Front Cover
 Title Page
 Editors in chief
 Table of Contents
 Intellectual tendencies of the...
 Characteristics of southern poetry...
 Southern poetry since the war of...
 The folk-lore of the south
 The south's contributions to the...
 Historical studies in the...
 English studies in the south
 The south's contributions to classical...
 Economic and political essays in...
 The south's contributions to mathematics...
 The south's contribution to physical...
 Southern contributions to natural...
 The south's contributions...
 Contributions of the south to the...
 Contributions of New England to...
 Louisiana's contribution to the...
 The law writers of the south
 The influence of the bench and...
 The south's contribution to the...
 The south's contributions...
 The southern press
 Southern magazines
 Southern editors
 Libraries in the southern...
 Southern historical societies
 The intellectual and literary progress...

Group Title: The South in the building of the nation : a history of the southern states designed to record the South's part in the making of the American nation; to portray the character and genius, to chronicle the achievements and progress and to illustrate the life and traditions of the southern people.
Title: The South in the building of the nation
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076200/00001
 Material Information
Title: The South in the building of the nation a history of the southern states designed to record the South's part in the making of the American nation; to portray the character and genius, to chronicle the achievements and progress and to illustrate the life and traditions of the southern people
Physical Description: 13 v. : col. fronts, plates (part col.) ports. (part col.) map, facsims. ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chandler, J. A. C ( Julian Alvin Carroll ), 1872-1934 ( ed )
Riley, Franklin L ( Franklin Lafayette ), 1868-1929 ( ed )
Ballagh, James Curtis, 1866-1944 ( ed )
Henneman, John Bell, 1864-1908 ( ed )
Mims, Edwin, 1872-1959 ( ed )
Watson, Thomas E ( Thomas Edward ), 1856-1922 ( ed )
Mitchell, Samuel Chiles, 1864-1948 ( ed )
Fleming, Walter L ( Walter Lynwood ), 1874-1932
McSpadden, J. Walker ( Joseph Walker ), 1874-1960 ( ed )
Southern Historical Publication Society, Richmond ( pub )
Publisher: Southern historical publication Society
Place of Publication: Richmond Va
Publication Date: c1909-1913
Subject: American literature -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
History -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Economic conditions -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Biography -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Vols. 1-4, 7-12, 1909; v. 5-6, 1910; v. 13, 1913.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076200
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03100852
lccn - 09004481

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
    Title Page
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Editors in chief
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
    Table of Contents
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
    Intellectual tendencies of the south
        Page xxxii
        Material development
            Page xxxiii
            Page xxxiv
        Educational progress
            Page xxxv
            Page xxxvi
            Page xxxvii
        Literature and history
            Page xxxviii
            Page xxxix
        Intellectual independence
            Page xl
            Page xli
            Page xlii
            Page xliii
            Page xliv
    Characteristics of southern poetry from the beginning to 1865
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 18a
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 22a
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Southern poetry since the war of secession
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 26a
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 36a
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 42a
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 52a
        Page 53
        Page 54
    The folk-lore of the south
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    The south's contributions to the nation's wit and humor
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 80a
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 82a
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 86a
        Page 87
    Historical studies in the south
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    English studies in the south
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    The south's contributions to classical studies
        Page 135
        The work of universities and professors
            Page 136
            Page 137
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
        Schools and schoolmasters
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
            Page 171
            Page 172
    Economic and political essays in the ante-bellum south
        Page 173
        Theoretical and general economics
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
        Mining, manufactures, transportation, and commerce
            Page 177
            Page 178
            Page 179
            Page 180
            Page 181
            Page 182
            Page 183
            Page 184
            Page 185
            Page 186
            Page 187
        Social surveys
            Page 188
        Political essays; theoretical
            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 191
        Constitutional construction
            Page 192
            Page 193
            Page 194
        Party politics
            Page 195
            Page 196
            Page 197
            Page 198
            Page 199
    The south's contributions to mathematics and astronomy
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
    The south's contribution to physical science
        Page 221
        Contributions to chemistry
            Page 222
            Page 223
            Page 224
            Page 225
            Page 226
            Page 227
            Page 228
            Page 229
            Page 230
        Contributions to physics
            Page 231
            Page 232
            Page 232a
            Page 233
            Page 234
            Page 235
            Page 236
            Page 237
    Southern contributions to natural history
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Naturalists of the earlier and later periods
            Page 240
            Page 241
            Page 242
            Page 243
            Page 244
            Page 245
            Page 246
            Page 247
            Page 248
            Page 248a
            Page 249
            Page 250
            Page 251
            Page 252
        Geological surveys
            Page 253
            Page 254
            Page 255
            Page 256
            Page 257
            Page 258
    The south's contributions to philosophy
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 262a
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 264a
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 266a
        Page 267
        Page 268
    Contributions of the south to the character and culture of the north
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Beginning of southern influence upon norther culture
            Page 272
            Page 273
            Page 274
            Page 275
        Influence of environment
            Page 276
            Page 277
        Southern influence in the north since the war
            Page 278
            Page 279
            Page 280
            Page 281
            Page 282
        Special contributions to literature and science
            Page 283
            Page 284
            Page 285
            Page 286
            Page 287
            Page 288
            Page 289
            Page 290
            Page 291
            Page 292
            Page 293
            Page 294
    Contributions of New England to the south's culture
        Page 295
        Early influences
            Page 296
            Page 297
        In the educational field
            Page 298
            Page 299
            Page 300
            Page 301
            Page 302
            Page 303
            Page 304
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
            Page 309
            Page 310
            Page 311
            Page 312
            Page 313
    Louisiana's contribution to the literature of the United States
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        French poetry in Louisiana
            Page 317
            Page 318
        French literary societies
            Page 319
            Page 320
        English literature in Louisiana
            Page 321
            Page 322
            Page 323
            Page 324
            Page 325
    The law writers of the south
        Page 326
        Distinguished southern law writers
            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 328a
            Page 329
            Page 330
            Page 331
            Page 332
            Page 333
            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
        Contributions of southern law-writers
            Page 337
            Page 338
            Page 339
    The influence of the bench and bar upon southern life and culture
        Page 340
        Influence of southern lawyers
            Page 341
            Page 342
            Page 343
            Page 344
            Page 345
            Page 346
        The lawyers in literature
            Page 347
        The lawyers and the aristocracy
            Page 347
            Page 348
            Page 349
            Page 350
            Page 351
        Influence upon culture
            Page 352
            Page 353
        The lawyers and religion
            Page 354
    The south's contribution to the progress of medicine and surgery
        Page 355
        Contributions to medical science and literature
            Page 356
            Page 357
            Page 358
            Page 359
            Page 360
            Page 361
            Page 362
            Page 363
            Page 364
            Page 365
            Page 366
            Page 367
        In the war of secession
            Page 368
        Since the war
            Page 369
            Page 370
            Page 371
    The south's contributions to music
        Page 372
        1732 - 1800
            Page 372
            Page 373
            Page 374
            Page 375
            Page 376
            Page 377
            Page 378
            Page 379
            Page 380
            Page 381
            Page 382
            Page 383
            Page 384
            Page 385
        Opera in New Orleans
            Page 386
            Page 387
            Page 388
        Two great composers
            Page 389
            Page 390
            Page 390a
            Page 391
        Negro music
            Page 392
            Page 393
            Page 394
        Patriotic songs
            Page 395
            Page 396
            Page 396a
        The present
            Page 397
            Page 398
            Page 399
        Institutional work
            Page 400
            Page 401
    The southern press
        Page 402
            Page 402
            Page 403
            Page 404
        Early journalism
            Page 405
            Page 406
            Page 407
            Page 408
        Colonial press conservative
            Page 409
        Journalism in the Southern Colonies and states
            Page 409
            Page 410
            Page 411
            Page 412
            Page 413
            Page 414
            Page 415
            Page 416
            Page 417
            Page 418
            Page 419
            Page 420
            Page 421
            Page 422
            Page 422a
            Page 423
            Page 424
            Page 425
        Date of establishment of leading southern newspapers
            Page 426
        Journalism and literature
            Page 427
            Page 428
            Page 429
        The press and industrial development
            Page 430
            Page 431
            Page 432
            Page 433
            Page 434
            Page 435
            Page 436
    Southern magazines
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 442a
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
    Southern editors
        Page 470
        Page 470a
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 472a
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 474a
        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
        Page 479
        Page 480
        Page 481
        Page 482
        Page 482a
        Page 483
    Libraries in the southern states
        Page 484
        Page 484a
        Early history
            Page 485
            Page 486
            Page 487
            Page 488
            Page 489
            Page 490
            Page 490a
            Page 491
            Page 492
            Page 493
            Page 494
            Page 495
            Page 496
            Page 497
            Page 498
            Page 499
        Destruction during the war
            Page 500
            Page 500a
        Progress since the war
            Page 501
            Page 502
            Page 503
            Page 504
            Page 504a
            Page 505
            Page 506
            Page 507
            Page 508
            Page 509
            Page 510
    Southern historical societies
        Page 511
        Early history
            Page 511
            Page 512
        After the war of secession
            Page 513
        Special aid of southern associations and institutions
            Page 514
            Page 515
            Page 516
            Page 517
            Page 518
            Page 519
            Page 520
            Page 521
    The intellectual and literary progress of the negro
        Page 522
        Page 523
        The negro characteristics and progress
            Page 524
            Page 525
            Page 526
            Page 527
            Page 528
            Page 529
            Page 530
            Page 531
            Page 532
            Page 533
            Page 534
            Page 535
            Page 536
        Negro schools and institutions
            Page 537
            Page 538
            Page 539
            Page 540
Full Text







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I-History of the States
Professor of History, Richmond College

II-The Political History
Professor of History, University of Mississippi

\ III-The Economic History
Associate Professor of American History
Johns Hopkins University

IV-The Literary and Intellectual Life
Professor of English Literature, University of the South

Professor of English, University of North Carolina

Author of Life of Thomas Jefferson, etc.

VII-The Social Life
President of the University of South Carolina

Professor of History, Louisiana State University

i -~
I & ~ U

History of the Literary and

Intellectual Life of the South



WILLIAM PETERFIELD TRENT, LL.D., D.C.L., formerly Professor
of English Literature, University of the South; Professor of English
Literature, Columbia University; author of English Culture in Vir-
ginia, History of American Literature, etc.

JAMES HAMPTON KIRKLAND, Ph.D., LL.D., D.C.L., Chancellor of
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.

TO 1865
HENRY NELSON SNYDER, Litt.D., LL.D., President of Wofford Col-
lege, Spartanburg, S. C.

EDWIN MIMS, M.A., Ph.D., Professor of English Literature, Trinity
College, and editor South Atlantic Quarterly.

ARTHUR HOWARD NOLL, LL.D., Lecturer on Anthropology, etc., Uni-
versity of the South, Sewanee, Tenn.

GEORGE FREDERICK MELLEN, A.M., Ph.D., formerly Professor of
Greek and History, University of Tennessee; now of the Knoxville

COLYER MERIWETHER, Ph.D., Secretary of Southern History Asso.
ciation, and editor Publications of Southern History Association.


JOHN BELL HENNEMAN, M.A., Ph.D., Late Professor of English Litera-
ture, University of the South, Sewanee, Tenn.

CHARLES FORSTER SMITH, A.M., Ph.D., Professor of Greek and Classi-
cal Philology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.

ULRICH BONNELL PHILLIPS, A.M., Ph.D., Professor of History, Tulane
University, New Orleans, La.

SAMUEL MARX BARTON, A.B., Ph.D., Professor of Mathematics, Uni-
versity of the South, Sewanee, Tenn.

FRANCIS PRESTON VENABLE, Ph.D., D.Sc., LL.D., President of Uni-
versity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C.

SAMUEL McCUTCHEN BAIN, A.B., Professor of Botany, University of
Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn.

HENRY CLAY WHITE, Ph.D., D.C.L., LL.D., Professor of Chemistry,
University of Georgia, Athens, Ga.

H. IRVING BROCK, Editorial Staff of New York Times.

GEORGE FREDERICK MELLEN, A.M., Ph.D., formerly Professor of
Greek and History, University of Tennessee; now of the Knoxville

ALCFE FORTIER, Litt.D., Professor of Romance Languages, Tulane Uni-
versity ; author of Louisiana Folk Tales; History of Louisiana.

M. HERNDON MOORE, A.B., LL.B., Professor of Law, University of
South Carolina, Columbia, S. C.

JOSHUA WILLIAM CALDWELL, A.M., Lecturer on the Laws and Con-
stitutional History of Tennessee, University of Tennessee; author
of The Bench and Bar of Tennessee.

ROBERT MADISON SLAUGHTER, M.D., Member Virginia State Board
of Medical Examiners; Treasurer Medical Society of Virginia;
author of An Historical Sketch of Medicine and Surgery in Virginia.

HUGER WILKINSON JERVEY, M.A., Professor of Greek, University
of the South, Sewanee, Tenn.

NORMAN WALKER, Associate editor of New Orleans Times Democrat,
New Orleans, La.

EDWIN MIMS, M.A., Ph.D., Professor of English Literature, Trinity
College, Durham, N. C.; editor South Atlantic Quarterly.

GEORGE FREDERICK MELLEN, A.M., Ph.D., formerly Professor of
Greek and History, University of Tennessee.

EDWIN WILEY, B.A., M.A., formerly Assistant Librarian and Assistant
in English, Vanderbllt University; now in the Library of Congress.

COLYER MERIWETHER, Ph.D., Secretary Southern History Associa-
tion, and editor of Publications of Southern History Association.

H. I. BROCK, Editorial Staff of the New York Times.


GENERAL INTRODUCTION................................ xv

I. Material Development................................. xxxill
II. Educational Progress ............................... xxxv
III. Literature and History.............................. xxxviii
IV. Intellectual Independence............................. xl

NING TO 1865.
Southern Poetry of the Colonial Period....................... 1
Poetry of the Revolutionary Period ......................... 5
Poetry After the Revolution ............................... 6
Southern Poets and their Poetry up to 1865 .................. 8

Poets of the War of Secession ............................... 25
Later Poets and their Poetry............................... 31

The South Rich in Folk-Lore............................... 55
Folk-Lore of the Indians.................................... 61
Folk-Lore of the Negro..................................... 64

HUMOR ...........................................73-87

HISTORICAL STUDIES IN THE SOUTH ....................... 8-114

ENGLISH STUDIES IN THE SOUTH ........................115-134

The Work of Universities and Professors..................... 136
Schools and Schoolmasters.................................. 160


Theoretical and General Economics............................ 174
Agriculture ............................................... 175
Mining, Manufactures, Transportation and Commerce............ 177
Labor .................................................... 179
N egroes .................................................. 180
Slavery ....................................... .......... 182
Social Surveys ................... ................... 188
Political Essays; Theoretical ............................. 189
Constitutional Construction. ................................. 192
Party Politics............................................. 195
Sectionalism ................ .. ............ ................ 196

TRONOMY ..................... ................. .200-220

Contributions in Chemistry .................. ............. 222
Contributions in Physics................................... 231

Naturalists of the Earlier and Later Periods.................. 240
Geological Surveys .......................................... 253


Beginning of Southern Influence upon Northern Culture......... 272
Influence of Environment.................................. 276
Southern Influence in the North Since the War................ 278
Special Coptributions to Literature and Science................ 283

Early Influences.................... ...... .... .... ......... 296
In the Educational Field.... ....... .. .................... 298

French Poetry in Louisiana.............................. 317
French Literary Societies................................... 319
English Literature in Louisiana ............................. 321

Distinguished Southern Law Writers ........................ 327
Contributions of Southern Law Writers...................... 337


Influence of Southern Lawyers. .............................. 341
The Lawyers in Literature... ............................. 347
The Lawyers and the Aristocracy. ............................ 347
Influence upon Culture ....................................... 352
The Lawyers and Religion .... ............................. 354

Contributions to Medical Science and Literature .............. 356
In the War of Secession................................... 368
Since the War............................................. 369

1732-1800 ................................................. 372
1800-1861 ................................................ 380
Opera in New Orleans............................. ... ..... 386
Two Great Composers .... .. ....... ..................... 389
Negro Music ............................................. 392
Patriotic Songs ............................................. 395
The Present. 397
The Present ............................................... 397
Institutional Work ................... ..... ...... 400

Characteristics ............................................ 402L
Early Journalism ....................................... 405
Colonial Press Conservative......................... .... 409
Journalism in the Southern Colonies and States.............. 409 v
Date of Establishment of Leading Southern Newspapers ..... 426
Journalism and Literature ................................ 427
The Press and Industrial Development....................... 430

SOUTHERN MAGAZINES ......... ........................ 437-469

SOUTHERN EDITORS.................... .................470-483 v'

Early History ............................................. 485
Destruction During the War ................................. 500
Progress Since the War..................................... 501

Early History................. ............................ 511
After the War of Secession................................. 513
Special Aid of Southern Associations and Institutions.......... 514

The Negro Characteristics and Progress...................... 524
Negro Schools and Institutions............................... 537


T-T is a matter for deep regret that the
general introduction to the three vol-
umes of this work which treat specifi-
cally of the literary and intellectual de-
velopment of the South should not have
been written by the editor to whom they were in-
trusted. No other Southerner of this generation
was better fitted than the late Professor Henneman,
through sympathy, training, and knowledge, to view
our literary past in proper perspective, to estimate
adequately our current production in all depart-
ments of literature and scholarship, and to give the
encouragements and cautions likely to be of serv-
ice to those neophytes of the present who bid fair
to become the trained writers and scholars of the
future. And apart from his admirable general
equipment Professor Henneman was uniquely quali-
fied to furnish an introduction to these volumes be-
cause he occupied toward them the position of an
architect toward a building. He conceived the edi-
fice as a whole, and it may be almost literally said
that he drew the plan of every apartment. Unlike
an architect, he would have joined himself to the
workmen he had selected and would have made him-
self responsible for the construction of more than
one integral portion of the work he had planned.
This was not to be, but the task he left unfinished
has been carried on to completion in the spirit with
which he began it, and, as far as possible, along the
lines he traced.
4 It is no part of an introducer's duty to attempt to
forestall judgments; but I think that in view of the


fact that I have no personal responsibility for the
chapters that follow, I may venture to point out how
thoroughly they cover the field of Southern litera-
ture, and how excellently, in some cases, they sup-
ply information that will be vainly sought elsewhere.
Setting aside the volumes devoted to fiction and ora-
tory, and considering only the papers of historical
and critical quality which constitute a cooperative
history of the South's intellectual development, we
are first impressed by the fact that the range of
Southern literary, scientific, and broadly philosophi-
cal efforts is far wider than the outside world or
most Southerners seem to have thought.
The section has always been noted for its orators,
and since the war enough Southern men and women
have won reputations by their novels and short
stories to make the term "Southern Fiction," both
intelligible to the average reader and useful rather
than amusing to the student. The phrases "South-
ern Poetry" and "Southern Poets" also find their
way into textbooks and essays on American litera-
ture, but they scarcely carry much definite meaning
for the reader, and one is sometimes inclined to won-
der whether the knowledge and tastes of the pro-
fessors and critics who employ them might not fairly
be described as prevailingly geographical. Yet Poe,
Timrod, Hayne, and Lanier form a group that is
both distinct and important, and, even though we
should consent-as we would not-to pass over in
silence their minor contemporaries, we ought to re-
member that the South to-day can boast of as many
true poets as any other section can. This is not the
day, and perhaps America thus far is not the coun-
try of truly great poets; but surely one of the best
ways to speed the coming of great poets is to give
reasonable encouragement to such poets as we have
and, if Southerners do not specially encourage their


own versifying compatriots, it is quite certain that
these servants of the Muses will receive scant con-
sideration in other quarters. A recent manual of
American literature, the hospitable catholicity of
which verges in some respects upon the ridiculous,
does not include in its elaborate index any reference
to Randall and his "Maryland, My Maryland," or
to Father Ryan, Dr. Ticknor, and Irwin Russell
among the dead, or to Father Tabb and Mr. Madison
Cawein among the living. The two chapters in the
present work which deal with Southern poetry are,
I submit, neither superfluous nor unduly sectional.
Even less superfluous are the chapters devoted to
science and scholarship, to the professions, and to
the arts other than literature. The notion that the
Southerner of the old regime was little more than a
gentleman of charming manners and old-fashioned
culture has taken such root in the popular mind that
but few Southern names not connected with public
life or with service in the War of Secession have
become familiar to the entire nation. One or two
eminent surgeons, a few writers on scientific sub-
jects like Maury and the Le Contes, an occasional
editor and professor may be exceptions, more or less,
to this general statement; but the fact remains that
the South is considered by many to have been a
negligible factor in the intellectual development of
the country. The most versatile and prolific man
of letters produced by what we call the Old South,
William Gilmore Simms, has often been confused
with the gallant commander of the Alabama. The
accomplished historian of Louisiana, Charles Ga-
yarr6, escapes notice in books that would certainly
have mentioned him if he had treated a New England
theme. Not one man in a hundred has any idea of
the part played by Southern physicians who have
settled in New York. To most persons the elective



system is a Harvard discovery and emphasis upon
English studies a matter of yesterday; but the
Southerner who is at all interested in such matters
smiles and recalls the name of Thomas Jefferson.
It would be idle, of course, to suppose that this
state of affairs is due entirely to sectional preju-
dice and conceit on the part of our fellow Americans.
Neither the Old South nor the New can fairly be
said to have rivalled New England and the Middle
States in contributing to the intellectual develop-
ment of the nation, nor have Southern writers been
discreetly zealous in making known what their sec-
tion has actually accomplished. If less had been
claimed for Poe by the South, more would already
have been granted him by common consent. If the
historical societies and the colleges and universities
of the South had been as active in research and pub-
lication during the past forty years as they have
been during the past ten, the culture history of the
section would be far better known to the country at
large. It is no reflection on the South to make this
statement, for it is only of late that the much har-
rassed region has attained the degree of social and
economic stability that is requisite to scholarly pro-
duction upon an extensive scale. But it would be
unfair to dwell upon the world's ignorance and neg-
lect of Southern achievements-to which Southern-
ers are supposed to be peculiarly sensitive-without
bearing in mind our own backwardness in chroni-
cling what we have performed.
It is the aim of these volumes to remove as far as
may be this reproach; and, when the following chap-
ters are duly weighed and are considered in connec-
tion with those upon education and the fine arts in-
cluded in another division of the work, it would seem
that at least adequate materials have been gathered
to enable all who are interested in Southern culture


to make a fair estimate of its breadth and depth. How
far a cooperative enterprise on a large scale stimu-
lates and directs interest in such matters remains
an open question; but there can be little doubt that
henceforward historians, essayists, and critics,
whether Southern or not, will draw upon the infor-
mation here gathered and will devote greater atten-
tion to the part played by the section in the intel-
lectual life of America. Through these writers, as
well as through students and readers of the vol-
umes so generously planned, the public will in time
be reached, and the misconceptions and prejudices
which now exist will be slowly dissipated. To have
contributed to this salutary result, it will be seen,
entitles many men and women of the New South to
the gratitude not only of their fellow Southerners,
but of their fellow Americans; and the fact that so
many competent contributors could have been se-
cured for this undertaking is one of the best proofs
that can be given of the widespread intellectual
activity of the Southern people at the present time.
The points I have been making might be illus-
trated from almost any of the chapters that consti-
tute this volume; but two or three may be selected
to serve my purpose. The chapter on English Stud-
ies in the South, which in the main Professor
Henneman contributed originally to The Sewanee
Review, will convince any reader that the South
yields to no other section in the part it has played in
one of the most important and interesting educa-
tional movements that have taken place in this coun-
try. The emphasis that has been laid of late years
upon the study of English in our schools and colleges
is not merely a sign of our modernity and our utili-
tarianism, as a people, nor is it a fact of pedagogical
importance only. It is in large measure a result of
social conditions incident to democratic expansion




in a new and unconfined country, and it has been an
important factor in the assimilation, through educa-
tion, of large masses of our alien population. But
the South is popularly supposed to have been the
home of the aristocrat, not of the democrat, and your
Southern gentleman is depicted as an inveterate
quoter of Horace and Virgil and an incontinent con-
temner of the vernacular literature, at least of most
English books written since the days of Dr. Johnson
and of all American writings whatsoever. Yet, if
we turn to Dr. Henneman's chapter what do we dis-
cover? Certainly that here, as almost everywhere,
the extraordinarily creative and far-seeing mind of
Thomas Jefferson is to be found working, and that
in a real sense he may be regarded as the pioneer
of systematic English studies in America; We find
also that perhaps the most important concerted and
plainly effective impetus given in the last generation
to English study and teaching in this country is to
be credited to a Southern scholar and teacher-not
a writer of textbooks but a maker of teachers-Pro-
fessor Thomas Randolph Price, incumbent of the
chairs of Greek and English in Randolph-Macon Col-
lege, Virginia.
Greek and English! the conjunction is auspicious
and not fortuitous. A great teacher thoroughly im-
bued with the spirit of the ancient classics, not
merely a walking respository of dead learning, in-
terprets the literature of his own race to young men
eager to upbuild the shattered social fabric of their
native section, and under his inspiration and instruc-
tion a body of trained teachers of English goes forth
to labor, not in the South alone but throughout the
Union, goes forth to train up teachers who in their
turn shall pass on the torch of scholarship to gen-
erations yet unborn. No small work this, and the
man who deserves most credit for it was honored


for his own scholarship by one of our great univer-
sities and for his character by all who knew him;
yet the far-reaching effects wrought by him, being
intangible, have never been understood by the pub-
lic, and his name, unsupported by a monument of
scholarship, will abide with us only in the event of
the development of a greater interest in the things
of the mind and of a more discriminating spirit of
gratitude than a democracy is likely to exhibit. Such,
however, has always been the fate of men who have
not worked in permanent materials or exploited
their own personalities in a dazzling and dominating
way. It is almost idle to regret that human nature
is what it is, but it is not idle to emphasize the
South's part in the spread of vernacular culture-
the work of Price, of Lanier, of Baskervill, of
Henneman,-or to express the hope that in the fu-
ture as in the past this democratic culture will never
be sharply separated from that aristocratic culture
which is generated and fostered by continued study
of the literatures of Greece and Rome. If I may
judge from my own experience the men and women
who know their classics, if only slightly, have an im-
mense advantage in all that concerns literature and
humane scholarship over those who know their
classics only through translations or not at all. Thus
far the classical tradition, if I may so phrase it, has
been less questioned in the South than in any other
part of this country-whether or not this has in-
volved a truer study of the classics and not mere lip-
service; and I cannot forbear expressing the belief
that in their classical heritage Southerners possess
an invaluable stimulus and aid to the production of
a literature of permanent worth. Perhaps the very
modern-and shall I venture to say very crude-
literary standards and ideals of the country at large
are destined to triumph in the South along with "up


to date" business methods and amorphous political
and social conceptions; but, until I am forced to
acknowledge such a deplorable consummation, I
shall cherish the hope that the South will maintain
to a reasonable extent the old standards and ideals,
and that the young country will come in time and
as a whole to recognize that they should be cherished
because they are valid, not discarded because they
are old.
How valid they have seemed to some of the choic-
est spirits of the South appears abundantly in the
chapter which Professor Charles Forster Smith has
written on "The South's Contributions to Classi-
cal Studies." Professor Smith could not point to
the fact that his own career admirably illustrates
what the classics have done for Southern culture and
character and what Southern scholars have done for
the advancement of learning throughout the coun-
try; but he could dwell with just appreciation upon
the prevalence of the classical tradition in the in-
tellectual life of his native section and he could point
to an imposing line of eminent teachers of Greek and
Latin the value of whose services it would be diffi-
cult to overestimate. This line practically begins
with the founding of the University of Virginia; for,
modern though he was, Jefferson was too wise to
rush in upon those paths of iconoclasm which some
leading educationalists of our own day have so
blithely trod. The advent of George Long as first
professor of the classics in the new institution was
one of the most important events in the educational
history of the South. Recognition of the classics
as a great formative element in culture was part
of the South's heritage; but profound study of them
in the light of continental scholarship might have
been long delayed but for the coming of the English-
man and for his wise choice of Gessner Harrison as



his successor. Of the work of the latter and of the
men he trained-work by no means confined to the
higher institutions-it is needless for me to speak.
Professor Smith has presented the facts without ex-
aggerating their import. It may not be amiss, how-
ever, for one whose studies, more by accident per-
haps than by choice, have lain in the modern field,
to bear testimony to the inspiration he has received
throughout his life from his contact with Southern
men whose knowledge and love of the literatures of
Greece and Rome has been as the breath of their
being. To have been taught by Norwood and Price
and Peters, to have known Gildersleeve and McCabe
and Forster Smith and Bain has meant more to me
than any of these accomplished scholars has ever
suspected, and I trust that a century hence some
teacher of English will be impelled, as I am now, to
express his gratitude to the Southern successors of
the men I have just named. There should be no
rivalry, only the strongest bonds of comprehension
and sympathy between students of the humanities
whether old or new.
This leads me to remember that history is, or at
least always should be, one of the humanities, and
that of late there has been great activity throughout
the South in historical studies. The allied subjects of
political theory and of economics have also received
some attention, and, in view of the important part
played in the nation's development by the older
Southern statesmen, it is much to be hoped that the
present interest in this broad group of studies, to
which biography should be joined, will be main-
tained. Many of the ensuing chapters are them-
selves manifestations of this interest. The public
should know more than it does about the Southern
Literary Messenger and the reviews of the Old
South, and it should encourage the men who are con-



ducting the few Southern periodicals of to-day. It
should also not allow the achievements of such news-
papers as the Enquirer and Examiner of Richmond
and the Mercury of Charleston to become matters of
vague memory, much as the names of their brilliant
and once influential editors have become. It is not
necessary that we should think and write as those
journalists did, any more than that we should pro-
duce lawyers of the old time erudition and quaint
charm. Our editors need not be fire-eaters, nor our
statesmen reactionaries. Neither, on the other hand,
need we forget our traditions and bend all our ener-
gies toward transforming ourselves into something
that approximates the average American of some
other section. It seems much more desirable that
we should endeavor to comprehend what our fathers
stood for, especially in all matters relating to self-
government, then study calmly our own situation,
and resolutely acknowledge and adopt the principles
and policies that seem to be most consonant with our
welfare. So far as my own studies allow me to
judge, no other people or fraction of a people has a
more admirable body of publicists from whose writ-
ings inspiration and guidance may be derived. That
in many cases these statesmen and publicists of the
South-Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Marshall,
Calhoun-are the nation's also is a fact for which
neither the section nor the union can be too thank-
ful; but there are not a few writers on public mat-
ters who are more distinctively sectional than na-
tional, Stephens and Davis, for example, whom the
Southerner of to-day, and the American too for that
matter, may study with great advantage. If I may
be so bold as to express an opinion on a topic which
has occupied me but little of late years, I should like
to suggest that for lessons of constructive states-
manship the writings of the older Southern publi-



cists are invaluable, while for lessons of definite and
resolute policy the writings of the later group are
almost equally instructive. The high ideals and the
broad intellectual and imaginative sweep, to say
nothing of the wholesome practicality of the Revolu-
tionary leaders and the Founders of the Union raise
them to the highest place as exemplars, and I can-
not but think that their state papers form one of the
most important sections of American literature, a
section which we shall undervalue, if, as is too often
done, we make originality of thought our prime de-
mand, instead of sound validity and wide applica-
bility. Our early statesmen undoubtedly owed much
to the statesmen and publicists of England and
France, but this fact does not lessen the practical
value of their writings. One of the defects of our
present comparative and evolutionary methods of
study is.the undue emphasis they give to originality
and priority. On the other hand, we are all, men of
thought and action alike, too prone to make mere
success our standard of value, and judged by such a
standard the writings of the later Southern pub-
licists must inevitably be found wanting, unless one
is careful to define the meaning of success. Much
that they did and wrote is certainly valueless save
as a warning, but I must repeat that the definiteness
and resoluteness displayed by them ought to stand
the present generation of Southerners in very good
stead. The South still has its great problem to solve,
and in the performance of its task it needs the con-
structive wisdom of the founders and the definite-
ness and the resoluteness of thought and expression
displayed by men who have been carefully excluded
from certain lists of great American statesmen.
Problems that are solved blindly and indirectly are
often only half solved-if that.
But I am getting into deep water, and I ought in-



continently to retreat toward the safe shores of
literature. Yet no one more than your student en-
joys a plunge-that is an occasional plunge-in the
ocean of life; and after all, according to some critics,
when one is dealing with literature, one is really
dealing with life. That means, I suppose, that my
shore is only an illusory one, and that I may as
well continue to make myself as comfortable as I
can in the waves. I proceed therefore, dropping my
figures of speech, to observe that the master prob-
lem of the entire country seems to be to-day what it
has always been, the problem of securing to every
citizen equality of opportunity, that is to say, the
problem of establishing a true democracy. This
problem has been at no time near solution, and it
has assumed varying aspects during different pe-
riods and in different sections of the country. At
present we are chiefly inclined to envisage three
aspects of it-the relations of capital and labor, the
rights of the public to control combinations of capi-
tal, especially such as are invested in so-called natu-
ral monopolies, and the status of races and the two
sexes. It is plain that every citizen of the United
States is vitally interested in all these aspects or
phases of our perennial and universal problem, yet
that one aspect or phase is of peculiar moment to
the people of the South. It is equally true, however,
that each aspect is related with every other, and
there is danger ahead for any section that isolates
one aspect and treats it as though it were an integral
and peculiar problem. It is for the Southern people
of to-day and of the generations that follow to ask
themselves whether they really understand the great
problem that confronts every intelligent citizen of
this country, whether they accept the meanings at-
tached by the other sections to the words democracy
and citizenship, and whether, if they do not, they are



sufficiently trained in clear thought and expression
and sufficiently bold, to make their political and so-
cial ideals prevail, certainly throughout the South,
and perhaps throughout the country. This means, in
the last analysis, that the leaders of Southern opin-
ion have a tremendous task before them which they
must fail of accomplishing if they neglect to culti-
vate the entire group of the humane studies in the
broadest sense of the term. History and literature,
economics and sociology and the theory of politics
and law must be studied by Southerners with in-
creasing devotion and acumen, and the lessons
learned must be applied with ever-greater intelli-
gence and resolution if the section is to maintain its
individuality and augment its prestige. In the light
of this fact the inception and completion of the pres-
ent undertaking must be regarded as a phenomenon
of unparalleled importance in the history of South-
ern publications. No such stock-taking, if I may use
a commercial term, has ever been known in the South
before, and its beneficial results ought to be wide-
spread and lasting.
One of the most interesting disclosures made by
this stock-taking is described in Dr. George F. Mel-
len's chapter, "Contributions of New England and
the North to the South's Culture." That the South
owed not a little to Northern wealth and intelligence
and energy was long ago known to all persons inter-
ested in Southern history, and the part played in
Southern education by the Northern tutor or school-
master has been described in numerous books; but
I doubt whether many readers of Dr. Mellen's chap-
ter will be able to affirm that it did not greatly
deepen and widen their conception of the essential
solidarity of the country. We of the South are not
so peculiar a people as we suppose ourselves to be,
and, fortunately, the more closely we scrutinize our-



selves the more we perceive that, save in certain re-
stricted circles of society in restricted areas, our
characteristics natural and acquired are those of
our fellow-Americans, at least of those who were
born in the country.
It is sometimes said that the South is really the
most American part of America, and so far as con-
cerns intermixture of races this is probably true.
It is also true in a measure so far as concerns ideas
and institutions. No other section has of late shown
such an interest in public education, and no idea is
more distinctively American than the idea that every
child within the borders of a state should receive at
least the elements of the training that is needed for
the making of good citizens. When we think of edu-
cation, we naturally think of schools and colleges as
the institutions through which the idea of popular
education is made effective; but the public library
is a scarcely less important institution for the train-
ing of citizens, and it may almost be called a pecu-
liarly American institution. It was long before the
library idea, so to speak, spread to the South, not
because the people did not appreciate books, but be-
cause the structure of society and the distribution
of wealth were not propitious to the founding and
fostering of public libraries. Even in the Old South,
however, there were good collections of books, as is
shown for example in interesting monographs by Dr.
Stephen B. Weeks and Professor Yates Snowden,
and to-day Southern librarians feel that the cause
for which they have so long been struggling is
practically won. No great collection of books an-
swering the needs of scholars as well as those of the
general public exists south of Washington, and so
long as this is the case the South in a sense cannot
be intellectually independent. But, as a matter of
fact, America as a whole is still, in this sense, more




or less dependent upon Europe, and there is reason
to hope that in the course of time the cities and uni-
versities of the South will be able adequately to an-
swer the demands of Southern scholarship.
Scholarship, however, though vastly important, is
not so necessary to an expanding people as a grow-
ing body of creative literature which expresses that
people's aspirations, which puts its thoughts into
words. Has the South such a literature now? Is it
likely to have one in the future? What are the best
means to secure it?
Answers to these questions are likely to vary ac-
cording to the temperaments and literary standards
of the answerers. Some persons may even be inclined
to doubt whether the South of 1909 has fulfilled
the promise of the South of 1880-1890, the South of
Cable and Page and James Lane Allen and Miss
Murfree. Others may see in the work of this and
that younger novelist and poet and particularly in
the great increase in the number of men and women
who are anxious to win literary distinction the
promise of even greater achievements in the domain
of letters than the section can yet boast of. It is
really astonishing to observe how many volumes of
fiction and verse and biography and history have
been published by Southerners within the past five
years, and it is pathetic also, for one shrewdly sus-
pects that a very large percentage of the writers
paid for their own plates. Whether or not, however,
this large literary product has been commercially
profitable and whether or not the masterly books
and writers have been very few in number, it re-
mains clear that, along with the South's great awak-
ening to the need of popular education, the spread
of public libraries, and the increased study of the
section's past, there has developed throughout the


South a spirit of literary activity unparalleled in the
region except perhaps during the feverish and un-
settled years that followed the War of Secession. It
is plain, I think, that the average quality of the books
produced to-day is much higher than was the case
between 1865 and 1870, and, as the South seems to
be far more stable, economically, politically, and so-
cially than it was twenty years ago, to say nothing
of the period of reconstruction, there seems to be no
reason why a normal and healthy advance may not
be expected along all the lines of literary production.
How far the literature thus produced will be dis-
tinctively Southern, that is how far it will display
qualities which will be at once recognized as not ex-
isting in the books written in other sections of this
country is a question which only a rash critic would
care to answer. There will doubtless be many novels
and histories and biographies and even poems writ-
ten the scenes and themes of which will be Southern
in some senses, yet the treatment may be American,
nay for that matter British, and the question will
remain how far they are truly Southern products,
full of the distinctive features of Southern life and
character, original in form, and fresh and new in
spirit. In other words, we find ourselves confronted
with the old question how far American literature
really is American-a question which some critics
have answered with more patriotic confidence than
a calm analysis of the facts in the case seems to war-
rant. I have no desire to imitate them, but neither
do I think it necessary or advantageous to exhibit
traces of that spirit of colonialism which has done
so much to retard our national emancipation with re-
gard to the things of the mind. It seems better to
emphasize the advantage the South's classical tradi-
tion ought to give its writers and to express the hope



that, when some future generation undertakes, in a
work like the present, to survey the achievements of
the section, the volumes devoted to literature will
register a progress commensurate with all reason-
able wishes and expectations.
Professor of English Literature, Columbia University.
NEW YORK, April 24, 1909.


HIS brief review is modest in aim and pur-
pose. It cannot be a history of achievement,
nor is it a description of a stable condition
of life; it is merely a sketch of a passing phase in the
development of a new civilization. It is but an ef-
fort to voice the thought of the present South, to in-
dicate the trend of its intellectual movements.
It is significant that these movements are in line
with the course of thought elsewhere manifested.
The Old South had ideas and ideals of its own; the
present South shares the thought and life of the
modern world. While the peculiar civilization of
former days still challenges the admiration of many
and possesses the sympathy of all, the present gen-
eration is busy with its own concerns and is fight-
ing its own battles. The South is no longer a prob-
lem, it is not even the home of a peculiar people. It
shares the intellectual movements of the world and
responds to the currents of universal history. It is
true that there are remote rural and mountain sec-
tions that do not answer to these statements, but
such sections are not typical. They are back eddies
that testify to the strength of the current that has
swept by them. Even the negro iace, in its pro-
gressive elements at least, reflects the spirit of the
times. The advanced negro of the new South is
eager to learn, ready to change, willing to abandon
his distinctive habits, dialect or physical peculiari-
ties. He is wiling to become a part of the larger life
in which he moves and figures.


I. Material Development.
Itwill be generally admitted that the initial impulse
in the reshaping of modern thought has come from
science. The results of this movement have been
the discovery of a mass of new scientific truths, the
application of these discoveries to practical life, and
the adoption of a scientific method in every field of
thought and research. All these influences have
been and are at work in the South. It is true that
the South has made small contribution to the achieve-
ments of scientific research, but the same statement
may be made of America as a whole. But in apply-
ing the results of science to the materials of life and
civilization the South has made and is making rapid
progress. A large part of the intellectual activity
of the South at present is concerned with the practi-
cal problems of a material civilization. It is easy to
understand why this should be so. Poverty has been
a stern but successful teacher. The war left the South
desolate. Accumulated resources had been swept
away, means of production destroyed, the labor sys-
tem overthrown, and the directing, controlling white
population had been decimated. The first problem
was that of existence. This was simple, but not
easy. The soil furnished its contribution, but labor
conditions made agricultural operations uncertain
and unprofitable. The splendid beginnings of manu-
facture made between 1850 and 1860 had come to a
violent end, and there was no capital to revive them.
Opportunities for employment were so scant that the
young men of the South moved westward in large
numbers between 1865 and 1875. Those who re-
mained learned the details of every form of physical
labor and turned their attention to everyopportunity
for the creation of wealth. Gradually the richness
and abundance of natural resources was realized,
slowly capital was accumulated and invested in all



manner of industries. The decade between 1880 and
1890 marks the turning of the tide and the beginning
of all industrial revival. Between 1890 and 1900 the
movement had increased in volume and power and
since 1900 has taken on dimensions that attract na-
tional attention and interest. This revival has
been an intellectual as well as a material movement.
It has been based on a study of natural conditions,
an appreciation of scientific truth, an application of
scientific achievements to all phases of life. It has
been in the main the achievement of Southerners.
Foreign capital played an inconspicuous part in its
early beginnings. In recent years, since the indus-
trial movement has become general and profits well
established, there has been an influx of funds from
all directions seeking investment. There has been
also an accession of capitalists and of skilled labor-
ers, and the tide of immigration is beginning to turn
This article is not intended for the recital of sta-
tistics, but we may be pardoned for just a few words
by way of summary. Manufacturing capital in the
South in 1880 amounted to $250,000,000; in 1890, to
$650,000,000; in 1900, to $1,150,000,000; and in 1908,
to $2,100,000,000. The value of manufactures in
1880 was $450,000,000; in 1890, $900,000,000; in 1900,
$1,145,000,000; and in 1908, $2,600,000,000. The di-
versity of these enterprises is also worthy of note.
While cotton mills and iron foundries furnish the
largest items, we must not lose sight of the value
of finished products in wool, in leather, in stone,
marble, wood and metals.
Agriculture is beginning to feel more than ever
the quickening effects of a growing intelligence. In
some respects the greatest present problem of the
South is to elevate rural life, to make farming profit-
able and attractive-the expression of a higher cul-


ture-to bring to its service the researches of chemis-
try, biology and physics. To this end a new educa-
tion is called for and not without hope of speedy
realization. The farm products of the South had a
value in 1880 of $660,000,000; in 1890, of $770,000,-
000; in 1900, of $1,270,000,000; and in 1908, of

II. Educational 'Progress.
The intellectual life of the South is expressing it-
self further in educational work. This is the out-
growth of definite and prolonged effort on the part of
many earnest leaders and workers. In part, it is the
working of a law of self-interest, the recognition of
an essential relation between knowledge and power,
between education and material prosperity. In part
it has progressed by the simple process of imitation
from one community or state to another. In part,
too, it is the expression of a deep sense of justice, an
abiding conviction of right, a recognition of the obli-
gation of strength to weakness, an acceptance of the
essential spirit of a true and genuine democracy.
The forms of this educational work are manifold.
Most important of all is the general system of public
schools that has been developed in every Southern
state since the war. At no time has this movement
been so strong, so intelligent as now. Slowly the
fight against illiteracy progresses. Year by year
the figures indicating the percentage of illiterates
lessen. Most notable has been the progress made by
the negro race. Instead of more than 90 per cent. of
illiterates at the close of the war, the records now
show less than 50 per cent. Gifts of private socie-
ties or individual philanthropists have contributed
to this result. Valuable as these have been, they
would have been of little avail by themselves. The
great results have been achieved through public tax-


ation, through contributions made by every property
holder in the South. These contributions are made
without serious protest chiefly for the reason that
they are felt to be right and just. The South is not
acting so much through any far-sighted policy of
self-interest as from a sense of present duty, a feel-
ing of distinct obligation toward a helpless and
feeble race.
Public schools in the South still lack much of
reaching a satisfactory standard of efficiency, but the
present outlook is encouraging. Since 1900 they show
great improvement. Annual appropriations from
every state are rapidly increasing. Still more
rapid is the increase in revenues derived from
local taxation. School terms are lengthening,
buildings are improving. Teachers are bet-
ter trained, defects of school legislation are being
corrected, proper supervision is now sought and sup-
plied, and interest in public education has assumed
the proportions of a great popular movement. Of
course, much remains to be done, but if the present
rate of improvement continues for one or two de-
cades, startling results will be accomplished.
The significance of recent educational movements
is not merely in the results attained, but in the man-
ner by which these have been brought about. Local
taxation springs from local appreciation of educa-
tion and indicates an advance in community life and
thought. This has been stimulated by definite edu-
cational campaigns, fostered by the Southern Educa-
tion Board and other agencies. School improve-
ment associations have been organized in almost
every Southern state, and these have helped to pro-
vide new school houses, better furnished and
equipped; tidy grounds, libraries and other appa-
ratus. Educational interests have occupied much
space in the public press and have taken an im-


portant place in political platforms. The public
school system has won recognition as a great civic
interest second to none in value or importance.
Mention should be made of the extension of the
educational movement into the field of scientific and
technical instruction. Every state has builded on
foundations laid by the Federal government and is
planning large things for the future. This work has
been influential in promoting the material develop-
ment of the South and is a most profitable invest-
ment. The undeveloped resources of the South call
for the trained worker, the civil, mining, mechanical
and electrical engineer. Textile schools now ac-
company the cotton mills, and overalls have become
the symbol of intellectual training as well as the cap
and gown.
Colleges and universities were, in the olden days,
the only educational institutions expressive of the
intellectual life. To-day they share that function
with others already mentioned, but they still main-
tain their primacy. Their work has greatlyimproved
in character. Progress has been as rapid as funds
permitted. The limitations of poverty are severe
and unrelenting, but the struggle for higher life and
thought goes bravely on. The South does not will-
ingly accept a position of intellectual inferiority.
This is shown by the fight now nearing a successful
issue for high scholastic standards of college en-
trance and for the maintenance of professional in-
struction on a plane equal to that adopted elsewhere.
We must not claim too much here. But the whole
truth includes ideals and efforts as well as realized
results. The hopefulnes of the present situation
may be seen in the character of college professors.
Most of these are young men, specialists, with defi-
nite university training. They have not been en-
ticed by hope of material reward, for salaries are



pitiably small; but they are inspired by a love of
learning and a zeal for culture. They have ac-
quainted themselves with the thought movement of
the world, are in touch with scholars in other sec-
tions, and are in sympathy with the tides of univer-
sal life. In thought they are free, in spirit they are
broad and liberal. Academic freedom is no stranger
to Southern institutions. Persecution for opin-
ion's sake would be an anachronism to-day. South-
ern sentiment is still conservative, but it is not
Recent educational movements have affected ma-
terially the training of Southern women. A few
high-grade colleges for women have been established
and most of the state universities have become co-
educational. The traditional type of Southern
woman is changing. There are not wanting signs
that women are more eager for training than men.
The higher classes in public high schools enroll gen-
erally more girls than boys. Commercial life is
opening many avenues of employment to women and
some are even training themselves for professional
service. Social life-even in the upper circles-has
vague impulses toward intellectual attainment.
Weekly clubs alternate Shakespeare with cards, so-
ciology with pink teas, and discussions on civic im-
provement with feminine fashion and gossip. Al-
together, the Southern woman is more intellectual
than ever before, and this improvement has been of
her own striving. No strong arm has aided her in
this struggle; greater, therefore, is her credit and
III. Literature and History.
Much has been written of the barrenness of the
Old South in the field of literature. Whatever the
cause, the fact is undisputed, but the New South has
done something to removethis reproach. It would


be pleasant if one might trace these new literary per-
formances to the stimulus of literary work in college
or university, but such an effort is not warranted by
the facts. Undoubtedly colleges are giving an im-
proved training in English, a better appreciation of
literature, a juster critical judgment, and this is
helpful. Literature must have a soil, the singer an
audience, the writer readers of discrimination and
appreciation, and books when made must have pur-
chasers. In all these respects the South is improv-
ing and the literary movement already under way is
not likely to die without permanent results. The
South is rich in literary material, and not all of it
has yet been exploited. Where the plowshare of
war cut deepest, the first fruits of tradition and of
story ought to grow. The burden of Southern sor-
row and suffering ought to elicit a burst of South-
ern song. The exuberance of traditional oratory
might well be transformed into the more lasting
measures of poetry. Even the presence of an alien
race should add its picturesque touches and lighten
the shadow it has cast over Southern life and his-
tory. And so we point with pride to the Southern
writers that have appeared in the field of pure lit-
erature and we hope for still more worthy achieve-
ments in coming years.
The work of Southern students and writers in the
field of history is noteworthy. This has sprung out
of a genuine patriotism and has been fostered by a
desire to publish the truth. It is right that the
South should tell its own story, provided always
that it is told fairly and squarely. This task has
been aided by college professors, by librarians, by
public officials and by private students. Patriotic
societies have celebrated all manner of anniver-
saries with addresses of varying merit. Leaders in
the great War of Secession like Jefferson



Davis and Alexander H. Stephens have written their
stories. Other leaders have had their biographies
written for them. The Southern Historical Society
has published a mass of material and has stimulated
the establishment of dozens of similar societies in
every state and in many cities and smaller communi-
ties. These in turn have collected and published a
great number of studies and papers. A reference
to Poole's Index will show how freely the magazines
have lent their pages to articles on Southern history.
This work once begun has not been confined to the
period of the war. It has been carried back into
colonial times and into the earliest beginnings of our
life as a nation. This is one of the most distinct in-
tellectual achievements of the New South. The task
is not yet completed. Much remains for the coming
generations and no time should be lost, for valuable
material is perishing every year. To the credit of
the Southern student be it said that he is not merely
a laudator temporis acti. He is something of a
critic. The Old South was not all good and the pres-
ent South has many failings. No.good can come of
unmerited praise. Accurate statements, true and
just comparisons, frank confessions, mark the true
historian, and the present school of Southern writ-
ers is striving to manifest these characteristics and
will merit attention in so far as it succeeds.

IV. Intellectual Independence.
The present tendency of Southern thought is to-
ward intellectual freedom. This is, after all, the su-
preme test of intellectual life and movement. Wher-
ever thought is rife, wherever progress is real, wher-
ever opinions are sincerely formed as the result of
intelligent processes of reasoning, there will result
not a blind uniformity but a stimulating diversity of
conclusions. Uniformity of opinion is the sign of


stagnation, of indifference, of mental apathy or men-
tal slavery. For a long time the South has borne
the charge of intolerance and unfortunately has too
often deserved it. The solidarity of political action
has had its counterpart in a certain solidarity of
thought. Convictions have been the outgrowth of
sentiment and prejudices as often as the deliver-
ances of reason. This solidarity has been something
very distinct from provincialism. All people are
more or less provincial. Environment colors life in
its outward aspects everywhere. New England
seems intensely provincial to the Westerner. The
true Bostonian is a Brahmin. The New York jour-
nals reflect a self-poised, self-centered population,
and the insularity of Great Britain is frequently
noted by citizens of the world. In this sense the
South has always been provincial. Its rural life, its
plantation homes, its country churches, its musical
accent, have been its own. Its hospitality to
strangers and to friends, the occupations and amuse-
ments of its leisure hours, its oratory and its politi-
cal leadership have been among its peculiarities as a
province. But all this is entirely distinct from that
spirit of intolerance of which we now speak.
Southern intolerance was not the result of blood
or character. The South was the battleground of
Whigs and Democrats, the home of English Cava-
liers and French Huguenots, and of the virile, inde-
pendent, self-reliant Scotch-Irish. Southern intol-
erance was the distinct legacy of slavery. It is not
true that this has always and in all places been the
result of such an institution. Quite the contrary.
But the peculiarity of the situation in the South was
that here slavery was to fight its last great battle.
Here was a struggle protracted through many years
to maintain itself against advancing enlightenment
and a purer moral code. The length and bitterness


of the fight attested the intellectual power, the re-
sourcefulness of the defendants. Gradually the
voice of the South on this subject sounded as the
voice of one man. The many who had no slaves
echoed the sentiments of the few who had many. A
cause essentially weak was strengthened by consider-
ations of personal liberty, of state rights, of sacred-
ness of contract. So imperious became the domina-
tion of this one idea that Southern patriots gave up
the national government which they had been instru-
mental in building and which they had so ably ad-
ministered for more than half a century. When this
fight was over and lost, the South passed at once into
a struggle still more bitter and humiliating. This
was the struggle of weakness against overmastering
savagery, of intelligence against brutal ignorance, of
racial purity against racial degeneracy. Here again
her foes were her own brothers, and a great ruling
political party became the machinery of her persecu-
tion. No wonder the South became solid, in think-
ing as well as in voting. No wonder everything new
was regarded with fear and suspicion.
Slowly conditions began to change. After ten
years of subjection-an orgy of misrule-the South-
ern states secured control of their own affairs. This
was affected by a revolution-and not entirely a
peaceful one. Both force and fraud played their
part and left their sting and their curse. But politi-
cal control cannot rest in the hands of the ignorant
and vicious. Such a condition of affairs is anarchy.
There was no progress in the South and no hope till
this state of affairs was remedied. With the elimi-
nation of ignorance and vice from politics, there is
some hope of an intelligent division on questions of
great civic interest. A change of attitude in the
North has helped wonderfully to free the South from
its artificial unity of thought and speech. As the



North grows less critical, less fanatical, less severe,
the South grows more open-minded, more just and
more free. A commingling of population has proven
beneficial to both sections. Business interests are
joining both sections in all manner of worthy enter-
prises. Now, too, differences in political views are
beginning to appear. It cannot be said now that the
South believes in free trade or in free silver. Senti-
ment is strongly divided on these as on other great
governmental questions, such as labor legislation,
control of trusts, railroads, and all matters of for-
eign policy. Gradually there will work itself out a
distinct political struggle of conflicting ideas. In
that struggle party machinery will give place to
party principles and politicians will yield to states-
men. In the realm of national politics also the
South will in time have a voice and give free ex-
pression of its opinion. The present exclusion will
not be permanent. The Southern temperament is
suited for political contest. The art and science of
government, once so well understood, will again be
more than a memory or a tradition. The call may
yet come for an Anglo-Saxon leadership, and if so
the response can come from no section sooner than
from the South.
Thus, it is that political life, as well as the pre-
viously noted factors of commerce and education,
are working together for the emancipation of the in-
dividual. This will come more rapidly as the years
go by. It will no more be hindered by sectional
strife, by political oppression, by fanatical hate.
But the greatest danger to perfect individual free-
dom comes from the South itself. As the struggle
for slavery banished intellectual liberty, so the con-
tinued presence of the negro population in the South
hinders the formation and expression of free
thought. Political issues and civic problems have



often been settled on racial lines rather than on eco-
nomic principles. When the race problem is injected
into any other question, there is an end to all dis-
cussion, to all differences, to all freedom of indi-
vidual opinion. This attitude must be overcome by
a new appeal to the spirit of fairness and justice.
The South does not need to shackle itself or the ne.
gro in order to maintain Anglo-Saxon supremacy.
The intellectual freedom and efficiency of the white
race will be promoted by generous treatment of the
negro. Oppression of every kind will work a double
woe. In whatever form slavery may be perpetuated,
just so far it will put its shackles on the minds of
the Southern whites. If we treat the negro un-
justly, we shall practice fraud and injustice toward
each other. We shall necessarily live by the stand-
ard of conduct we apply to him. This is the eternal
curse of wrong and injustice, a curse that abides on
the ruler as well as the slave. The South will be
free only as it grants freedom.
Chancellor of Vanderbilt University.





SHE transplantation of English civilization to
the southern half of this Republic may be
Said almost to begin with poetry, if R. Rich's
Newes from Virginia, a stirring account of
the "happy arrival of that famous and worthy knight
Sir Thomas Gates, and well reputed and valiant
Captaine Newport into England," published in Lon-
don in 1610, by "one who was of the voyage," can be
called poetry. A little later, moreover, 1623, pure
literature, at least of a secondary kind, begins with
George Sandys' translation of the last ten books of
Ovid's Metamorphoses. Sandys was an Oxford
scholar of literary repute at home, whose really cred-
itable piece of work gave William Stith, one of the
earliest Virginia historians (1747), a chance to say
that "in the midst of these tumults and alarms the
muses were not silent," and writers of American lit-
erature after him a conventional date, 1626, the date
of the publication of Sandys' translation, with which
to start the account of the beginning of pure litera-
ture on this continent.
But neither these, nor Capt. John Smith's Sea
Marke, nor George Alsop's part prose, part verse A


Character of the Province of Maryland (1666), can
be called distinctively American, or Southern poetry.
Though some of them were written in America, and
all of them had to do with experiences in Maryland
and Virginia, they were written by Englishmen for
Englishmen. They are interesting therefore more
for their connection with the early settlements in the
South than for any literary value they may have.
In 1676, however, there is a notable poem by an un-
known hand in praise of Nathaniel Bacon, the leader
of the first organized protest against British oppres-
sion, Bacon's Rebellion, as it is called in history.
This poem, the product of a writer who might have
been born in Virginia, is embedded in the Burwell
Papers, and if it does not strike the true American
note, it is at least prophetic of the spirit of a hundred
years later:
Death, why so cruel? What! no other way
To manifest thy spleen but thus to slay
Our hopes of safety, liberty, our all,
Which, through thy tyranny, with him must fall
To its late chaos."
The second century of colonial existence begins
with a vigorous, Hudibrastic account of manners and
customs in Maryland, The Sot-weed Factor; or, a
Voyage to Maryland, by Eben Cook, Gent. It was
published in London in 1708; but who this Ebenezer
Cook, Gentleman, was that, according to Moses Coit
Taylor, struck "a vein of genuine and powerful
satire," is a matter of conjecture, though his pre-
tence of being an Englishman condemned to emigrate
to the province of Maryland might hint that he was a
Marylander in hiding. Anyway, the poem was
successful enough to win the compliment of a weak
imitation twenty-two years afterwards in the Sot-
weed Factor Redivivus. This ends the matter of
poetic literature at the South till the storm of the


Revolution gathers and breaks. Conditions were too
crude, the thought, interests and energies of the
people were too deeply concerned with other things.
The wilderness had to be made habitable, Indian and
French wars had to be fought, and, in general, the
rough, immediate work of merely getting on in the
new country precluded naturally any considerable
attention to what is called polite literature. If there
is to be a literature at all it must take the shape of
sermon, history, or political pamphlet. In New Eng-
land religion inspired not a few attempts at pious
verse-making, and even the "Tenth Muse," Anne
Bradstreet, managed to flourish in the chill Puritan
air; while by 1765 the Pennsylvania colony could
concentrate enough culture in Philadelphia to bring
forth a Thomas Godfrey, who, dying in 1763, left
behind The Prince of Parthia, a tragedy, "the first
important dramatic undertaking in the colonies."
But to this time the South had nothing to show that
poetry was cultivated to any considerable extent.
Even the fiery discussions that led up to the Revolu-
tion, producing finally no little lyric prose, failed to
inspire anything in the way of patriotic verse much
above mere doggerel. A typical poem of this kind
of verse was published in the Virginia Gazette, May
2, 1776, under the title of Hearts of Oak. While it is
charged with patriotic fervor and interprets the reso-
lute mood of the time, in expression it falls far short
of the occasion:
On our brow while we laurel-crowned liberty wear,
What Englishmen ought the Americans dare;
Though tempests and terrors around us we see,
Bribes nor fears can prevail o'er the hearts that are free.
Hearts of oaks are we still, for we're sons of those men
Who always are ready, steady, boys, steady,
To fight for their freedom again and again."
Poems of this sort, together with a few rude bal-
lads, largely satirical in mood and representing both


the loyalist and rebel side in the struggle, were pub-
lished in the papers of the time. But none of them
has any special merit, and they are of such inferior
quality that one wonders not only that they were
popular but also that the fierce passions of the hour
and the high patriotic idealism of the colonies were
able to do no better.
Sometimes the admiration for some special Revo-
lutionary hero or the occasion of his death called
forth a tribute in verse. For example, Col. Alex-
ander Martin's Tribute to General Francis Nash
(1777) is not without a certain dignity of thought
and expression:
On Bunker's height great Warren is no more;
The brave Montgomery's fate we next deplore;
Princeton's famed fields to trembling Britain tell,
How, scored with wounds, the conquering Mercer fell;

Last flow our sorrows for our favorite son,
Whom, weeping, Carolina claims her own,
The gallant Nash, who, with fatal wound,
Though tortured, weltering on the hostile ground,
'Fight on, my troops,' with smiling ardor said,
''Tis but the fate of war; be not dismay'd.' "
A year later, from a Catholic priest of Maryland,
Charles Henry Wharton, comes the first poetic ap-
preciation of the character and service of Washing-
ton. This poem, A Poetical Epistle to George Wash-
ington, is no mean performance, as the following
lines will show:
Great without pomp, without ambition brave,
Proud not to conquer fellow-men, but save;
Friend to the wretched, foe to none but those
Who plan their greatness on another's woes;
Awed by no titles, faithless to no trust,
Free without faction, obstinately just."
Even the conventional Eighteenth century heroic
couplet cannot quite conceal the discriminating in-
sight and the noble dignity of these lines.


But verse of this serious character was not all. In
the very midst of the turmoil of the Revolution
(1777) there appeared The Belles of Williamsburg,
a poem by Dr. James McClurg assisted by St. George
Tucker, but to just what extent is not known. The
poem is in praise of the fair ladies of that famous
old capital and social centre, and is in form and
spirit prophetic of the character of much of the later
Southern poetry-a more or less light form of vers
de socidtd. It is a clever imitation of the same type
of verse in vogue in England during the Eighteenth
century. It was popular enough to call forth a
"Sequel" of a dozen stanzas. Each "illustrious
maid," under a conventional pastoral name, is de-
scribed. For example:
"Aspasia next, with kindred soul,
Disdains the passions that control
Each gentle, pleasing art;
Her sportive wit, her frolic lays,
And graceful form attract our praise,
And steal away the heart."
Toward the end of the Revolution period the verse-
makers began to multiply. In Richmond, Charles-
ton, and Baltimore enough thin little volumes of
attempted poetry are published to indicate that the
Muses were at least gaining friends if they were not
inspiring genuine poetry. In 1786, at Charleston,
S. C., Joseph Ladd Brown, a transplanted Rhode
Islander, gave the public a volume under the title
of Poems by Arouet, in which -he celebrated in the
Eighteenth century pastoral manner his mild love for
a certain Amanda, and decided that happiness is,-
"An empty, fleeting shade,
By imagination made;
'Tis a bubble, show, or worse;
'Tis a baby's hobby horse,
etc., etc., etc."
In 1798 William Munford, son of Col. Robert Mun-
ford of Revolutionary fame, who was also "author


of two dramas and some short poems," published a
volume of Poems and Compositions in Prose on Sev-
eral Occasions, a volume which, besides minor poems
and translations, contained a tragedy, Almoran and
Hamet. To his death in 1825 he worked steadily on
a really creditable translation in blank verse of the
Iliad. To this same period belongs St. George
Tucker, who left behind one lyric which yet manages
to find a place in any anthology of Southern verse.
It is the well known Resignation; or Days of My
Days of my youth,
Ye have glided away;
Hairs of my youth,
Ye are frosted and gray;
Eyes of my youth,
Your keen sight is no more;-"
and so on with the loss of all the fine things that
make youth glorious.
With the War of the Revolution over and the scat-
tered seaboard settlements organized as part of a
constitutional Republic, the Southern states proceed
rapidly to evolve into the type of civilization already
predetermined by colonial conditions. The large
plantation, made possible by the system of negro
slavery, is the social, industrial, and economic unit,
and under it the country gentleman develops as the
predominant and dominating class. Life at the
South, therefore, was that of a rural aristocracy
whose interests were naturally other than literary.
Living in the country upon widely separated landed
estates, the people failed to develop large centres of
intellectual activity. While the ruling classes were
themselves widely read in polite literature and culti-
vated in matters of taste, they were too few in num-
ber to constitute a reading public large enough to
inspire and support authorship. Moreover, the gen-
eral defect of popular education and the lack of an


intelligent middle class hospitable to ideas limited
the diffusion of knowledge and rendered the intel-
lectual atmosphere unfavorable to the production of
literature and discouraging to authorship as a pro-
fession. While it is true that, throughout the period
up to the War of Secession, there were in Richmond,
Charleston, Baltimore, New Orleans, and other
places no inconsiderable groups of cultivated men
and women who were interested in literature and
attempted to make it, while it is also true that at
each of these places many magazines and reviews
of high grade did make literature a matter of serious
concern, yet the fact is that conditions were not
those under which either a vital poetic or prose
literature flourishes.
The conditions to which we are referring existed
not only in the older states along the seaboard but
also, as the Louisiana Purchase and the Mexican
War opened up new territory in the Southwest, the
conditions in the older states were simply repeated
in the new, and the South from 1815 to 1860 was,
from a material standpoint, busily engaged in ex-
tending without change its civilization into other
fields. This expansion assisted in bringing sharply
to the front, and keeping them there, those great po-
litical issues that absorbed the constructive intel-
lectual energies of the South and produced that won-
derful race of statesmen that for so long shaped the
political thought of the Nation. It may be said
therefore that the really constructive genius of the
South expressed itself in terms of statecraft.
A rural aristocracy is naturally conservative, and
it was rendered more so by this absorption of the
best thought of the people in matters of politics,
particularly as political thinking became more and
more sectional in character and as political leaders
set themselves the task of maintaining and extend-


ing the system of slavery by pressing the doctrine of
States' Rights. The result was that their thinking
and leadership, together with the peculiar form of
Southern life and the peculiar nature of Southern
conditions, went deeper than mere questions of poli-
tics. It all tended to isolate the already conservative
South, to shut it in upon itself, to detach it from the
progressive thought of the rest of the world, and to
prevent its receiving those large, stirring ideas that
made, for example, the air of New England so stimu-
lating to every form of literary endeavor.
It is necessary to keep these things in mind if one
would understand the character of the poetic product
of the South before 1860. The lack of a large read-
ing public, the widely scattered nature of the popula-
tion, the conservatism of the people, the absorption
of intellectual interests in politics, the failure to
welcome and appropriate the liberalizing tendencies
of Nineteenth century thought-these are sufficient
to suggest the nature and amount of Southern poetry.
In the first place, the quantity of it is surprisingly
large when all things are considered. A list of ap-
proximately 250 writers of verse has been made out,
and from 1805 to 1860 there is not a year in which
numbers of volumes are not published. This list
includes verse written in almost every conceivable
form, using almost every conceivable sort of ma-
terial, and for almost every purpose to which poetry
may be applied-lyric, descriptive, satiric, dramatic,
political, patriotic, religious. In fact, the whole
gamut of the muse's lyre was run, accompanied by a
multitudinous array of voices. There was, then, no
lack of poetic effort, some of it modestly anonymous
and some of it boldly challenging the suffrages of
the public under both well known and unknown
But all this quantity of poetic effort was largely


amateurish in quality because, in the nature of the
case, it was so largely the work of amateurs. One
may say that among the legion of verse-makers at
the South there were hardly more than four at the
outside that can be described as professional men of
letters-Edgar Allan Poe, William Gilmore Simms,
Henry Timrod, and Paul Hamilton Hayne. The rest
were lawyers, physicians, ministers, college profes-
sors, sentimental men and women who, busy with
other things, courted the Muses only at intervals
between more absorbing pursuits. It has been said
of old time that poetry is a jealous mistress who
demands an undivided loyalty, and she does not
yield her best to those to whom verse-making is but
a more or less superficial accomplishment and no
consuming passion. Hence the poetry of the South
before 1860 was what it was because it was largely
the work of those who would confess to only a mild
bent toward it and who regarded it as merely one of
the ornaments of their culture. One would naturally
expect therefore to find upon it the marks of the mere
This amateurishness shows itself generally in the
imitativeness of much of the Southern verse. The
amateur in literature never frees himself quite from
his models, and to the end he is likely to remain
a remote echo. Men do not uncover and express
what is essentially strong and original in their tem-
perament in any art to which they have not given
themselves body and soul. Moreover, this is the
price which must be paid for excellence of achieve-
ment as well as for originality. And this price was
not paid by Southern poets as a class, but only here
and there by some isolated individuals. The gen-
eral result was that the limited excellence which
Southern poetry had was due mainly to the skill
with which it approximated the qualities of its


models-the monotonously smooth Eighteenth cen-
tury poets, the grace and melody of the Cavalier
poets of love and wine, the mood and sounding rhet-
oric of Byron, the sentimentalism of Tom Moore, and
the artificial verbal and metrical prettiness of
These are the qualities which the Southern poets
now and then caught with a considerable degree of
effectiveness-so much so, indeed, that one may won-
der what might have been accomplished if the South-
ern temperament had been nourished under more
favorable conditions, and had been free to receive the
full tide of Nineteenth century thought and ideals. If,
for example, the South had not been so tenaciously
conservative, if its intellectual interests and energies
had not been so completely absorbed in politics, if
the industrial changes, the transcendental movement,
the new social dreams of the rights and privileges
of all men, the radical readjustment of the modern
mind due to the application of the scientific spirit
and method-if these had swept in upon the thought
and genius of the South, things had been quite other
wise with its poetry, one may be sure. But they did
not, and Southern verse remains as the work of the
amateur-imitative, light and lacking in that serious-
ness of mood and depth of meaning which so largely
characterize both the Victorian poetry in England
and that of the New England school in America. As
it was, the poetry produced at the South, even the
best, was narrow in range, sentimental in mood, lyric
in form, and so far unoriginal and indeed impersonal
that one might almost say that most of it might have
been written by the same hand.
Here and there, however, there projected out of
the general mass of those who essayed poetry the
few who do best what others do but indifferently.
These are they whom both criticism and common con-


sent have agreed to call the representative poets.
But even these have won their place, not by the bulk
of their work, nor by any considerable portion of it,
but by the single poem that has found its way into
the anthologies. An appreciation of these few
poems of the representative poets, after this general
discussion, will be sufficient to bring definitely before
us the absolute achievement of the South in poetry.
In the first quarter of the century John Shaw of
Maryland (1810), William Maxwell of Virginia
(1812), Richard Dabney of the same state (1812),
Washington Allston of South Carolina (1813), and
Edward Coate Pinckney of Maryland (1825), had
published thin volumes of verse from which a poem
or two found its way into the early selections from
American literature, some of them even surviving
to the present time. Those that have survived are
light lyrics of more or less sentimental character,
and only a certain grace of versification and a mild
appeal to the persistent sentimentalism in human
nature have kept them from going the way of the
merely trivial in literature. For example, John
Shaw's claim to remembrance seems to hang by so
slender a thread as one poem of three stanzas en-
titled "A Song"-a really dainty bit of verse-
"Who has robbed the ocean cave
To tinge thy lips with coral hue?
Who from India's distant wave
For thee those pearly treasures drew?
Who from yonder orient sky
Stole the morning of thine eye?"

Again, a stanza of versified trivialty is even yet
quoted from William Maxwell:
How many kisses do I ask?
Now you set me to my task.
First, sweet Annie, will you tell me
How many waves are in the sea?"


"How many stars are in the sky?
How many lovers you make sigh?
How many sands are on the shore?
I shall want just one kiss more."
When one reads the few poems selected by the va-
rious anthologies to represent the best of Richard
Dabney's poems, one need not wonder that the first
volume (1812) failed with the public, and that his
publisher pronounced his second (1815) "a quite
losing concern." Here is a stanza from Youth and
Its quiet beams, in man's last days,
The Hesperus of life displays;
When all of passion's midday heat
Within the breast forgets to beat;
When calm and smooth the minutes glide,
Along life's tranquilizing tide;
It points with slow, receding light,
To the sweet rest of silent night;
And tells, when life's vain schemes shall end,
Thus will its closing light descend,
And as the Eve star seeks the wave,
Thus gently reach the quiet grave."
When we turn to Washington Allston we find that
so distinguished a critic as James Russell Lowell
said that the really artistic spirit first came to ex-
pression in American literature in Allston's Sylphs
of the Seasons in 1813. Allston was a South Caro-
linian who achieved exceptional fame as an artist and
enjoyed the friendship of Coleridge andWordsworth.
The former declared that Allston possessed "a poetic
and artistic genius unsurpassed by any man of his
age"; while Southey was no less pronounced in his
estimate, affirming that Allston's poems were
"among the first productions of modern times."
However, the modern reader of his poetry finds it
hard to agree with such judgments, feeling that they
are extravagant eulogies rather than just appre-
ciations. At the time, however, his poetry was pub-



lished it was greatly superior to anything America
had produced in the quality of the versification, the
delicacy and refinement of the sentiment, and in an
imaginative touch that suggests the nature treat-
ment of Wordsworth and the romantic mood of
Coleridge, together with a certain vague mysticism
which was no doubt due to the influence of the latter.
Nevertheless, his poetry has had only enough vital-
ity in it to make of the poet-painter an interesting
personality in the early literature of the country-
the first name to connect in artistic fellowship the
New World with the Old. The two following stanzas
from Rosalie are characteristic, and have,.moreover,
enough poetry in them to set them quite apart from
anything produced at the South before 1813:
For all I see around me wears
The hue of other spheres;
And something blent of smiles and tears
Comes from the very air I breathe.
0, nothing, sure, the stars beneath
Can mould a sadness like to this,-
So like angelic bliss.
"So, at the dreamy hour of day
When the last lingering ray
Stops on the highest cloud to play,-
So thought the gentle Rosalie,
As on her maiden reverie
First fell the strain of him who stole
In music to her soul."
Richard Henry Wilde (1789-1847), a Georgia law-
yer, congressman, and scholar, particularly in the
field of Italian literature, owes his literary fame
chiefly to one poem, a melancholy lyric on the vanity
of life. Few poems written at the South before
1860 are so widely known as his My Life Is Like the
Summer Rose, and deservedly so, being a lyric of
genuine charm both in thought and expression. It is
almost too familiar to make a quotation necessary,


yet the last stanza should be given if only for the
beauty of the second to the last verse:
"My life is like the print which feet
Have left on Tampa's desert strand;
Soon as the rising tide shall beat,
All trace will vanish from the sand;
Yet, as if grieving to efface
All vestige of the human race,
On that lone shore loud. moans the sea-
But none, alasl shall moan for mel"
Wilde's sonnet To the Mocking Bird and his Ode to
Ease also deserve to keep his memory alive. While
one misses in them the natural inevitableness of the
best lyric poetry, still they have the finished, though
somewhat -artificial, grace that marks the work of a
man of poetic temperament, if not of poetic power,
and are not at all discreditable as the work of one
who only occasionally essayed verse.
In 1825 Edward Coate Pinckney, lawyer, adven-
turer, sometime professor of Belles-Lettres in the
University of Maryland, and editor of a political
newspaper, published a volume of poems in which
were several that illustrate the persistent tendency
of Southern verse to show its best side in the more
or less artificial lyric of sentiment. A Health, A Pic-
ture Song and A Serenade are quite worthy of a
place in any anthology of American verse. A stanza
from the familiar A Health will be sufficient to show
the quality of his work:
I fill this cup to one made up
Of loveliness alone,
A woman, of her gentle sex
The seeming paragon;
To whom the better elements
And kindly stars have given
A form so fair, that, like the air,
'Tis less of earth than heaven."
Thus by the end of the first quarter of the Nine-


teenth century, what we understand as Southern
poetry, when it is worthy of consideration at all, is
largely of the nature of the sentimental lyric. So
generally is this the case that there is a rather
monotonous conventionality about the most of it. It
lacks, as we have already said, the distinguishing
personal note, and fails of the piercing lyric cry that
belongs to the final achievement of lyric poetry.
There is, however, in no little of it a clever rhetorical
prettiness, an ease and grace of versification, and,
at times, a delicate beauty of fancy. It would not
be quite just perhaps to say that it is defective in
sincerity of mood and reality of passion. Still one
cannot help feeling that it is chiefly the work of men
who are merely playing with an art, or possibly men
who have a dash of poetic sentiment in their nature
without much of the genius of the real poet. It will
be sufficient, therefore, in order to bring out the
characteristics of Southern poetry from 1825 on, to
go through a process of selection again, and to take
for consideration only those who may be truly called
First, there is Albert Pike who, though born in
Boston, early identified himself with the Southwest
as a lawyer and newspaper editor, and devoted him-
self largely to the interests of Masonry. At the age
of twenty-two (1831) he wrote Hymns to the Gods,
which, afterwards published in Blackwood's (1839),
won praise in both this country and England. Three
years later (1834) came his Prose Sketches and
Poems. However, only a poem or two is all that has
survived of his literary activity, and even these show
no particular originality, being chiefly interesting
for the way they echo something of the spirit and
manner of both Shelley and Keats. For example,


Shelley was very near to the poet when he penned
his Ode to Spring:
"O thou delicious Spring!
Nursed in the lap of thin and subtle showers,
Which lift their snowy wing
From odorous beds of light-enfolded flowers,
And from enmassed bowers,
That over grassy walks their greenness fling.
Come, gentle Spring."
In the same way one who reads his Ode to the Mock-
ing Bird must think of Keats' Ode to the Nightin-
"Hal what a burst was that! the Aeolian strain
Goes floating through the tangled passages
Of the still woods, and now it comes again,
A multitudinous melody, like a rain
Of glassy music under echoing trees,
Close by a ringing lake."
One poem, a lyric of disappointed love, suggest-
ing both the mood and manner of Tennyson when he
was in the "Claribel" stage of his development,
makes Philip Pendleton Cooke (1816-1850), a Vir-
ginia lawyer, worthy of mention in any discussion of
Southern verse. Cooke contributed frequently to the
literary journals of his day, and published in 1847 a
collection of his poems, Froissart Ballads and Other
Poems. The modern reader fails to find in them
what Duyckinck (Encyclopedia of American Litera-
ture) in 1856 found-that they "are in a bright, ani-
mated mood, vigorous without effort, preserving the
freedom of nature with the discipline of art"; nor
indeed does he agree with the same critic that the one
poem which serves to keep Cooke in remembrance,
his Florence Vane, has "the merit of an antique
song" in its "rare and peculiar excellence" and in
its "delicately touched sentiment." On the con-
trary, the modern reader is more likely to feel that
the poem is artificial in construction and almost


mawkish in sentiment. The last stanza will be
enough to remind one of what tJ e poem is like:
"The lilies of the valley
By young graves weet
The daisies love. to dally
Where maidens sleep;
May their bloom, in beauty vying,
Never wane,
Where thine earthly part is lying,
Florence Vane!"
John Matthews Legar6, of Charleston, S. C.,
author of Orta-Undis and Other Poems (1848), is
another among these minor poets who, by a certain
artificial grace and refinement of verse and senti-
ment, deserves a passing notice. As with the rest,
there is wanting with him the swift, sure utterance
of the genuine lyric mood, and one feels that the
poetry is made, not inspired. Here is a character-
istic stanza from the poem entitled To a Lily:
"Go bow thy head in gentle spite,
Thou lily white,
For she who spies thee waving there,
With thee in beauty can compare
As day with night."
A prolific writer on many subjects was Alexander
Beaufort Meek (1814-1865), lawyer, soldier, politi-
cian, newspaper editor, and author of Songs and
Poetry of the South (1857), a volume which was pop-
ular enough to go through three editions the year of
its publication. Nature, love, sectional patriotism,
were his prevailing themes, and a smooth fluency and
a verbal exuberance were the characteristic qual-
ities. His lyric to The Mocking Bird, though an ob-
vious imitation of Shelley's Skylark easily ranks
with the best of the Southern lyrics:
Why is't thus, this sylvan Petrarch
Pours all night his serenade?
'Tis for some proud woodland Laura,
His sad sonnets all are made!"
Vol. 7-2.


SBut he changes now his measure-
Gladness bubbling from his mouth-
Jest and gibe, and mimic pleasures-
Winged Anacreon of the Southl "
In James Barron Hope (1829-1887) we find an-
other lawyer and newspaper editor actively con-
cerned in literary matters and now and then publish-
ing a volume of verse that won him a place in the
affection of those who cared for such things. His
Charge at Balaklava challenges comparison with
Tennyson's poem on the same subject, and in swift-
ness and vigor does not suffer greatly; while his
Three Summer Studies is an idyllic picture of rural
life drawn with charm of verse and sentiment. It
deserves the place it occupies in the various selec-
tions from ante-bellum Southern poetry.
John Reuben Thompson (1823-1873), one time edi-
tor of the Southern Literary Messenger, was a
prolific poet, though he is now chiefly known for
one or two stirring war-time lyrics. However, his
Window Panes at Brandon and A Picture are both
poems with enough merit in them to make them more
generally known.
Both Hope and Thompson filled no small place in
the literary life of the older South, and both serve
to illustrate how little survives of that large body of
poetic endeavor that marked the period before the
war. It lacked, as we have seen, so generally reality
of thought and feeling, was so defective in the matter
of originality, and, on the artistic side, was so ob-
viously imitative that in the mass it had not enough
vitality to keep it alive much beyond its own short
day. However, when that lyric quality which seemed
inherent in the Southern temperament really took
fire in the flame of war, the result was a few martial

I.-Ii I II

I U li
r.M I I HIM k' 'I :


3L, j


lyrics of genuine power, perhaps the best in Ameri-
can literature. Already in 1814 Francis Scott Key
had given the Republic, with his Star-Spangled Ban-
ner, its first national ode, and in 1847 the Mexican-
War had inspired Theodore O'Hara to write The
Bivouac of the Dead. Nothing better than this last
poem has been done by any other American poet in
the way of a purely martial lyric. The last stanza
of it is almost perfect as an appropriate expression
of the elegiac mood:
Yon marble minstrel's voiceless stone
In deathless song shall tell,
When many a vanished age hath flown,
The story how ye fell;
Nor wreck, nor change, nor winter's blight,
Nor Time's remorseless doom,
Shall dim one ray of glory's light
That gilds your glorious tomb."
With the breaking out of the War of Secession
there came a lyric chorus made up of many voices,
chanting the fiercely patriotic mood of the hour.
Some were simply passionate appeals to state pride;
some told in verse the moving stories of both indi-
vidual and collective heroism; others paid tribute
to great leaders; and still others struck the elegiac
note of sorrow for those who died in battle. Con-
sidering the entire mass of these war-time lyrics, a
just criticism will say that they are the best purely
lyric productions flung forth out of the hot passions
of this war, and that some of them are among the
best of their kind.
The martial choir begins with James R. Randall's
My Maryland, a poem which still has power, from its
direct, passionate appeal, to stir the patriotic feel-
ings, even after the occasion that called it forth has
long passed into the sober mood of history that is


made. When it was first published it called like a
blast of a trumpet to the soul of the South:
"The despot's heel is on. thy shore,
His torch is at thy temple door,
Avenge the patriotic gore
That flecked the streets of Baltimore,
And be the battle queen of yore,
Maryland, my Maryland!"
It was followed by many in the same mood at every
stage of the great struggle; some, merely anony-
mous, were sung from the corners of local news-
papers and thence drifted into popular possessions;
others bore the names of already well known poets.
For example, there is Henry Timrod's Ode to Caro-
lina, an exceptionally fine specimen of the martial
"The despot treads thy sacred sands,
Thy pines give shelter to his bands,
Thy sons stand by with idle hands,
Quite worthy, moreover, to be classed with the best
of its kind is Francis O. Ticknor's Virginians of the
Valley. The last stanza will give a good idea of the
stirring appeal of it:
"We thought they slept!-the sons who kept
The names of noble sires,
And slumbered while the darkness crept
Around their vigil fires!
But aye the Golden Horseshoe Knights
Their Old Dominion keep,
Whose foes have found enchanted ground
But not a Knight asleep."
Ticknor is also the author of Little Giffen of Ten-
nessee, a lyric that tells with piercing pathos the
heroism of a soldier lad from the plain people: So
perfectly is the story told in simple, direct moving
verse and with no little of the dramatic effective-
ness of the genuine ballad, that one must class this


poem with the best of its kind in American litera-
ture. Equally well known, and deservedly so, are
John Reuben Thompson's Ashby and Music in Camp.
This latter poem has won its way into the heart of
the nation as well as of the South, because it brings
home to a reunited people so beautifully the pathos
of war.
The war over, the natural mood of regret for a
cause that is lost and the purpose to keep alive the
memory of the heroic dead find appropriate and ade-
quate expression in such poems as Margaret J. Pres-
ton's Shade of the Trees, Father Ryan's Conquered
Banner, and Henry Timrod's Ode to the Confederate
Dead. Few poems in American literature that at-
tempt to interpret the same mood can be classed with
this latter poem in simple beauty of style and nobil-
ity of sentiment. The last stanza fittingly illustrates
both the style and the sentiment:
Stoop, Angels, hither from the skies!
There is no holier spot of ground
Than where defeated valor lies,
By mourning beauty crowned!"
It now remains to discuss the four poets who are,
for the present generation, the really representative
men of letters of the ante-bellum South, men who are
remembered for the body of their work, rather than
simply by an occasional poem-William Gilmore
Simms, Edgar Allan Poe, Henry Timrod, and Paul
Hamilton Hayne. Yet even in the case of these, it
is not certain that any one of them, with the excep-
tion of Poe, will live for the future through anything
more than a very few poems. Already Simms, as
prodigiously prolific as he was, is hardly thought of
as a poet, and nobody except some stray literary
antiquarian would dare to attempt to read half of
what he has written. It is the novelist that we care
for, if we care for Simms at all, and it is hardly eon-


ceivable to us now that from 1827 to 1860 he brought
out as many as fifteen volumes of verse, about one
for every two years! In this immense poetic en-
deavor he used a wide range of material and almost
every known form of verse. He turned out with a
facility little short of amazing sonnets, satires, lyrics,
descriptive sketches, and dramas until there seemed
no limit to the fertility of his production, at least in
amount. Yet if one were to search through it all, one
would find plenty of Byronic declamation, much that
is mere rhetoric, a facility of versification, some
originality of invention, if not of mood and senti-
ment, and occasionally a purple patch of what is al-
most poetry, the patches coming, however, with hard-
ly frequency enough to reward the search. The truth
is Simms was a romancer of real power who wrote
an immense amount of inferior verse, and one is sur-
prised not only at the sheer amount but also at the
distinction and praise it brought the author when it
was published. Aside therefore from his stories he
simply remains a striking literary figure, the most
striking perhaps, in an age, though comparatively
recent, yet strangely remote from the present.
But with Timrod and Hayne the case is different.
Both are men of exceptional poetic talent, and time
will rather add to, than detract from, their fame.
Timrod took his art seriously, and under happier
circumstances might have made a large contribution
to American literature. As it is, he belongs to those
whose renown is unfulfilled. Yet, withal, the high
seriousness of such poems as The Vision of Poesy,
Ethnogenesis, The Cotton Boll, the charming nat-
uralness of Katy, the delicate beauty of The Lily
Confidante, are sufficient in both distinction of im-
agery and melody of expression to make for him a
secure place in the affection of lovers of genuine

*1' *.


I tL E




I .-


Hayne, while he lived to 1886, had yet by 1860
published three volumes of verse, and the mood and
tone of his work seems rather to connect him with
the past. Above all others, if one takes his poetry in
the mass and in connection with the singularly win-
ning personality of the man, he is regarded as the
most representative Southern poet. Indeed, he has
been not inappropriately called the poet-laureate of
his section. The gentle, high chivalry in the best
Southern character, the Southerner's love of state
and section, the romantic color of his imagination, the
sentimentality of his temperament, are reflected with
grace and charm in the poetry of Ilayne. More sym-
pathetically and adequately than any other has lie
interpreted the moods and aspects of nature at the
South. In the outward form of his art he has caught
something of the spirit and manner of the best
models, in particular of Wordsworth and Tennyson.
One may safely affirm that the winnowing processes
of time will leave from Hayne a larger amount of
what is really excellent in poetry than from any
other ante-bellum poet except Poe.
Poe is the one man of genius, though in a limited
sphere, whom the South produced before 1860. But
while this sphere is, in truth, limited, yet within it
Poe's achievement is simply unmatched in American
letters both in mood and in artistic perfection of
form. The weird uncanniness of some of his poems,
the vague, evasive mysticism of others, the strange
romanticism, the poignancy of the mood of sorrow
and despair with which they are charged-all appro-
priately and adequately sung with an exquisitely
haunting melody-make them easily the best of their
kind, and they bear, too, the distinct marks of Poe's
own genius. It is futile, as I have said elsewhere, to
discuss the question as to whether Poe belongs to the
South, or is some rare exotic transplanted from far


off realms. His detachment from contemporary
ideas, his persistent lyrical mood, the melancholy
atmosphere which pervades his art, his sentimental-
ity, the romantic quality of his imagination, are cer-
tainly more Southern than anything else.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.-I. Selections with biographical notes and critical
comment.-Clark, J. T.: Songs of the South (Philadelphia, 1896); Duy-
ckinck, E. A. and G. L.: Cyclopedia of American Literature (New York,
1855); Eggleston, G. C.: American War Ballads and Lyrics (New York,
1889); Griswold, R. W.: Poets and Poetry of America (New York, 1842);
Holliday, Carl: Three Centuries of Southern Poetry (Nashville, 1908):
Painter, T. V. N.: Poets of the South (New York, 1903); Stedman and
Hutchinson: Library of American Literature (New York, 1891); Trent,
W. P.: Southern Writers (New York, 1905); Trent and Wells: Colonial
Prose and Poetry (New York, 1901); Weber, W. L.: The Southern Poets
(New York, 1900).
II. Historical and Biographical.-Bradshaw, S. F.: Southern Poetry
Prior to 1860 (Richmond, 1900); Davidson, J. W.: Living Writers of the
South (New York, 1869); Holliday, Carl: History of Southern Literature
(New York, 1906); Link, S. A.: Pioneers of Southern Literature (Nashville,
1898); Manly, Louise: Southern Literature (Richmond, 1895); Onder-
donk, J. L.: A History of American Verse (Chicago, 1901); Page, T. N.:
The Old South (New York, 1892); Trent, W. P.: Life of William Gilmore
Simms (New York, 1892); Tyler, M. C.: History of American Literature
(New York, 1878) and A Literary History of the American Revolution
(New York, 1897).
President of Wofford College.




HEN the War of Secession closed there
were a number of Southern poets who had,
before and during the war, achieved more
or less success in the practice of their art.
Some of them had written martial strains that were
in unison with the heart-throbs of the Confederacy;
armies had marched to the inspiring words of Mary-
land, My Maryland, and Carolina, and lonely hearts
had been comforted by tributes to Southern heroes.
The question was, whether these same poets or
others could give adequate expression to the tragedy
of a desolate people. Certainly there was never a
time when a great poet was more needed, one who
might have obeyed the same voice that spoke to
Israel's prophet of the Exile, "Comfort ye, comfort
ye my people." Themes were not lacking for
imaginative minds-the sacred memory of the
South's dead soldiers, the hallowed presence of her
self-sacrificing women, the confusion of an enfran-
chised race, the overthrow of a picturesque civiliza-
tion, the glory of human nature as seen in so many
examples of suffering, the hope of a new nationalism
and a larger freedom-all these might h4ve been
sung by those gifted with poetic power. One who
achieved success at a later time has said: "Never
in the history of this country has there been a gen-
eration of writers who came into such an inheritance
of material."
So it seems from the standpoint of the present,
but conditions were most unfavorable for creative

,''. .. .. ..', .


work of any kind. There was no inheritance of
literary art, no background of artistic traditions.
All the causes that are generally assigned for the
lack of poetry in the ante-bellum South-the lack of
centres of culture, the failure of the people to ap-
preciate literary work, the absence of magazines
and publishing houses-prevailed in the new era;
and thereto were added unexampled poverty, wide-
spread disaster, and an overwhelming confusion of
the public mind. It is needless here to rehearse the
conditions that prevailed from 1865 to 1875. Laniei
tersely expressed the chief limitation under which
the writers labored when he wrote to Bayard Tay-
lor: "Perhaps you know that with us of the younger
generation in the South, since the war, pretty much
the whole of life has been merely not dying."
Of the poets who survived the war, few made any
advance over their previous work, and only one
grew in range and power of inspiration. William
Gilmore Simms, who, in Charleston, had gathered
about him a band of promising men and who had
done so much for the cause of Southern literature,
was an old and broken man. He went to work with
prodigious energy upon some romances, and now
and then wrote a poem that was but a feeble wail of
despair. He edited a collection of Southern war
poems, the introduction of which was characterized
by unselfish interest in Southern literature and by
a new note of nationalism. He wrote to Hayne: "I
am rapidly passing from a stage where you young
men are to succeed me, doing what you can. God
grant that you may be more successful than I have
been." The words which Simms wrote of himself
are a fitting epitaph to his stormy and sad life:
"Here lies one who, after a reasonably long life,
distinguished chiefly by unceasing labors, has left
all his better works undone"--a remark that poign-

'4 '*

..... f,-*>

^^^t *- ^^ j _

. 7

1. Residence of W. G. Simms.
2. Residence of J. P. Kennedy.


antly suggests the ungathered sheaves of many an-
other Southern genius.
Margaret J. Preston, who had, before the war,
written for the Southern Literary Messenger, and
during the war had celebrated the deeds of Southern
heroes, after the war continued to live in Lexington,
Va.-a member of an interesting circle made notable
by the presence of the great Lee and by the memo-
ries of Stonewall Jackson. After publishing Beech-
enbrook in 1866, she continued to write for Southern
and Northern magazines. Her poetry is, however,
imitative rather than original; beyond a slender
note of pathos in contemplating the conditions in the
South and a sort of common-place religious medita-
tion, her poetry is of little enduring value. Her
correspondence, recently published, reveals her as a
woman of unusual refinement of manners and cul-
ture. In 1870 she brought out a volume of poems,
comprising legends from Hebrew and Greek poetry;
in 1885 a volume of Cartoons-sympathetic studies
of masterpieces of art which she had never seen; in
1886 Poems of Faith and Comfort, and in 1887
Colonial Ballads. Like so many Southern poets,
she did not take her work seriously enough. Her
husband-a gentleman of the old school-at one
time objected to her being known as a poet. She
herself summed up her own attitude and that of
many another Southern poet when she said:
"Pray remember that I have never given myself up as most women
do who have made any name for themselves in literature. It has
only been my pastime, not the occupation or mission of my life, which
has been too busy a one with the duties of wifehood, motherhood, mis-
tress, hostess, neighbor and friend. Only when the demands which
these relations entailed were satisfied did I turn to my pen. I think
I can truly say that I never neglected the concoction of a pudding for
the sake of a poem, or a sauce for a sonnet. Art is a jealous mistress,
and I have served her with my left hand only."


Perhaps the best poem she wrote after the war
was A Grave in Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond-a
sympathetic characterization of John R. Thompson.
It is quoted here not simply as her best poem, but
as an imaginative expression of the feeling of more
than one "exile" from the South:

"I read the marble-lettered name,
And half in bitterness I said:
'As Dante from Ravenna came,
Our poet came from exile-dead.'
And yet, had it been asked of him
Where he would rather lay his head,
This spot he would have chosen. Dim
The city's hum drifts o'er his grave,
And green above the hollies wave
Their jagged leaves, as when a boy,
On blissful summer afternoons,
He came to sing the birds his runes,
And tell the river of his joy.

"Who dreams that in his wanderings wide,
By stern misfortunes tossed and driven,
His soul's electric strands were riven
From home and country? Let betide
What might, what would, his boast, his pride,
Was in his stricken mother-land,
That could but bless and bid him go,
Because no crust was in her hand
To stay her children's need. We know
The mystic cable sank too deep
For surface storm or stress to strain,
Or from his answering heart to keep
The spark from flashing back again!

"Think of the thousand mellow rhymes,
The pure idyllic passion-flowers,
Wherewith, in far gone, happier times,
He garlanded this South of ours.
Provencal-like, he wandered long,
And sang at many a stranger's board,
Yet 'twas Virginia's name that poured
The tenderest pathos through his song.
We owe the Poet praise and tears,
Whose ringing ballad sends the brave,
Bold Stuart riding down the years-
What have we given him? Just a grave!"


The reference in the last stanza of the poem to
Thompson's poetry suggests that from Thompson
himself a prophet of Southern literature might have
expected development. Before the war he had been
the editor of the Southern Literary Messenger and
the friend of Poe; during the war he had written
two noteworthy lyrics, Music in Camp and Ashby.
He was a critic of discernment and a poet of prom-
ise. In 1863 he went to London. When he came back
after the war he became literary editor of the New
York Evening Post. It is said that he would never
allow a reference to the "Lost Cause," so deeply
had the defeat of the Confederacy entered into his
soul. Silence was the only language worthy of the
theme. He died in 1873 of consumption.
So within a few years a number of other poets
passed away. Albert B. Meek, who had before the
war written The Land of the South, died in 1865.
Theodore O'Hara, whose Bivouac of the Dead was
a dirge for the soldiers in the Mexican War, though
it was more often thought of in connection
with the Confederate dead, died in 1867. Others
lived on, but gave up entirely the writing of poetry.
Ticknor, the author of Virginians of the Valley and
Little Giffen of Tennessee, lived the life of a country
doctor near Columbus, Ga. Dr. Bruns, who had
been one of Simms' circle of poets in Charleston,
moved to New Orleans where he became an eminent
physician. Albert Pike, who had, in 1839, published
poems in Blackwood's Magazine and who during the
war had written the best poem we have on "Dixie,"
moved to Washington, where he became absorbed in
Masonic work, to which he gave the rest of his life.
Barron Hope, who, in 1858, wrote the poem for the
unveiling of the statue of Washington in Richmond,
was made editor of the Norfolk Landmark. Though
he afterwards wrote poems for special occasions, he


never advanced beyond the work of his youth.
William Gordon McCabe, the author of Christmas
Night of '62 and Dreaming in the Trenches, became
one of the best-known schoolmasters of Virginia-
a position that seemed to deaden his poetic inspira-
tion, though he remained an inimitable raconteur
and the friend of some of the most gifted poets of
England and America.
Better than any of these poets were James Ryder
Randall and Henry Timrod, both of whom had
touched the high-water mark of lyric poetry in their
war odes. Randall in Maryland, My Maryland, had
written what many consider the best lyric called
forth by the war, but he never recovered that first,
fine, careless rapture, never again felt the inspira-
tion that lifted him for once in a moment of inspired
patriotism into the "eternal melodies." He passed
the remainder of his days in the drudgery of a
newspaper office. Timrod, who had written Ethno-
genesis and Carolina-poems that expressed in im-
perishable words the spirit of the Southern people-
was to pass through one of the saddest struggles
recorded in history-poverty, neglect and disease
wreaked their utmost upon him. Hayne's account
of his last days is enough to melt the heart of the
coldest man. Timrod's letters suggest the tragedy
of Chatterton or Keats; their melancholy is broken
only now and then by a note of grim humor. He
lived long enough, however, to write the most beau-
tiful dirge ever written in behalf of the Confederate
dead-"as perfect in its tone and workmanship as
though it had come out of the Greek anthology."
The last stanza merits the praise that Holmes gave
to Emerson's Concord Hymn; the words seem as


if they had been carved upon marble for a thousand
"Sleep sweetly in your humble graves,
Sleep, martyrs of a fallen cause;
Though yet no marble column craves
The pilgrim here to pause.

"In seeds of laurel in the earth
The blossom of your fame is blown,
And somewhere, waiting for its birth,
The shaft is in the stone!

"Meanwhile, behalf the tardy years
Which keep in trust your storied tombs,
Behold! your sisters bring their tears
And these memorial blooms.

"Small tributes! but your shades will smile
More proudly on these wreaths to-day,
Than when some cannon-moulded pile
Shall overlook this bay.

"Stoop, angels, hither from the skies!
There is no holier spot of ground
Than where defeated valor lies,
By mourning beauty crowned!"

One who wrote such a poem at the age of thirty-
seven, and who had written at least six other poems
of the highest excellence, might have done much to
realize the possibilities already suggested. He died,
however, in 1867. Timrod's friend, Paul Hamilton
Hayne, was the only poet who continued to do seri-
ous work in the new era of Southern life. He was to
be the link between Simms and Lanier. Descended
from ancestors of great renown in South Carolina,
and with possibilities of success in law and politics,
he had before the war deliberately chosen literature


as his profession. In his first poem he announces his
dedication to the poet's life:
"Yet would I rather in the outward state
Of song's immortal temple lay me down,
A beggar basking by that radiant gate,
Than bend beneath the haughtiest empire's crown.
"For sometimes, through the bars, my ravished eyes
Have caught brief glimpses of a life divine,
And seen a far mysterious rapture rise
Beyond the veil that guards the inmost shrine."

The test of the strength of this dedication came
after the war, when he found himself face to face
with a desolated city and an impoverished and
broken-hearted commonwealth. With magnificent
courage and faith he moved to a small railway sta-
tion near Augusta, Ga., where he lived the re-
mainder of his days in a cabin of his own building.
There have been many notable descriptions of
this cabin, but none more so than that which Hayne
gives in an account of the visit that Simms made
him in 1866. He refers to it as an "extraordinary
shanty which seemed to have been tossed by a super-
natural pitchfork upon the the most desolate of
hills." The interior accommodations were not un-
worthy of the outside forlornness. "We had three
mattresses and a cot (if memory serves me right),"
he continues, "and for supplies a box of hardtack,
two sides of bacon and four-score, more or less, of
smoked herring. Of cooking utensils there were a
frying-pan, a gridiron, with three broken bars, and
a battered iron pot." The two poets had much
high conversation that suggested, at least, the times
when they had feasted together in the city by the
sea. Here, also, Timrod visited him in 1867, just a
few months before his death. In the poem Under
the Pine Hayne suggests the conversation they had


and Timrod's exquisite enjoyment of natural
"When the last rays of sunset, shimmering down,
Flashed like a royal crown.
"O tree! against a mighty trunk he laid
His weary head; thy shade
Stole o'er him like the first cool spell of sleep;
It brought a peace so deep
The unquiet passion died from out his eyes,
As lightning from the stilled skies."

Years afterward Maurice Thompson visited
Hayne to pay his homage to' the king poet of the Old
South." The cottage had been somewhat improved
by the deft hand of Mrs. Hayne, but it was still "an
arid perch for a songbird, that windy, frowsy, bar-
ren hill." The chairs, table and shelves had been
made out of goods-boxes. The walls and ceiling of
the main room were papered to odd effect with pic-
tures from illustrated journals. Hayne's writing-
desk, at which he stood to make his poems, had been
a carpenter's work-bench.
Here, then, in this simple home-almost as crude
as Thoreau's hut on Walden Pond-Hayne spent
the remainder of his days, only once or twice going
on a visit to his native city, and once as far as New
England to see the poets with whom he had such
intimate correspondence, and to whom he had writ-
ten some of his tenderest poems-at once the expres-
sion of his interest in poetry and of his broad na-
tional spirit. Here he received visits from young
poets to whom he gave advice and inspiration.
Although he was well past middle life when he be-
gan to live at "Copse Hill," he maintained a steady
and persistent spirit of work. In 1873 he wrote an
extensive and noteworthy introductory sketch to
Timrod's poems, thus serving to perpetuate the
fame of his comrade. In 1878 he published lives of
Vol. 7-3.


his uncle Robert Y. Hayne and of Hugh S. Legar6.
Best of all, he continued to write poetry. He wrote
to Mrs. Preston some words that ought to be the
perpetual inspiration of American poets: "No, no!
by my brain-my literary craft-I will win my bread
and water; by my poems I will live or I will starve."
In 1872 he brought out his volume of Legends and
Lyrics, in 1875 The Mountain of the Lovers and Other
Poems, and in 1882 a complete edition of his poems.
A complete bibliography of his individual poems
would indicate that they appeared in practically
every magazine in the country, including the At-
lantic Monthly and Scribner's. Even a partial read-
ing in the files of contemporary periodicals serves
to show that Hayne placed his work to the best ad-
vantage, although he was at times imposed upon by
the editors of Southern magazines, who often ap-
pealed to him from the standpoint of loyalty to
advance the interests of Southern literature. He
was entirely dependent upon his poetic work for a
livelihood, and, as has been said before, his single-
hearted devotion to poetry gives him a unique place
among American men of letters. Two or three of
his best poems were written in his last years, not-
ably A Little While I Fain Would Linger Yet and
In Harbor. He came to the end of his voyage on
July 6, 1886.
While Hayne did not strike a deeply original note,
he cultivated faithfully the talents with which he
was endowed. Accepting the results of the war in
good faith, he soon manifested a spirit of recon-
ciliation and even of nationalism, especially in his
attitude to the poets of New England. Lamar's
noteworthy tribute to Charles Sumner was paral-
leled by Hayne's sympathetic greeting to Whittier
and Longfellow. In a poem to Oliver Wendell
Holmes he expressed the gratitude of the South to


the generous North at the time of the yellow fever
scourge that swept the Southwest. More charac-
teristic, however, were his poems revealing the pic-
turesqueness of Southern landscapes and the mel-
ody of Southern birds. In Macdonald's Raid and
Xthra he displayed some power of narrative verse,
but his muse was at her best in the simpler forms
of lyric verse. His best poems are characterized
by delicacy of feeling and conscientious workman-
ship. His mastery of the sonnet, as well as his
severe spirit, is evinced in the sonnet My Study.

"This is my world! within these narrow walls,
I own a princely service; the hot care
And tumult of our frenzied life are here
But as a ghost, and echo; what befalls
In the far mart to me is less than naught;
I walk the fields of quiet Arcadies,
And wander by the brink of hoary seas,
Calmed to the tendance of untroubled thought:
Or if a livelier humor should enhance
The slow-timed pulse, 'tis not for present strife,
The sordid zeal with which our age is rife,
Its mammon conflicts crowned by fraud or chance,
But gleamings of the lost, heroic life,
Flashed through the gorgeous vistas of romance."

His ability to depict a phase of Southern land-
scape in a strikingly original way is best seen, per-
haps, in his Aspects of the Pines:
"Tall, sombre, grim, against the morning sky
They rise, scarce touched by melancholy airs,
Which stir the fadeless foliage dreamfully,
As if from realms of mystical despairs.
"Tall, sombre, grim, they stand with dusky gleams
Brightening to gold within the woodland's core,
Beneath the gracious noontide's tranquil beams-
But the weird winds of morning sigh no more.
"A stillness, strange, divine, ineffable,
Broods round and o'er them in the wind's surcease,
And on each tinted copse and shimmering dell
Rests the mute rapture of deep-hearted peace.


"Last, sunset comes-the solemn joy and might
Borne from the West when cloudless day declines-
Low, flutelike breezes sweep the waves of light,
And lifting dark green tresses of the pines,
"Till every lock is luminous, gently float,
Fraught with hale odors up the heavens afar
To faint when twilight on her virginal throat
Wears for a gem the tremulous vesper star."
While Hayne was faithfully and courageously giv-
ing himself to poetry, there gradually arose a group
of younger writers, some of whom had been soldiers
in the war. It is not so generally known that there
was "an avalanche of poetry" in the South after the
war. New magazines sprang up in Baltimore,
Charleston and other Southern cities, and these
made demand upon poets. There was a wilderness
of mediocre poetry. Partly on account of poverty,
partly because they felt that the South should prop-
erly be interpreted before the world, and partly be-
cause they could not but sing, many writers arose
in different parts of the South. Davidson's Living
Writers of the South, published in 1869, gave a list
of 241 writers, 112 of whom were poets. The author
naively remarked that some of the writers "have
talent and character, with corresponding results,
which enable them to stand in the front ranks of
American authorship; some have limited abilities,
and some have none." Another collection was en-
titled Female Writers of the South, about which a
reviewer in the Southern Magazine used the follow-
ing vigorous language:
"We shall not have a literature until we have a criticism which
can justify its claims to be referred to; intelligent enough to explain
why a work is good or bad; courageous enough to condemn
bad art and bad workmanship, no matter whose it be; to say, for
instance, to more than half the writers in these volumes: 'Ladies,
you may be all that is good, noble and fair; you may be the pride of
society and the lights of your homes; so far as you are Southern
women our hearts are at your feet-but you have neither the genius,
the learning nor the judgment to qualify you for literature.' "

11111 !1 J,,, il l 1,, d 1 .1
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Of all the writers of the first few years after the
war the most popular was Abram Joseph Ryan,
generally known as Father Ryan. Before Hayne
and Lanier and Russell began to do their best work,
he was the poet laureate of the South. He voiced
the despair of his people and their loyalty to the
conquered banner of the Southern Confederacy.
There are other notes in his poetry-notably the ex-
pression of his religious faith and his strain of
mysticism-but that which made him a contempo-
rary influence in Southern life and has caused him
to remain the most popular poet of the South was
the note of sentiment and melancholy that centered
about the overthrow of Southern hopes. While it
is easy to see the defects of his poetry, it is also easy
to understand why it has such a hold on the average
Southerner. He had fluency and clearness of style;
he himself wrote the best commentary on his poems,
when he said that they were "written at random-
off and on, here, there, anywhere-just as the mood
came, with little of study and less of art, and always
in a hurry." As there is no finality in his art, so
there is no outlook, no hope, but a sort of uncon-
querable loyalty. The Conquered Banner and the
Sword of Robert Lee are so well known as not to
demand quotation here. The reader will scarcely
do justice to the poet who does not know, in addition
to these, The Song of the Mystic, a poem rich in its
suggestiveness of the deeper realities of life.
Different alike in careful workmanship and in
depth of thought and feeling from Father Ryan was
Maurice Thompson. Though he is not, by some,
considered a Southern writer, because he lived for
a long time in Indiana and later in New York, he
himself claimed to be a Southerner by reason of his
early life in Georgia, his service as a Confederate
soldier and his constant return to the South, where


he often hunted and pursued the work of a student
of natural history. His volume of poems (published
in 1892) is distinctly Southern-the theme running
through the entire volume is that of the melody and
spiritual significance of the song of the mocking
bird. When his first poem appeared in the Atlantic
Monthly in 1873, it was at once recognized by How-
ells and Longfellow as the work of "a new and
original singer, fresh, joyous and true." In Thomp-
son's poems there are suggestions of the author's
beloved Greek and English writers, but there is an
unmistakable note of originality in the Southern
landscapes and in the new note of freedom and na-
tionalism. He was one of the first Southern poets
to feel that in resisting the stream of national
tendency the South was fighting against the stars
in their courses. He never apologized for his course
in the war, but boasted that he dared to fight for
the South from Lookout to the sea, with her proud
banner over him:

"But from my lips thanksgiving broke,
As God in battle thunder spoke,
And that Black Idol, breeding drouth
And death of human sympathy
Throughout the sweet and sensuous South,
Was, with its chains and human yoke,
Blown hellward from the cannon's mouth,'
While freedom cheered behind the smoke."

Tender and imaginative is his tribute to Abraham
Lincoln, in the poem read before the Phi Beta Kappa
Society of Harvard University:
"He was the Southern mother leaning forth,
At dead of night to hear the cannon roar,
Beseeching God to turn the cruel North
And break it, that her son might come once more:
He was New England's maiden, pale and pure,
Whose gallant lover fell on Shiloh's plain;
He was the mangled body of the dead."


Jubilant is his prophecy of the New South:

"The South whose gaze is cast
No more upon the past,
But whose bright eyes the skies of promise sweep,
Whose feet in paths of progress swiftly leap;
And whose past thoughts, like cheerful rivers run,
Through odorous ways to meet the morning song!"

If one characteristic of the new Southern poetry
was the nationalism that one finds in Hayne and
Thompson, another was naturalism or realism. The
ante-bellum poetry was characterized by sentimen-
talism, by melancholy, by an almost utter absence
of Southern landscape or character. Least of all
was there any humorous poetry. Even when the
poets wrote of the mocking bird there was the echo
of English poets rather than the melody that rang
through the Southern forests. All this absence of
local color passed away with Irwin Russell's delinea-
tion of negro types and dialect. Born on a Southern
plantation, he understood their character, disposi-
tion, language, customs and habits.

"He could' 'a' talked so nachal
'Bout niggers in sorrow and joy,
Widdouten he had a black mammy
To sing to him 'long ez a boy!"

His story of how he began to write poetry is so
interesting and significant that I quote:

"It was almost an inspiration. I did not reduce the trifle to
writing until some time afterwards, and then, from want of recollec-
tion, in a condensed and emasculated form. You know that I am
something of a banjoist. Well, one evening I was sitting in our back
yard in old Mississippi, 'twanging' on the banjo, when I heard the
missis-our colored domestic, an old darky of the Aunt Dinah pat-
tern-singing one of the outlandish camp meeting hymns of which
the race is so fond. She was an extremely 'ligious character and, al-
though seized with the impulse to do so, I hesitated to take up the
tune and finish it. I did so, however, and in the dialect that I have
adopted, and which I then thought, and still think, is in strict con-


formity to their use of it. I proceeded, as one inspired, to compose
verse after verse of the most absurd, extravagant and, to her, irrev-
erent rhyme ever before invented, all the while accompanying it on
the banjo and imitating the fashion of the plantation negro. The old
missis was so exasperated and indignant that she predicted all sorts
of dire calamities. Meantime my enjoyment of it was prodigious."

Russell very early attracted the attention of his
neighbors by his poems in local papers, but he first
became widely known in 1876 by his poems in the
bric-a-brac department of Scribner's Monthly. His
poems were among the first evidences of the begin-
ning of a distinctively Southern literature. There
was scarcely a phase of the old-time negro that he
did not present. Now it is the trader trying to de-
ceive his master by putting rocks in his bale of cot-
ton; now the preacher taking up a collection or
talking to his wife just before the angels come for
him. In Nebuchednezzar we have the story of the
negro and his mule. More indicative of the negro's
feeling for his master is Mars John:
"I only has to shet my eyes, an' den it seems to me
I sees him right afore me now, jes like he use' to be,
A setting' on de gal'ry, looking' awful big an' wise,
Wid little niggers fannin' him to keep away de flies.
He alluz wore de berry bes' ob planter's linen suits,
An' kep' a nigger busy jes a blackin' ob his boots,
De buckles on his galluses wuz made ob solid gol',
An' di'mons! dey was in his shut as thick as it would hol'."

In view of such a poem-so clearly the progenitor
of Marse Chan and Meh Lady-it is no wonder that
Thomas Nelson Page said, "It was the light of his
genius shining through his dialect poems-first of
dialect poems and still first-that led my feet in
the direction I have since tried to follow." It is no
disparagement to the author of Uncle Edinburg'
Drowndin' or of Uncle Remus to say that their
stories have their complement in poetry in Russell's
Christmas Night in the Quarters. Modeled after


Burns's Jolly Beggars and Tarn O'Shanter, it is a
highly humorous and imaginative operetta-a series
of brilliant incidents and pictures held together by
the music of the old-time breakdown. Short quota-
tions give no idea of the poem as a whole; a typical
passage is "Brudder Brown's" blessing on the

"0 Mahsr! let dis gath'rin' fin' a blessin' in yo' sight!
Don't jedge us hard fur what we does-you knows it's Christmas
An' all de balunce ob de yeah we does as right's we kin.
Ef dancin's wrong, 0 Mahsr! let de time excuse de sin!

"We labors in de vineya'd, wukin' hard an' wukin' true;
Now, shorely you won't notus, ef we eats a grape or two,
An' takes a leetle holiday-a leetle restin'-spell-
Bekase, nex' week, we'll start in fresh, an' labor twicet as well.

"Remember, Mahsr-min' dis, now,-de sinfulness ob sin
Is 'pendin' 'pon de sperrit what we goes an' does it in:
An' in a righchis frame ob min' we's gwine to dance an' sing,
A-feelin' like King David, when he cut de pigeon wing.

"It seems to me-indeed it do-I mebbe mout be wrong-
That people raly ought to dance, when Chrismus comes along;
Des dance bekase dey's happy-like de birds hops in de trees,
De pine-top fiddle soundin' to de bowin' ob de breeze.

"We has no ark to dance afore, like Isrul's prophet king;
We has no harp to soun' de chords, to holp us out to sing;
But 'cordin' to de gif's we has we does de bes' we knows;
An' folks don't 'spise de vi'let-flower bekase it ain't de rose.

"You bless us, please, sah, eben ef we's doin' wrong to-night;
Kase den we'll need de blessin' more'n ef we's doin' right;
An' let de blessin' stay wid us, untel we comes to die,
An' goes to keep our Chrismus wid dem sheriffs in de sky!

"Yes, tell dem preshis anguls we's a-gwine to jine 'em soon:
Our voices we's a-trainin' fur to sing de glory tune;
We's ready when you wants us, an' it ain't no matter when-
0 Mahsr! call yo' chillen soon, an' take 'em home! Amen."

Dialect verse and fiction have been greatly over-
done in recent years, but the historic importance of


Russell's work cannot be overlooked. For the use
of dialect in verse Sidney Lanier once wrote a suffi-
cient apology. He himself in his early days wrote
poems in negro and "Cracker" dialects. To Char-
lotte Cushman he said, in defense of the poems:
"Tell me, ought not one to be a little ashamed of writing a dialect
poem-as at least one newspaper has hinted? And did Robert Burns
prove himself no poet by writing mostly ip dialect?. And is Tenny-
son's Death of the North Country Farmer-certainly one of very
strongest things he ever wrote-not a poem, really?"
But Lanier's true work was not to be in the line
of dialect poetry, though these poems are valuable as
showing one important phase of his character, as
they also show the picturesque life of his native
Georgia. He was to be the Wordsworth or the
Keats of his time, not the Burns. He is the one man
of the period under consideration who deserves to
rank with the greater poets of America. After a
decade of wavering criticism as to his rank, Stedman
seemed to settle the question, at least for the pres-
ent, when he put Lanier's picture in the group of
seven first poets as the frontispiece to his American
Anthology-an opinion shared by 'Mr. Curtis Hid-
den Page in his Chief American Poets. Lanier and
Whitman stand out as the original poets of the gen-
eration succeeding the war. Different in many re-
spects, they were alike in the cosmic range and sweep
of their imagination.
Lanier was Southern, as Poe was not. His home
life in Macon, Ga., and his education at Oglethorpe
University were typical of that region. He fought
with romantic heroism in the war. The story of his
military career reads like that of some knight of
the age of chivalry. As he shared the hopes and the
disappointment of the Confederacy, so he was bap-
tized with the baptism of his people in reconstruc-
tion days, and no one suffered more than he in that

'i i I nn '' ~IIiI

'1 ,Ii 62,III~i!IiI


Valley of Humiliation. He traveled in all parts of
the South in search for health, from San Antonio
to Jacksonville, and from Baltimore to Mobile.
Though he moved to Baltimore in 1873, the back-
ground of many of his poems is that of the Lower
South-the marsh, the mountains, the seashore.
The birds and the forests of Georgia and Florida
stirred his imagination. The song of the river that
flowed by his birthplace is reproduced in the Song
of the Chattahoochee; the robins of Tampa made
melody for his weary soul and sing even now in
his onomatopoetic lines. For the marshes of the
Georgia coast he essayed to do what Wordsworth
did for the mountains and lakes of northern Eng-
land. It is now seen clearly that Lanier, in his poem
Corn and in his essay on the "New South," was the
prophet of a revolution in the agricultural life of his
native land. Everywhere the ruined hilltops are
blossoming like the rose, fulfilling his daring hope:
"Thou gashed and hairy Lear,
Whom the divine Cordelia of the year,
E'en pitying Spring will vainly strive to cheer-
"Yet shall the great God turn thy fate,
And bring thee back into thy monarch state
And majesty immaculate."

Even more significant than the background is the
quality of his poetry. An acute critic of New Eng-
land has pointed out that the tragic convulsion of
the war awakened in the South "a kind of passion
which America had hardly witnessed before-a
lyric fervor." Now this is seen preeminently in
Lanier. It is the source of his limitations as well as
of his strength, but it is there-enthusiasm, emo-
tionalism, sentiment, lack of restraint. In The
Symphony he is speaking as a Southerner in his out-
look on modern industrial life, which seemed to him


to be destroying the finer graces of the soul. It is
scarcely fanciful to say that in the words of the horn
-one of the instruments in the orchestra-he is in-
terpreting the message of the Old South to the
modern world. The age of chivalry is not dead.
The modern era of industrialism may be judged in
the light of the feudalism which it supplanted. In
a letter outlining the poem, Lanier said: "It is
now the gentleman who must rise and overthrow
trade. That chivalry which every man has, in some
degree, in his heart, which does not depend upon
birth but which is a revelation from the God of
justice, of fair dealing, of scorn of mean advantages
* must burn up every one of the cunning
moral castles from which trade sends out its forays
upon the conscience of modern society." Thus, as
throughout the poem, does Southern honor speak
through him.
It is not well to stress this point too far, however,
for in many other things Lanier was anything but a
typical Southerner. He was genuinely national.
Even from the close of the war he would have the
seeds of that conflict utterly buried out of the sight
of men. When the opportunity came to him to write
the words for the Centennial Cantata at the Phila-
delphia Exposition, he felt, as few men in the coun-
try, the significance of the event. In musical con-
ception, though not in felicitous words, he chanted
the triumph of the Union. In spite of all the physi-
cal obstacles that had hindered the early settlers, in
spite of the distinct individualities of the various
sections of the country, in spite of sectional misun-
derstandings leading to a fierce civil war, the nation
had survived. All of these had said, "No, thou
shalt not be," but Columbia answers:


"Now praise to God's oft-granted grace,
Now praise to man's undaunted face,
Despite the land, despite the sea,
I was, I am, and I shall be!"

And the very same year he wrote a much better
poem, The Psalm of the West, in which he sings the
triumph of Freedom and Nationalism. In no other
American verse is there a more vivid realization of
the meaning of the Republic in the larger life of the
world than in the Columbus sonnets of this poem.
Lanier was also cosmopolitan as well as national.
No other Southerner, except, probably, Thomas Jef-
ferson, was more alive to the life of the world or had
a more open and inquisitive mind. The best that
had been or was being thought and said and done
in the world he aspired to know. There are two
striking evidences of the modernity and the pro-
gressiveness of his mind-his attitude to science and
to music. While many poets had expressed fear on
account of the rapid advance of science, Lanier
eagerly welcomed it as the handmaid of religion and
poetry. "Poetry will never cease, nor science, nor
the poetry of science," he says in his earliest book.
He himself became an interested student of biology,
and in his poems he shows the results of his scientific
habit of mind, saturated as they are with at least
the largest final conceptions of current science. An
outgrowth of this regard for science was his sym-
pathy with scholarship, and even his devotion, as a
specialist, to his own chosen branch of English
literature. He imbibed the spirit of the newly es-
tablished Johns Hopkins University, moving with
confidence among its great scholars, and with the
eager curiosity of a child always finding fresh woods
and pastures new. His study of old and middle and
Elizabethan English had the same effect on him


that the study of continental literatures had on
Longfellow and Lowell.
That which distinguishes Lanier most sharply
from all other American poets is his attitude to
music. His letters, as well as the recollections of
those who know him best, go to show that music was
the master passion of his soul. First as an amateur
and then as a careful student in Baltimore, he
learned the art of flute playing. Listening to the
great orchestras and operas in Northern cities, and
reading the biographies of musicians, he came to
see the place of music in the culture life of the
modern world. It was to him not a luxury, but a
prime necessity-a source of education and an ally
especially of poetry. What is more important is
that in his poems The Symphony and To Beethoven
he has interpreted in words the very soul of music.
The line most generally quoted from him is the con-
clusion of the former poem, "Music is Love in
search of a word."
Nor was the effect of music on Lanier confined to
his remarkable letters or to his poems on music.
Gradually he conceived an idea that it was his dis-
tinctive work as a critic to state the relation of
music to poetic form, and as a poet to create real
musical effects with words. After 1875, especially,
we hear much of his plans, and we see in the few
poems that he left behind a partial realization of
his ideals. There is not space here to go into the
discussion of Lanier's theory of verse, nor to point
out in detail the original work he did as a poet in
the field he laid out for himself. Suffice it to say
that his best poems move to the cadence of a tune.
He probably chanted his words as he composed
them. Sometimes in his briefer poems, as the Even-
ing Song, there is a lilt like the singing of a bird,
and sometimes the lyric cry, and yet again in his


longer poems the involved harmony of an orchestra.
No other American poet save Poe has such musical
effects, and Poe's melodies are simple by the side
of the complex and subtle harmonies of Lanier.
Lanier did not live to work out his ideas, but who
knows but that some poet will make his work the
starting point of the greater poetry of the future?
If Lanier and Poe were not far apart in their
ideas of the formal side of poetry, they were far
removed from each other in the substance of their
work, no less than in their lives and characters.
Both of them struggled with disease and poverty,
both of them died in early life, and both lie buried
in the same cemetery in Baltimore. But there the
likeness ends. In the complete mastery of his art
.and of his material, Poe was incomparably greater
than Lanier-in this respect there is all the differ-
ence of perfection and imperfection, of achievement
and aspiration. In purity of character, in a holy
regard for the sacred institutions of society, in the
love for whatsoever things are excellent and of good
report, and in the range and sweep of his mind and
imagination, Lanier was immeasurably Poe's su-
perior. In the loftiness of his moral character and
in the richness of his spiritual endowment, as well
as in his sense of the glory of the poet's work,
Lanier takes his rank with Milton and the great mod-
ern poets of England and New England. In a
memorable passage in the English Novel he says:
"Cannot one say with authority to the young artist, whether work-
ing in stone, in color, in tones or in character forms of the novel: so
far from dreading that your moral purpose will interfere with your
beautiful creation, go forward in the clear conviction that, unless
you are suffused-soul and body, one might say-with that moral
purpose which finds its largest expression in love-that is, the love
of all things in their proper relation-unless you are suffused with
this love, do not dare to meddle with beauty; unless you are suffused
with truth, wisdom, goodness and love, abandon the hope that the
ages will accept you as an artist."


His own life and work coincided with the spirit
of these words. There was nothing abnormal or
Bohemian in his temperament. The story of his re-
lation to his wife suggests that of the Brownings and
the Hawthornes. Among half a dozen expressions
of his love, My Springs is the most notable:

"In the heart of the hills of life I know
Two springs that with unbroken flow
Forever pour their lucent streams
Into my soul's fair Lake of Dreams.

"Always when faith with stifling stress
Of grief hath died in bitterness,
I gaze in my two springs and see
A faith that smiles immortally.
"Always, when art, on perverse wing,
Flies where I cannot hear him sing,
I gaze in my two springs and see
A charm that brings him back to me.

"0 Love, 0 Wife, thine eyes are they,
My Springs, from out whose shining gray
Issue the sweet celestial streams
That feed my life's bright Lake of Dreams.
"Oval and large and passion pure
And gray and wise and honor sure,
Soft as a dying violet breath,
Yet calmly unafraid of death.

"Dear eyes, dear eyes! and rare complete-
Being heavenly sweet and earthly sweet-
I marvel that God made you mine,
For when he frowns, 'tis then ye shine!"

The love that bound him to his family and friends
broadened out into a love for mankind. Love was
to him the solution of all problems, especially of
industrial problems as set forth in The Symphony.
Against the tyrannies of commerce, love, through
the instruments of an orchestra, voices its protest in
behalf of human brotherhood. And Lanier came to
see that the very essence of Christianity was Love.


He reacted against the Calvinism of his youth to as
great an extent as Holmes did. In his letters, as in
his poems Remonstrance and Crystal, we see his
hatred of bigotry and narrowness, and his worship
of the Master. All art and science and nature were
so many roads to God, and Christ was the Incarnate
Word. It is not remarkable that the Ballad of the
Trees and the Master should have found its way
into modern hymn-books, or that it should be sung
so often during Passion Week:
"Into the woods my Master went,
Clean forspent, forspent.
Into the woods my Master came,
Forspent with love and shame.
But the olives they were not blind to him,
The little gray leaves were kind to him:
The thorn tree had a mind to him,
When out of the woods he came.
"Out of the woods my Master went,
And he was well content.
Out of the woods my Master came,
Content with death and shame.
When death and shame would woo him last,
From under the trees they drew him-last:
'Twas on a tree they slew him-last
When out of the woods he came."*
But the most original poems that Lanier wrote-
original alike in art and in conception-are Sunrise
and The Marshes of Glynn, two of a series he
planned to write on the marshes near Brunswick,
Ga. The former, written when he was in the last
stages of consumption, is marked to some extent by
Lanier's limitations as a poet, his tendency to con-
ceits, his subordination of poetry to musical effects,
his straining after utterance that is beyond him.
This criticism does not hold, however, with regard
to the passage on the dawn, nor to almost the whole
of The Marshes of Glynn. One might be sure of
Lanier's fame if there were no other poem than this.
*Copyrighted by Mary Day Lanier and Charles Scribner's Sons.
Vol. 7-4.


Here aspiration is achievement. We have some-
thing of Wordsworth's spiritual exaltation, of Em-
.erson's optimism, and of Whitman's cosmic imag-

"The world lies east: how ample, the marsh and the sea and the sky!
A league and a league of marsh-grass, waist-high, broad in the blade,
Green, and all of a height, and unflecked with a light or a shade,
Stretch leisurely off, in a pleasant plain,
To the terminal blue of the main.
"Oh, what is abroad in the marsh and the terminal sea?
Somehow my soul seems suddenly free
From the weighing of fate and the sad discussion of sin,
By the length and the breadth and the sweep of the marshes of Glynn.

"Ye marshes, how candid and simple and nothing-withholding and free
Ye publish yourselves to the sky and offer yourselves to the sea!
Tolerant plains, that suffer the sea and the rains and the sun,
Ye spread and span like the catholic man who hath mightily won
God out of knowledge and good out of infinite pain
And sight out of blindness and purity out of a stain.
"As the marsh-hen secretly builds on the watery sod,
Behold I will build me a nest on the greatness of God:
I will fly in the greatness of God as the marsh-hen flies
In the freedom that fills all the space twixtt the marsh and the skies:
By so many roots as the marsh-grass sends in the sod
I will heartily lay me a-hold on the greatness of God:
Oh, like to the greatness of God is the greatness within
The range of the marshes, the liberal marshes of Glynn.
"And the sea lends large, as the marsh: lo, out of his plenty the sea
Pours fast: full soon the time of the flood-tide must be:
Look how the grace of the sea doth go
About and about through the intricate channels that flow
Here and there,
Till his waters have flooded the uttermost creeks and the low-lying
And the marsh is meshed with a million veins,
That like as with rosy and silvery essences flow
In the rose-and-silver evening glow.
"Farewell, my lord Sun!
The creeks overflow: a thousand rivulets run
'Tvixt the roots of the sod; the blades of the marsh-grass stir;
Passeth a hurrying sound of wings that westward whir;
Passeth, and all is still; and the currents cease to run;
And the sea and the marsh are one.

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