newly formed Board of Education. This action gives
the Commission and its Secretary a central place in the
program of the Church. The same general plans and program
will be continued and the office will remain as before in the
Congregational House, 14 Beacon Street, Boston.
METHODIST FEDERATION FOR SOCIAL SERVICE
On December 3, 1907, in the city of Washington, the
Methodist Federation for Social Service was organized by
a body of ministers and laymen of the Methodist Episcopal
The organizers came from various parts of the country.
The conviction had for years been taking shape in the
minds of many that the Church should organize for this
purpose. This spontaneous conviction, added to the fact that
many others who were unable to attend the meeting had
made known their hearty interest in the project, was favor-
able to the belief that it was timely and providential. The
movement was a response also to a demand manifesting itself
in various ways throughout the denomination.
Before the General Conference of 1892 was placed a
memorial on The Church and Social Problems-a memorial
prepared with great care by a committee of the New York
East Conference and adopted by that body with deep con-
46 Year Book of Church and Social Service
viction, no one dissenting. In 1896 a similar memorial was
presented from the same Conference. To successive General
Conferences memorials had gone up from various sections
of the church, asking for some strong statement upon current
social questions. At Los Angeles, in 1904, a report was
presented covering certain phases of the subject, but no
action upon it was secured.
To the General Conference meeting at Baltimore, in 1908,
memorials were presented from several Annual Conferences;
one asked that a Department of Church and Labor be
established by the Board of Home Missions, another that
a special Secretary of Immigration be appointed, a third
that a commission be formed to investigate during the
coming quadrennium the relation of the church to these
vital questions and to report their conclusions to the next
General Conference. To these was added one from the
newly organized Methodist Federation for Social Service,
asking recognition and setting forth its aims.
In response to these appeals the Committee on the State
of the Church prepared and presented to the General Con-
ference a statement which was unanimously adopted by
This utterance will have permanent historic significance
because it contained the Social Creed of Methodism, which
has since been expanded by joint action into the Social
Creed of the Churches.
The General Conference of 19o8 also recognized the
Methodist Federation for Social Service, directed that three
bishops should be appointed to its Council, and assigned
to it the following questions for investigation and report to
the General Conference of 1912.
What principles and measures of social reform are so evidently
righteous and Christian as to demand the specific approval and
support of the church?
How can the agencies of the Methodist Episcopal Church be
wisely used or altered with a view to promoting the principles
and measures thus approved?
How may we best cooperate in this behalf with other Christian
Church Social Service Organizations 47
How can our courses of ministerial study in seminaries and
Conferences be modified with a view to better preparation of
our preachers for efficiency in a social reform?
These questions were carefully considered during the
quadrennium by a representative committee, the results of
whose labors were turned over to the Executive Committee,
which drafted the final answers and submitted its report to
the General Conference of 1912.
This report, which was printed in the Handbook, and so
seen by every delegate, was carefully considered by the
Committee on the State of the Church, and then submitted
to the General Conference with the recommendation that it
be adopted as its declaration, which was unanimously done.
This statement pledges the church to cooperate in the
general campaigns for Child Welfare, Public Health, Social
Purity, Organized Recreation, Industrial Safety, a Living
Wage, and International Peace; also in the movements
against Poverty, Overwork, and Crime, and to civic action
to effect all these purposes. It also binds the church un-
ceasingly to labor for the realization of social justice, the
democratic control of industry, and the conscious control of
social progress. It becomes the official platform and program
of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the field of social
action, and the Methodist Federation for Social Service is
declared to be the executive agency to rally the forces of
the church in support of the measures thus approved.
In acceptance of this commission the Federation enlarged
its work and put into the field as secretary the Rev. Harry
F. Ward, part of whose time it had previously engaged.
The development of the work has been in educational and
inspirational activities. With the slogan, "A community
ministry for every church," the churches have been called
upon to develop an immediate program in relation to the
needs of childhood, to the care of the poor, the sick, the
prisoner, and the prevention of poverty, disease, and vice,
and for the improvement of industrial conditions. Several
books and a large number of pamphlets have been issued,
and as many as 50,000 pieces of printed matter effectively
48 Year Book of Church and Social Service
distributed in one year. A Social Service Bulletin is issued
bi-monthly, reaching regularly 3,000 individuals. An infor-
mation bureau places at the service of the churches informa-
tion concerning principles and methods gathered from every
possible source. Social Service programs have been developed
for the Brotherhood, the Epworth League, the Sunday-school,
women's societies, and Adult Bible Classes. Attention has
been given to the development of social service interest in
colleges and theological schools. A press service for the
denominational papers has been carried on.
Special emphasis has been given to campaigns of social
evangelism in order to: expound the principles of social
Christianity; arouse the spirit of social service; suggest
church activities for community welfare; interpret the gospel
to industrial workers. The Secretary addresses many meet-
ings each year, reaching all types of communities and many
different groups, within and outside the church. The large
amount of publicity secured in the daily press and in the
labor papers has carried the social principles and standards
of the church to thousands of people. Students of colleges,
theological schools, and normal and high schools have also
been addressed. In every community visited the attempt has
been made to leave behind some practical result, to focus the
attention and action of the church group, and, wherever
possible, of a group representing different organizations,
upon some one social need. Some definite piece of com-
munity service has usually resulted. This work is being
multiplied through the building up of a strong list of speakers
available in various states, to present the different aspects
of social service.
Social Service Commissions are being organized in the
various Annual Conferences, over fifty now being in exist-
ence. One of these now employs a field secretary, another
puts in the field an industrial evangelist, and others undoubt-
edly will follow this method. These commissions, in some
notable instances, also promote the socializing of local
churches by presenting to the Annual Conference reports
and exhibits of the work of churches with a successful com-
Church Social Service Organizations 49
The national gathering of Methodist Men called by the
Laymen's Missionary Movement in November, 1914, em-
braced social service as one of the great activities of the
church, and announced the redemption of society as a part
of its objective, thus indicating the first general acceptance
of the movement. The social service program has since
gradually become interwoven into the various activities of
the different denominational agencies and is molding the
life of the church. During the past year particularly the
social service propaganda has found a larger place in the
educational machinery of the denomination, and is deeply
affecting the young people's societies, the Sunday-school, and
the missionary movement. A definite program of cooperation
has been worked out between the Federation and a number
of missionary agencies, particularly with the Laymen's Mis-
sionary Movement, which secured for its series of national
conventions for 1915-16 the services of the Secretary to
present the cause of Social Service.
The following summarized report of the Federation for
1915 indicates the progress of the movement within the
A larger proportion of meetings for the year have reached
groups of leaders, and the call for more speakers than we can
supply indicates the need of more men in the field. Much time
and effort has been given to the New England and Ohio Conven-
tions of Methodist Men, for both of which survey material
concerning Church Efficiency and Community Service was pre-
pared. New ground was broken in presenting this material by
The three local field secretaries working under the direction
of the Federation-the Revs. E. Guy Talbott, O. H. McGill, and
Herbert N. Shenton-reported many addresses for churches of
all denominations and groups outside the church; series of
lectures and classes in social service; work for state social
legislation; articles contributed to church and labor press;
stimulation of social preaching by ministers in their fields;
exhibits prepared and shown at many points in their field;
classes in the study of immigration; guidance in the working
out of community programs; distribution of many pieces of
printed matter and replies to many inquiries; mills and timber
50 Year Book of Church and Social Service
and coal camps visited and employment found for some men;
calling at homes of sick and unemployed working men; isolated
communities visited where all groups have been addressed,
including school children; and assistance in the organization of
several cooperative shingle mills.
About thirty general articles have been supplied to Methodist
publications, including a series on the Colorado coal strike.
"The Social Interpretation of the Lesson" has been furnished
each week for the Sunday School Journal, and a regular depart-
ment of two or three pages carried on in the Adult Bible Class
Monthly. Two books have been published, one, Poverty and
Wealth, a study course in the Graded Lesson Series for Adult
Bible Classes; and the other, Social Evangelism, published by
the Missionary Education Movement. Reading Lists have been
prepared for the catalog of the Book Concern and for the
Massachusetts General Theological Library.
Two seminar courses have been added to the two already
given in the Social Service Department of the Boston University
School of Theology, one on the Rural Church and one on
Industrial Evangelism. Some practical results of work" done in
the classroom are already beginning to appear in pastorates. A
course of eight lectures was given in Ford Hall, Boston, dealing
with the Labor Problem, arranged jointly by ministers, business
men, and the labor group, reaching a widely varied audience, at
the close of which a resolution of thanks to the school was
offered by the Industrial Workers of the World group and
seconded by men of the American Federation of Labor.
Much time and effort has been spent in an endeavor to adjust
the relations between the Allied Printing Trades and our
Western Publishing House. At our request last year the organ-
ization of another national attack upon the church was postponed
until our negotiations could be carried further.
The response to our activities indicates the continued need for
both practical guidance of community service activities on the
part of the church and also for an aggressive educational
propaganda of the social principles of the gospel. The Executive
Committee has at various times come to the conclusion that the
community service part of our work naturally belongs to the
Board of Home Missions and should be carried on by it under a
thorough scheme of departmental organization. The inspira-
tional and educational campaign for the Christianizing of the
social order is distinctly the function of an organization which
is not a collector and distributor of funds. The present world
Church Social Service Organizations 51
crisis makes imperative the demand for a better organized
propaganda of education for the organization of life around
the principles of the gospel.
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICE AND IMMIGRATION,
PRESBYTERIAN BOARD OF HOME MISSIONS
J. E. McAfee, Secretary
Nor --This work was originally organized as the Department of Church and
On April I, 1903, the Board of Home Missions of the
Presbyterian General Assembly established a "working men's
department" which later became known as "The Department
of Church and Labor." The General Assembly of 191o
instructed the Board to establish a "Bureau of Social
Service," into which the Department of Church and Labor
was merged. The General Assembly had previously appointed
a committee of five ministers and five elders to give an
expression "of the thought and purpose of our church regard-
ing the great moral questions arising out of the industrial
and commercial life of the people," and instructed it to
consider "besides other things, the application of the gospel
to the acquisition and use of wealth, to the relation between
the employers and the employed, and between capital and
labor, and to the existence of unnecessary poverty in a land
where there is more than enough for all."
The report of this committee, submitted to the General
Assembly of 1911, was unanimously adopted, and may be
found in a pamphlet entitled "What the Presbyterian Church
Believes about Social Problems," published by the Board of
Publication and Sabbath-School Work. This document is
the basis of much of the work conducted by the Bureau of
Its recommendations are as follows:
I. That the General Assembly hereby urge the ministers
of the church to recognize and fulfil the obligations resting
upon them as ministers of Jesus Christ, with respect to the
social application of his gospel; and to this end it urges
(I) To inform themselves carefully.regarding the condi-
52 Year Book of Church and Social Service
tions of human life in their own neighborhoods, particularly
as these are affected by the conditions of industry.
(2) To acquaint their congregations with these facts.
(3) To instruct their congregations in the teachings of
the gospel regarding social service.
(4) To cooperate in every effort for the attainment of
the eids for which our Church has declared itself.
2. That the General Assembly hereby request all who
have charge of schools and colleges to make ample provi-
sion for instruction regarding the Christian ideal of society;
and, further, that it request the governing bodies and faculties
of theological seminaries to provide that the students in
their care be taught the social principles of the gospel, and
trained in methods of applying these principles to the needs
of the localities in which they shall be called to minister.
3. That the General Assembly hereby urge all the mem-
bers of our churches to give serious study to social problems,
and to avail themselves of their opportunities for social
service; to bring the sense of'justice and righteousness which
is fundamental in Christianity to bear upon matters of every-
day life, in business, in society, or wherever their influence
may extend, and to create a Christian public sentiment
demanding the removal of wrong wherever found.
4. That the General Assembly appoint a Bureau of Social
Service, composed of ministers and elders, to serve without
salary, whose duty it shall be to cooperate with similar
organizations of other churches, to study social conditions
as they are related to the progress of the kingdom of God, to
suggest to the church practical ways of realizing the social
ideals of the gospel, and to report annually to the General
Assembly regarding its work; that to this committee there
be given also the duties now performed by other agencies
of the church which deal with social and moral questions,
such as the Permanent Committees on Temperance and on
Sabbath Observance, and the Department of Church and
Labor of the Board of Home Missions, so that the whole
matter of social righteousness may be treated in its entirety
by an agency of the church.
The final action of the General Assembly provided for the
Church Social Service Organizations 53
organization of this Bureau of Social Service under the
Board of Home Missions, except as to a separate Commis-
sion as proposed above. The General Assembly of 1914
effected a more sweeping reorganization of the Board's
work, and placed the social service in the same department
with the country church work and the work among immigrant
groups. This department has also other administrative func-
tions. Presbyterian social service took a unique position in
the religious life of the country under the influence of the
peculiar antecedents, training, and personality of Charles
Stelzle, who first organized the work and was at the head
of the Church and Labor Department and later of the Bureau
of Social Service for ten years. He particularly put the
emphasis of social service upon the industrial question. The
emphasis has fallen here also in most of the social service
plans projected later by the other denominations. Upon
the withdrawal of Mr. Stelzle from the force of the Presby-
terian Board in 1912, the social propaganda was necessarily
modified. No one has been found to succeed him so inti-
mately and vitally related to both the church and the organ-
ized labor movement in the country.
The more recent development of Presbyterian social service
has tended to magnify practical method in the outreach of
a local church to community needs. This has been par-
ticularly true in the field of the country church, and in the
treatment of foreign racial colonies and groups. This
emphasis is the more magnified by the unique organization
of Presbyterian social service. The national propaganda
has from the first been organized under the historic adminis-
trative agency, the Board of Home Missions, whereas, the
social propaganda in other denominations has usually, if not
invariably, been placed under the direction of an independent
board, society, or commission.
Highly developed methods for the country church and for
immigrant work have been developed by the Presbyterian
Home Board under the leadership of the Rev. Warren H.
Wilson and the Rev. W. P. Shriver, respectively. For a
time, these branches were organized as separate departments
of the Board's work, but with the reorganization in 1914
54 Year Book of Church and Social Service
they were associated with other branches of the work in
general administrative departments.
During the period when the Bureau of Social Service was
in existence numerous other activities besides those men-
tioned above were successfully carried out by Mr. Stelzle,
brief mention of which is made in the paragraphs following.
In the directions noted the Board's present program has been
greatly modified, or the activities have been entirely dis-
continued where they were so indissolubly joined with Mr.
Stelzle's personality as to make that course necessary.
In the field of labor the Bureau has established "Labor
Sunday," which is now observed by practically every Prot-
estant denomination throughout the United States, and
which has since received the unanimous endorsement of the
American Federation of Labor. It inaugurated the plan of
the exchange of fraternal delegates between ministers' asso-
ciations and central labor unions, which is now in operation
in numerous cities. In many cases these ministers are
serving as chaplains to organized labor, regularly opening
and closing the meetings of the central labor unions with
The Bureau originated the plan of sending ministerial
delegates to the annual conventions of the American Federa-
tion of Labor, which was an accepted plan for several years.
The Bureau furnished during a number of years each week
an article for the labor press of the United States and
Canada, syndicating it to 250 weekly papers and ioo
monthlies. In this manner the Bureau distributed more
literature for working men than is printed by all the tract
societies in the United States combined, of which there are
something like sixty. The result of this wide and effective
propaganda was a complete change in the attitude of the
labor press, the labor leaders, and working men in general,
toward the church. The radical articles against the church
which formerly appeared in the labor papers are now very
Great working men's mass meetings were conducted by
the Bureau on almost every Sunday afternoon during the
winter seasons. The express purpose of these meetings was
Church Social Service Organizations 55
to present to working men the claims of Jesus and of his
church upon the toilers. It would be safe to say that
500,000 working men have attended the popular meetings
during the ten years that this work was carried on. Im-
portant shop-meeting campaigns were conducted. One year,
during a period of sixty days, in six cities, 500 ministers
were enlisted in these campaigns, 400 shops were entered at
the noon hour, I,ooo different meetings were held and
250,000 working people were addressed. During the same
year a simultaneous shop campaign was conducted through-
out the entire country, the Bureau furnishing the plans
and literature and giving general direction from the office to
the ministers and laymen who managed these campaigns in
their own towns and cities. The Bureau developed for the
churches in industrial centers "industrial parishes," each
church becoming responsible for a particular shop, just as a
church would become responsible for a certain mission
field, with the difference, however, that the church not only
supports the work in the "industrial parish" financially, but
actually does the work through its minister and those who
In Massey Hall, Toronto, during a national convention
of the American Federation of Labor, the Bureau conducted
a temperance meeting which was attended by 4,ooo working
people. Conferences at which capital and labor were repre-
sented and the labor question frankly discussed from both
sides have been conducted in various parts of the country.
At all times the effort in this social work has been to place
the religious emphasis upon social service and the social
emphasis upon religious work; to increase the efficiency of
the churches and adapt their ministry to the social needs and
conditions of their immediate communities. Under the
leadership of Mr. Stelzle, particularly, cordial relations were
established between church and labor, not alone in the name
of the Presbyterian denomination, but in the interests of all
evangelical forces in America. The character of much
activity was revealed in the campaign of the Men and
Religion Movement, in whose executive administration Mr.
Stelzle was prominent. Through that medium, and in many
56 Year Book of Church and Social Service
ways otherwise, public agencies were inspired to take hold
of and meet more effectively the social and moral needs of
the people in communities all over the land.
At certain periods great emphasis has been laid upon
survey work, which not only investigates conditions but
makes specific recommendations with regard to methods
needed to meet these conditions. In this field the Board has
served numerous interdenominational and civic interests in
the study of social-religious problems in smaller and larger
communities. The more recent effort in survey, especially
recognizing the rapidly enlarging facilities for such work
under public and general social agencies, has been turned
toward such studies as will serve a particular congregation
in the immediate grapple with its task. Much survey work
is still done especially in rural fields and among immigrant
groups, but only such is undertaken as will serve to make
intelligent the application of practical plans through church
agencies. The field of social service was very limitedly
occupied when the social work in the Presbyterian Church
was inaugurated, and the Presbyterian Board's forces
pioneered in many fields where now the survey method has
been widely adopted and carried forward with zeal and
scientific thoroughness by numerous public and semi-public
A distinctive contribution in the city field has been Labor
Temple, organized by Mr. Stelzle, and located at Second
Avenue and Fourteenth Street, in New York. The work
is maintained in a historic Presbyterian church located
at that point, and though for several years no formal church
organization was attempted, there has now developed a
church with an initial membership of five hundred, rapidly
increasing. This institution is now a well-established enter-
prise of the Presbytery of New York, and is under the
superintendency of the Rev. Jonathan C. Day.
Further extensions of the social service program of the
Board are now in process, new plans aiming at a wider
dissemination of social evangelism, the complete organiza-
tion of field work, so that the social message and spirit may
be more widely disseminated among churches of all grades
Church Social Service Organizations 57
and types, so that standards and methods of survey may be
made available for the independent use of churches in fields
of every description, and so that a lay and ordained leader-
ship, socially inspired and trained, may be available for the
operation of the increasingly complicated equipment and
programs now being adopted in churches of the open country
and in congested city centers.
This social activity is interwoven with the whole adminis-
tration of home missions through the Presbyterian Board,
and while certain features of its work are, and will be,
distinctly classified as social service, the tendency is to infuse
the whole enterprise of church extension with the social
spirit and adapt the social method to it, through this historic
JOINT COMMISSION ON SOCIAL SERVICE OF THE PROTESTANT
The first organized effort at social service in the Epis-
copal Church was the formation in 1887 of the Church
Association for the Advancement of the Interests of Labor,
commonly known as "C. A. I. L." This organization was
due to the efforts of nine clergymen of New York City
aided by the influence of Bishops Potter and Huntington.
It was quite fitting that the organization should devote itself
to what was at that time the most insistent phase of the
social problem-the relations between capital and labor. The
organization was designed to work on a national scale and
numbers among its vice-presidents the bishops of many
dioceses. Being an unofficial body it was able to do pioneer
work at a time when the church as a whole was not ready
to take official action with relation to the social problem.
Its efforts have resulted in various measures looking to the
improvement of conditions for working people. The story
of the agitation which led to the organization of "C. A. I. L."
and of its achievements is told in Miss Keyser's interesting
little book, Bishop Potter, the People's Friend (Whittaker,
1910), which contains a statement of the principles formu-
lated as a basis of work for the Association.
58 Year Book of Church and Social Service
The present efforts of the organization are confined largely
to the local field of the City and Diocese of New York.
The next effort on the part of members of the church in
the field of social service was the organization in 1891 of
the Christian Social Union-an American counterpart of the
original English body. This was designed primarily for
propagandist purposes on a national scale. It deserves credit
for having been perhaps the earliest organization of any
Christian body in this country to give definite and con-
secutive attention to the social problem in its various phases.
It developed a considerable literature, comprising some sixty-
odd pamphlets which have been most useful in disseminating
among the clergy and laity of the church ideas of social
reform. For a few years, ending in 1907, the Union was
affiliated with the Church Association for the Advancement
of the Interests of Labor. Latterly it has been largely
instrumental in promoting the organization of the diocesan
social service commissions discussed below. In fact, these
commissions may perhaps with justice be said to owe their
origin to the Union's activity. To the agitation begun by the
Christian Social Union and the Church Association for the
Advancement of the Interests of Labor was also largely due
the creation in 191o of the Joint Commission on the Relations
of Capital and Labor, and in 19o1 of the Joint Commission
on Social Service. Though the Union was never able,
from lack of adequate resources, to carry on any organized
social work, or to formulate any elaborate social program,
it prepared the way for such organization and pronounce-
ment by inspiring members of the Episcopal Church with a
definite interest in social effort. Having served the purpose
for which it was organized, the Union decided, by refer-
endum vote of its members in December, 1911, to disband
and hand over its work to the official agency of the Church-
the present Commission.
Meantime the movement was under way in various
dioceses to relate themselves to the social problem as
presented in their respective fields. Beginning in 1903 with
the appointment of the Social Service Commission of the
Diocese of Long Island, the list of such commissions has
Church Social Service Organizations 59
steadily increased until there are now sixty recognized
diocesan social service commissions, appointed either under
diocesan canon or under resolution by the bishop, and
charged with the functions of investigating social condi-
tions in their respective territories and of taking measures
for the promotion of social reform in cooperation with other
social agencies throughout the diocese. The achievement
of these various diocesan commissions has been considerable.
An examination of a special table printed in one of the
Joint Commission's pamphlets, "Social Service for Diocesan
Commissions," shows that these commissions have been active
in agitation not only for state legislation but for local and
state-wide voluntary effort in the field of social service.
Various municipal and state institutions have found support
from these commissions. In short, the diocesan commissions
in general have stood, so far as possible, for rational move-
ments directed toward social reform. There are at present
about eighty such commissions.
Since the General Convention of 1913 there have also been
appointed social service boards or commissions for each of
the eight Provinces (formerly Missionary Departments),
each including from six to twelve dioceses and missionary
districts. These Provincial agencies work in cooperation
both with the diocesan commissions just noted and with the
Joint Commission on Social Service mentioned below.
All these movements represent steps leading toward the
creation of the present Joint Commission on Social Service.
The title "Joint Commission" is intended to indicate that
the membership of such a commission is drawn from the
two houses which constitute the General Convention-the
House of Bishops and the House of Deputies (including
clerical and lay delegates). That Commission, however,
was preceded by the former Joint Commission on the Rela-
tions between Capital and Labor, originally appointed by
General Convention in 19go, and reappointed in 1904 and
1907. This Commission made no attempt to organize the
church for social service; it contented itself with reports
to General Convention, which contain some specific recom-
mendations for organized action, but which are interesting
60 Year Book of Church and Social Service
chiefly as milestones in the church's progress in this field
of effort. It was in accordance with a resolution appended
to the triennial report of this Commission at Cincinnati in
190o that the Commission was discharged to give place to
another Joint Commission whose scope should include the
entire field of the social problem-not merely one phase of
it-and whose activity should not be limited to the writing
of recommendations. The work of this Commission was
outlined by the resolution in the following terms:
It shall be the duty of this Commission to study and report
upon social and industrial conditions; to coordinate the activi-
ties of the various organizations existing in the church in the
interests of social service; to cooperate with similar bodies in
other communions; to encourage sympathetic relations between
capital and labor; and to deal according to their discretion with
these kindred matters.-Resolution of General Convention, 1913.
During its first year the Commission was dependent on
volunteer effort. The necessity was seen of securing the
services of a secretary who could give his direct attention
to the task. An arrangement was accordingly made whereby
from October I, 1911, to October i, 1912, the Rev. Frank
Monroe Crouch as field secretary gave half of his time, and
since the latter date has given his whole effort, to the Com-
mission's work. An office was opened on October I, 1912,
in the Church Missions House in New York, the organization
of which is now well under way with the aid of two assistants.
During the past three years an extensive correspondence has
been developed: the Commission is in communication with
several hundred ministers and lay workers of the Episcopal
Church and a growing number of workers of other commun-
ions and of secular social and educational agencies in addition.
The Commission's work, however, has not been limited to
the organization of an office. During the same period the
executive secretary has traveled a total of some 50,000 miles
on the Commission's business, diocesan and Provincial, ad-
vising with representatives of diocesan and Provincial social
commissions and making numerous addresses at parish meet-
ings, diocesan conventions, Provincial synods, before theo-
logical schools, and in other directions.
Church Social Service Organizations 61
The aim of the Joint Commission's work has been twofold.
It has attempted (I) to educate and (2) to organize the
Episcopal Church in parish, diocese, and Province for effec-
tive social action in cooperation with social agencies of
other communions and with secular agencies-city, state,
and national-of social and moral reform. By way of educa-
tion of its constituents, the Commission has published since
its appointment in 19Io upwards of a score of pieces of litera-
ture, which are listed in Chapter III (pp. Io9, IIo). It has
also prepared a traveling exhibit consisting of thirty-odd
charts, originally displayed at the General Convention of
1913 and put on view since then at parish exhibits, diocesan
conventions, Provincial synods, as well as at interdenomina-
tional gatherings. A part of this exhibit was reproduced for
display at the Panama Pacific Exposition, where it was
awarded a bronze medal. During the General Convention of
1913 it held further a "social service week," the program
consisting of a mass meeting, a series of conferences on
aspects of the social problem, the exhibit above mentioned,
sermons on social topics in local pulpits by visiting clergy,
and visits to local social agencies. The Commission has also
arranged a correspondence course in ten lessons for the use
of the General Board of Religious Education of the Epis-
The work of organization has centered upon the threefold
divisions already indicated-parish, diocesan, Provincial.
The Joint Commission has since its appointment formulated
general principles of social service to be applied by the
various church agencies above noted to the particular con-
ditions and needs of their respective localities. Several of
these statements of principles and methods are contained in
Chapter IV (pp. 134-182). Its effort has been directed not
so much at immediate results, though these have not been
neglected, as at the preparation of the clergy and lay mem-
bership of the church at large for participation in the social
movement which has given its significant character to modern
times. The Commission's emphasis has been not only upon
the immediate need of social amelioration but upon the
ultimate aim of social reconstruction. It has attempted to
62 Year Book of Church and Social Service
formulate a program of "Christian democracy" which shall
make provision for justice to the less favored classes. Its
effort is based upon a realization of the social implications
of the Bible and of church history and of practical contem-
porary conditions and needs.
The Joint Commission has since its appointment in 191o
maintained close contact with the Commission on the Church
and Social Service appointed by the Federal Council of the
Churches of Christ in America, and through it with the social
service agencies of other communions, the executive secre-
tary of the Joint Commission holding membership in the
Federal Council's Commission and also acting in an advisory
ORGANIZED AGENCIES WITHOUT FIELD
The Social Service Commission of the Christians is asso-
ciated with the Commission on the Country Church and the
Commission on Evangelism in a "Bureau of Evangelism and
Social Service," with the Rev. O. W. Powers, of Dayton,
Ohio, as Secretary and Director. The commission attempted
a survey of the denomination last year, which revealed the
need of a campaign of education in the principles and
methods of social service. It is undertaking this by corre-
spondence, circular letters, addresses, and the circulation of
books and pamphlets. A short reading course has been
suggested for pastors, which some have taken up. Social
service activities especially adapted to rural churches will be
promoted in connection with the Commission on the Country
Church. The Commission seeks to cooperate closely with the
Commission on the Church and Social Service of the Federal
Council. Its Annual Report for 1914 is as follows:
i. The first business of the church is the evangelization of
the world; that is, bringing a saving knowledge of Jesus Christ
to all people. Direct evangelism is by such means as personal
testimony, preaching and teaching Christian truth, and the circu-
Church Social Service Organizations 68
lation of the Scriptures and evangelical literature. Indirect
evangelism is the result of such forces as the influence of a
Christian life, the working of Christian institutions, and the
impact of a Christian social order upon the world.
2. An essential factor in the proclamation of the gospel
is a holy life, and a true evangelism implies a high standard of
morals and a true spiritual life in the church and its ministry.
For the same reason one of the first concerns of a church
committed to world evangelism must be the Christianization of
the social order in the homeland.
3. Social service as a function of the church is direct and
indirect. It is the business of the church, following the example
and precept of the Master, and giving expression to his spirit,
to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, minister to the sick, and in
all possible ways provide for the well-being of men. The same
things are done indirectly when the church opposes wasteful,
vicious, and destructive institutions, customs or practices, and
when she encourages and promotes enterprises, movements,
institutions, customs, and laws that make for the betterment of
mankind. Evangelism, by effecting a transformation of life,
often makes it possible for men to more effectively clothe, feed,
and care for themselves, and becomes a social service of the
4. As the individual Christian life involves conviction of sin,
repentance, regeneration, and service, so the Christianizing of
the social order involves a similar social experience.
There must be conviction of social sin. That is, institutions,
methods, customs, and laws, whether social, educational, indus-
trial and economic, or political, must be measured by the ideals
of Christ, and if found wanting, the members of society must
accept the blame for the existence of the wrong, in so far as they
have contributed to it, or have failed to strive for its removal.
Repentance is demanded, including a genuine sorrow for social
sin, a real effort to right the wrong, and an attempt to induce
right action by the group, institution, community, or state affected.
Social regeneration must be secured, not only by transforming
the lives of the individuals composing the social group, or con-
trolling the institution, but by changing the group itself, bringing
it under the control of the Divine Spirit, so that it will function
in accordance with the law of Christ.
Service must be rendered, not only by individuals to indi-
viduals, but collectively, by the city, state, nation, corporation,
or institution, not omitting the church itself, so that all in their
64 Year Book of Church and Social Service
working shall express the justice, helpfulness, sympathy, and love
5. Direct methods of social service are used by the church,
when she employs her own organization, plant, and corporate
activity in such service. Care of the poor and unfortunate,
ministry to the sick, and similar efforts through the institutions
and agencies which are a part of the church organization, or
subject to its control, have always been recognized as legitimate
enterprises of the church. Other forms of service may and
should be undertaken by the church, when the community
resources are inadequate, or when they cannot be controlled by
the Christian spirit for Christian purposes.
6. Indirect methods of service are those in which the church
becomes merely the inspire and teacher of individuals, who in
turn are able to control social activities in the spirit of Christ.
In some spheres, such as political action or law enforcement,
direct participation of the church may involve grave dangers.
7. The multiplied demands of our modern life upon the
church for direct and indirect social ministry constitute the
greatest opportunity and the mightiest challenge ever offered to
the followers of Christ, and call for a tremendous accession of
spiritual power. That is, social service is not a substitute for
the spiritual life, but necessitates an increase of that life in
order to make such service possible.
8. Evangelism, while a means of inducing the initial experience
of the Christian life, is of itself inadequate for accomplishing
the whole mission of the church. The liberation of spiritual
energies needs to be followed by the recognition of definite tasks
which will give outlet to the new enthusiasm and power and
conserve it for the service of Christ and humanity.
9. The various items in the program of the Kingdom, or
forms of Christian activity, are interrelated, and are not to be
set off, one against another. Neither can one phase wait upon
another, but all must be carried forward together, as needs are
manifested and opportunity offers.
Io. The ultimate aim of the church must be the establishment
of the kingdom of God; that is, the creation of a social order,
composed of saved individuals, which shall embody the spirit of
DISCIPLES OF CHRIST
The Disciples of Christ have an organization known as the
Commission on Social Service and the Country Church. It
Church Social Service Organizations 65
is composed of five men. The Secretary is Prof. Alva W.
Taylor, of the Bible College of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri,
the author of The Social Work of Christian Missions. This
Commission was created at the International Convention
of the Disciples of Christ at Toronto in October, 1913, and
is an expansion of a Committee on Social Service which
was appointed at the General Convention at Portland,
Oregon, in 1911, by a Committee of the American Christian
The Toronto Convention also adopted resolutions calling
for the creation of a special department of Social Service
and the Country Church, with a special secretary in charge,
by the American Christian Missionary Society; also urging
the colleges of the denomination to establish chairs and
lectureships dealing with Social Ethics, Practical Church
Administration, and the Social Function of Religious Insti-
During the last two years the Committee has carried on
a work of agitation and education. It has secured addresses
in many state and district conventions and the appointment
of committees in twenty-eight states, these committees to
formulate reports after thorough study on three points:
(i) social legislation in the state; (2) social service activities
in the local church; (3) the general state of the rural
churches. These state committees form a sort of Advisory
Council to the Commission. The Committee has secured
the publication of many articles in the denominational
journals and has conducted a Social Service Department in
the American Home Missionary. The Commission now has
a successful social service slide bureau through which are
furnished to churches stereopticon lectures on social service
and rural church themes.
It is also now publishing a bulletin upon social service and
the rural church, the first number of which was upon the
Disciples of Christ and the Rural Church. Some 1,500
copies of the bulletin itself and more than ioo,ooo copies of a
leaflet giving a summary of what the bulletin contains have
been circulated. The second series has also appeared entitled
"The Call to Social Service," and others are in preparation-
66 Year Book of Church and Social Service
one on "The Disciples of Christ and Social Service," and
another on the Slavic question. The idea in these bulletins
is not so much to make contributions to social service litera-
ture as to apply the findings of this whole social service
movement to the consciousness of the denomination.
This body has always laid great emphasis on Social Service
as an inherent part of Christianity.
With the birth of Quakerism in the mid-seventeenth
century there came into the world a powerful return of
this social aspect of Christianity. George Fox, even in his
period of agony and spiritual travail, was far more con-
cerned over the condition of society about him than he was
over the state of his own soul. "I was sorely exercised,"
he says, "to go to the courts and cry for justice, to speak
and write to judges and justices to do justly, and to warn
people who kept public houses for entertainment that they
should not let people have more drink than was good for
them." He attacked every social custom which, in his
own words, "trained up people to vanity and looseness."
"I was also made," he adds, "to declare against deceitful
merchandise and cheating and cozening, warning all to
deal justly, to speak the truth, to let their yea be yea, and
their nay be nay, and to do unto others as they would have
others do unto them."
At another time we find him taking his stand before the
justices of the peace against the oppression caused by fixing
a legal wage for farm laborers below what was just, that is,
below a living wage. There still exists in the archives of
Providence, Rhode Island, a letter written by George Fox
to the magistrates and other officials of Rhode Island, in
which he touched with power and insight almost every social
problem of the day, and suggested new laws for securing a
wider freedom and a fuller justice for the citizens of that
This social spirit, which was one of the great driving
forces in the life of the founder of our Society and which
comes to light in all his manifold activities, has in like
Church Social Service Organizations 67
manner been a luminous feature of Quakerism in all its
periods. The early Friends played a great part in establish-
ing a fixed price for goods and merchandise. They helped
greatly to abolish the barbaric laws that in the seventeenth
century imposed capital punishment for more than two
hundred different offenses. They led the way in the slow
but steady reform of prisons and jails. They pleaded and
wrought for freedom for oppressed races and for larger
chances of development for these races after they had won
To develop this social heritage from the past, the Social
Service Commission, Prof. Rufus M. Jones, of Haverford
College, being chairman, recommended to the Five Years
Meeting of the Friends the appointment of a Social Service
Board, consisting of one member from each Yearly Meeting,
to prepare or suggest social service literature and to assist
in every way possible the organization of social service
committees in subordinate meetings throughout the country.
The Commission also urged all superintendents of evangel-
istic and church extension work, and pastoral committees
to make themselves familiar with the great lines of social
service work which is being carried on by the leading de-
nominations of the Christian church, and that as "far as
possible they prepare themselves for the practical extension
and promotion of this part of our religious mission in the
The Commission also encouraged the formation of social
service study groups and the development of community
study, and recommended various forms of social service
to "Monthly Meetings," which are now being developed
under the guidance of the Commission.
GERMAN EVANGELICAL CHURCH
The German Evangelical Church of North America has
organized the Evangelical Commission on Social Service, the
report of which for 1915 includes the following:
"The Commission is firmly convinced that our social prob-
lems can be solved only by the gospel of Jesus Christ in its
application to present-day conditions. Pastors are earnestly
68 Year Book of Church and Social Service
urged to make this application to all social conditions requir-
ing it. It is again urged that social service topics be
thoroughly discussed at district and pastoral conferences and
at Brotherhood and young people's conventions. District
social service commissions should be created wherever this
has not yet been done, for the purpose of studying local
social conditions and of seeking to abolish any social wrongs
that may be discovered.
"All district commissions are requested to report regularly
to the Central Commission, so that the latter may fully
cooperate with the Federal Council Commission. The Central
Commission gladly recognizes and fully appreciates the local
social service work that is being accomplished through city
mission effort and by individual churches, and encourages
most heartily the undertaking of similar work wherever
EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH
The Lutheran Church has long had what is known as
"The Inner Mission," the idea of which is stated as follows:
The idea of Inner Mission is to realize the universal
priesthood of all believers; to reestablish the primitive ideal
of Christianity, in which loving service to a needy world
becomes the manifest sign wherever there is a Christian; to
have the entire church prove her faith by her saving love.
It is thus the idea of Inner Mission to put the entire so-called
"laity" into the Samaritan attitude of vital, personal touch
with need. The prime aim must, therefore, always be
congregational development. The unused, flabby strength
of members is to be developed and the way of effectual
service prepared for them. There must be an increased force
of real Christian ministry in every congregation. Inner
Mission's ideal is to have the entire live and conscious church
in service. It emphasizes the constantly forgotten, despised
fact that it is the church, not just pastors and deaconesses,
to which the commission is given of carrying out Christ's
work upon earth. Congregations must more largely gain the
idea of personal, loving service of men for Jesus' sake.
Inner Mission is the church's endeavor to make real to-day
Church Social Service Organizations 69
what Christ was in his day-a person going about "doing
good"; it is the Christ of "yesterday and to-day," going
about in the person of his members, applying the balm of
Gilead to the world's open sore, whether mental, moral, or
physical-and always, as with Christ, for the purpose of
reaching the depth of the wound,-sin.
It is thus manifest that were this ideal of Inner Mission
fully realized, many present institutions of mercy would not
be needed at all. Since, however, the conditions of life
prevent the complete realization of Inner Mission's ideal, a
secondary idea of Inner Mission is the establishment of insti-
tutions where the great and complicated wounds of men are
treated for Jesus' sake and in his name. Everywhere such
institutions are needed. In special places, such as cities, some
of special character are demanded, like homes and settle-
ments, and some special work is required, as in state institu-
tions. This secondary, institutional aim of Inner Mission
must never be allowed to supersede the primary, congrega-
tional aim, in spite of the constant temptation which will
exist to have that take place.
For the effectual realization and permanent development of
the idea the General Synod at its meeting in 1915 established
an Inner Board, whose president is instructed to cooperate
with the Federal Council Commission. The purposes of the
r. To carry on an educational campaign through literature,
the holding of institutes, and other means, for the purpose
of effecting more truly in all congregations of the General
Synod the reality of Inner Mission-active Christian service
to need on the part of the entire congregation, and of all
its individual members; for the purpose, also, of promoting
the establishment of local Inner Mission societies in locali-
ties where special Inner Mission work needs to be done;
and, in general, for Inner Mission purposes.
2. To aim at a more harmonious order in the relation of
the General Synod to the various institutions of an Inner
Mission nature already existing; to plan for the establish-
ment of many and various other institutions of mercy
throughout the land, in accordance with well-conceived ideas
70 Year Book of Church and Social Service
of need and of territory; to give to each institution the
benefits of wide experience and large cooperation in insti-
tutional work; to make a report for all of these institutions
at every session of the General Synod; in general, to
organize effectually our institutional work, while not inter-
fering with each institution's autonomy in its entire internal
management and control.
3. To develop cooperation with other Lutherans in the
prosecution of Inner Mission work.
4. To do such other things, under the direction of the
General Synod, as pertain to and are best calculated to pro-
mote the general Inner Mission interests of our church.
METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH
This body has a Standing Committee on Social Service,
appointed by the Board of Missions, which has the general
supervision and direction of the social service work of the
church, subject to the approval of the Board. The Com-
mittee is composed of Rev. John M. Moore, the Secretary
of the Department of Home Missions, Nashville, Tennessee;
Mrs. R. W. MacDonell, Secretary of the Woman's Depart-
ment of Home Missions, Nashville, Tennessee; Mrs. W. G.
Piggott, Irvington, Kentucky; Rev. A. F. Watkins, President
of Millsaps College, Jackson, Mississippi; Prof. O. E. Brown,
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee; Rev. W. A.
Christian, pastor in Richmond, Virginia; and Mr. R. F.
Burden, merchant, Macon, Georgia.
The law of the church requires the election by the Church
Conference of a Social Service Committee in each church
which shall report quarterly its activities to the Quarterly
Conference. The duties of this committee have been defined
and the members are furnished with a leaflet giving in out-
line the various forms of service which may be expected.
The General Conference at its quadrennial meeting in
1914 adopted the Social Creed which was adopted by the
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America.
The Woman's Missionary Council of the Methodist Epis-
copal Church, South, maintains thirty Wesley Houses or
social settlements for white people and two Bethlehem Houses
Church Social Service Organizations 71
or social settlements for Negroes. Eighty-five deaconesses
give their entire time to social service work. In the work for
Negroes attention is given to their home environment, their
education, their treatment in the hands of the law, and to all
means by which their domestic, educational, and religious
conditions may be improved. In the work for white people,
and especially tenants and immigrants, attention is given to
sanitation, housing, health, sex hygiene, domestic science,
and such means as will purify the environments and brighten
the conditions in which they live.
REFORMED CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES (GERMAN)
Through its Board of Home Missions this body has ap-
pointed a Committee on Social Service. The Resolution
calling for this Committee reads as follows:
That this Department be instituted for the purpose chiefly of
giving information and inspiration to the church in these
matters, and not for the purpose of exercising control of ad-
The Committee has adopted what it calls a Social Creed,
for its own guidance. This contains sections on (I) Indi-
vidual and Social Salvation; (2) The Duty of the Church
in Social Service; (3) The Duty of the Individual Christian
in Social Service; (4) The Social Problem. The various
District Synods likewise have Committees on Social Service,
which are cooperating with the General Committee. Numer-
ous articles on the subject of social service have appeared
in the church papers; and at the five Missionary Confer-
ences held in various sections of the denomination during
the summer of 1915 the subject of social service was presented
in platform addresses.
UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
In the spring of 19Io Allegheny Presbytery petitioned for
the appointment by the General Assembly of the United
Presbyterian Church of a committee which should be known
as the Committee on Industrial Conditions. Such a com-
mittee was appointed. The General Assembly met in Wash-
72 Year Book of Church and Social Service
ington, Pennsylvania, in the month of May, 1911, at which
time the committee presented its first report and a conference
was held at one of the evening sessions, which was entirely
devoted to a consideration of Industrial and Social Condi-
tions. Reports were made by the same committee at the
meetings of General Assembly in Seattle, Washington, in
1912, and in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1913. The Minutes of the
General Assembly of the United Presbyterian Church for
1911, 1912, 1913, contain the reports of the committee. In
the meetings of the General Assembly in 1912 and 1913 the
platform of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ
in America was adopted without one dissenting vote. In its
report at Atlanta, Georgia, in the spring of 1913, the Com-
mittee on Industrial Conditions made the following recom-
mendation: "We recommend that the Board of Home Mis-
sions be given supervision of the work relating to Social
Service and Industrial Conditions and that it be authorized
to make whatever arrangements it may deem best in carrying
forward the work already inaugurated." This recommenda-
tion was adopted, and the Home Board of the United
Presbyterian Church has appointed a committee to be known
as the Committee on Social Service and Industrial Con-
This committee consists at present of the Rev. J. K. Mc-
Clurkin, Chairman, and the Rev. H. H. Marlin, Secretary,
the other members of the committee being Judge James M.
Galbreath, Hon. John H. Murdoch, and Mr. Richard Moon,
Sr. A brief outline of its program is as follows: To publish
lists of books and seek to induce pastors to become conver-
sant in a thorough manner with the great modern social
service movement; to encourage pastors to preach on different
phases of this movement; to form classes for social service
study; to have social service committees appointed in all
our churches; to make a thorough study of community needs
and lift community life to higher levels of privilege and
opportunity; to secure working men and women of Christian
sympathies to address the people of our churches; to have
fair-minded employers present their views that a wide un-
prejudiced view may be obtained of the whole mighty field;
Church Social Service Organizations 73
when good labor laws are pending in state or national legis-
lation to agitate and petition that such legislation may be
passed and enforced; to urge a general observance of Labor
Day by our churches; to recommend that pastors preach
sermons gradually covering the whole platform of the Federal
Council; to recommend that departments be maintained in
our church papers for the dissemination of needed knowledge
as to social and industrial conditions, and for the purpose of
keeping these great issues prominently before our people;
to recommend that presbyteries appoint social service com-
mittees; that General Assemblies and Synods give an honored
place in their programs for discussion and conference con-
cerning social service ideals and plans; to urge the necessity
of granting to all people the Sabbath day as a day of rest;
to make the church of Christ the mightiest conciliating force
of the industrial world in establishing just and friendly re-
lations between employer and employed; to seek to apply
with new vigor the principles of Christ to all matters at issue
between men; to seek to focus attention upon the great two-
fold need of a regenerated man and a regenerated society.
With such a program the National Brotherhood has ap-
pointed a Commission on Social Service, and the Young
People's Christian Union, a Committee.
NO ORGANIZED AGENCIES
It must be remembered that in other denominations, where
there is no department of social service, many social service
activities are carried on by state and district units and by
The Free Baptists as a denomination are not now engaged
in any form of social service, mainly because the Free Bap-
tists and Baptists are uniting, and Free Baptists look for
direction and inspiration in social service from the Baptist
Social Service Commission. In this transition period, how-
ever, local activities are being developed.
The Mennonite Church has no organized social service
work. The churches are for the greater part rural or village
74 Year Book of Church and Social Service
churches, which have thus far served the social needs of
the community, and where the Mennonite people are located
in fairly large numbers, the community spirit, which is still
strong, is serving the church to good purpose.
The African Methodist Episcopal Church is doing con-
siderable local work; the spirit is abroad, and the idea of
social service is getting hold both of the laity and the min-
istry. The African Methodist Episcopal Church Quarterly
Review contains a Department on the Church and Social
Service, and the leaders of the denomination are hoping
and expecting that the denomination as such will before long
be organized in these interests.
They are expounding the principles and measures adopted
by the Federal Council to their people and rallying them
to their support. They appeal to other denominations to see
that these principles are applied and these measures worked
out without race discrimination.
The Moravian Church is organizing with unusual effec-
tiveness in the interest of country life and the rural church
The Presbyterian Church in the United States (Southern)
has all through the South a large and important missionary
work, which gives special consideration to social problems.
The Reformed Church in America (Dutch) has no organ-
ized social service work, nor anything which might be termed
a "social movement," but the work of many of its local
churches, especially in the cities, is of a social nature.
The United Brethren at their General Conference in May,
1913, passed an act authorizing the Home Missionary So-
ciety to create a Bureau of Social Service and Moral Reform.
The Church stands for the Federal Council platform, but
there is as yet no organized social service effort.
Other Denominations.-The Evangelical Association, the
Methodist Protestant, the Reformed Episcopal, the Re-
formed Presbyterian, the Seventh-Day Baptists, the United
Evangelical, and other bodies, are engaged, especially at
Church Social Service Organizations 75
important centers, in the work under consideration. The
only reason their work is not more fully reported in this
review is that it is difficult where there is no denominational
agency responsible for it.
It should also be remembered that, in addition to the work
comprehended in this review, all the denominations are really
doing a large work of social uplift through their various
Home and Foreign Mission Boards. The attempt here has
been only to present the work so far as it is assuming the
form of organization in a specific and defined interest.
The Churches of the Southern Baptist Convention have a
committee which cooperates with the Northern Baptist De-
partment of Social Service and Brotherhood.
At Atlanta, Georgia, May, 1913, the Assemblies of the
Northern, Southern, and United Presbyterian Churches ap-
pointed a Joint Commission to report upon the attitude and
relation of the Presbyterian Churches to social service.
SOCIAL SERVICE THROUGH INTERCHURCH
Social Service is recognized to-day as presenting one of
the greatest factors in unifying the work of the churches of
any community. The questions of creed and polity do not
interfere with people working together any more than they
interfere with their praying and singing together. Each
community presents tasks in the application of the teachings
of Jesus to our common life which cannot be performed by
the single local church, no matter how efficient it may be.
LOCAL FORMS OF THE FEDERAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES, AND
The churches no longer doubt the reality of their social
responsibility. They know they must meet this responsibility
in social relationships as churches. This has resulted in the
formation of interchurch organizations of various kinds.
We have the Council of Churches in Dallas, Texas; the
76 Year Book of Church and Social Service
Men's Federation in Louisville, Kentucky; the Men and
Religion Forward Movement Committee, in Atlanta, Georgia,
and the Church Federations in many cities. The term most
commonly applied to such combined work is the Church
As the work has gone forward it has been found necessary
to form committees for cooperation in other fields than that
of social service. There are now committees on Comity,
Evangelism, Bible Study, Boys' Work, Missions, Publicity.
The reflex influence of this type of work upon the churches
engaged cannot be measured. There has quietly come about
a mutual understanding of each other not possible before.
Publicly and privately the members magnify their agree-
ments and minimize their differences. They do not love
their own denominations less, but they love the Kingdom
more. Denominational loyalty is glorified by the devotion
to the welfare of the Kingdom. The great social value of
this changing attitude and spirit cannot be estimated. It is
impossible to return to the stultifying sectarianism of a
Through this union of Christian forces many encouraging
reports are being received. In Pittsburgh the Committee on
Social Education arranged for the delivery of 400 lectures
and addresses to upwards of 40,000 people. The Committee
on Civic Action has undertaken to so organize the church
forces by congregation and precinct as to carry into effect
the message of the pulpit. A total of 56,000 communications
and pieces of literature have been issued to this end.
Through the insistent attitude of the commission toward
commercialized vice the Morals Bureau of the city govern-
ment was appointed, which did such excellent work in
abolishing the tenderloin; and all through the history of
that body this Christian Social Service Union has been the
moral force supporting it. Similar reports are made of
work of the committees on Amusements, on Surveys, on
The Social Service work of the Cleveland Federation of
Churches has been most notable. The report made by the
Chairman of the Social Betterment Committee on the sup-
Church Social Service Organizations 77
pressing of prostitution in Cleveland reveals what can be
done by the power of the united church.
One of the most interesting developments in the line of
church activities is in Atlanta, Georgia. For four years
the Executive Committee of the Men and Religion Forward
Movement has been attempting to carry out the Social
Service Program of that movement. A remarkable series of
editorials appeared in the daily papers in space paid for by
the Committee. The publicity campaign was so effective
that the opposing forces saw that they must prevent the
papers from selling this space to the united church. That
the church might still proclaim its convictions, a weekly
paper, The Way, was issued by Mr. J. J. Eagan, chairman of
the committee, with Mr. Marion M. Jackson as editor. By
means of this campaign in one field of activities, the follow-
ing results have been obtained, as given in the Atlanta Men
and Religion Bulletin, No. 189.
APPLIED CHRISTIANITY, ATLANTA, GEORGIA, 1911-1915
I. It has caused the closing of the Red Light districts in
Atlanta and other cities.
2. It has provided shelter and clothes for unhappy inmates
of the houses who would accept these when the houses were
3. It led the state to build the Georgia Training School
for Girls. Forty-two girls are living in a home valued at
more than $40,000. Real value cannot be estimated, so great
is the good which has been done.
4. It opened a home in Atlanta for girls without work,
and girls whose wages are too little, where sixteen girls are
5. It brought about the study of conditions among con-
victs in Georgia, leading to a more humane treatment of
prisoners, and the beginning of a change that will eventually
remodel the prison system of Georgia.
6. It led the legislature to enact the Probation Law,
enabling judges and probation officers to save first offenders
from becoming habitual criminals.
The Underlying Principle. These things have been done,
78 Year Book of Church and Social Service
not by dictation, but by learning the facts and laying them
before lawmakers, public officials, and citizens, and asking
them to consider them in the light of the teachings of
COMMISSION ON FEDERATED MOVEMENTS
During the last year a new Commission of the Federal
Council has been formed which is known as the "Commis-
sion on Federated Movements." This Commission is in
reality a federation of federated movements. A portion of
the Commission consists of the representatives (unofficial)
of the following organizations doing interchurch work:
Adult Bible Class and Brotherhood Movements (Denomina-
tional and Interdenominational)
American Sunday School Union
Council of Women for Home Missions
Home Missions Council
International Committee of the Young Men's Christian Associa-
International Sunday School Association
Laymen's Missionary Movement
Local, County, and State Federations
Missionary Education Movement
National Board of Young Women's Christian Associations
Sunday School Council of Evangelical Denominations
Young People's Organizations (Denominational and Interdenom-
This Commission will cooperate with state and local inter-
church organizations to make Christian cooperation more
effective along all lines. Mr. Fred B. Smith is the Chairman
of this Commission. Mr. Roy B. Guild is Executive
Secretary, and Mr. James A. Whitmore is Field Secretary.
The program of work laid down for this Commission by
the conference of Participating Organizations at Atlantic
City and approved by the Commission will mean much more
for the success of the social service work in the churches
of the country. It will be a very great help to those desiring
greater efficiency to have the results of such work gathered
up by a central agency and sent to all parts of the country.
Church Social Service Organizations
The reporting of all such work is earnestly solicited by'the
Commission. The following items in the program of work
are particularly pertinent:
I. AN ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT STATUS OF FEDERATED
Many communities have adopted programs calling for
Christian cooperation between churches and other religious
organizations. These have been valuable experiments. Some
have met with success and some with failure. A careful
study of the same is essential to the making of recommenda-
tions to other communities. A survey of the present status
of Federated work will form the basis for future programs.
This is the most immediate task. There is a wealth of inspir-
ing facts which should be known by all, instead of only by
the groups of workers who have had success in certain
communities. Christian cooperation is an inspiring reality,
as well as an intense desire.
2. MESSAGES ON THE COMMUNITY PROBLEM IN CHRISTIAN
From time to time this Commission will arrange for
the deliverance of great messages before conferences and
communities on the principle of Christian unity in service.
When the men with this message can be secured, and proper
arrangements can be made, much will be done toward crystal-
lizing into action the heart longing of many for an end to
much of the wasteful competition of to-day. Such messen-
gers will help to develop an attitude of mind on the part of
the public which will demand sympathetic, aggressive team
play among the religious forces of communities.
3. A BALANCED APPEAL FOR MOTIVE POWER AND MECHANISM
This Commission will give forth through the messages of
the secretaries and the members throughout the country and
through literature a Christian appeal that is as compre-
hensive as the interests it represents. It recognizes and
proclaims the need of increased Christian passion and im-
80 Year Book of Church and Social Service
proved Christian programs. The dual purpose is to have
fiercer fires under the boiler and finer mechanism to utilize
the developed power, and to have them both at the same time.
The success of the work undertaken will be in proportion
to the ability to stimulate the souls of men and to suggest or
have them initiate effective lines of action. There will be
no divorcing of these mutually dependent elements of the
gospel message. Through boys' work, Bible study, social
service, missions, soul winning, the ideal will be realized. A
commission combining so many strong constructive and
aggressive Christian forces faces a time when this message
will be heard. The world needs the whole gospel for the
whole man. Here we have the vision of the whole church
laboring for the Christianizing of our whole country.
COUNTRY CHURCH MOVEMENT
The development of the Country Church Movement has
been coordinate with that of the social service movement.
Because of the fact that the restoration of the country
church to its place of community leadership depends largely
upon the development of a community program nearly all
the denominational social service organizations have given
special attention to the needs of the country church.
In the years 19o1, 1911, and 1912, under the supervision
of Research Secretary the Rev. G. Frederick Wells, the
Federal Council maintained a "bureau and clearing-house of
research, information and promotion, touching the various
church and country life interests." Since 1913 a special
Committee, known as the Committee on Church and Country
Life, has been in charge of this work, and the Rev. C. O.
Gill has been employed to give it his undivided attention.
In December, 1914, the Executive Committee of the
Federal Council of Churches at its annual meeting deter-
mined to create a Commission to whose direction its rural
work should be entrusted. At their meeting, on December 2o,
the members of the Committee on Church and Country Life
were informed that they had been appointed on the new
Commission and the necessary steps were taken to secure
the nomination of other members by the constituent bodies
Church Social Service Organizations 81
of the Federal Council. In order to secure the continuance
of the work already begun, a Committee of Direction was
appointed. The work is now under the supervision of this
During the past year the office of this Commission has
been in Columbus, Ohio. It was the idea of the committee
to make Ohio something of a clearing-house of information
and it was thought desirable to be in close contact with the
rural work in a state which is fairly central and in which
there is a variety of rural conditions.
The Commission has been of some assistance to those
interested in the organization of rural church and country
life in Ohio. An organization called the Ohio Rural Life
Association has been formed during the year, including an
Advisory Council of persons who are in close touch with
work for the betterment of country life, while there is a
Committee on Interchurch Cooperation, consisting of bishops,
superintendents, and others, representing sixteen denomina-
tions. A program for constructive work has been adopted.
But the main work during the year in Ohio has been a
state-wide survey. The attempt has been made to ascertain
the location and denomination of every rural church, its
present membership, whether it is gaining or losing in mem-
bership, and whether it ordinarily has a resident pastor and
what part of a minister's service it receives.
The surveys made by the Presbyterian Church and others
during the last five or six years indicate that conditions are
no better in other states. It seems there is ground to hope
that through interdenominational cooperation something can
be done for the improvement of the situation. While better-
ment can be brought about only by slow advancement, it is
a matter of great importance that even though slow, such
advancement shall be made. If the Commission, in coopera-
tion with the people of Ohio and through correspondence
with persons in other states, can learn ways and means for
the solution of the vital and fundamental problem of rural
church decline, its service should prove one of the most
important of those rendered by the Federal Council of the
82 Year Book of Church and Social Service
It is proposed in the state of Ohio, as a chief part of the
work for the next year, to make a special study of successful
work of country churches and rural pastors, to publish a
description of it in bulletins and to send these to every rural
pastor in the state. Thus it is proposed out of actual
accomplishment on the field itself to create higher ideals and
standards for rural church work.
The Commission held a national Conference on the Coun-
try Church in connection with the Annual Meeting of the
Federal Council Executive Committee, at Columbus, Ohio,
It has prepared a brief statement on the Function, Plat-
form, and Program of the Country Church.
Its work is organized under Committees on the following:
Denominational Country Church Organization.
Sunday Schools and Church Societies.
State and County Federations.
Among the denominations the Methodist Federation for
Social Service has a Country Life Section, the Chairman of
which is the Rev. G. Frederick Wells, Tyringham, Massa-
chusetts. Rural Country Church Commissions have been
organized in a number of Annual Conferences, and where
these do not exist the Conference Social Service Commis-
sions give special attention to the needs of the country
church and community. A standard program for country
and village churches is being worked out. This work will
be taken over by the Board of Home Missions and Church
Extension, which is organizing a Rural Church Department.
The Moravian Church has a working Committee on
Country Life, whose representative is the Rev. Edmund
de S. Brunner, Coopersburg, Pa.
The Country Church Work of the Board of Home Mis-
sions of the Presbyterian Church (Northern) is in its
seventh year. The Rev. Warren H. Wilson is Secretary.
Church Social Service Organizations 88
In order of time the work has been developed in the follow-
Country Church Institutes and Conferences are held in
rural centers for the training of the ministers and officers
of country churches. They are one to three days in length.
Speakers represent the allies of the country church. These
institutes are always interdenominational, and are frequently
held in other than Presbyterian churches.
Summer Schools for Country Ministers have been pro-
moted by this department in every section of the country.
Each year between two and three hundred Presbyterian
ministers are assembled at summer schools which offer at
least two weeks in religious pedagogy and in the sociology
of religion. These schools are largely attended by ministers
of all denominations.
Social Surveys are made in various sections of the coun-
try, by this department, on the request of presbyteries or
synods which promise beforehand to make effective use of
the results of investigation. They exhibit the condition of
all churches in the area investigated, and of schools, granges,
and other public social institutions. The results of the
survey are prepared for use in religious and other public
assemblies, as a showing of the work done by the churches
in the country.
Addresses and Conferences are presented with frequency
in educational and other public institutions. The depart-
ment has been champion of the country church in many
places during the seven years of its existence, because it has
undertaken the work in the interests of all churches.
Demonstration Parishes have been established at the re-
quest of local Presbyterian bodies in many states of the
Union. By this means the two types of country church which
are most important are brought out in strong relief: first,
churches which should come to self-support; second, churches
which are missionary and dependent, in populous and needy
regions. The department is placing resident ministers, each
giving full time to one congregation and making the church
serve every need of the country community-economic, social,
educational, and religious.
84 Year Book of Church and Social Service
MISSIONARY EDUCATION MOVEMENT
156 Fifth Avenue, New York City
The Missionary Education Movement of the United States
and Canada was organized on July 18, 1902. It now feder-
ates sixty-two home and foreign mission boards in united
promotion of missionary education, which, in most mission
boards, includes social education. The aim of the movement
is to foster missionary training of all ages within the local
church by systematic instruction, the promotion of giving
and prayer for missions, and actual personal and social
service in the home, church, and community.
Its chief activities are the editorial preparation and publi-
cation of literature for leaders, committee workers, and all
of those who receive instruction, including literature on the
social aspects of both home and foreign missions. This
literature is designed for use by pastors, Sunday-schools,
young people's societies, men's and women's organizations,
and all other agencies within the local church.
Further activities are the training of leaders in inter-
denominational missionary summer schools of which there
are nine in Canada and the United States; the extension of
summer training through institutes, normal class campaigns,
interdenominational and denominational Sunday-schools,
young people's and general church conventions; the enlist-
ment of young men and women in Christian work as a life-
service; cooperation with governing committees of all kinds
of religious agencies concerning their missionary educational
policies and programs; the publication or distribution of
interdenominational missionary magazines and reports; and
in general serving as a clearing-house in missionary educa-
tional matters for the mission boards and their respective
denominations. In all of these activities social education,
social evangelism, and social service are emphasized.
The Movement is supervised by a Board of Managers of
sixty-three mission board secretaries and laymen representing
twenty denominations. It has a staff of eight secretaries.
Its support is received chiefly from personal donations. Its
literature is published at cost price.
Church Social Service Organizations 85
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION AND YOUNG WOMEN'S
These organizations have come to regard themselves more
definitely as auxiliary forces of the church-a definite part
of the church life of the country.
INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE YOUNG MEN'S
124 East 28th Street, New York City
The International Committee has no specific department
of Social Service, but social service is a phase of all of its
work, for the fundamental principle of each of its depart-
ments is to promote the work of that department in its
largest possible ministry to the needs of men and boys.
The departments which more nearly approximate pure
social service are:
The Industrial Department, which promotes its work in
industrial communities, in logging camps and in mining
centers. In this work the Association ministers to the
recreative, health, and social needs of men. English is
taught to foreigners and the latter are met at the ports of
entry and at their final points of destination, thus bringing
them in contact with wholesome and representative young
men. A special service of great value is the enlistment of col-
lege students and alumni in service for foreign speaking men.
The County Department, which seeks to coordinate in its
policy all of the forces in the community, including the
church, school, and grange, in work for the common good.
Community surveys, health institutes, play demonstrations
and play picnics are promoted, thus reconstructing the
recreative and social life of the community. A play manual
has been written for rural teachers.
Community Boys' Work. In this plan no central equip-
ment is needed. The secretary of the Association gives his
entire time to the community, energizing school, church,
playgrounds, scout organizations, in their relation to the boys
of the entire community undertaking such specific tasks
as may be most essential in meeting the unmet needs.
86 Year Book of Church and Social Service
A tremendous volume of social service work, however, is
done through the general departments of the Association.
In the Physical Department, with the aid of the several
training agencies, hundreds of men have been trained as
physical directors for colleges, schools, and churches. In a
single year as many as three thousand volunteer leaders
have been furnished for playgrounds and churches and
other organizations. These volunteer leaders alone have
served over 400,000 men and boys annually. Over one hun-
dred cities have Sunday School Athletic Leagues directed
by Association leaders. A unique swimming campaign has
been originated and promoted in which local Associations
throw open their natatoriums to the public and provide free
swimming lessons. About 30,000, 40,000, and 50,ooo indi-
viduals have been taught to swim during the past three years
and fully 150o,ooo were given lessons. Several thousand indi-
viduals have taken the Association's life saving tests.
In the Educational Department the Association seeks to
furnish to men and boys already at work courses of study
which will fit them more efficiently as wage-earners and
which will increase their earning capacity.
In the Student or College Department three men are
giving all of their time to promoting social study and
service. One of these men is directing a campaign of sex
education in the colleges, employing the services of three
able lecturers who will cover the principal institutions of
the country each year, working through local Associations.
Several pieces of printed matter have been issued setting
forth the social service program, in which students can
cooperate. The Alumni Movement, which, in brief, has to
do with relating college graduates to all forms of service
through the church and other agencies in the cities and rural
communities where college graduates locate, is being actively
promoted. The Department, too, is conducting an aggressive
campaign for recruits for professional social service and is
able to relate them to the organizations that are needing
In the Army and Navy Department the ample provision
by the Association for social intercourse, games, reading
Church Social Service Organizations 87
matter, as well as banking privileges, make for very definite
results in social as well as individual service. For instance,
the Association in the Navy handles for safekeeping and
permanent deposit something over $700,000 a year for the
sailors. Over 6,ooo men have joined the Total Abstinence
League in the past three years.
The methods and influence of the organization follow the
fleet wherever it goes.
Local Associations carry on a remarkable volume and
variety of social service activities. There is a movement to
establish men's hotels where young men in very modest
circumstances can find lodging.
The Associations are also valuable factors in finding
employment for men, this work having grown to large and
This social service is done in the spirit of Christian
service, as an expression of the religious life and as an
effort to promote more completely the program of the king-
dom of God.
For several years a Social Service Society, composed of
employed officers of the Young Men's Christian Associa-
tion, was in existence, which stimulated the Associations to
engage in a more extensive social service program. Annual
conferences were held and the following topics considered:
The Young Men's Christian Association and Health, The
Immigrant and the Community, Juvenile Delinquency. The
proceedings are in print and contain important pronounce-
ments upon the subjects discussed.
NATIONAL BOARD OF THE YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN
600 Lexington Avenue, New York City
Purpose: The Young Women's Christian Association aims
to promote the physical, social, intellectual, moral, and
spiritual interests of young women. To do this it undertakes
in city, country, and student communities many forms of
service, aiming always to supplement rather than to duplicate
88 Year Book of Church and Social Service
the work of other organizations. It is the interdenomina-
tional agency of the church in many forms of Christian
social service which can better be carried on by all the
churches working together than by each alone.
Organization: For the effective promotion of this work
throughout the country the local Associations are united in
a national organization with headquarters in New York
City and substations for the various "fields" into which the
country is divided in eleven different cities.
Activities: The work of this national organization includes:
I. The establishment of new Associations and an advisory
relationship to all local organizations. For this work there
is a staff of more than one hundred employed officers,
besides many volunteer workers.
2. The training of workers. A National Training School
in New York, registering about fifty students yearly and
conducting courses on religious and social subjects, develops
leadership for local and national positions.
3. The holding of eleven summer conferences in different
sections of the country and many smaller camps and confer-
ences throughout the year for the inspiration and training of
both leaders and members.
Lines of service which are being especially emphasized
at present are:
I. The education of the Association membership on such
fundamental subjects as thrift and efficiency, social morality
and character standards. Thoroughgoing plans for the pro-
motion of ideals in these directions have been made and are
being carried out by three especially appointed commissions.
2. The development of Association work in forms specially
adapted to meet the needs of certain distinct groups of
young women, such as,
(1) Immigration and foreign community work. This in-
cludes the establishment in cities having a large foreign
population of an international institute, with foreign-speaking
(2) Colored work. Associations are being organized in
schools for colored women, and in many cities branch Asso-
ciations for colored women are formed in connection with
Church Social Service Organizations 89
the regular Association. In these, leadership is largely in
the hands of colored women themselves.
(3) County work. An especially adapted form of the
Association organization has been worked out for country
districts. Here the Association aims to be a centralizing and
spiritualizing force in the country life movement, developing
not so much a distinctive work of its own, but rather con-
tributing its leadership to the other religious and social
efforts in the community.
(4) Industrial work. This deals largely with young women
in factories and industrial centers. It establishes self-govern-
ing clubs in which Association leaders study with the girls
the industrial and social problems which they face, helping
to develop in them not only a social consciousness and a
sense of their own solidarity and interdependence, but Chris-
tian leadership as well.
3. The development of a more thorough understanding
of present-day social problems on the part of the Association
leadership, both national and local. The effort that is being
made in this respect has expressed itself in the following:
(1) Special courses of study for leaders, including indus-
trial history, current industrial and social problems, and
labor organizations among women, and also the teachings
of Jesus as they are related to our present social life.
(2) Research work by an especially appointed commission
on the question of household employment, looking toward
some helpful contribution from the Association to the solu-
tion of this perplexing problem.
INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND ARBITRATION
This field is usually covered by the Social Service agencies
of the denominations, in many cases by special committees.
This important international form of social service is
fostered by all the denominational agencies. The Federal
Council has a separate organized Commission on Peace and
Arbitration of great influence, which has been instrumental
in bringing about the organization of the Church Peace
Union and the World Alliance of the Churches.
90 Year Book of Church and Social Service
In cooperation with the Commission on Peace and Arbi-
tration the Federal Council has a Commission on Relations
with Japan which has published an investigation of the
Japanese situation in California and sent President Shailer
Mathews and the Rev. Sidney L. Gulick as a Christian
embassy to the churches and people of Japan.
In cooperation with the Federal Council Commission on
Christian Education, Sunday-school lessons on international
peace and international relations have been prepared for the
Sunday-school quarterlies, as well as a handbook for teachers
The chairman is the Rev. J. B. Remensnyder, and the
secretary the Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, 105 East 22nd
Street, New York City. The associate-secretary of the
Commission and the representative of the Commission on
Relations with Japan is the Rev. Sidney L. Gulick.
HOME AND FOREIGN MISSIONS
From the very beginning the work of the denominational
Boards of Home Missions has been that of Social Regenera-
tion. The reports of the Federal Council Commission on
Home Missions (secretary, Rev. Charles S. Macfarland,
105 East 22nd Street), New York City, and of the Home
Missions Council, should be consulted for information.
The various reports of the Foreign Missions Boards con-
tain a large amount of important information relative to the
spirit of the social gospel in connection with foreign mission
work which has in many respects been more influential than
the work of the churches at home.
Social service has received increased emphasis during the
past two years in both the home and foreign field. Organiza-
tions are springing up in various foreign mission fields for
the promotion of social service ideals and the further develop-
ment of community service. More definite attention to
community needs is also apparent in the home mission field.
Not a little of this increased emphasis is due to the activity
of the Missionary Education Movement. Its text-books for
1914 were The Social Aspects of Foreign Missions and The
Church Social Service Organizations 91
New Home Missions. Its Library of Social Progress in-
cludes books dealing both with the social aspects of foreign
work and with the relation of the home church to the needs
of its immediate community.
The Secretary of the Commission on the Church and
Social Service of the Federal Council is a member'of the
Commission on Cooperation and Unity of the Congress on
Christian Work in Latin America. The report of this Com-
mission, to be presented at Panama in February, contains
an illuminating discussion on the part which social work is
to play in the evangelization of the Latin-American nations.
A representative of the Federal Council Commission on
the Church and Social Service, the Rev. Frank Mason
North, recently visited the Far East in connection with his
denominational work, but accepted the appointment of the
Commission on the Church and Social Service as its repre-
sentative in this interest.
OTHER RELIGIOUS BODIES
The American Unitarian Association created a Depart-
ment of Social and Public Service in 1908. The Secretary
is the Rev. Elmer S. Forbes, of Boston. The Department has
conducted a Bureau of Council and Information, organized
a Lending Library, promoted lecture courses in the churches,
putting a lecturer in the field, and has planned consecutive
Social Service Institutes or Conferences in various parts
of the country. Its most notable work has been the publica-
tion of a series of 22 pamphlets on various social service
topics, which are a distinct contribution to the literature of
the question. From the beginning the Department has espe-
cially e-pphasized Housing Reform as one of the most
fundamental of social questions.
In 1912 the Unitarian Commission on the Church and the
Social Question recommended that a number of committees
should be formed in the Department of Social and Public
Service, to consider problems of social interest and to sug-
gest ways in which the churches could bring their influence
to bear upon them. Eighteen committees have been or-
92 Year Book of Church and Social Service
ganized, and all but one have presented reports of progress
which have been published and distributed in a separate
pamphlet. To carry out the suggestions of these general
committees, social service committees are being organized
in the local churches. The Commission also recommended
that theological students should have, wherever possible,
a year's residence in some social center, like South End
House in Boston, or Hull House in Chicago, where they
may get a first-hand acquaintance with the problems of
poverty and industrialism, and where they may be trained to
deal practically with the questions which they will meet
in parochial administration. The Department plans an ex-
tension of its field lectureship, and efforts to enlist the
churches in securing the passage of social legislation.
This year this Department is conducting together with the
Meadville Theological School a Social Service Institute.
"The Unitarian Fellowship for Social Justice" is an un-
official organization that is continually urging the denomina-
tion in the direction of the Christian reconstruction of the
The Universalist Church. A Commission on Social Service
was organized in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1911, as a
part of the General Convention of the Universalist Church.
Dr. Frank O. Hall, New York, Chairman; Prof. Clarence
R. Skinner, Tufts College, Secretary; Rev. Frederick Per-
kins, Lynn, Massachusetts, Information Department;. Rev.
Levi M. Powers, Literature Department; Rev. Harold Mar-
shall, Melrose, Massachusetts, Open Forum Department;
Mr. John R. Shilladay, New York City, Unemployment;
Rev. John Van Schaick, Washington, D. C., Cooperation
Department; Mr. Orlando Lewis, New York City, Delin-
quency Department; Rev. Eugene Bartlett, Brooklyn, New
York, Social Service Classes; Mrs. Marion Shutter, Minne-
apolis, Minnesota, Women's Societies; Rev. Fred Moore,
Chicago, Illinois, Western Representative.
At Chicago, in 1913, the Church adopted as its distinctive
Social Service policy the establishment and encouragement
of the Open Forum movement in its churches, and in com-
munities where it is not feasible to operate a church forum,
Church Social Service Organizations 98
the establishment of community forums. Rev. Harold Mar-
shall, chairman of this Department, is also chairman of
the new "Cooperative Forum Bureau," with offices in Boston.
Many Universalist churches have operated the open forum,
notably those at Melrose, Lowell, and Dorchester, Massachu-
setts; Stamford, Connecticut; New York City; Chicago;
Utica, New York, and others.
In the Department of Literature the following have been
issued: "A Social Service Bibliography," "A Minimum
Social Service Program," "Social Service for the Univer-
salist Church." An annual number of the Universalist
Leader devoted to Social Service Interests, "Social Service
Implications of the Universal Fatherhood of God." "Hand
Book of the Men's League of the Universalist Church,
containing detailed plan of service for Men's clubs." Just
issued: Social Implications of Universalism, by Professor
Clarence R. Skinner, Secretary. Price, 50 cents.
The ideal of the Commission is to cooperate through other
organizations wherever possible. Members of the commis-
sion have rendered distinguished service in the following
fields: Peace, Unemployment, Open Forum Movement, Delin-
quency, Organized Charity, Legislation.
It is the plan of the Commission to establish State Com-
missions where feasible. These have been formed in:
Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connec-
ticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois.
The following organizations also have their Social Ser-
vice Departments: Women's Missionary Society, General
Sunday School Association, Young People's Christian Union,
and National League of Universalist Laymen.
In the Roman Catholic Church there is the Social Service
Commission of the American Federation of Catholic Societies.
The Secretary is the Rev. Peter E. Dietz, Hot Springs,
North Carolina, care of American Academy of Christian
Social Service, according to the heart of the Catholic
Federation, is a spiritual thing primarily, dedicated to the
glory of God and the salvation of souls. Among the "rules of
Pope Pius X" for the guidance of Roman Catholics in the
94 Year Book of Church and Social Service
field of social action, the following is set forth: "In per-
forming its functions, Christian democracy is most strictly
bound to depend upon ecclesiastical authority, and to render
full submission and obedience to the Bishops and those who
represent them." Upon the basis of Pope Leo's Encyclical
on Labor, the Federation expresses its sympathy with every
legitimate effort to obtain certain industrial standards, which
are practically those adopted by the Federal Council of
Churches. The Federation urges "also possible cooperation
with other institutions, providing for the welfare of the
more handicapped members of society, the emigrant, the
colonist, the unorganized worker, and the helpless." And
recommends "social study circles, lecture courses, confer-
ences, institutes for merchants and mechanics, and the study
of cooperative movements, especially among farmers." It
makes a special declaration regarding the white slave traffic,
divorce, and world peace.
In the "Monthly Bulletin of the American Federation of
Catholic Societies," there is a social service department of
four pages, a large part of which is occupied with argu-
ments against Socialism. It also treats general social ques-
tions and reports and practical social service undertakings.
The Secretary of the Commission is also Secretary of
the Militia of Christ, an organization of Catholic trade-
unionists, and of Catholics who accept "the principles of
trade-unions." Non-Catholics are admitted as associate
members. This body believes "that the present organiza-
tion of society, in so far as it is Christian, is right"; believes
"neither in the anarchy of irresponsible wealth"-"nor in
the anarchy of irresponsible labor"; "that every man has
a right to possess property even in the toil of production;
for when a man engages in remunerative labor, an impelling
reason and motive of his work is to obtain property, and
thereafter to hold it as his very own"; believes "that labor
has the right to organize, and holds that its organization
should be so conducted as-to furnish to each individual
thereof the opportunity to better his condition." Its mem-
bers organize therefore, "first of all, to educate ourselves
to the better understanding of sound principles of social
Church Social Service Organizations
justice, the rights and duties of individuals, whether em-
ployer or employee";-"To promote the spirit of fraternity
rather than that of class hatred; the cause of industrial
peace rather than war; the protection of the individual
rather than the creation of state monopoly." An article
by the secretary is entitled "There Must Be a Catholic Pro-
gram of Labor in the United States."
Social service activities in the Roman Catholic Church are
not unified, apart from the Catholic Federation and Social
Service Commission. There is the National Conference of
Catholic Charities, the Rev. William J. Kerby, Secretary,
Catholic University, Washington, D. C. The German Catholic
Federation has been very prominently identified with social
service through its central bureau, Temple Building, St.
Louis, Mo. In addition to these large organizations there
are a great many subsidiary ones doing social work inde-
The various Jewish bodies have their committees and com-
missions in the field of social service. The Central Con-
ference of American Rabbis has committees on: Depend-
ents, Defectives, and Delinquents; on Civil and Religious
Marriage Laws; on Church and State; on Synagogue and
the Working Man, which has since been named "The Syna-
gogue and Industrial Relations." In 1911 the Conference
adopted the following plan and basis for the work of this
Secure a record of the activity of its constituency in
behalf of the Jewish laborer, and in the cause of industrial
Compile a report of industrial reforms already adopted
or proposed by Jewish employers of labor in all lines of
Collect data as a record of the achievements of Jews as
leaders of theory and practice in industrial reform.
Compile a select list of articles, sermons, essays, and other
literary productions that reflect the moral aspect of the
Investigate the subject of synagogue administration, cov-
ering membership dues and assessments, to ascertain to what
96 Year Book of Church and Social Service
extent present methods affect the membership of the laborer
in the synagogue.
The Executive Committee is instructed to select a Sab-
bath in the year in which all members of the Conference
are requested to preach to their respective congregations on
the moral effects of labor.
The committee is authorized, subject to the approval
of the Executive Committee, to publish a brief bulletin of its
study in the field of industry for circulation among members
of the Conference.
In 1912 the Committee urged all members of the Con-
ference to redouble their efforts to better economic condi-
tions of the Jewish working people; that in each community
some provision should be made to minister to the religious
needs of the working people who are sympathetic to our
cause; that the members of the Conference in their respective
communities seek to interest capable young men and women,
with inclinations to social service and with sound Jewish
feelings, to train for a work which will enable them to act
as intermediaries between the working people and the syna-
gogue, to effect a reconciliation between the two forces,
industry and religion, which are right royal partners in the
Jewish system of ethics.
The members of the Conference have frequently served on
Committees to adjust industrial difficulties. The members of
the Conference have also given many sermons and addresses on
the subject of industrial peace, and many Jewish merchants and
manufacturers have inaugurated many of the best industrial
reforms for the good of their employees.
The Conference has adopted in its Constitution as Sec-
tion II of Article 3 of the By-laws the following clause:
The Committee on Synagogue and Industrial Relations shall
represent the synagogue as a teacher of social justice. It shall
endeavor to promote a better understanding between employers
and employees. It shall tender its services, whenever necessary,
to bring about a reconciliation between employers and employees.
It shall cooperate with similar committees of other churches to
advance the cause of justice and mutual good-will in the
Church Social Service Organizations 97
At the present time the Conference has a Social Justice
Commission which is investigating, with a view to reaching
practical results, the ethical phases of the industrial problem.
At the last Conference, in Charlevoix, Michigan, July, 1915,
the Commission, in introducing its study of several phases
of the subject of Social Justice, prefaced the report with
the following introductory statement:
During the past year your Commission on Social Justice and
the Committee on Synagogue and Industrial Relations held five
meetings in New York City: February 8, March 8, April 1g,
May 24, and June 4. It was at once recognized by the members
of the Commission that its task was so tremendous and its
responsibility so serious as to make it impossible to hope to do
more than present for this year a small part of a large program
which shall develop from year to year.
The Commission has begun an investigation of certain phases
of social justice in the industrial world. Although the members
of the Committee have studied the questions of Social Insurance
and Pensions, the Minimum Wage, the Settlement of Industrial
Disputes, the Right of the Workers to Organize, and the Co-
operative System of Industry, it deems it best to report this
year on the following phases of the subject of Social Justice:
Child Labor, Housing Reform, Regularization of Labor, the
Right of Organization, and the Abolition of Poverty.
SOCIAL SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS IN ENGLAND
There are various matters in the Social Service Program
which are of international concern, for instance, the war
against war, and the attack upon white slavery. Certain
industrial conditions are also common to several countries.
In England and in the United States, the churches are now
dealing with the moral and spiritual aspects of the living
wage question. In the natural order of things, therefore, the
Social Service movement will increasingly tend to become
It is impossible to include accounts of the activities of the
highly effective denominational social service agencies of
England. Some of them have issued most valuable pam-
98 Year Book of Church and Social Service
phlets which may be obtained from their Secretaries (see
Directory, page 9). Only those which are interdenomina-
tional can be mentioned.
The Interdenominational Conference of Social Service
Unions, in England, organized in 1909, meets twice each
year, bringing together the leaders of denominational social
This Conference correlates the policy of these unions and
holds a united summer school to consider the one subject
which has been chosen for study by the various constituent
bodies during the following year. The Secretary of this
Conference, from whom a handbook can be obtained, is Miss
Lucy Gardner, the Mill House, Wormingford, Colchester,
The National Council of the Evangelical Free Churches,
the organization which unites the Non-conformist churches,
has formed a Social Questions Committee, the object of
which has been thus defined, "to affirm the social redemptive
mission of the Evangelical Free Churches of England, and
to make practical suggestions as to how that mission can best
be fulfilled." The National Council, in forming this Com-
mittee, has ranged itself in line with the Christian Social
Union, which has been formed by members of the Anglican
Church, and with the Scottish Christian Social Union, which
has been formed by representatives of the Evangelical
Churches of Scotland.
The objects of those two Unions have been set forth
more explicitly, and with more fulness, but practically they
are identical with those of the Social Questions Committee
of the National Free Church Council, and it is hoped that
the three bodies will not only work in harmony with one
another, but cooperate in numerous ways to promote the
social well-being of the people.
There are three duties which the National Council has
thus devolved upon the Social Questions Committee, which
it has formed:
i. The study of Christ's teaching, and of the funda-
mental principles of the Christian faith in relation to the
social problems of our time.
Church Social Service Organizations 99
2. The upholding of Christ's authority as the Lord and
Redeemer of human society, as well as of individuals.
3. The wise direction of Christian redemptive efforts, so
as to abate and remedy great social evils, which degrade
The National Conference Union for Social Service was
founded in 19o6 at one of the triennial assemblies of the
Unitarian, Liberal Christian, Free Christian, Presbyterian,
and other non-subscribing and kindred Congregations. The
special contribution which this organization makes to the
social problem, in addition to a serious study of it, is the
application of it to the fundamental principles of Liberal
Christianity. The Union has carried through three success-
ful summer schools for the study of social questions. The
presence at these sessions of representatives from other
religious bodies led to the organization of a United Inter-
denominational Summer School whose object is "to discuss
social problems with definite Christian understanding and
purpose, in the hope that the underlying spiritual significance
of social reform would be made manifest." The school has
held sessions for three summers and has proved to be a
unique assemblage, bringing together Anglicans, Baptists,
Catholics, Congregationalists, Friends, Presbyterians, Primi-
tive Methodists, Unitarians, United Methodists, Wesleyan
Methodists, and members of the Student Christian Move-
ment, 304 of them living, studying, and cooperating together
for a week.
The aim of the Union is to induce as many members as
possible of the churches and of societies connected with
them to take up the systematic study of social questions. It
invites those who are already engaged in social work to put
their knowledge and experience at the disposal of all. It
seeks to induce all whom it can influence to get to know the
facts of modern social and industrial life, either by personal
investigation or by the study of these facts as set forth by
disinterested and competent workers in the social field. It
aims to keep members of the churches in touch with the
course of social legislation and experiment in England and
in other industrial countries. It provides bibliographies and