• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 A short English grammar
 A short French grammar
 A short Latin grammar
 A short Greek grammar
 A short Hebrew grammar
 A compendium of logic
 The doctrine of absolute predestination...
 List of works revised and abridged...
 List of poetical works published...
 Musical works
 A letter to the Rev. Dr. Ruthe...
 Letter to the Gentleman's...
 Letter to Mr. Cricket and...
 To the reader of the Arminian...
 An answer to several objections...
 Index to passages of scripture...
 Index to general subjects














Group Title: The works of the Rev. John Wesley, A.M. : sometime Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford.
Title: The works of the Rev. John Wesley, A.M.
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076196/00014
 Material Information
Title: The works of the Rev. John Wesley, A.M. sometime Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford
Physical Description: 14 v. : ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wesley, John, 1703-1791
Publisher: Wesleyan Conference Office,
Wesleyan Conference Office
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1872
Copyright Date: 1872
 Subjects
Subject: Theology -- Early works to 1800   ( lcsh )
Theology -- History -- 18th century   ( lcsh )
Methodism   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: With the last corrections of the author.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076196
Volume ID: VID00014
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03171266

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    A short English grammar
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 10
        Page 11
    A short French grammar
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
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    A short Latin grammar
        Page 33
        Page 34
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    A short Greek grammar
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    A short Hebrew grammar
        Page 147
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    A compendium of logic
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
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    The doctrine of absolute predestination stated and asserted
        Page 190
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        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
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        Page 196
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    List of works revised and abridged from various authors
        Page 199
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    List of poetical works published by the Rev. Messrs. John and Charles Wesley, with the prefaces connected with them
        Page 319
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    Musical works
        Page 345
        Page 346
    A letter to the Rev. Dr. Rutherforth
        Page 347
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    Letter to the Gentleman's magazine
        Page 360
    Letter to Mr. Cricket and Mr. Man
        Page 361
    To the reader of the Arminian magazine
        Page 362
    An answer to several objections against "The Arminian magazine"
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
    Index to passages of scripture illustrated
        Page 366
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    Index to general subjects
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Full Text










THE WORKS



OF THE




REV. JOHN WESLEY, A.M.,


SOMETIME FELLOW OF LINCOLN COLLEGE, OXFORD.







VOLUME XIV.


WITH THE LAST CORRECTIONS OF THE AUTHOR.












LONDON:
WESLEYAN-METHODIST BOOK-ROOM,
2, CASTLE STREET, CITY ROAD, E.C.;
AND AT 66, PATERNOSTER ROW, B.C.




































[Entereb at Stationemz' Ri~all.j


H1AYMAN C1IRISIY AND LILLY, LMD, HA1TTO1N WORKS, FAURINGDON ROAD, E.C.












CONTENTS.




I.
Fage.
A Short English Grammar. .......... .......... 1

II.
A Short French Grammar ...................... 12

III.
A Short Latin Grammar ...................... 33

IV.
A Short Greek Grammar ...................... .. 78

V.
A Short Hebrew Grammar ...................... 147

VI.
A Compendium of Logic ....................... 161
VII.
The Doctrine of Absolute Predestination Stated and
Asserted .............................. 190

VIII.
List of Works Revised and Abridged from Various
Authors .............................. 199

IX.
List of Poetical Works Published by the Rev. Messrs.
John and Charles Wesley. With the Prefaces con.
nected with them .................. ..... 319

X.
Musical Works Published by the Rev. John Wesley,
M .A. ................................. 345


9 001o^4






CONTENTS.


XI.

A Letter to the Rev. Dr. Rutherforth. ............. 347
XII.
To the Editor of the Gentleman's Magazine ......... 360
XIII.
To Mr. John Cricket ......................... 361
XIV.
To Mr. John Man, Missionary in Nova-Scotia ....... 361
XV.
To the Reader of the Arminian Magazine .......... 362
XVI.
An Answer to Several Objections against The Armi-
nian Magazine" ........................ 363

XVII.
Index to Passages of Scripture Illustrated .......... 366
XVIII.
Index to General Subjects ..................... 373











A SHORT ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

[PUBLISHED IN THE YEAR 1748.]



SECTION I.

OF LETTERS.

1. LETTERS are either Vowels or Consonants.
2. A Vowel is a letter that may be pronounced alone; as,
a, e, i, o, n. A Consonant is a letter that cannot be
pronounced without a Vowel; as, b, c, d.
3. A Diphthong is two or more Vowels put together, and
pronounced like one; as, au, owe.
4. A Syllable is a Vowel or Diphthong, either single, or
pronounced with a Consonant.
5. There are in English twenty-four letters; a, b, c, d, e,
f, g, h, i j, k, 1, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u v, w, x, y, z.



SECTION II.

OF NOUNS.

1. THERE are seven sorts of words; a Noun, a Pronoun,
a Verb, a Participle, an Adverb, a Conjunction, and a
Preposition.
2. The three former of these are declinable, that is, often
vary their terminations.
3. A Noun is the name of a thing.
4. Nouns are either Substantives or Adjectives.
5. A Substantive is a Noun that may stand by itself; as,
a man. An Adjective is a Noun that is always joined with a
Substantive; as, good.
6. There are three Genders, the Masculine, the Feminine,
and the Neuter.
7. But Nouns have no Genders.
8. A Case is the variation of the last syllable.
YOL. XIV. B






A SHORT ENGLISH GRAMMAR.


9. But Nouns in English have no Cases.
10. The Number of Nouns are two : The Singular, which
speaks of one thing; as, a stone: The Plural, which speaks
of more than one; as, stones.
11. The Plural Number of Nouns is formed by adding s
to the Singular; as, a book, books.
12. But in Nouns ending in ch, sh, ss, or x, by adding es;
as, a fox, foxes.
13. Nouns ending in f, cr fe, change it into ves; as, a
wife, wives.
14. Only those ending in oof, ff, rf, and a few others, are
regular; as, a roof, roofs.
15. Nouns ending in y, form the Plural in ies; as, a city,
cities.
16. Only those ending in a diphthong are regular; as, a
boy, boys.
17. A man has it the Plural, men; a woman, women; a
child, children; an ox, oxen; a goose, geese; a foot, feet; a
tooth, teeth; a mouse, mice; a louse, lice; a die, dice; a
penny, pence.
18. All Adjectives are indeclinable, having no variation
either of Gender, Case, or Number.
19. Adjectives have three Degrees of Comparison; the
Positive, Comparative, and Superlative.
20. The Comparative Degree is formed by adding er to
the Positive; the Superlative, by adding est; as, rich, richer,
richest.
21. But in the following Adjectives thus:-
Good better best
bad worse worst
little less least
much, many more most



SECTION III.

OF PRONOUNS.

1. A PRONOUN is a sort of word which is put for a Noun.
2. There are sixteen: I, thou, he; my or mine; thy or
thine; his, her; our, your, their; this, that; what, which,
who, whose.






A SHORT ENGLISH GRAMMAR.


3. My, thy, his, her, our, your, their, this, that, which,
what, who, whose, are indeclinable.
4. The other Pronouns are declined thus:-
Singular. Plural.
I, me we, us
5. Thou, thee ye, you
6. He, him, Masculine
She, her, Feminine they, them
It, Neuter 1
7. Who, whom, is either Singular or Plural.
8. This has in the Plural, these; that, those.
9. Her, our, your, their, at the end of a sentence, take s;
as, It is hers."
10. That is often used for who, or which; as, The man
that spoke," for who spoke."
11. We say, "Thou, Thee," when we speak to God;
"You," when we speak to men.
12. Pronouns have also three Persons: I, we, are of the
First Person; thou, you, of the Second; and all the rest of
the Third.



SECTION IV.

OF VERBS.

1. A VERB is a sort of word that expresses either doing,
and then it is called an Active; suffering, and then it is
called a Passive; or being, and then it is called a Neuter,
Verb.
2. Verbs are not only varied by Numbers and Persons,
but also by Moods, Tenses, and Conjugations.
3. There are four Moods: (1.) The Indicative, which
shows that a thing is done: (2.) The Imperative, which
commands it to be done: (3.) The Subjunctive, which
generally follows another Verb, and expresses that a thing
may, can, or should be done: And, (4.) The Infinitive,
which has neither Number nor Person.
4. There are five Tenses: (1.) The Present Tense, which
speaks of the present time: (2.) The Preterimperfect, which
speaks of the time not perfectly past : (3.) The Preterperfect,
B2






A SHORT ENGLISH GRAMMAR.


which speaks of the time perfectly past: (4.) The Preter.
pluperfect, which speaks of the time that is more than
perfectly past: And, (5.) The Future, which speaks of the
time to come.
5. A Conjugation is the manner of varying the beginning
or ending of Verbs, in their several Moods.
6. There is but one Conjugation in English.



SECTION V.

OF AUXILIARY VERBS.

1. THOSE are called Auxiliary Verbs which are used in
forming the Moods and Tenses of all other Verbs.
2. There are two Auxiliary Verbs, "to have," and "to
be," beside the Defective ones following :-
3. Indic. -Pres. Sin. I can, thou canst, he can.
P1. We can, ye can, they can.
Imp. Sin. I could, thou couldest, he could.
Pl. We could, ye could, they could.
4. Ind. Pres. I may, thou mayest, he may, &c.
Imp. I might, thou mightest, he might, &c.
5. Ind. Pres. I shall, thou shalt, he shall, &c.
Imp. I should, thou shouldest, he should, &c.
6. Ind. Pres. I will, thou wilt, he will, &c.
Imp. I would, thou wouldest, he would, &c.
7. Ind. Pres. and Imp. I must, thou must, &c.
8. Ind. Pres. and Imp. I ought, thou oughtest, &c.

9. "To have" is conjugated thus :-

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Pres. Sin. I have, thou hast, he has or hath.
Pl. We have, ye have, they have.
Imp. Sin. I had, thou hadst, he had.
P1. We had, ye had, they had.
Perf. Sin. I have had, thou hast had, he has had.
Pl. We have had, ye have had, they have had.
Preterplu. Sin. I had had, thou hadst had, he had had.
Pl. We had had, ye had had, they had had.






A SHORT ENGLISH GRAMMAR.


Fut. Sin. I shall or will have, thou shalt or wilt have, he
shall or will have.
P1. We shall or will have, ye shall or will have, they
shall or will have.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sin. Have thou. P1. Have ye.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Pres. Sin. I may have, thou mayest have, he may have.
Pl. We may have, ye may have, they may have.
Imp. Sin. I might have, thou mightest have, he might have.
P1. We might have, ye might have, they might have.
Perf. Sin. I may have had, thou mayest have had, he may
have had.
P1. We may have had, ye may have had, they may-
have had.
Preterplu. Sin. I might have had, thou mightest have had,.
he might have had.
PL. We might have had, ye might have had,
they might have had.
Fut. Sin. I should have had, thou shouldest have had, he
should have had.
Pl. We should have had, ye should have had, they
should have had.

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Pres. To have. Perf. To have had.

PARTICIPLES.
Active, Having. Passive, Had.

10. A Participle is a sort of word that has Numbers,
Genders, and Cases like a Noun, and Tenses like a Verb.
11. Some Participles are Active; some Passive.
12. Again: Some are of the Present, and some of the
Preterperfect, Tense.

13. "To be" is conjugated thus:-

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Pres. Sin. I am, thou art, he is.
PL. We are, yc are, they are.






A SHORT ENGLISH GRAMMAR.


Imp. Sin. I was, thou wast, he was.
PI. We were, ye were, they were.
Perf. Sin. I have been, thou hast been, he has" been.
PI. We have been, ye have been, they have been.
Preterplu. Sin. I had been, thou hadst been, he had been.
PI. We had been, ye had been, they had been.
Fut. Sin. I will or shall be, thou wilt or shalt be, he will or
shall be.
PI. We will or shall be, ye will or shall be, they will
or shall be.
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sin. Be thou. Pl. Be ye.
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Pres. Sin. I may be, thou mayest be, he may be.
Pl. We may be, ye may be, they may be.
Imp. Sin. I were, thou wert, he were; or, I might be, thou
mightest be, he might be.
PPL. We were, ye were, they were; or, we might be,
ye might be, they might be.
Pe:f. Sin. I may have been, thou mayest have been, he
may have been.
PI. We, ye, they may have been.
Preterplu. Sin. I might have been, thou mightest have
been, he might have been.
P1. We, ye, they might have been.
Fut. Sin. I should have been, thou shouldest have been, lie
should have been.
Pl. We, ye, they should have been.
INFINITIVE MOOD.
Pres. To be. Perf. To have been.
PARTICIPLES.
Active, Being. Passive, Been.
14. The old Auxiliary Verb, "To do," is conjugated thus ;-
Indic. Pres. Sin. I do, thou doest, he does or doeth.
Pl. We, ye, they do.
Imp. Sin. I did, thou didst, he did.
Pl. We, ye, they did.
P'ARTICIPLES.
Active, Doing. Passive, Done.






A SHORT ENGLISH GRAMMAR.


SECTION VI.

OF REGULAR VERBS.

A REGULAR Verb is conjugated thus:-

INDICATIVE MOOD.

Pres. Sin. I fear, thou fearest, he feareth or fears.
PL. We fear, ye fear, they fear.
Imp. Sin. I feared, thou fearedst, he feared.
P1. We feared, ye feared, they feared.
Perf. Sin. I have feared, thou hast feared, he hath feared.
PI. We have feared, ye have feared, they have feared.
Preterplu. Sin. I had feared, thou hadst feared, he had.
feared.
Pl. We had feared, ye had feared, they had
feared.
Fut. Sin. I shall or will fear, thou shalt or wilt fear, he
shall or will fear.
PI. We, ye, they shall or will fear.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.

Sin. Fear thou. Pl. Fear ye.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

Pres. Sin. I may fear, thou mayest fear, &c.
Imp. Sin. I might fear, thou mightest fear, &c.
Perf. Sin. I may have feared, &c.
Preterplu. Sin. I might have feared, &c.
Fut. Sin. I should have feared, &c.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

Pres. To fear. Perf. To have feared.

PARTICIPLES.

Active, fearing. Passive, feared.

The Passive Voice is only the Auxiliary Verb "To be,"
conjugated throughout with the Passive Participle.





A SHORT ENGLISH GRAMMAR.


SECTION VII.

OF IRREGULAR VERBS.

1. THE following Verbs form the Imperfect Tense and the
Participle Passive irregularly.
2. Where no Participle is set down, it is the same with the
Imperfect.

Present Imperf. Part. Pass.
Abide abode
Bear bore, bare borne
Become became become
Begin began begun
Bend bent
Beseech besought
Bid bad
Bind bound
Bite bit
Bled bled blooded
Blow blew blown
Break broke broken
Breed bred
Bring brought
Burn burnt
Buy bought
Build built
Catch caught
Chide chid
Chuse chose chosen
Cleave clave or clove cloven
Cling clung
Creep crept
Deal dealt
Die died dead
Dig dug
Draw drew drawn
Drink drank or drunk drunken
Drive drove driven
Fall fell fallen
Feed fed






A SHORT ENGLISH GRAMMAR.

Present I nperf. Part. Pass.
Feel felt
Fight fought
Find found
Flee fled
Fly flew flown
Fling flung
Forsake forsook forsaken
Freeze froze frozen
Get got
Give gave given
Go went gone
Grind ground
Grow grew grown
Hang hung
Hide hid
Hold held
Keep kept
Know knew known
Lie lay laid
Lead led
Leave left
Lend lent
Lose lost
Make made
Meet met
Rend rent
Ring rung
Rise rose
Run ran
See saw seen
Seek sought
Sell sold
Send sent
Shake shook
Shine shone
Shoot shot
Shrink shrunk
Sing sang or sung
Sit sat
Slay slew slain
Sleep slept






A SHORT ENGLISH GRAMMAR.


Present Imperf. Part. Pass.
Slide slid
Sling slung
Slink slunk
Smite smote smitten
Speak spoke spoken
Speed sped
Spend spent
Spin spun
Spring sprung
Stand stood
Steal stole stolen
Stick stuck
Stink stunk
Stride strid
Strike struck
String strung
Strive strove
Swear swore sworr
Sweep swept
Swim swum
Swing swung
Take took
Teach taught
Tear tore torn
Tell told
Think thought
Throw threw thrown
Tread trod
Wear wore worn
Weave wove woven
Weep wept
Win won
Wind wound
Work wrought
Wring wrung
Write writ or wrote written

3. A Verb must always be of the same Number and
Person with the Noun or Pronoun going before it; as, "I
love you." Christians love one another."






A SHORT ENGLISH GRAMMAR.


SECTION VIII.

OF ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, AND CONJUNCTIONS.

1. AN Adverb is a sort of word which is added to a Verb
to perfect, explain, or enlarge its sense.
2. Adverbs are compared like Noun Adjectives.
3. Among these may be reckoned those words expressing
some sudden passion, which are commonly called Interjections;
as, "ah oh !"
4. A Preposition is a sort of word which is commonly set
before another, or compounded with it; as, "I go to
London."
5. A Conjunction is a sort of word which joins words or
sentences together; as, and, or.

I cannot but subscribe to the remark of a late eminent
writer, that, "in the simplicity of its structure, the English
far exceeds all modern tongues;" and, I verily believe, all
ancient too; at least, all that I have any acquaintance with;
the Greek and Latin in particular.











A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


[PrINTED IN THE YEAR 1751.]



SECTION I.

OP LETTERS.

1. THE letters in French are twenty-two:
a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i j, 1, m, n, o, p, q, r, s,
aw, ba, Ea, da, a, ef, ja, aush, e, el, em, en, o, pa, kti, ar, es,
t, v, u, x, y, z.
ta, va, ii, ix, egrec, zed.
2. A sounds like a in all.
3. But before i or y, like a in face.
4. Ai, eai, ay, ei, sound like ai in pain.
5. Am, like om; an, like ong in song.
6. Aim, em, ain, in, like ang in hang; but ine like Een;
nine, as in English.
7. In ao the o is not sounded. So paon, read paung.
8. Au, eau, sounds like o in host.
9. E commonly sounds like a in face; so does
10. E marked thus 6, or before a final z.
11. E final unmarked is not sounded.
12. Eim, ein, sound like eng in strength.
13. Em, like em or om; en, like ong in song.
14. Eu, eui, ieu, oei, oeu, uei, ueu, u, ue, ui, yeu, sound
almost alike.
15. Le sounds very short; les, like lay.
16. I and ie final sound like e in he.
17. len like Eang. But in client, convenient, expedient,
fient, orient, patient, like Eong.
18. I before 11 is sounded after it; except in words begin-
ning with il; and in Achille, camomille, imbecille, pupille,
mille, ville, tranquille, argille, distiller.
19. Im, with a consonant following, sounds like em or im;
with a vowel following, like Im.
20. 0 sounds like o in post.






A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


21. Oi, oy, oye, eoi, in the first syllable of a word, before
1, m, r, and in proper names, sound like waw:
22. Elsewhere, like a in face.
23. But oi before gn sounds almost like wo.
24. Oin sounds like wang. So point, read pwang.
25. Ou, aou, one, like oo in fool.
26. Oui like we.
27. Om like 6m; on like ung.
28. U almost like u in surprise.
29. U is not sounded after q; nor between g and e, or g
and i; except in carquois, and foreign words.
30. No final consonant, beside, c, f, 1, m, n, q, r, is
sounded before an initial consonant; except in foreign proper
names.
31. A final consonant preceding the initial vowel of a
Substantive is sounded as in one word:
32. And so is the final consonant of an Adverb preceding
the initial vowel of an Adjective. "
33. C final is always sounded; except in almanac, arsenic,
estomac.
34. A final c following n sounds like g; and so in second,
secret.
35. C marked thus 9, sounds like s.
36. Ch like sh; except in foreign words.
37. Ce la is read slaw; est ce, ess.
38. D final before an initial vowel sounds like t.
39. F final is not sounded in baillif, clef, eteuf, chef d'muvre;
'neuf, new.
40. F before an initial vowel sounds like v.
41. A vowel before gn sounds as if an i followed it.
42. H is rarely sounded in the beginning of a word, never
in th.
43. L final is not sounded in barril, chenil, files, filleul, fusil,
gentil, il, nombril, outil, sourcil.
44. 01 final sounds like oo in fool; as does ouil in genouil,
verrouil.
45. N final, or in the end of a syllable before a consonant,
sounds as if a g followed.
46. R final is not sounded in the Infinitive Mood of the
First and Second Conjugation, nor in Nouns of two or more
syllables; except enfer, fier, hyver, leger.
47. S between two vowels sounds like z.






A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


48. T before i sounds like s; except in Aristocratie, Dal-
matie, Galasie, minute, primatie, prophetic.
49. Ent in the Third Person Plural of Verbs is not
sounded.
50. Est before a consonant sounds like a; before a vowel
like Ste.
51. Notre and votre sound note and vote; except in the
end of a sentence.
52. X in dix and six, and between two vowels, sounds like
s; in soixanie and Bruxelles like ss.
53. X before co, cu, sounds like s:
54. X in Latin words between two vowels sounds like gz.



SECTION II.

OF NOUNS.

1. Un (a) or le (the) is prefixed to every Masculine Noun;
une or la to every Feminine; except Dieu, and proper names.
2. Nouns ending in ion, in e mute, or derived from the
Latin, are generally of the Feminine Gender.
3. Most other Nouns are of the Masculine.
4. The French have no Cases. They supply the place of
them by varying the Article thus:-
Singular.
Nom. Ace. Le Boy, the King.
Gen. Abl. Du Roy.
Plural.
Nom. Ace. Les Roys.
Dat. Aux Roys.
5. A Feminine Noun has la, de la, a la, instead of le, du, au.
6. The Plural Number is formed by adding s to the
Singular.
7. Bnt Nouns ending in s, x, or z, are not altered. So,
le palais, Plu. les palais.
8. Nouns ending in ail or al form the Plural in aux.
9. Nouns ending in an or eu form the Plural in x.
10. Nouns ending in e form the Plural in z.
11. Nouns ending in t change it into s. So, enfant, enfans.






A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


12. Ayeul has in the Plural ayeux; ciel, cieux ; weil, yeux.
13. The Comparative Degree is formed by prefixing plus
to the Positive. So, plus sage, wiser.
14. The Superlative, by prefixing le or la to the Com-
parative. So, le plus sage, wisest.
15. But in the following words thus:-
Bon, good, meilleur, le meilleur.
mauvais, bad, pire, le pire.
petit, little, moindre, le moindre.
16. In comparing Numbers de is used for que.



SECTION III.

OF PRONOUNS.

1. THERE are eighteen Pronouns, which are declined
thus:-


Sing. N. Moi, I, Ace. me. Plu.
toi, thou, te.
soi, himself, se,
lui, he ) le,
elle, she, f la,
2. Sing. Ce, cet, Mas. this, P
cette, Fern. j
celui, Mas. that,
celle, Fem. J
3. Ce, cel, or cette, with la subjoined,
co gargon-la, that boy.


N. nous Ace. nous.
vous vous.

eux, les.
elles, les.
lu. ces.

ceux.
celles.
signifies that. So,


4. Sing. Mon, M. ma, F. my, Plu. rmes.
ion, M. ta, F. thy, tes.
son, M. sa, F. his, ses.
notre, our, nos.
votre, your, vos.
leur, their, leurs.
5. Sing. Le mien, lamienne, mine,
le tien, thine,
le sien, his, form the Plural by
le or la notre, ours, Ktaking s.
le or la votre, yours,
le or la leur, theirs, J






A SHORT FRE~NCH GRAMMAR.


6. Instead of Pronouns are often used
Oi, in which, to which, where, whither:
En, of him, her, it, them; for it, at it, to it, with it or
them; hence, thence, some, any, none :
I, in, of, about it; here, hither, there, thither.



SECTION IV.

OF AUXILIARY VERBS.

1. THE Indicative Mood has seven Tenses: Four simple,
and three compound.
2. The simple are, the Present, the Imperfect, (which
speaks of an action past, without mentioning the time,) the
Preterperfect Definite, (which does mention the time,) and
the Future.
3. The compound are, the Perfect Indefinite, (which
speaks of an action perfectly past, without mentioning the
time,) the First Preterpluperfect, which does not, and the
Second, which does, specify the time.
4. The Subjunctive Mood has three simple, and four
compound Tenses.
5. The simple are, the Present, the First Imperfect, and
the Second Imperfect.
6. The compound are, the Preterperfect, the First Preter-
pluperfect, the Second Preterpluperfect, and the Future.
7. There are two auxiliary Verbs, avoir and 6tre.
8. Avoir, to have, is conjugated thus :

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Sing. J'ai, tu as, il a.
I have, thou hast, he hath.
Plu. Nous avons, vous avez, ils ont.
We have, you have, they have.
Imperfect.
Sing. J'avois, tu avois, il avoit.
I had, thou hadst, he had.
Plu. avions, aviez, avoient.
we had, ye had, they had.






A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


Preterperfect Definite.
Sing. eus, eus,
I have had, fc.
Plu. edmes, e4tes,
We have had, Sc.


eut.

egrent.


Future.
Sing. aurai, auras, aura.
I shall or will have, Sc.
Plu. aurons, aurez, auront.
We shall or will have, &c.
The three compound Tenses are a repetition of the three
first simple Tenses, with eu subjoined to each Person.
Preterperfect Indefinite.
Sing. J'ai eu, &c. Plu. Nous avons eu, &c.
I have had. We have had.
First Preterpluperfect.
Sing. J'avois eu, &c. Plu. Nous avions eu, &c.
I had had. We had had.
Second Preterpluperfect.
Sing. J'eus eu, &c. Plu. Nous edmes eu, &c..
I had had. We had had.
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sing. Ayes, qu'il aye.
Have thou, let him have.
Plu. Ayons, qu'ils ayent.
Let us have, let them have.
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD,
Present.
Sing. J'aye, ayes, ait.
I may or can have, -c.
Plu. Ayons, ayez, ayent.
We may or can have, Sc.
First Imperfect.
Sing. J'aurois, tu aurois, il auroit.
I should have, c.
Plu. Nous aurions, vouz auriez, ils auroient.
We should have, .,c.
VOL. XIV. C






A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.

Second Imperfect.
Sing. Eusse, ensses,
I might have, yc.
Plu. Eussions, eussiez,
We might have, -c.


eusse.

eussent.


The four compound Tenses are a repetition of these simple
Tenses, and of the Future of the Indicative, with eu subjoined
to each Person.
Perfect.
Sing. J'aye eu, &c. Plu. Nous ayons eu, &c.
I may have had.
First Preterpluperfect.
Sing. J'aurois eu, &c. Plu. Nous aurions eu, &c.
I should have had.
Second Preterpluperfect.
Sing. J'eusse eu, &c. Plu. Nous eussions eu, &c.
I might have had.
Future.
Sing. J'aurai eu, &c. Plu. Nous aurons eu, &c.
I shall have had.
INFINITIVE MOOD.
Avoir, To have.
Participles.
Active. Ayant, having. Passive. Eu, had.
9. Etre, to be, is conjugated thus :-
INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Sing. Je suis, es, est. Plu. Sommes, 6tes, sont.
I am, thou art, Sc.
Imperfect.
Sing. Etois, etois, etoit. Plu. Etions, etiez, etoient.
I was, S5c.
Perfect Definite.
Sing. Fus, fus, fut. Plu. Fames, futes, furent.
I have been, &c.






A SHORtT FRENCH GR1AMMARI.


Future.
Sing. Serai, seras, sera. Plu. Serons, serez, seront.
I shall or will be, ic.
The compound Tenses are a repetition of the three first
simple Tenses of avoir, with etd subjoined to each Person.
Preterperfect Indefinite.
Sing. J'ai 6te, &c. Plu. Nous avons dd1, &c.
I have been.
First Preterpluperfect.
Sing. J'avois 8t6, &c. Plu. Nous avions &t(, &c.
I had been.
Second Preterpluperfect.
Sing. J'eus Wte, &c. Plu. Nous times 61t, &c.
I had been.
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sing. Sois, qu'il soit. Plu. Soyons, soyez, qu'ils soient.
Be thou, fc.
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.
Sing. Je sois, sois, soit. Plu. Soyons, soyez, soient.
I may be.
First Imperfect.
Sing. Serois, serois, seroit. Plu. Serions, series, seroient.
I should be.
Second Imperfect (never used).
Sing. Fusse, fusses, fut. Plu. Fussions, fussiez, fussent.
I might be, Sc.
The compound Tenses are a repetition of these simple
Tenses, and of the Future of the Indicative of avoir, with
0td subjoined.
Perfect.
Sing. J'aye Wte, &c. Plu. Nous ayons 0ti, &c.
I may have been.
First Preterpluperfect.
Sing. J'aurois 8ti, &c. Plu. Nous aurions 0(d, &c.
I should have been.
C2






A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


Second Preterpluperfect.
Sing. J'eusse 6t1, &c. Plu. Nous eussions dtd, &c.
I might have been.

Future.
Sing. J'aurai 6t6, &c. Plu. Nous aurions Wtd, &c.
I shall have been.


INFINITIVE MOOD.
Etre, to be.


Participles.


Active. Etant, being.


Passive. EtM, been.


SECTION V.

OF REGULAR VERBS.

1. THERE are four Conjugations.
2. A Verb of the First Conjugation forms the Infinitive in
er, and is conjugated thus :-

INDICATIVE MOOD.


Present.
Sing. Je parole, I speak, tu parles,
Plu. Nous parlons, vous parlez,
Imperfect.
Sing. Je parlois, I did speak, parlois,
Plu. Parlions, parliez,
Preterperfect Definite.
Sing. Je parlai, I have spoken, parlas,
Plu. Parldmes, parldles,


il parole.
ils parent.


parloit.
parloient,


parlat.
parlerent.


Future.
Sing. Je parlerai, I shall or will speak, parleras, parlera.
Plu. Parlerons, parlerez, parleront.






A SHORT FRENCHI GRIAMMARt.


Pretcrperfect Indefinite.
Sing. J'ai parld, I have spoken, Sc.
Plu. Nous avons parld, &c.

First Preterpluperfect.
Sing. J'avois parld, I had spoken, c.
Plu. Nous avions parley, &c.

Second Preterpluperfect.
Sing. J'eus parld, I had spoken, fc.
Plu. Nous edmes parld, &c.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sing. Parle, speak ; qu'il parole, let him speak.
Plu. Parlons, parlez, quz'ils parent.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.

Present.
Sing. Parle, I may or can speak, parles, parole.
Plu. Parlions, parliez, parent

First Imperfect.
Sing. Parlerois, parlerois, parleroit.
Plu. Parlerions, parleriez, parleroient.

Second Imperfect, if ever used.
Sing. Parlasse, parlasses, parlat.
Plu. Parlassions, parlassiez, parlassent.
Perfect.
Sing. PJaye, &c., parld.
Plu. Nous ayois, &c., parld.
First Preterpluperfect.
Sing. J'aurois parld.

Second Preterpluperfect.
Sing. J'eusse, &c., parld.

Future.
Sing. J'aurai, &c., parld.






A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


INFINITIVE MOOD.
Parler, to speak.
Participles.
Active. Parlant, speaking. Passive. Parld, spoken.

3. A Verb of the Second Conjugation forms the Infinitive
in ir, and is conjugated thus :-

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Sing. Je punis, I punish, punis, punit.
Plu. Punissons, punissez, punissent.
Imperfect.
Sing. Je punissois, I punished, punissois, punissoit.
Plu. Punissions, punissiez, punissoient.
Perfect.
Sing. Je punis, I have punished, punis, punit.
Plu. Punimnes, punites, punircnt.
Future.
Sing. Je punirai, I will punish, puniras, punira.
Plu. Punirons, punirez, punimront.

The Compound Tenses, in all Conjugations, are formed
alike of the Simple Tenses, with the Passive Participle
subjoined.
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sing. Puni, punish, qu'il punisse.
Plu. Punissons, punissez, qu'ils punissent.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.
Sing.' Je punisse, I may punish, punisses, punisse.
Plu. Punissions, punissiez, punissent.
First Imperfect.
Sing. Je punirois, I should punish, punirois, punnirit.
Plu. Punirions, puniricz, punir(uciei







A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


Second Imperfect.
Sing. Je punisse, I should punish, punisses, punisse.
Plu. Punissions, punissiez, punissent.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

Punir, to punish.
Participles.
Active. Puiissant, punishing. Passive. Puni, punished.

4. A Verb of the Third Conjugation forms the Infinitive in
oir, and is conjugated thus:-

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Sing. Je refois, I receive, refois, refoit.
Plu. Recevons, recevez, recoivent.
Imperfect.
Sing. Je recevois, I received, recevois, recevoit.
Plu. Recevions, receviez, reccvoient.
Perfect.
Sing. Je receus, I have received, receus, recent.
Plu. Receumes, receutes, receurent.
Future.
Sing. Je recevrai, I shall receive, recevras, recerra.
Plu. Recevrons, recevrez, recevront.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sing. Jefoi, receive; qu'il refoive.
Plu. Recevons, recevez, refowunt.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.
Sing. Je reqoive, I may receive, receives, receive.
Plu. Recevions, receviez, reqoivent.
First Imperfect.
Sing. Je recevrois, I should receive, recevrois, recevroit.
Plu. Recevrions, recevriez, recevroient.






A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


Second Imperfect, if ever used.
Sing. Je receusse, I might receive, receusses, receusse.
Plu. Receussions, receussiez, receussent.

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Becevoir, to receive.
Participles.
Active. Recevant, receiving. Passive. Receu, received.

5. A Verb of the Fourth Conjugation forms the Infinitive
in re, and is conjugated thus :-

INDICATIVE MOOD.


Present.
Sing. Je vens, I sell, vens,
Plu. Vendons, vendez,
Imperfect.
Sing. Je vendois, I sold, vendois,
Plu. Vendions, vendiez,
Perfect.
Sing. Je vendis, I have sold, vendis,
Plu. Vendimes, vendites,
Future.
Sing. Je vendrai, I will sell, vendras,
Plu. Vendrons, &c.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sing. Ven, sell;
Plu. Vendons, vendez,


Present.
Sing. Je vende, I may sell,
Plu. Vendions,


First Imperfect.
Sing. Je vendrois, I should sell, vendrois,
Plu. Vendrions, vendriez,


vend.
vendent.


vendoit.
vendoient.


vendit.
vendirent.


vendra.


qu'il vende.
vendent.


SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.


vendes,
vendiez,


vende.
vendent.

vendroit.
vendroient.






A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


Second Imperfect, if used.
Sing. Je vendisse, I might sell, vendisses,
Plu. Vendimes, vendites,

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Vendre, to sell.

Participles.


Active. Vendant, selling.


Passive. Vendu, sold.


6. But Verbs ending- in aindre, eindre, oindre, form the
Passive Participle by changing dre into t; and take g before
n in all the Simple Tenses, except the Future of the Indicative,
and the First Imperfect of the Subjunctive. Accordingly
Joindre, to join, is conjugated thus:-

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present.


Sing. Joins,
Plu. Joignons,


joins,
joignez,


joint.
joignent.


Imperfect.
Sing. Joignois, &c.
Perfect.
Sing. Joignis, &c.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.
Joigne, &c.

Second Imperfect.
Joignisse, &c.

Participle.
Joignant.

7. The Passive Voice in all Verbs is only the Auxiliary
Verb &tre, conjugated throughout with the Passive Participle.
8. A Verb is placed thus:-


J'ai le livre.
Je n'ai pas le livre.


I have the book.
I have not the book.


vendit.
vendirent.






A SHORT FTENCII GlA3-U nIR.


Je n'ai pas eu le livre.
Ai-je le livre ?
N'aije pas le livre ?
N'ai je pas eu le livre ?
J'en parole.
J'y porte.
Parlez en.
Portez y.
J'y en porte.


I have not had the book.
Have I the book ?
Have not I the book?
Have not I had the book ?
I speak of it.
I carry thither.
Speak of it.
Carry ye thither.
I carry some of it thither.


SECTION VI.

OF IRREGULAR VERBS.

1. THERE is but one Irregular Verb of the First Conju.at-
tion,-aller, to go, which is conjugated thus :-

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present.


Sing. Je vais, I go,
Plu. Allons,
Future.
Sing. Irai, iras, ira, &c.


vas, va.
allez, cont.


IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Sing. Va, qu'aille. Plu. Allons, allez, aillent.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.
Sing. Aille, allies, aille, &c.
First Imperfect.
J'irois, &c.
Second Imperfect.
J'allasse, &c.

2. The Irregular Verbs of the Second Conjugation are,-
Pre. Per. Fut. Part.
Acquerir, ) J'acquiers, acquis, acquerrai, acqui.
to acquire,






A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


Pre. Per. Fut. Part.
bouillir, Je bous, I boil,
couirir, Je coucre, I cover, covert.

In like manner are conjugated offrir, to offer; ouvrir, to
open ; and sozuffrir, to suffer.
cueillir, Je cueille, I gather.
dormir, Je dors, I sleep.
mentir, Je mens, I lie.
And so sentir, to feel or smell.
mourir, Je meurs, I die, mourus, mort.
partir, Je pars, I go away.
repentir, Je me repens, I repent.
servir, Je sers, I serve.
sortir, Je sors, I go out.
tenir, Je liens, (tenons,) tins, tiendrai, tenu.
And so venir, to come.
vlir, Je vets, veiu.
to clothe, j

3. The Irregular Verbs of the Third Conjugation are,-
Mouvoir, Je meus, I move, mus, men.
pouvoir, Je puis, I can, pus, pourrai, pu.
tu pens, nous
pouvons,
sravoir, Je sais, I know, saurai, seu.
queje sache, (Part. Act. sachant.)
asseoir, Je m'assieds, I sit, assis, assi.
valoir, Je vaus, I am worth, vaudrai.
And so faloir.
voir, Je vois, I see, vis, verrai.
vauloir, Je veux, I am willing, voudrai.

4. The Irregular Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation are,-
Pre. Imp. Per. Part. Act. Part. Pass.
boire, Je bois, beus, beuvant, beu.
(beuvons,)
conclurre, Je conclus, concluois, conclu.
I conclude,
And so exclurre, reclarre; only their Participles are exclusse,
reclusse.






A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


Pre. Per. Fut. Part.
conduire, Je conduis, I lead, conduisis, conduirai, conduit.
(Imp. conduisois,)
And so cuire, to cook; construire, to build; destruire, to


destroy; luire, to shine; nuire, to hurt;
confire, Je confis, I candy, confit,
(confissons,)
And so suffire, to suffice.


reduire, to
confirai,


Pre. Imp. Per.
connoitre, Je connois, I know, connois- connus,
sois,
And so croitre, to grow; and paroitre, to appear.


Je cous, I sow, cousois,
Je dis, I say, disois,
J'ecris, I write, ecrivois,
Je fais, I do, faisois,
(ils font,)
Je lis, I read, lisois,
Je mets, I put,
Je mous, I grind, moulois,
Je nais, I am born, naissois,
Je plais, I please, plaisois,


cousus, cousu.
dis, dit.
ecrivis, ecrit.
fis, fait.
(Fut. ferai,)
lus, leu.
mis, mis.
moulus, moulu.
naquis, nd.
plus, plu.


And so taire, to be silent.
prendre, Je prens, I take, prenois, pris,
repaitre, Je repaissois, repus,
I fed,


resoudre,
to resolve,


resolvois, resolus,


And so absoudre and dissoudre; only their Participles are
absous, dissous.
rire, rs, r.
to laugh,
vivre, vecus, vecu.
to live, f
5. Some Verbs are defective, being only used in some
Tenses or Persons.
6. Some are Impersonal, being only used in the Third
Person Singular; as, Il pleut, It rains.


reduce.
confi.



Part.
connu.


coudre,
dire,
ecrire,
faire,

lire,
metire,
moudre,
nature,
plaire,


pris.
repu.


resolu.





A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


7. II fait is sometimes used for est; as, II fait beau temps,
It is fine weather.
8. The Feminine Participle is formed by adding e to the
Masculine. So, porte, portee.




SECTION VII.

OF ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, AND CONJUNCTIONS.

1. THE Degrees of Comparison are formed in Adverbs as
in Adjectives, by prefixing plus and le plus.
2. The French generally use two negatives together, ne and
pas, or point.
3. Tant and autant are used before Substantives; si and
aussi before Adjectives. Moreover,
4. Autant and aussi are always used with an affirmation; si
and tant with a negation.
5. Dedans, within ; dehors, without; dessus, above ; dessous,
beneath; alentour, round; auparavant, before; are properly
Adverbs.
6. Yet, when dedans and dehors, dessus and dessous, are
joined together, they are used as Prepositions; or when they
have de before them.
7. Faute is used before a Noun, and a faute before a Verb;
as, fate d'argent, for want of money.
8. These Prepositions govern a Nominative or Accusative
Case :-
'A, to, at; apres, after; avant, before; avec, with; chez,
to, at; contre, against; dans, in; dos, from; deqa, on this
side; del', on that side; depuis, since; derriere, behind;
devant, before ; de dessus, from above; de dessous, from under;
durant, during; en, in, into; entire, between; envers, towards;
environ, about; except, except; hors, out, without ; hormis,
except ; joignant, next ; moyennant, provided ; nonobstant,
notwithstanding; outre, besides; par, by; par dehors, with-
out; par dessus, above; par dessous, below; de par, from,
by; parmi, among; pendant, during; pour, for; sans, with-
out ; sauf, except; selon, according to ; sous, under; suivant,
pursuant to; sur, upon; touchant, touching; vers, towards;
a travers, cross, through.






A SHORT FR{ENCHI GRAMINAR.


9. Vers relates to a place; envers to a person.
10. En is used before Nouns that have no Article; and to
express the whole time of doing a thing.
11. Dans is used before Nouns that have an Article; and
to express the place where we lay a thing.
12. In most other cases en and dans are used indifferently.
13. These Prepositions govern a Genitive Case: & cause,
because; ai covert, secure from; a fleur, close to, or even
with; a l'abri de, sheltered from ; a l'egard, with regard to;
a l'endroit, towards ; a l'gal, in comparison ; a l'envi, in emu-
lation; a l'insceu, unknown to; a la maniare, after the man-
ner; arriere, from ; en arriere, behind ; au dehors, without;
au defa, on this side; au delay, on that side; au dedans,
within; au dessus, over or upon; au dessous, under; au
milieu, in the midst; au prix, in comparison of; aupres, near;
autouzr, about; ensuite, after; le long, along; loin, far; pros,
proche, near; vis-a-vis, over against.
14. These Prepositions govern a Dative Case : Jusqute,
till, to; quant, as for; conformement, pursuant to.




SECTION VIII.

OF SYNTAX.

1. ADJECTIVEs ending in esque, f, ile, ique, or ule, are
generally put after the Substantive.
2. So are Adjectives that express a colour, that are formed
from names of nations, that denote a quality of the weather
or elements.
3. So are also most Adjectives that may be used as Substan-
tives, and a few others, with all Participles ; as, un chemin
hattu, a beaten way.
4. Most Adjectives may be placed either before or after;
but in some, the position alters the sense. So, une femme sage,
a wise woman ; une sage femme, a midwife.
5. Partie and quelque chose, though Feminine, are often
joined with a Masculine Adjective.
G. If a question be asked with the Pronoun ce, we must
answer with the same; as, Qu'elle here est cela ? C'est une
hew'e. Otherwise we say, II est une here.






A SHORT FRENCH GRANIMAP.


7. Ce is used for il or its, before a proper name, a Pronoun,
and a Noun that has no Article; as, C'est Pierre : C'est Mon-
sieur.
8. As also before a Substantive expressing an inanimate or
irrational thing, before an Infinitive, a Participle Passive, an
Adverb, or a Preposition; as, C'est assez, It is enough.
9. Me, e, se, le, la, les, lui, leur, nous, and vous, are put
before the Verb that governs them; as, II me hait.
10. And they are used instead of the Datives. So we say,
11 m'a dit, Je vous donne; not, II a dit a moi.
11. But in the Imperative Mood, we use the Dative after
the Verb ; as, Donnez moi; except we speak negatively; as,
Nc me dies pas cela ; or in the Third Person; as, Qt'il se
proimewv, Let him walk.
The Enime rules hold with regard to en and y.
12. WVhen a Verb governs two Pronouns, if one be of the
First or Second Person, that of the Accusative Case ought to
be next th' Verb; as, Donnez le moi; but that of the Dative
Case, if they are of the Third Person ; as, Je le lui dirai.
13. En and y, joined to these Pronouns, always follow them;
as, Je lii en parlerai.
14. AWhen we speak of things or persons in general, we use
soi; when of a particular person, lui or elle; as, II ne parole
qve de hlt, He speaks only of himself.
15. A Masculine Pronoun is often put before a Feminine
Noun beginning with a vowel: as, mon dinme.
16. Property is often expressed by the Dative Case, thus :
Ce licre est u moi, d lui, a Madame; is mine, his, &c.
17. Qui and don't are commonly spoken of persons; lequel,
of things.
18. Lequel is put for qui or don't, either to express a choice,
or to avoid ambiguity; as also in the Genitive Case; as, Au
reto)ur duiquel.
19. Le or la is sometimes put for a Noun or a Verb; as,
Etes vous malade ? Oui,je le (or la) suis.
20. The following Conjunctions require a Subjunctive
Mood; afin que, that; avant que, devant que, before that; A
moins que, except; au cas, en cas que, in case that; a con-
dition que, pourveu que, provided; soilt que, whether; sans
que, without; bien que, combien que, encore que, quoique,
though; jusques a ce que, till; de crainte que, least; pose'
que, suppose.






A SHORT FRENCH GRAMMAR.


21. A Verb followed by que governs either an Indicative or
Subjunctive; but a Subjunctive commonly, if si go before it.
22. Most Impersonal Verbs govern a Subjunctive.
23. As do the following Verbs; apprehender, attendre, com-
mander, craindre, defendre, desirer, dire, douter, empecher,
endurer, exhorter, faire, garder, permettre, poser, pretendre,
prier, persuader, requerir, souffrir, souhaiter, supplier, suppo,,
ser, vouloir, and a few others of like signification.
24. Quelque, quelque quoique, and an Adjective of the
Superlative degree, govern a Subjunctive.
25. The Latin Gerunds and Supines are expressed by de, a,
pour, with an Infinitive Mood.
26. De is used before an Infinitive, (1.) After a Substantive;
as, L'art de parler: (2.) After Adjectives that govern a Geni-
tive Case; as, Content de mourir : (3.) After 9tre, joined with
an Adjective; as, I1 est bon de mourir: (4.) After avertir,
ordonner, and several other Verbs.
27. 'A is used before an Infinitive, (1.) After avoir; as, J'ai
une letter a ecrire: (2.) After Adjectives that govern a Dative
Case; as, Je suis pret a parler: (3.) Where the Infinitive
Active is taken passively; as, La guerre est a craindre:
(4.) After some Verbs; as, Je me prepare a partir.
28. 'A and de are used indifferently before several Verbs.
29. Pour is used before an Infinitive, to express the end or
cause of a thing; and after trop or assez.
30. All Active Verbs govern an Accusative Case.
31. Passive Verbs generally govern a Genitive Case; as,
Etre aimed de Dieu; particularly when they express a motion
or passion of the mind.
32. When they express an action of the body, par is used;
as, II est pris par l'ennemi.
33. Verbs of giving and taking away govern an Accusative
and a Dative; as, Donner la gloire a Dieu.
34. Participles in ant are indeclinable.
35. And so are Participles, (1.) When followed by an Infi-
nitive Mood; as, Elle s'est faith peindre: (2.) When used
actively with avoir, unless a Pronoun in the Accusative Case
follow; as, Je l'ai veun.
36. After the Adverbs plus and moins, de (not que) is to be
used; as, II a plus de vingt ans.









A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


SECTION I.

OF LETTERS.

1. GRAMMAR is the art of speaking or writing properly.
2. There are four parts of grammar: Letters, Syllables,
Words, and Sentences.
3. Letters make a syllable, syllables a word, words a
sentence.
4. The letters in Latin are twenty-two : a, b, c, d, e, f, g,
h, i, (j,) 1, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, (v,) x, y, z.
5. Letters are either vowels or consonants.
6. A vowel is a letter that may be pronounced alone, as a.
A consonant is a letter that cannot be pronounced without a
vowel, as b, c.
7. There are six vowels, a, e, i, o, u, y; of which are
formed five diphthongs, T, m, au, ei, eu.
8. C before e, se, ce, i; also t before i and another vowel,
is pronounced like s.
9. Four of the consonants are called liquids, 1, m, n, r.
10. Three are called double consonants, j, x, z.
11. The rest are called mutes, b, c, d, f, g, h, p, q, s, t, v.
12. A syllable is a vowel or diphthollg, either single or
pronounced with a consonant.
13. A word is the sign of a thought, and part of a sentence
or speech.
14. A sentence is several words put together.
15. There are seven sorts of words, four of which are
declinable, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle : Three inde-
clinable, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction.



SECTION II.

OF SUBSTANTIVE NOUNS.

1. A NOUN is the name of a thing.
2. Nouns are either Substantives or Adjectives.
VOL. XIV. D






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


3. A Substantive is a Noun that may stand by itself; as,
vir, a man. An Adjective is a Noun that is always joined
with a Substantive; as, bonus vir, a good man.
4. A Noun is either proper, as, George, Georgius; or
common, as, a man, homo.
5. There are three Genders; the Masculine, he; the
Feminine, she ; the Neuter, it.
6. Names of gods, angels, and men, are of the Masculine
Gender; as, Jupiter, Michael, Georgius.
7. Names of winds and months are of the Masculine
Gender; as, Auster, the south wind; Aprilis, April.
8. Names of rivers and mountains are of the Masculine
Gender; as, Tibris, the Tiber; Parnassus, the mountain so
called.
9. Names of goddesses and women are Feminine; as,
Juno, Anna.
10. Names of cities, countries, and islands are Feminine;
as, Roma, Rome; Gallia, France; Anglia, England.
11. Names of ships, trees, herbs, and poems are Feminine;
as, Argo, the ship so called; pyrus, a pear-tree; .Z Eneis, the
Eneid.
12. Nouns signifying the offices of men are Masculine; as,
rex, a king.
13. Nouns signifying the offices of women are Feminine;
as, regina, a queen.
14. Nouns common to either sex are either Masculine or
Feminine; as, exul, a banished man or woman ; adolescens,
a youth; advena, a stranger; affinis, a relation; actor, an
author; civis, a citizen; comes, a companion; conviva, a
guest; custos, a keeper; dux, a guide; haeres, an heir;
hosts, an enemy; infans, an infant; judex, a judge;
parents, a parent; sacerdos, a priest or priestess; testis, a
witness; vindex, an avenger: With some others. So are the
following:-
Pulvis, margo, silex, grossus, corhis, cinis, obex, cortex,
calx, imbrex, atomus, clunis, canalis, forceps, linter, adeps,
scrobs, torquis, stirps, phaselus, pampinus, anguis, rubus,
funis, barbitus, amnis, specus, penus, pumex, finis, and
dies.
15. Nouns indeclinable, also Nouns ending in on or um,
are Neuter; as, nihil, nothing; criterion, a mark; regnum, a
kingdom.







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


16. The Genders of other Nouns are known by the
termination.
17. The Numbers of Nouns are two; the Singular, which
speaks of one thing, as, lapis, a stone; the Plural, which
speaks of more, as, lapides, stones.
18. A Case is the variation of the last syllable.
19. There are six Cases, the Nominative, Genitive, Dative,
Accusative, Vocative, Ablative.
20. The Nominative is placed before the Verb; the
Accusative after it; the Genitive follows the sign of; the
Dative to ; the Vocative 0; the Ablative in, with, from, by,
and than after a Comparative Degree.
21. The Declensions are five.
22. The FIRST forms the Genitive and Dative Singular in
&a diphthong, except in Greek Nouns.
23. This has four terminations, a, e, Feminine; as, es,
Masculine.
24. But these five ending in a are Masculine; Adria,
mandrayora, pandecta, planet, cometa.

EXAMPLES OU TilE FIRST DECLENSION.

Singular.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc. Abl.
of to 0 in, &c.
Penn-a, a pen, -6e, -e, -am, -a, -a.
Od-e, a song, -es, -e, -en, -e, -e.
Thom -as, -E, -a, -am, -a, -a.
Anchis-es, -r, -ce, -en, -c, .d.

Plural.
Penn-ce, pens, -arum, -is, -as, -_e, -is.

And so the rest.
25. Some Nouns of this Declension form the Dative and
Ablative Plural in abus; as, anima, dea, domina, equa,
famula, filha, nata, serva, social.
26. The SECOND forms the Genitive in i, and Dative in o.
27. This has five terminations, er, ir, us, Masculine; on,
umn, Neuter.


D2







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


EXAMPLES OF THE SECOND DECLENSION.


Nom.


Lib-er, a book,
Vi-r, a man,
Ven-tus, the wind,
Criter-ion, a mark,
Reg-num, a kingdom,


Singular.
Gen. Dat.
of to
-ri, -ro,
-ri, -ro,
-ti, -to,
-ii, -io,
-ni, -no,


Acc. Voc.
0
-rum, -er,
-rum, -r,
-turn, -te,
-ion, -ion,
-num, -num,


Plural.


Libr-i,
Vir-i,
Vent-i,
Criteri-a,
Reg-na,


-orum, -is, -os, -i, -is.


-orum, -is, -a, -a, -is.


28. But virus and pelagus are Neuter. The following are
Feminine: Papyrus, antidotus, bolus, diphthongus, byssus,
abyssus, periods, synodus, methods, eremus, arctus, Exodus,
nardus, lecythus, dialectus, halus, humus, alvus, vannus, domus,
colus, plinthus, pharus, ficus, and diametrus. Vulgus, the
common people, is Masculine and Neuter.
29. Filius, and proper names ending in ius, form the
Vocative in i; as, fili. Deus remains unchanged.
30. The THIRD forms the Genitive in is, and Dative in i.
This has twenty-four terminations, er, or, os, o, n, Mascu-
line; io, do, go, as, es, is, aus, x, and s after a consonant,
Feminine; a, e, i, c, 1, men, ar, ur, us, ut, Neuter.

EXAMPLES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION.


Singular.
Nom. Gen. Dat.
of to
Late-r, a brick, -ris, -ri,
Labo-r, labour, -ris, -ri,
Nepo-s, a grandchild, -tis, -ti,
Serm-o, speech, -mois, -oni,
Delph-in, a dolphin. -inis, -ini,
Nati-o, a nation, -onis, -oni,


Ace. Voc.
0
-rem, -r,
-rem, -r,
-tern, -s,
-onem, -o,
-inem, -in,
-onem, -o,


Abl.
in, &c,
-ro.
-ro.
-to.
-io.
-no.


Abl.
in, &c.
-re.
-re.
-te.
-one.
-ine.
-cne.







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Nom.

Arund-o, a reed,
Imag-o, an image,
.JEsta-s, summer,
Rup-es, a rock,
Nav-is, a ship,
Frau-s, fraud,
Fa-x, a torch,
Le-x, a law,
Trab.s, a beam,
Pul-s, gruel,
Them-a, a theme,
Ma-re, the sea,
La-c, milk,
Anima-1, an animal,
Carm-en, a verse,
Calca-r, a spur,
Rob-ur, an oak,
Litt-us, the shore,
Cap-ut, the head,


Singular.
Gen. Dat.
of to
-inis, -ini,
-inis, -ini,
-tis, -ti,
-is, -i,
-is, -i,
-dis, -di,
-cis, -ci,
-gis, -gi,
-is, -i,
-tis, -ti,
-atis, -ati,
-ris, ri,
-ctis, -.ti,
-lis, -li,
-inis, -ini,
-ris, -ri,
-oris, -ori,
-oris, -ori,
-itis, -iti,


Ace. Voc. Abl.
0 in, &c.
S t, -o, -ine.
-inem, -o, -ine.
-tern, -s, -te.
-em, -es, -e.
-em, -is, -e,or-i.
-dem, -s, -de.
-cem, -x, -ce.
-gem, -_, -ge.
-em, -s, -e.
-tern, -s, -te.
-a, -a, -ate.
-re, -re, -ri.
-c, -c, -ete.
-1, -1, -li.
-en, -en, -ine.
-r, -r, -re,or-ri.
-ur, -ur, -ore.
-us, -us, -ore.
-ut, -ut, -ite..


Plural.


Later-es,
Rup-es,
Mar-ia,
Capit-a,


-urn,
-ium,
-ium,
-urn,


-ibus,
-ibus,
-ibus,
-ibus,


-ibus.
-ibus.
-ibus.
-ibus.


And so the rest.
31. Those nouns forming the Ablative Singular in i, make
the Genitive Plural in ium.
32. But the following words, although they end in er, or, os,
o, are not of the Masculine Gender:-
Arbor and arbos, caro, dos, cos, are Feminine: The following
are Neuter, spinther, suber, tuber, gingiber, uber, verber, iter,
laver, ver, piper, 6es, papaver, equor, marmor, ador, cor, siser,
os, and cadaver.
33. Nor are these, although ending in do, as, es, is, x, and s
after a consonant, of the Feminine:-
Masculine. Adamas, as, pes, gurges, parties, magnes, stipes,
frames, cespes, palmes, lebes, tapes, limes, fomes, poples, cassis,






A SHOuT LATIN GRAMMAR.


piscis, vermis, glis, vectis, lienis, calls, collis, caulis, fastis,
lapis, orbis, axis, fascis, panis, postis, unguis, cucumis, vomis,
torris, sanguis, follis, mensis, sentis, grex, ensis, ignis, calix,
bombyx, phoenix, scobs, fornix, natrix, varix, coccyx, seps,
gr9'ps, chalybs, fons, dens, mons, rudens, pons, torrens, hydrops,
vwpres, cardo, and ordo. Neuter. Vas, vasis.
31. Nor are the following of the Neuter:-
Masculine. Sal, sol, lar, hlpus, muns, gras, furfur, tartur,
and vultur.
Feminine. Sindon, gorgon, icon, aedon, virus, juventus,
tells, salus, pals, incus, senectus, subscus, servitus, and
pecus.
35. Aqualis, avis, clavis, cutis, febris, messis, navis, ovis,
pelvis, puppis, ratis, restis, securis, sentis, and turris, form
the Accusative Singular in ecm or im, the Ablative in e or i:
Amnis, anguis, civis, classics, collis, finis, fustis, ignis, imber,
labes, mons, orbis, pars, postis, sordes, sors, and all Adjectives
of one ending, and Comparatives, make the Ablative in e or i,
though oftenest in e.
36. Amussis, canalis, cacumis, ravis, sinapis, sitis, lassis,
vis, and proper names, (except of men,) form the Accusa-
tive Singular in im, and the Ablative in i; as, Tybrim,
Tybri.
37. Cor, cos, dos, faux, glis, lar, lis, mus, nix, nox, os, sal,
vas, and most Nouns ending in two consonants, and those that
do not increase in the Genitive Singular, form the Genitive
Plural in ium; as, parents, parentium.
38. So do those that form the Ablative in e or i.
39. Bos, an ox, has in the Genitive Plural, bourn; in the
Dative and Ablative, bobus or bubus.
40. Greek Nouns form the Accusative Singular in a, the
Accusative Plural in as; so, zEneis, zEneida, zEneidas.
41. The FOURTH forms the Genitive in zis, the Dative
in ui.
42. It has two terminations, us Masculine, u Neuter.

EXAMPLES 01' THE FOURTH DECLENSION.

S singular.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc. Abl.
Fruct-us, fruit, -us, -ui, -urn, -us, -u.
Cornu, a horn, is indeclinable in the Singular Number.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Plural.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc. Abl.
Fruct-us, -uum, -ibus, -us, -us, -ibus.
Corn-ua, -uum, -ibus, -ua, -ua, -ibus.
43. Jesus makes the Accusative, Jesum; in all other cases,
Jesu.
44. Only these seven are Feminine: Acus, domus, ficus,
Idus, manus, porticus, tribus.
Acus, arcus, ficus, lacus, parts, quercus, specus, tribus,
form the Dative and Ablative Plural in ubus; as, acus,
acubus.
45. These have ibus and ubus: Artus, ports, questus,
genu, veru.
46. The FIFTH forms the Genitive and Dative in ei.
47. It has but one termination, es, which is Feminine.

AN EXAMPLE OF THE FIFTH DECLENSION.
Singular.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc. Abl.
Res, a thing, rei, rei, rem, res, re.
Plural.
Res, rerum, rebus, res, res, rebus.
N.B. Meridies and dies are of the Masculine Gender.
48. Most Nouns of this Declension have only the Nomina-
tive, Accusative, and Vocative in the Plural Number.
49. The Vocative Case is the same with the Nominative;
but us of the Second Declension is made e.
50. The Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative of Neuters
are the same, and in the Plural end in a.
51. HETEROCLITE Nouns which differ from the common
way of declining, are either Defective, Variant, or
Redundant.
52. Nouns are deficient either in Number or in Case.
53. All proper names; names of things sold by weight;
names of herbs, liquors, metals, virtues, vices, diseases, and
ages, want the Plural.
54. So do hepar, pontus, venia, vulgus, and some others.
55. These want the Singular: Athence, calendce, cune,
divitic, exuvie, nonce, nugae, nuptice, phalerce, tenebra, Theba,
valve, and some others.
56. Nouns defective in Case are:-






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


(1.) Aptots, which have but one ending for every Case;
as, frugi, gummi, fas, nefas, gelu, nihil, instar, mane, tot,
quot, mille, quatuor, quinque, and all numbers to an
hundred.
(2.) Monoptots, which have but one Case; as, astu, jussu,
noctu, natu, promptu, permissu, inficias, ingratiis: Or,
(3.) Diptots, which have but two Cases; as, spontis, sponde.
repetundarum, repetundis.
(4.) Triptots, which have three Cases; as, opis, opem, ope,
precis, precem, prece : These are regular in the Plural.
57. Nouns Variant in their Gender are dies and finis, which
are either Masculine or Feminine in the Singular, and Mascu-
line only in the Plural. Jocus and locus are Masculine in the
Singular, and Masculine and Neuter in the Plural. Singular,
epulum, nundinum, delicium ; Plural, epuke, nundince, delicice.
Rostrum, franum, filum, are Neuter in the Singular, but
Masculine and Neuter in the Plural. celwun is Neuter in
the Singular, and Masculine in the Plural.
58. Nouns are Redundant in the Nominative; as, arbor,
arbos; baculus, baculum: Or in other Cases; as, requi-es,
Genitive etis & ei; do-mus, Genitive mi & mus, &e.




SECTION III.

OF ADJECTIVE NOUNS.

1. ADJECTIVES are of one, two, or three terminations.
2. Adjectives of three Terminations are declined thus:-

Singular.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. Ab.
Mas. Dur-us, hard, -i, -o, -um, -e, -o.
Fem. Dur-a, -ce, -ts, -am, -a, -a.
Neu. Dur-um, -i, -o, -um, -uzm, -o.

Plural.
Mas. Dur-i. -orum, -is, -os, -i, -is.
Fem. Dur-a, -ar'um, -is, -as, -.e, -is.
Neu. Dur-a, -orum, -is, -a, -a, -is.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


3. All Adjectives ending in us, except vetus, Gen. veteris,
old; some in er, as, sacer, sacra, sacrum, holy; and one in ur,
as, satur, satura, saturum, well-fed, are declined like durus.
4. These Adjectives form the Genitive in ius, the Dative
in i: Unus, solus, lotus, ullus, nullus, alter, uter, neuter; and
alius, which makes the Neuter aliud, Gen. alius, Dat. alii.
These six last want the Vocative.
5. Adjectives of two Terminations are declined thus:-


Nom.


Singular.
Gen. Dat.


or F. Trist-is, sad, -is, -i,
Trist-e, -is, -i,


M. or F. Trist-es,
N. Trist-ia,
Or thus:-


Plural.
-ium, -ibus,
-ium, -ibus,


Singular.
Nom. Gen. Dat.
M. or F. Duri-or, harder, -oris, -ori,
N. Duri-us, -oris, -ori,


M. or F. Durior-es,
N. Durior-a,


Plural.
-urn, -ibus,
-urn, -ibus,


Acc. Voc. Abl.
-em, -is, -i.
-e, -e, -i.


-es,
-ia,



Ace.
-orem,
-us,



-es,
-a,


-es, -ibus.
-ia, -ibus.



Voc. Abl.
-or, -ore.
-us, -ore,
-Ori.


-es, -ibus.
-a, -ibus.


or


6. The following in er are declined like tristis : Campester,
volucer, celeber, celer, saluber, sylvester, alacer, pedester,
equester.
7. Adjectives of one Termination are declined thus :-


Nom.
M. or F. Amen-s, mad,
N. Amen-s,



M. or F. Amen-tes,
N. Amen-tia,


Singular.
Gen. Dat.
-tis, -li,
-lis, -ti,


Ace.
-tern,
-s,


Plural.
-lium, -tibus, -tes,
-lium, -tibus, -tia,


Voc. Abl.
-s, -te, or -ti.
-s, -te, or -li.


-tes, -tibus.
-tia, -tibus.


8. Adjectives ending in as, es, ar, or, x, or s, and some in
er, are declined like amens.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


9. Adjectives of the Comparative Degree are declined like
durior; of the Superlative, like durus.
10. Participles of the Present Tense are declined like
amens; all other Participles, like durus.
11. Adjectives have three Degrees of Comparison; the
Positive, which is the Adjective itself; the Comparative,
which declares some preference or excess, and sometimes
defect; the Superlative, which often shows an excess above
the Positive to the highest degree.
12. The Comparative Degree is formed by adding or to
the first Case of the Positive ending in i; as, altus, high,
alti, altior, higher.
13. The Superlative, by adding ssimus; as, altissimus,
highest.
Pos. Com. Sup.
From Durus, G. dunri, are formed durior, durissimus.
Mollis, G. mollis, D. molli, mollior, mollissimus.

14. But Adjectives in er form the Superlative by adding
rimus; as, asper, asperrimus.
15. Agilis, docilis, facilis, gracilis, humilis, imbecillis, simi.
lis, by changing is into limus ; as, similis, like; simillimus,
most like.
16. Words ending in us pure, form the Comparative by
adding magis ; the Superlative, by adding maximb, valde,
perquam, or admodum ; as, pius, pious ; magis pins, more
pious; maxima pius, most pious.
17. The following words are irregularly compared: Bonus,
good, melior, optimus; malus, bad, pejor, pessimus ; magnus,
great, major, maximus ; parvus, little, minor, minimus; mul-
tus, many, plus, N., plurimus; inferus, below, infinmus;
superus, above, superior, supremus or summus; posters,
posterior, postremus ; exterus, exterior, extremus ; nequam,
wicked, nequior, nequissimus; benevolus, benevolentior, bene-
volentissimus; and so maledicus, munificus, magniloquus.
18. Duo and ambo are thus declined:-

Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc. Abl.
M. Du-o, two, -orum, -obus, -os, -o, -obus.
F. Du-ce, -arum, -abus, -as, -e, -abus.
N. Du-o, -orum, -obus, -o, -o, -obus.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Nom. Gen.
M. or F. Tr-es, three, -ium,
N. Tri-a, -urn,


Dat.
-ibus,
-bus,


Ace.
-es,
-a,


Voc. Abl.
-es, -ibus.
-a, -bus.


19. Other numerals, to centum, an hundred, are inde-
clinable.


SECTION IV.

Or PRONOUNS.

1. A PRONOUN is a sort of word which is put for a Noun.
2. There are eighteen Pronouns, which are declined thus:-


Nom. Gen.
M. or F. Eqo, I, mei,


Singular.
Dat.
mihi,


Plural.
Nos, we, nostrnlm, or i, nobis,


Ace. Voc. Abl.
me, -, me.


nos, -,


nobis.


Singular.


M. or F. Tu, thou, tui,


Plural
Vos, ye, vestrdm, or i,


tibi, te, tu, te.

.obis, os, os, ob
vobis, vos, vos, vobis


M. or F. Himself,


Singular and Plural.
sui, sibi,


se, -, se.


Ille, lie, illius,
Illa, she, --,
Illud, it, --,


Illi, they
Ilia,
Ilia,


Singular.
illi, ilium, -,
-, illam, -,
-, illud, -,

Plural.


, illorum,
illarum,
illorum,


illis, illos,
--. il/as,
--, ilia,


3. Ego, iu, sui, are Substantives, and of the same Gender
with the Noun they arc used for; as, ego, (vir,) M.; tu,
(puella,) F. The rest are Adjectives.


i//h;.


.







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


4. Isle, he, is declined like ille; and so is ipse, himself,
only it has ipsum in the Neuter Singular.
5. Ille, iste, is, and hic, all signify he; but with this
distinction,-hic is nearest the speaker, iste next, and ille
farthest off.
Likewise ille shows respect; iste, contempt; as, Ccesar ill-
magnus, the great Casar."


Singular.
Nom. Gen. Dat.
Hie, this, hujus, huic,
H e, -, --,
Hoc, -,
Plural.
Hi, horum, his,
H&e, harum, -,
Hcec, horum, -,
Singular.
Is, he, ejus, ei,
Ea, --, -,


Id,


Ace.
hune,
hanc,
hoc.


eum,
eamn,


--, -, id,


Voc.

-,
,


Abl.
hoc.
hac.
hoc.


--, eo.
-, ed.
-, eo.


Plural.
M. li, eorumn, eis, iis,
F. Eme, earum, -,
N. Ea, eorum, -,
Singular.
M. Qui, who, cujus, cui,
F. Qum, -,
N. Quod, --,


eos,
eas,
ea,


quem,
quam,
quod,


Plural.
M. Qui, quorum, quibus, quos,
or fqueis,
F. Quce, quaru, ----, quas,
N. Qua,, quorum, que,


c~s, us.


--, quo.
-, qud.
-, quo, qui.


-, quibus,
or q ueis.


N.B. Qui in the Ablative Singular is of all Genders.
6. Quis, who? and its compounds, are declined like qui:
only it has quid in the Neuter Singular, and its compounds
form the Feminine Singular and the Neuter Plural in qua;
as, siqua.
7. Idem, eadem, idem, the same, the compound of is; and






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


quidam, some one, the compound of qui, turn m before d into
n; as, Acc. eundem, eandem, idem; quendam, quandam,
quoddam.
8. Quisquis like quis, but the Neuter quicquid; isthic, or
istic, thus :-
Singular.
Nom. Isthic, isthec, isthoc, or isthuc.
Acc. Isthunc, isthanc, isthoc, or isthuc.
Abl. Isthoc, isthdc, isthoc.

9. Sleus, tuus, suus, noster, vester, are declined like durus;
only means has mi for mee, in the Vocative.
10. Nostras, vestras, cujas, like wstas.
11. Qui is called a Relative Pronoun, because it always
relates to something going before.
12. Ego is of the First Person; tu of the Second; the
other Pronouns of the Third, as are all Nouns.
13. All want the Vocative, but tu, meus, noster, nostras.




SECTION V.

OF VERBS.

1. A VERB is a sort of word, that expresses either doing,
and then it is called Active; suffering, and then it is called a
Passive; or being, and then it is called a Neuter Verb.
2. Verbs are not only varied by Numbers and Persons,
but also by Moods, Tenses, and Conjugations.
3. There are four Moods: (1.) The Indicative, which
shows that a thing is done. (2.) The Imperative, which
commands it to be done. (3.) The Subjunctive, which
generally follows another Verb, and expresses that a thing
may, can, or should be done; and, (4.) The Infinitive, which
has neither Number nor Person.
4. There are five Tenses: (1.) The Present Tense, which
speaks of the present time. (2.) The Preterimperfect, which
speaks of the time not perfectly past. (3.) The Preterperfect,
which speaks of the time perfectly past. (4.) The Preterplu-
perfect, which speaks of the time that is more than perfectly







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


past; and, (5.) The Future, which speaks of the time to
come.
5. A Conjugation is the manner of varying the beginning
or ending of Verbs, in their several Moods.
6. There are four Conjugations.




SECTION VI.

OF AUXILIARY VERBS.

1. THERE is but one Auxiliary Verb, which is, sum, I am.
2. It is conjugated thus:-

INDICATIVE MOOD.


Singular.
I am, thou art, he is ;
Sum, es, est ;


Present.
Plural.
we arc, ye are,
sumnus, estis,


they are.
sunt.


Imperfect.


Singular.
I was, thou wast, he was;
Eram, eras, erat;


Plural.
we were, ye were, they were.
eramus, eratis, erant.


Perfect.


Singular.
I have been, &c.
Fui, fuisti, fuit ;


Plural.


faimus, fuistis, fuirunt,
or fudre.


Pluperfect.
Singular.
I had been, Sc.
Fueram, fueras, fuerat; fueramus,

Future.


Singular.
I shall or will be, Sc.
Ero, eris, erit;


Plural.

fueratis, fuerant.


Plural.


erimus, eritis, erunt.







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.


Present.


Singular.
I may be, ;c.
Sim, sis,


Singular.
I might be, &c.
Essem, esses,


Plural.


simus, sitis, sint.


Imperfect.


Plural.


esset ;


essemus, essetis,


Perfect.


Singular.
I may have been, ,'c.
Fuerim, fueris,


Plural.


fuerit; fiterimus, fuerilis, fuerint.


Pluperfect.


Singular.
I might have been, &c.
Faissem, fuisses, fuisset;


Plural.


fuissemus, fuissetis, fuissent.


Future.


Singular.
I shall have been, S'c.
Fuero, fueris, j


Plural.


fuerit; fuerimus, fueritis, fuerint.


IMPERATIVE MOOD.


Singular.
Be thou, let him be;
Es, esto, esto ;


Plural.
be ye, let them be.
este, estate, sunto.


INFINITIVE MOOD.


Present.
Esse, to be.
Perfect,
Fuisse, to have been.
Future.
Futurum esse orfuisse, to be about to be.
Participle.
Futurus, about to be.


essent.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


SECTION VII.

OF REGULAR VERBS.

1. A PARTICIPLE is an Adjective derived of a Verb, which
partakes of the Tense and force of a Verb.
2. There are four Participles : Two Active, two Passive.
3. There are three Gerunds; and two Supines.
4. All the Gerunds and Supines are, strictly speaking,
Nouns Substantive; the former of the Second, the latter
of the Fourth, Declension.
5. Regular Verbs of the First Conjugation form the
Infinitive in ire, the Perfect in avi, the First Supine in
atum.
6. Except the following Verbs: Frico, fricui, frictum;
mico, micui, no Supines; seco, secui, sectum; juvo, juvi,
jutum n; lavo, lavi, lolumn; crepo, cubo, domo, sono, tono, veto,
ui, itum; do, dedi, datum ; (and so circumdo, pessundo, satisdo,
venundo; but its other compounds are of the Third Conjuga-
tion, and form didi, ditumn ;) sto, steti, statumn (but its com-
pounds form, stiti, stitum, and sometimes status).
7. Regular Verbs of the Second Conjugation form the
Infinitive in Ere, the Perfect in ui, the First Supine in itum.
8. Except aboleo, abolevi, abolitum ; adoleo, adolevi, adal-
turn; ardeo, hereo, maneo, rideo, suadeo, si, sum; augeo,
lugeo, mulgeo, xi, clumn; caveo, cavi, cautum; faveo, favi, fau-
tumrn; cieo, cievi, citum; vieo, vievi, vietum : censeo, censui,
censum; deleo, impleo, fleo, neo, and Verbs in veo, vi, turn;
doceo, doctum; frendeo, frendi, fressum ; sedeo, sedi, sessum ;
jubeo, jussi, jussumn ; mulceo, mulsi, mulsum ; misceo, mis/tum
or mixtum; mordeo, momordi, morsum; pendeo, pependi,
pensum ; spondeo, spospondi, sponsun ; tondeo, tolondi, ton-
sum ; indulgeo, indulsi, indultum : sorbeo, sorpsi, sorptum ;
prandeo, prandi, pransurn ; oleo, to grow, olevi, oletuin; and
so exoleo, inoleo, absoleo; teneo, tentunm ; torreo, toslum ; tor-
queo, torsi, tortum ; video, vidi, visum.
9. These have no Supine; and form the Perfect thus:
Algeo, fulgeo, turgeo, urgeo, si; conniveo, vi and xi; fervco,
fervi; paveo, pavi; frigeo, luceo, xi; strideo, stridi.
10. These have no Supine; and form the Perfect thus:
Audeo, ausus sum; gaudeo, gavisus ; mcereo, m istus ; solo,
solitus sum





A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


11. Regular Verbs of the Third Conjugation form the
Infinitive in &re, and the Perfect and Supines variously.
Thus : If they end in
Bo: Bibo, bibi, bibitum; glubo, glubi, glubitum, & glupsi,
ghluptum.
Scribo, scripsi, scriptum ; nubo, nupsi, nuptum, & nupta
sum.
Accumbo, discumbo, incumbo, &c.; cubui, cubitum.
Co: Dico, dixi, dictum ; duco, duxi, ductum; vinco, vici,
victim.
Ico, ici, ictum ; parco, parsi, parsum, & peperci, parcitum.
Sco : Cresco, crevi, cretum ; nosco, novi, nolum.
Also, Agnosco, agnovi, agnitum; cognosco, cognovi, cog-
nitum.
Pasco, pavi, pastum ; but compesco, dispesco, ui, itum.
Do makes di, sum; as, scando, mando, prehendo, defend,
accendo, and some others.
Edo, edi, esum, & estum, to eat; comedo, comesum &
comestumn; but
Credo, edo, dedo, reddo, perdo, abdo vel obdo;
Condo, indo, trado, prodo, vendo, simul addo, make didi,
ditum.
Vado, rado, lado, ludo, divido, trudo; & claudo, plaudo,.
rodo, formant sibi si, sum.
Cado, cecidi, casum; cado, cecidi, caesum; cedo, cessi,.
cessum.
Fundo, fudi, fusum; findo, fidi, fissum; scindo, scidi,
scissum; fido, fisus.
Pando, pandi, pansum & passum; pendo, pependi, pensum.
Tendo, tetendi, tensum & tentum; tundo, tutudi, tunsumt
(its compounds form lusum).
Go (& guo) makes xi, clum; as, Rego, plango, ungo,jungo,
dislinguo, and some others.
Except surgo, pergo, rexi, rectum.
Fingo, mingo, pingo, string, leave out n in their Supine.
Frango, fregi, fraclum ; ago, egi, actumn; lego, legi, lectun;
but diligo, intelligo, negligo, exi, ectum.
Pango, pepigi, to bargain; panzi, to join ; pactum.
Pungo, pupugi & punxi, punctum; figo, fixi, fixum.
Tango, tetigi tactum; mergo, spargo, tergo, si, sum.
Ho: Traho, traxi, tractum; veho, vexi, vectum.
Lo : Alo, malo, ui, itum; colo, consul, occulo, ui, ultum,
VOL. XIV. E






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Excello, pr&ecello, antecello, cellui, celsum.
Percello, procello, recello, culi, culsum.
Fallo, fefelli, falsum.
Pello, pepuli, pulsum; sallo, salli, salsum.
Tollo, sustuli, sublatum ; vello, velli & vulsi, vulsum.
Mo: Fremo, gemo, vomo, ui, itum; emo, emi, emplum.
Premo, press, pressum; como, demo, promo, sumo, psi,
ptum.
No: Sperno, sprevi, spretum; cerno in its compounds
crevi, cretum.
Sterno, stravi, stratum; sino, sivi, situm.
Lino, levi, lini & livi, litum.
Temno, tempsi, temptum; cano, cecini, cantum (its com-
pounds form cinui, centum).
Gigno, genui, genitum; pono, posui, positum.
Po: Scalpo, sculpo, carpo, serpo, repo, &c., psi, plum.
Except rumpo, rupi, rupturn; strepo, strepui, strepitum.
Quo: De-Re-linquo, liqui, licturn; coquo, coxi, coctum.
Io : Quzero, quaesivi, qucesitum; tero, trivi, tritum; curro,
cucurri, cursum.
Verro, verri & versi, versum; gero, gessi, gestum; uro, ussi,

S'ro, sevi, satuin, to sow or plant; sero, serui, sertumn, to
lay in order.
Consero, sevi, satum, to plant together.
(Cose'ro, serui, sertum, to intermingle.
So: Arcesso, capesso, facesso, lacesso, sivi or si, situm.
Pinso, pinsui, pinsitun, cr pinsi, pilsum & pistum.
To : Mitto, misi, m issumo ; meto, messui, messumn.
Necto, pecto, plecto, xi or xui, xum; flecto, flexi, flexurm.
Peto, pelivi, petitum ; verlo, verti, versum.
Sisto, stiti, status ; its compounds want the Supines.
o : Solvo and volvo, volvi, volulumn; vivo, vixi, victum.
Xo: Texo, texui, texture; and some others.
lo: Facio, feci, factum ; jacio, jeci, jactum.
Effi'io, effeci, effectum ; tjicio, ejeci, ejectum, &c.
Aspicio, aspeai, aspectum ; al/icio, allexi, alleclum.
Fodio, fodi, fossumrn ; fagio, figi, fuigiumn.
C(upio, cupivi, cupitum ; pario, peperi, partum.
Rapio, rapui, rapture ; in its compounds ritpui, reptum.
Quatio, quassum; in its compounds cutio, cussi, cussum.
Uo: Arnuo, statuo, tribuo, diluo, ui, utunm.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


But luo, lui, luitum ; ruo, rui, ruitum (its compounds form
rut'um).
Fluo, fluxi, fiuxum ; struo, struxi, structum.
12. Inceptives in sco, as puerasco, lepesco, and the follow-
ing Verbs, have neither Perfect nor Supine; nor have the
following: Sido, furo, vergo, ambigo, glisco, fatisco, hisco,
liquor, ringor, vescor, reminiscor.
13. Regular Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation form the
Infinitive in Ire, the Perfect in ivi, the First Supine in
ltum.
14. But the following Verbs thus: Amicio, amixi, amicui,
& amicivi, amictum ; aperio, operlo, perui, pertum; venio,
veni, ventum ; haurio, hausi, haustumn; farcio, fulcio, sepio, si,
tui ; raucio, sentio, si, sum ; sancio, vincio, xi, ctum ; salio,
to dance, salui, saltum (its compounds form silui, sullum);
sepelio, singultio, ivi, ultum.
15. These have neither Preterperfect nor Supine: Ferio,
and all Desideratives, except esurio, nupturio, parturio, which,
with caecutio, gestio, ineptio, have ivi.
16. The Perfect Tenses of Verbs, especially of the Fourth
Conjugation, are frequently contracted; as, abiit, peril,
abidrat, for abivit, perivi, abiverat.



ACTIVE VOICE.

INDICATIVE MOOD.

Present.
Singular. Plural.
I love, thou lovest, he loveth; we love, ye love, they love.
Am-o, -as, -at; -dmnus, -atis, -ant.
Mon-eo, -es, -et ; -Emus, -Etis, -ent.
Reg-o, -is, -it; -imns, -itis, -unt.
Aud-io, -is, -it ; -imus, -7tis, -iunt.
Preterimperfect.
I loved or did love, S'c.
Am-Sbam, -ibas, -dbat; -abimus, -abatis, -ibant.
Mon-Ebam, -ebas, -ebat; -ebinmus, -ebdtis, -0bant.
Reg/-Ebam,
Audi-Ebam,







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Singular.
I have loved, c.
Amdv-i,
Monu-i,
Rex-i,
Audiv-i,


Preterperfect.



isti, -it; -imus,


Plural.

-istis, -6runt,
or ere.


Preterpluperfect.


I had loved, 5c.
Amave-ram,
Monue-ram,
Rexe-ram,
Audive-ram,


-ras, -rat; -rdmus,


-rdtis, -rant.


Future.
will love, -c.
-bis, -bit; Am-abimus,
Mon-ebimus,
-es, -et; -imus,


-abitis, -dbunt.
-ebilis, -dbunt.
-4lis, -ent.


IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Singular. Plural.
Love thou ; let him love; let us love; love ye; let them love.
Am-a, -dto ; -et, -dto; -6mus; -dte, -atdte; -ent, -anto.
Mon-e, -eto; -eat, -4to; -edmus; -ate, -etdte; -eant, -ento.
Reg-e, -ito; -at, -ito ; -dmus; -ite, -itdte; -ant, -unto.
Aud-i, -ito; -iat, -ito; -idmus; -ite, -itdte; -iant, -iunto.


POTENTIAL MOOD.


Singular.
I may or can love, c.
Am-em, -es,
Mone-am, -as,
Reg-am,
Audi-am,


Present.
Plural.

-et; -4mus, -&lis, -ent.
-at; -dmus, -dtis, -ant.


I shall or
Amd-bo,
Mon -bo,
Rg:q-am,
4udi-am,







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Singular.
I might love, lc.
Amd-rem, -res, -
Mond-rem,
Rege-rem,
Audi-rem,

I may have loved, Sc.
Amave-rim, -ris,
Monue-rim,
Rexe-rim,
Audive-rim,
Pr<
I might have loved, c.
Amav-issem, -isses,
Monu.-issenim,
Rex-issem,
Audiv-issem,

I shall have loved, 0c.
Amav-ero, -eris,
Monu-ero,
Rex-ero,
Audiv-ero,


Preterimperfect.


ret; Am-ar mus,
Mon-erimus,
Reg-erimus,
Aud-irdmus,


Plural.


-aritis,
-erdtis,
-eretis,
-iritis,


-drent.
-drent.
-erent.
-irent.


?reterperfect.

-rit; -rimus, -ritis, -rint.



eterpluperfect.

-isset; -issimus, -iss6tis, -issent.



Future.

-erit; -erimus, -eritis, -erint.


INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present and Preterimperfect.
Amare, to love. Monere, to advise.
Regere, to rule. Audire, to hear.
Preterperfect and Preterpluperfect.


Amavisse, to have loved.
Rexisse, to have ruled.


Monuisse, to have advised.
Audivisse, to have heard.


Future.
Amattirum esse, to be about to love.
Monitzirum esse, to be about to advise.
Recthrum esse, to be about to rule.
Auditzirum esse, to be about to hear.
Gerunds.


Aman-di, of loving; -do, in loving;
Monen-di, of advising; -do, in advising;


-dum, to love.
-dum, to advise.







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Regen-di, of ruling;
Audien-di, of hearing;


-do, in ruling;
-do, in hearing;
Supines.


-dum, to rule.
-dum, to hear.


Amdt-um, to love;
M1lonit-um, to advise;
Rect-um, to rule;
Audit-um, to hear;


Amans, loving.
Regens, ruling.


Amdtus, loved.
Rectus, ruled.


Amatirus, about to love.
Rectirus, about to rule.


-u, to be loved.
-u, to be advised.
-u, to be ruled.
-u, to be heard.


Participles.
Present.
Monens, advising.
Audiens, hearing.
Preterperfect.
Monitus, advised.
Auditus, heard.
Future in rus.


Monitirus, about to advise.
Auditirus, about to hear.


Future in dus.


Amandus, to be loved.
Regendus, to be ruled.


Monendus, to be advised.
Audiendus, to be heard.


PASSIVE VOICE.

INDICATIVE MOOD.


Present.
Singular.
I am loved, &fc.
Am-or, -dris or -dre, -diur;
Mon-eor, -dris or -6re, -4tur;
Reg-or, -eris or -ere, -itur;
Aud-ior, -iris or -ire, -itur;


-dinur,
-mnur,
-imur,
-imur,


Plural.

-amini,
-emini,
-imini,
-imini,


-antur.
-entur.
-untur.
-iuntur.


Preterimperfect.
I was loved, yc.
Amdb-ar, -aris or -dre, -dtur; Amab-dmur, -amini, -antur.
Moneb-ar, Moneb-
Regib-ar, Regeb-
Audidb-ar, Audieb-







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Singular.
I have been loved, &-c.
Amzdt-us sum, -us es,
or or
fui, faisti,

Monit-us.
Rect-us
Audit-us


Pretcrperfect.


-us est;
or
fuit;


Preterpluperfect.


I had been loved, &c.
Amdt-us eram, -us eras, -us erat;
or or or
fueram, fueras, fuerat;
Monit-us
Recl-us
Audit-us


-i erdmus, -i erdlis, -i erant,
or or or
fuerdmus, fuerdtis, fuerant.


Future.
I shall or will be loved.
Am-dbor, -aberis or -ere, -abitur; -abimur, -abimini, -abuntur.


Mon-dbor, -eberis or -ere, -ebitur; -ebimur,
Reg-ar, -6ris or -ere, -6iur; -6mur,
Audi-ar,
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Present.


-ebimini, -ebuntur.
-emini, -entur.


Sing.
Let us be loved.
Plu. Am-dmur ;
Sing.
Plu. Mon-edmur;
Sing.
Plu. Reg-amur;
Sing.
Plu. Aud-idmur;


Be thou loved;
Am-dre, -dtor;
; be ye loved;
-amini, -aminor ;
Mon-dre, -&eor;
-emini, -eminor;
Reg-ere, -itor;
-imini, -iminor;
Aud-ire, -i/or;
-imini, -iminor;
POTENTTAT. MOOD.


let him be loved.
-4tur, -dtor.
let them be loved.
-entur, -antor.
-edtur, -d/or.
-eantur, -entor.
-diur, -itor.
-antur, -untor.
-idtur, -itor.
-iantur, -iuntor.


Present.
Singular.
I may or can be loved, &c.
Am-er, -eris or -6re, -_tur;


Plural.


-6mur, -emini, -entur.


Plural.

-i estis,
or
fifstis,


-i sumus,
or
fuimus,


-i sunt,

faurunt,
or f]ure.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Singular. Plural.
Mone-ar, -aris or -ire, -5tur; -dmur, -amini, -antur.
Reg-ar,
Audi-ar,
Preterimperfect.
I might be loved, &fc.
Am-itrer, -areris or -Ere, -arElur; -aremur, -areminz, -arentur.
Mlon-E-rer, -eraris, $fc.
Req-erer,
Aud-irer, -ireris, 'c.
Prctorperfect.
I may have been loved, Sfc.
Amdt-us sim, -us sis, -us sit; -i simus, -z SItis, -i sint,
or or or or or or
fuerim, fueris, fuerit; fuerimus, fueritis, fuerint.
Monit-us
Rect-us
Audit-us
Preterpluperfect.
I might have been loved, fc.
Amid-us essem, -us esses, -us esset ; -i essemus, -i essftis, -i essent,
or or or or or or
faissem, faisses, faisset; fuissimus, fuissilis, fuissent.
LMionit-us
Rect-us
Audit-us
Future.
I shall have been loved, fc.
Amdit-us ero, -us eris, -us erit; -i erimus, -i eritis, -i erunt,
or or or or or or
fuero, fueris, fuerit; fuerimus, fuerilis, fuerint.
fMowit-us
Rect-us
Audit-us
INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present and Preterimperfect.
Amniri, to be loved. MonEri, to be advised.
Regi, to be ruled. Audiri, to be heard.
Preterperfect and Preterpluperfect.
Amatum esse orfa isse, to have been loved.
Monitum esse orfuisse, to have been advised.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Rectum esse orfuisse, to have been ruled.
Auditum esse, orfuisse, to have been heard.

Future.
Amdtum iri, to be about to be loved.
Monitum iri, to be about to be advised.
Rectum iri, to be about to be ruled.
Auditum iri, to be about to be heard.

20. Some Verbs have a Passive Termination, with an
Active Meaning; as, loquor, to speak. These are called
Deponents, and have Gerunds, Supines, and Participles.
21. Such are also, scrutor, scrutatus sum; imitor, imitalus
sumn, &c., in the First Conjugation.
22. Mereor, merui, or meritus sum; fateor, fassus; mise-
reor, misertus; polliceor, pollicitus; reor, ratus; tueor, tui-
lus ; rereor, veritus, &c., in the Second Conjugation.
23. Adipiscor, adeptus; amplector, amplexus; complector,
coqmplexus ; comminiscor, comments ; defatiscor, defessus;
expergiscor, experrectus ; fungor, functus; fruor, fructus, or
fruilus; gradior, gressus; irascor, iratus; labor, lapsus;
loquor, loculus ; sequor, secutus ; nanciscor, nactus ; nascor,
nalus ; nitor, nisus, or nixus; obliviscor, oblitus ; paciscor,
paclus; patio, passes; proficiscor, profectus; queror, questus;
ulciscor, ultus; morior, mortuus, mori, &c., in the Third.
And,
24. Largior, mentior, molior, potior, sortior, -itus, sum;
assentior, assensus; experior, experts; operior, opertus;
melior, census; ordior, orsus; orior, ortus; morior, mortuus,
in the Fourth.
25. Some Verbs ending in or have both an Active and
Passive signification.
26. Compound Verbs form their Perfect and Supines like
the Simple Verbs; as, doceo, docui; edoceo, edocui.
27. But the syllable which is doubled in the Perfect of the
Simple Verbs, is not doubled in their Compounds ; as, cado,
cecidi; occido, occidi.
28. Except in the Compounds of disco and posco; also, de,
ex, price, pro, -curro, which have curri and cucurri.
29. One of the vowels of the Simple Verb is often changed
or dropped in its Compounds; as spargo, dispergo; claudo,
9ccludo.







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


SECTION VIII.

OF IRREGULAR VERBS.

1. Possum, volo, nol, malo, edo, fio, fero, and feror, ar
conjugated thus:-

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Singular. Plural.
I am able, &c.
Possum, poles, potest; possumus, polestis, possunt.
Volo, vis, vull ; volumus, vultis, volunt.
Nolo, nonvis, nonvult; nolumus, nonvultis, nolunt.
Malo, mavis, mavult; malumus, mavidlis, malunt,
Edo, edis, or es, edit, or est; edimus, editis, or estis, edunt.
Fio, fis, fit ; fimus, fitis, fiunt.
Fero, fers, fert; ferimus, fertis, ferunt.
Feror, ferris, or ferre, fertur; ferimur, ferimini, feruntur,


Preterimperfect.
I was able, Sc.
Pot-eram, -eras, -erat; -erdmus,
Vol-Ebam, -jbas, -Ebat; -ebdmus,
Nol-Fbam,
Mal-Ebam,
Ed-Ebam,
Fi-Ebam,
Fer-ibam,
FerEb-ar, -dris, or dre, -dtur; -dmur,


I have been able, c.
Polu-i, -isti,
Volu-i,
Nolu-i,
Malu-i,
Ed-i,
Tal-i,
Fact-us sum, -us es,


or
fuii,


or
fuisti,


-amini,


Prcterperfect.

-it; -imus, -istis,


-us est,
or
fuiit ;


-i sums,
or
fuimus,


-i estis,
or
fauistis,


Lat-us,


-erdtis, -erant.
-ebatis, -chant.


-antur.


-erunt,
or -cre.





-i sunt,
or
fairunt,
orfuare.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Singular.
I had been able, Sc.
Potue-ram, -.
Volue-ram,
Nolue-ram,
Malue-ram,
Ede-ram,
Tule-ram,
Fact-us eram, -us er
or or
fueram, fueras


Lat-us,


Preterpluperfect.


ras, -rat; -rt


Plural.

Imus, -rdtis, -rant.


as, -us erat, -i erdmus, -i erdtis, -i erant,
or or or or
, fuerat; fuerdmus, fuerdtis, fuerant.


Future.
I shall or will be able, -c.
Pot-ero, -eris, -erit; -erimus,
Vol-am, -es, -et; -emus,
Nol-am,
Mal-am,
Ed-am,
Fi-am,
Fer-am,
Fer-ar, -eris or -ere, -/tur; -emur,


-eritis, -erunt.
-etis, -ent.






-emini, -entur.


IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Singular. Plural.
Be thou unwilling; be ye unwilling.
Noli, nolito; nolite, nolitdte.
Eat thou; let him eat; let us eat; eat ye; let them eat.
Ed-e, -ito; -at, -ito; -dmus; -ite, -itote; -ant, -unto.
es, esto; esto; este, estate ;
Fitto ; fiat, fito; fidmus ; file, fit6te ; fiant, fiunto.
Fer, ferto ; ferat, ferto ; fer-dmus ; -te, -tdte ; -ant, -unto.
Fer-re, -tor; -dtur, -tor ; -dmur; -imini, -iminor; -antur,
untor.
POTENTIAL MOOD.
Present.


Singular.
I may be able, Sc.
Poss-im, -is,


Plural.


-inmus, -ftis, -int.







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Singular.
Vel-im, -is,
Nol-imn,
Mal-im,
Ed-am, -as,
Fi-am,
Fer-am,
Fer-ar, -dris or -dre,


I might be able, Sfc.
Poss-em,
Vell-em,
Noll-em,
Mall-em,
Eder-em, or ess-em,
Fier-em,
Ferr-em,
Ferr-er, -4ris, o


Plural.
-imus, -rtis,


-dmus, -dtis, -ant.


-dlur ; -dmur, -amini, -antur.

Preterimperfect.


-es, -el ; -emus, -9tis, -ent.


r &re, -4tur ; -emur,


-emini, -entur.


Preterperfect.


I may have been able, Sc.
Poltue-rim, -ris, -rit;
Volue-rim,
Naolve-rim,
Mlalue-rim,
Ede-rim,
Tale-rim,
Fact-us sim, -us sis, -us sit,
or or or
fuerim, fueris, fuerit ;


-rimus, -n-tis,


-i simus,
or
fuerimus,


-i sitis,
or
fueritis,


-rint.






-i sint,
or
fuerint.


Lat-us,

Preterpluperfect.
I might have been able, Sc.
Polu-issem, -isses, -isset ; -issdmus, -issetis, -issent.
Volu-issem,
Nolu-issem,
M1[alu-issem,
Ed-issem,
Tul-issem,






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Singular. Plural.
Fact-us essem, -us esses, -us esset, -i essimus, -i esselis,
or or or or or
fuissem, fuisses, fidsset; fuissimus, fuissetis,
Lat-us,
Future.


-i essent,
or
fuissent.


I shall have been able, 8'c.
Potl-ero, -eris, -erit, -erimnus, -eritis, -erint.
Volu-ero,
Nolu-ero,
Malu. ero,
Ed-ero,
Tul-ero,
Fact-us ero, -us eris, -us erit, -i erimus, -i eritis, -i erunt,
or or or or or or
fuero, fueris, fuerit; fuerl'mus, fueritis, fuerint.
Lat-us,
INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present and Preterimperfect.


Posse, to be able.
Nolle, to be unwilling.
Edere, or esse, to eat.
Fieri, to be made, or done.


Velle, to be willing.
Malle, to be more willing.
Ferre, to bear, or suffer.
Ferri, to be borne, or suffered.


Preterperfect and Preterpluperfect.
Potuisse, to have been able.
Voluisse, to have been willing.
Noluisse, to have been unwilling.
Maluisse, to have been more willing.
Edisse, to have eaten.
Talisse, to have borne, or suffered.
Factum esse or fuisse, to have been made, or done.
Latum esse orfuisse, to have been borne, or suffered.

Future.
Eszirum esse, to be about to eat.
Latzrum esse, to be about to bear, or suffer.
Factum iri, or faciendum esse, to be about to be made,
or done.
Latum iri, or ferendum esse, to be about to be borne,
or suffered.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Singular. Plural.
Eo, I go, is, it; Imus, itis, eunt.

Preterimperfect.
Ibam, I went, ibas, ibat; Ibamus, ibatis, ibant.

Future.
Ibo, I shall or will go, ibis, ibit; Ibimus, ibitis, ibunt.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.
Earn, I may go, eas, eat; Eamus, eatis, eant.

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Ire, to go.
2. Some Verbs are Defective, being only used in some Tenses
or Persons.
3. Such are aio, inquam, fore, ausim, faxim, ave, vale,
salve, quaeso, and cedo.
Pres. Indic. Aio, ais, ait. Plu. Aiunt.
Imperf. Aiebam, aiebas, aiebat. Plu. Aieb-amus, -atis, -ant.
Imperative, ai.
Pres. Subjunctive. Aias, aiat. Plu. Aiamus, aiant. Par-
ticiple. Pres. Aiens.
Pres. Indic. Inquio or inquam, inquis, inquit. Piu. Inqui-
mus, inquint.
Preterperf. Inquisti, inquit.
Future. Inquies, inquiet.
Imperative. Inque, inquito.
Pres. Subjunctive. Inquiat. Part. Inquiens.
Pres. Subjunctive. Ausim, ausis, ausit. Plu. Ausint.
Future. Faxo or faxim, faxis, faxit. Plu. Faxint.
Imperf. Subjunctive. Forem, forces, foret. Plu. Forent.
Infin. Fore.
Cepi, odi, I hate, ~
novi, ei, I bate, eram, erim, issem, ero, issue ;
novi, memmzn,
& memento, mementote.
4. These four last have the signification both of Present and
Perfect.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Imperf. Cedo. Plu. Cedite.
Pres. Indic. Quaeso. Plu. Qucesumus.
Pres. Indic. Salvehis. Imperf. Salve, salveto. Plu. Salvete,
salvetote.
Infin. Salvere.
5. For dice, duce, face, fere, we say, dic, duc, fac, fer.
6. Some Verbs are used in the Third Person Singula
without any Nominative Case going before them. These are
called Impersonal Verbs; as, pluit, it rains.



SECTION IX.

OF ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, AND CONJUNCTIONS.

1. AN Adverb is a sort of word which is added to a Verb,
to perfect, explain, or enlarge its sense.
2. Adverbs are compared like Nouns Adjective.
3. The Comparative in Adverbs is the same with the Neuter
Gender of the Comparative Adjective; as, apt, aptiits.
4. The Superlative in Adverbs is the same with the Mas..
culine Vocative of the Superlative Adjective; as, charge, charis-
sime.
5. Adverbs of Time, Place, and Quantity, govern a Genitive
Case; as, satis vini.
6. Among these may be reckoned those words expressing
some sudden passion, which are commonly called Interjections.
7. Hei and ve govern a Dative; heu, a Nominative, Dative,
or Accusative; en, ecce, apage, and cedo, an Accusative; 0,
a Nominative, Accusative, or Vocative.
8. Ah, vah, hem, proh, govern an Accusative or Vocative.
9. A Preposition is a sort of word which is commonly set
before another, or compounded with it; as, Igo to London.
10. Thirty-three Prepositions govern an Accusative Case;
ad, to; adversum, adversus, against; ante, before; apud, at;
circa, circum, circiter, about; cis, citra, on this side; clan-
culum, unknown to; contra, against; erga, towards; extra,
without; infra, beneath; inter, between; intra, within;
juxta, near; ob, because of; penes, in the power of; per,
through; pone, behind; post, after; prceter, beside; prope,
near; proper, because of; secundum, according to; secus,






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


by; supra, above; trans, over; ultra, beyond; versus,
towards; usque, to.
11. Fifteen govern an Ablative: a, ab, abs, from; absqu",
without; clam, unknown to; coram, before; cum, with; de,
e, ex, of; palam, in the presence of; prte, before; pro, for;
sine, without; lenus, up to.
A and e are set before words beginning with Consonants;
tb and ex, before words beginning with Vowels.
12. Tenus also governs a Genitive Plural, and is com-
monly put after its Case; as are also usque, penes, and versus;
as, aurium tenus, me penes; and curm is put after me, te, se,
nobis, vobis, qui; as, mecum, with me.
13. In, in, governs an Ablative; in, against, amongst, for,
into, towards, an Accusative.
In, in, after words expressing faith or believing, governs
an Accusative.
14. Sub, subter, under, govern an Ablative; sub, about, an
Accusative; as do sub and subter, implying motion.
15. Super, above, beside, governs an Accusative; super,
concerning, an Ablative.
16. A Preposition compounded governs the same case as it
did before; as, Italid regem avertere.
17. Am, di, dis, re, se, con, are found only in Compounds.
1 8. Prepositions, when compounded, often change a letter;
us, aufero, affigo, allego, for abfero, adfigo, adlego.
19. Often they drop one or more letters; as, omillo, trano,
for obmitto, transno.
20. Often they are doubled; as, deperdo, recolligo.
21. A Conjunction is a sort of word which joins words or
sentences together.
22. The most common Conjunctions are, et, and; vel, or;
nec, neque, neither.
23. Conjunctions have commonly the same Cases, Moods,
and Tenses, before and after them.
24. Que, ve, and ne, asking a question, are always joined
to the preceding word; as, visne legere ?
25. Autem, vero, but; enim, for; quidem, indeed; quoque,
also, are never; igitur, therefore; tamen, yet, are seldom, the
first word in a sentence.
26. Quod, that; quum, when; ut, as, govern an Indicative;
ut, that; quum, seeing that, a Subjunctive Mood.






A SHORT LATfN GRAMMAR.


SECTION X.

OF SYNTAX.

1. SYNTAX is the right way of putting words together in a
sentence.
2. One part of Syntax teaches the Agreement, the other
the Government, of Words.
3. Every Verb agrees with its Nominative Case in Num-
ber and Person; every Adjective, with its Substantive in
Gender, Number, and Case; every Relative, with its Antece-
dent in Person, Gender, and Number.
4. The Relative, if there be no other, is the Nominative
Case to the Verb; but if there be, it is governed of the
Verb, or of some other word in the same sentence.
5. A Nominative of the First or Second Person is often
understood; yea, and of the Third, if it has been mentioned
before, or may be easily known by the sense of the Verb;
as, ita prcedicant, so they say.
6. So is also the Substantive to an Adjective; as, amat
bonos, he loves good men.
7. An Infinitive Mood, or part of a sentence, often
supplies the place of a Nominative or Accusative Case; as,
non progredi, est regredi.
8. When an Infinitive Mood, or part of a sentence,
supplies the place of a Nominative Case to the Verb, or of a
Substantive to an Adjective, the Verb is the Third Person
Singular, and the Adjective the Neuter Gender.
9. A Collective Nominative may have either a Singular or
Plural Verb; (as, turba ruit or ruunt;) and so may two
Nominatives coupled together; as, terror et metus invadit or
invadunt.
10. A Verb between Nominatives of different Numbers,
and an Adjective between Substantives of different Genders,
may agree with either; as, vestes sunt, or est, lana.
11. The First Person is preferable to the Second, the
Second to the Third; as, ego et tu fecimus, tu et ille
audivistis.
12. The Masculine Gender is preferable among animate
things; as, vir et mancipium sunt mersi; the Neuter, among
inanimate; as, liber, charta, et atramentum parata sunt.
13. The word thing is frequently understood, the Adjec-
VOL. XIV. F







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


tive being put in the Neuter Gender; as, magnum, a great
thing.
14. The word which asks, and that which answers, a ques-
tion must be in the same Case; and so must Substantives
signifying the same thing; as, urbs Roma, the city Rome.
15. Verbs of a Passive Sense govern a Nominative Case;
as, sum discipulus; hic vocatur doctus.
16. So do Verbs of Gesture; as, homo incedit erectus, man
walks upright.
17. Active and Deponent Verbs govern an Accusative
Case. So do some Neuters, especially of Nouns of a like
signification; as, vivere vitam, to live a life; and the
Impersonals, decel, oportet, juvat, deleclat.
N.B.-Oportet is elegantly joined with the Subjunctive
Mood, ut being understood; as, oportet facias, you must do
it, for oportet te facere.
18. Celo, doceo, exuo, induo, moneo, oro, peto, posco,
postulo, rogo, and Verbs of a like signification, govern two
Accusatives; as, rogo te hoc: And their Passives, one; as,
induitur vestem.
19. Verbs signifying or implying motion, as to allure,
apply, avail, belong, call, challenge, conduce, encourage,
entice, exhort, incite, incline, invite, lie, provoke, reach, send,
stir up, tend, and loquor, will have an Accusative with ad.
20. So will these Adjectives, nalus, paratus, prceceps, pro-
clivis, promptus, pronus, propensus, tardus ; as, tardus ad
iram, slow to anger.
21. Aptus, habilis, idoneus, vehemens, have sometimes an
Accusative with ad, and sometimes a Dative.
22. The English sign of the Genitive Case is of or 's; as,
the Book of the Master, or the Master's Book.
23. But of mine, of thine, of his own, of hers, or her own,
of their own, of ours, of yours, are translated meus, tuus,
suus, noster, vester.
24. Of, signifying the matter whereof a thing is made, is
translated by de, e, ex, or an Adjective; so, a cup of gold,
poculum ex auro, or aureum.
25. The latter of two Substantives is put in the Genitive
Case.
26. Adjectives signifying care, desire, envy, fear, guilt,
impatience, knowledge, love, memory, plenty, power, thrift,
and their contraries, and those which are alone in the Neuter






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Gender, and put Substantively, govern a Genitive Case; as,
cupidus laudis, desirous of praise.
N.B.-Adjectives of plenty and want govern a Genitive or
Ablative; as, dives agris, or agrorum, rich in lands.
27. So do Comparatives, Superlatives, Interrogatives, and
some Numerals; as, maximus horum, the greatest of these.
28. As likewise Verbals ending in ax or ns; as, petax
pecuni(e.
29. When the Verb sum signifies possession, property, or
duty, it governs a Genitive Case; as, est 0C&saris, it is
Ccesar's.
30. Misereor, miseresco, and satayo, govern a Genitive
Case; and so do the Impersonals, interest and refert; as,
interest reipublice : Yet we say, interest mred, tud, sud, nostrd,
vestrd, cuja.
31. Similis, dissimilis, proprius, communis, contrarius,
govern a Genitive or a Dative; as, similis tui, or tibi.
32. Memini, reminiscor, recorder, obliviscor, govern a
Genitive or Accusative; as, meminisse laborum, or labores.
33. Abundo, egeo, indigeo, potior, dignus, indignus, orbus,
plenus, vacuus, govern a Genitive or Ablative.
N.B.-Ango, discrucior, pendeo, desipio, govern a Genitive,
sometimes an Ablative, of the part affected; as, angit me
animi, it vexes me.
34. Verbs of accusing, acquitting, admonishing, condemn-
ing, despising, esteeming, valuing, govern a Genitive and
sometimes an Ablative Case after an Accusative; as, accuso
te superbia, I accuse you of pride.
35. Their Passives also govern a Genitive or Ablative
Case; as, accuser avaritie, I am accused of covetousness.
36. Likewise the Impersonals, miseret, miserescit, penitet,
piget, pudet, tedet, govern a Genitive after an Accusative;
as, miseret me tui, I pity you.
37. Praise and dispraise, likewise the nature, property, or
quality of a thing, are expressed either by the Genitive or
Ablative Case; as, vir summer virtutis, a man of the greatest
virtue ; arbor mirce proceritatis, a tree of a wonderful height.
38. Consto, emo, cestimo, vendo, and Verbs of a like signifi-
cation, govern a Genitive of the Adjective, or an Ablative
of the Substantive; as, constat minoris, constat auro.
39. Many, both Substantives and Adjectives, govern a
Dative Case; as, pater urbi, a father to the city; utilis







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


reipublicc, profitable to the state: Particularly Verbals in
bilis and dus ; as, flebilis tibi, amandus omnibus.
40. Verbs expressing anger, believing, commanding, con-
gratulating, envying, favouring, fighting, flattering, forgiving,
helping, hurting, indulging, meeting, obeying, pleasing or
displeasing, profit or disprofit, resisting, serving, trusting,
and upbraiding, govern a Dative Case.
41. As also Verbs compounded of bene, male, satis; or
ad, ante, con, contra, in, inter, ob, post, prce, sub, super, which
have often an Accusative also; as, prepstat officium Domino.
42. But guberno, impugno, invado, jubeo, juvo, Icedo, offendo,
oppugno, preevenio, rego, govern an Accusative.
43. Many Impersonals govern a Dative Case; as, licet
mihi.
44. So does sum, with its Compounds, except possum.
45. Sum has often a double Dative; as, Deus est mihi pro-
pugnaculo, God is my defence; particularly when it is joined
to words expressing praise or dispraise, profit or loss; as,
hoc est mihi dedecori, this is a disgrace to me : And so have
accipio, habeor, do, duco, puto, verto, tribuo, relinquo, and
some others.
46. Verbs of bringing, comparing, declaring, denying,
equalling, giving, lending, joining, owing, pardoning, paying,
persuading, postponing, preferring, promising, receiving,
restoring, returning, sending, showing, taking, threatening,
vowing, govern a Dative after an Accusative; as, da mihi
librum, give me a book.
47. Their Passives govern one Dative; as, donum datur
mihi, a gift is given to me.
48. Nouns denoting the instrument, the cause, the manner
of doing a thing, the value, the quality, the excess of it, the
natural endowment, the birth, or any circumstance, are put
in the Ablative Case; as, vulneravit me gladio, he wounded
me with a sword.
49. Nouns expressing measure, or the distance from a
place, are put in the Ablative Case, though sometimes in the
Genitive or Accusative; as, domus quadraginta pedibus (or
pedes) alta, a house forty feet high.
50. If quam is omitted after a Comparative, the following
Noun must be in the Ablative Case; as, melior est patre, he
is better than his father.
51. A Substantive joined with a Participle is often put in







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


the Ablative Case absolute; as, Deo juvante, God helping;
nuntio accept, news being received.
52. Verbs of abounding, depriving, easing, emptying,
filling, loading, robbing, spoiling, unloading, govern an
Ablative Case; as, cumulat me beneficiis, he loads me with
kindnesses.
53. So do these Verbs, abutor, careo, commuto, defungor,
dignor, dono, exulto, fruor, fungor, gaudeo, glorior, impertio,
impertior, l/etor, libero, muto, nitor, participo, perfungor,
supersedeo, vescor, victilo, utor ; and also, captus, contents,
creatus, cretus, editus, extorris, fetus, genius, letus, natus,
opus, prceditus, profugus, prognatus, satus, superbus, and
usus ; as, vescor came ; opus est pluvid.
54. A Noun of time, answering to the question, When, is
usually put in the Ablative Case ; How long, in the Accusa-
tive; as, veni die Jovis, I came on Thursday; mansit paucos
dies, he stayed a few days.
55. At or in, before the Proper Name of a town or city,,
notes a Genitive; as, est Rome, he is at Rome : But if the.
word be of the Plural Number, or the Third Declension, a.
Dative or Ablative; as, est Athenis, he is at Athens; vixit
Tiburi, he lived at Tibur :--To, an Accusative; from, an.
Ablative; as, Larino Romam advolavi, I hasted from Larinum,
to Rome. We likewise say for, at home, domi; on the;
ground, hami ; at the war, militice, or belli.
56. Which way? is answered by the Ablative; as, veni
hue Eboraco, I came hither by the way of York ; or by an
Accusative Case with per.
57. Before an Imperative or Subjunctive Mood, ne is
Latin for not ; as, ne canta, do not sing.
58. Non in Latin stands before the Verb; as, non curo,
I care not.
59. The Infinitive Mood follows a Verb; as, mentiri
nescio ; or a Passive or Verbal Adjective; as, dignus amari;
audax perpeti.
60. An Accusative Case often goes before it, following the
sign that; as, gaudeo te valere, I am glad that you are
well.
61. It may be turned into another Mood by inserting ut
or qubd; as, monet me facere, or utfaciam ; scio filium amare,
or qubd filius amet.
62. The Infinitive esse has the same Case before and after






A SHOlRT LATIN GRA~MMAR.


it; as, licet nemini esse noxio; indignum est homine esse
scelesto.
63. The Participle having before a Verb is translated
either by a Deponent Participle, (as, having spoken, locutus,)
or by cum and a Preterpluperfect Tense.
64. Derivatives (whether Participles, Gerunds, Supines, or
Adverbs) govern the same Cases with their Primitives.
65. The first Gerund commonly follows a Noun or Verbal
Adjective; as, cupidus discendi, desirous of learning; tempus
sludendi, the time of studying: The second and third, a
Preposition; as, ignavi citb deterrentur a discendo ; locus ad
agendum amplissimus.
66. But if it implies the cause or manner of a thing, the
Preposition is omitted ; as, defessus ambulando, weary with
walking.
67. The third Gerund often expresses that a thing must
be done; as, utendum est etate, we must make use of time.
68. The first Supine follows Verbs of motion; as, eo
ambulatum, I go to walk.
69. The second Supine follows Adjectives; as, turpe diclu,
shameful to be spoken.

OF EXAMINING A WORD, &C.
THE manner of examining a word is this:-
QUESTION. What sort of a word is it ?
ANSWER 1. A Noun Substantive.
Q. Of what Declension, Gender, Number, Case? Why?
A. 2. A Noun Adjective.
Q. Of how many Terminations ? Of what Degree, Gender,
Number, Case? With what does it agree?
A. 3. A Pronoun Relative.
Q. Of what Gender, Number, Person ? With what does
it agree?
A. 4. A Pronoun Substantive.
Q. Of what Person, Number, Case ? Why?
A. 5. A Pronoun Adjective.
Q. Of what Gender, Number, Case? With what does it
agree?
A. 6. A Verb.
Q. Of what kind, Conjugation, Voice, Mood, Tense,
Number, Person? With what does it agree?
A. 7. A Participle.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Q. Of what Verb, Voice, Tense, Gender, Number, Case ?
With what does it agree ?
A. 8. An Adverb; a Preposition.
Q. What Case does it govern ?
In order to turn English into Latin, 1. Find out the
Verb, by the sign am or do: 2. The Nominative Case, by
asking the question, who? or what? with the Verb: 3. The
Case following the Verb, by asking the question, whom ? or
what ? with the Nominative Case and the Verb: 4. The Noun
agreeing with the Case before or after the Verb: 5. The
Adverbs or Prepositions: 6. The Case following them: 7. The
Ablative Absolute, if there be any.
In order to turn Latin into English, 1. Seek out the
Nominative and Verb, agreeing in Number and Person: 2.
When you see a Genitive or Dative, seek out the Substantive,
Adjective, Verb, or Adverb, governing it: 3. When you see
an Accusative or Ablative, seek out the Adjective, Participle,
Gerund, Supine, or Preposition, governing it: 4. When you
see an Infinitive Mood, seek out the Substantive, Adjective,
or Verb, governing it : 5. When you see an Adjective, seek
out the Substantive with which it agrees in Gender, Number,
and Case.



SECTION XI.

OF PROSODY.

1. PROSODY is the art of making verses.
2. A short syllable is marked thus, a ; a long one thus, a.
3. A vowel before two consonants, or a double consonant,
is long; as, parens, gaza: And so is a diphthong, or a con-
tracted vowel; as, fedus, c5go, for coago.
4. But pre before a vowel is short; as, prcire.
5. A vowel before another is short; as, DIus.
6. Except in alius, (Genitive,) diEi, faciEi, fio, fmunt, fie-
bant, &c.
7. A short vowel, before a mute and a liquid, is either long
or short; as, patris, or patris.
8. Monosyllables are long; except the enclitics, que, ne, ve.
9. And also vir, quis, is, es; bis, cis, ter; nec, per, in, an,
vel, and those which end in b, d, or t.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


10. A final declined is short; as, musl; but a is long in
indeclinable words, (as, frustra; except putri, itd, quid, ejt,
posted,) in the Ablative Case, (as, fama,) in the Vocative of
Greek Nouns, (as, _Enea,) and in the Imperative Mood; as,
ama.
11. E final is short; as, mare; except in Monosyllables, in
the First and Fifth Declension, (as, ode, die,j in Imperatives
of the Second Conjugation, (as, docj,) and in Adverbs from
Adjectives of three Terminations; as, docte; except bend,
male.
12. I final is long; except in necubi, nisi, quasi, sicubi,
sicuti, and in the Dative and Vocative of Greek Nouns.
13. 0 final is common ; as, pono, or pon6 ; except in mono-
syllables, in Datives and Ablatives, (as, filid,) and in Adverbs
derived from Nouns, (as, merit,) and Nominatives which make
their Genitives in us, (as, Didd,} and Gerunds in do; as,
amand5.
14. U final is long; as, peni. Yis short; as, moly.
15. B, d, 1, r, t, final, is short; except er, having Eris, and
Hebrew words; as, David, Daniel, Gabriel, Job.
16. C, n, final, are long; except some Greek Nouns in on
and en, having inis; as, carmen, carminis; and done, hic,
hoc; forsan, tamen, and nostin', for nostine.
17. As final is long; except as having adis.
18. Es final is long; but es having itis, and es in the
Nominative Plural of Greek Nouns of the Third Declension,
increasing in the Genitive Case, are short; as, dcemones.
19. So it is in Neuters of the Third Declension; as, cacoe-
thes; and in the Second Person of the Verb sum and its
compounds ; as, potls, &c., and in pens.
20. Os final is long; except Genitives in os.
21. Os is also short in Nouns of the Second Declension:
So it is in arbos, compos, impos, 6tis, os ossis.
22. Is, us, ys, final, are short; except is in Plural Nouns,
(as, mus7s,) in Nouns having Ilis, Inis, entis; and in the
Second Person Singular of Verbs which form the Second
Plural in itis.
23. So it is in glis, vis, sis, and their compounds, quamvis,
possis.
24. Except also us in Monosyllables; us having odis, udis,
uris, utis, untis; and in the Genitive or Plural of the Fourth
Declension.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


25. Cor, mel, fel, and the final syllables of mihi, tibi, sibi,
ubi, ibi, uti; of words ending in inta, (as, quadraginta,) or
Compounds ending in par or pos, (as, impar,) are common.
26. The Second Declension increases short; as, gener,
gen&ri.
27. A, al, Masculine, ar, as, adis, increase short; as,
them lis, Hannibllis, Ccesaris, lampudis.
28. But ar, Neuter, increases long; except injubar, nectar.
29. Al, Neuter, an, as, atis, ax, increase long; as, animalis,
Pceianis, cestatis, pacis: Except anatis, maris.
30. Er, es, ex, ecis, icis, and igis, increase short ; as, car-
ceris, militis, nccis: Except vibex, vibicis, and es in Greek
Nouns; as, magnes, magn~tis; and locuplEtis, mercEdis, quij-
tis, veris, and hceredis.
31. El, en, increase long; except en, inis; as, carninis.
32. II, is, increase short; as, vigdlis, pulveris: Except gy ris,
and Genitives in itis: In, ix, long; as, delphinis, felices;
except picis, and some others.
33. 0 increases inis short, enis and onis long; as, homwnis,
sermonis.
34. 01, os, ox, increase long, and or Masculine or Femi-
nine; except b6vis, compotis, inmpotis, and prBecocis; arb6ris,
memories.
35. On, sometimes long, sometimes short; or, Neuter ox
Greek, short.
36. U1, ur, us, ut, ux, increase short; as, consullis, corp6-
ris, femoris, capitis, dizcis: Except us in udis, uris, utis,
(as, paliidis,) and in the Comparative Degree; as, melius,
melioris.
37. But these are short, pecidis, Ligtris, intercrtis.
38. Yr and ys increase short; except ys, ynis; as, trachynis.
39. S impure commonly increases short; as, inops, in pis.
40. A, e, o, in the increase of Plurals, are long; as, pennd-
rum, dierum, ventSrum, dudbus, ambSbus. 1, u, short; as,
sermonibus, art bus.
41. Preterites and Supines of two syllables have the former
long; as, vbni : Except bibi, dedi, fidi, sltti, Mlli; itum, situm,
datum, raitum, satum, statum.
42. Preterites doubling the first syllable have the two
former short; as, t ligi.
43. A, e, and o, in the increase of Verbs, are long; as,
amndmus, legEnmus, amaltte.






A SIIHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


41. E in beris, and before ram, rim, ro, is short; as, ama-
bMris, amavram, amaverim, anavcro.
45. I in the Third Conjugation is short; as, legbims: In
the Fourth, long; as, audnmus.
46. U is short; as, voltmusn; except before rus in the Par-
ticiple; as, amalfrus.
47. Participles of two syllables commonly have the former
long; as, nutus.
48. Participles from avi and ivi have the last syllable but
one long; as, amatus, auditus.
49. And so have Participles in utus; as, solutus.
50. A vowel before do, go, le, lis, men, nus, na, rus, tim,
is long:
51. Except Verbals in bilis, Materials, and Derivatives from
Adverbs in, inus: Also ligo; anus, bonus, dominus, genus,
manus, onus, sonus; column; oena, fiscina, fuscina, ma-
china, pagina, sarcina, trutina; frrus, hers, merus, torus;
statim, tamen.
52. The last vowel but one is also long in words ending in
anis, atus, ela, etus, eta, etum, itis, osus, orus, udus, unis,
utus; except canis, latus, la/lris, status, sitis.
53. I, u, before or after r, is long; except Meditatives in
urio : Also, ccerulus, nurus, querulus, tribus; hirudo,
hirundo ; rudis, rudens; rigo, furo, rigeo, rubeo, vireo.
54. 0, u, before m, is long; except coma, comes, cucumis,
cumulus, crumena, domo, domus, homo, humus, incolumis,
sumus ; glomero, tumeo; numerous.
55. U before c is long; except cucumis, volucer.
56. A compound or derived syllable generally preserves the
quantity of the word from which it is derived.
57. There are other exceptions to these rules, which
observation will teach.
58. The common feet in Latin verse are, a Spondee, which
is two long syllables, as, piiris ; an Iambic, which is a short
and a long, as, mganum; and a Dactyle, which is one long and
two short, as, scriblm~is.
59. The less common feet are, a Trochee, which is a long
and a short syllable, as, parns; an Anapest, which is two short
and a long, as, tilWrds; Tribrachys, which is three short, as,
d6mnibs ; and a Proceleusmatic, which is four short.
60. A long verse, commonly called an Hexameter, consists
of six feet. The first four of these may be either Dactyles or






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


Spondees; the fifth must be a Dactyle, the last a Spondee;
as,
T'tyrS I tu pati I lae r&cz j bans sub I tegmin I\ fdg9.
61. But sometimes the fifth is a Spondee; then it is called
a Spondaic Verse.
62. A short verse, commonly called a Pentameter, consists
of five feet; viz., two either Dactyles or Spondees with a long
syllable, and two Dactyles with a long syllable; as,
Nillus ad I amsns ss ibit a I mrcfts 6 1 pes.
63. An Asclepiad Verse consists of a Spondee, a Dactyle,
a long syllable, and then two Dactyles; as,
Mce I niis ita | vis I edi I regibits.
64. A Sapphic consists of a Trochee, a Spondee, a Dactyle,
and two Trochees. After three of these verses follows an
Adonic, consisting of a Dactyle and a Spondee; as,
InM ] gy!r v7 I th scMI ] risque I pirns
NATn | get Muan ri jcici ls nc 1 arcf7
NEc v ] nEnd i tis grav! I dai sa I gl7tis
Fsce phi I retri.
65. A Phaleucian verse consists of a Spondee, a Dactyle,
and three Trochees; as,
HIc Est I queinz lgs Il ] quen r Ij quYris.
An Iambic properly consists of six Iambics; as,
Sias I et Ip I sa Ri mi vi I rtibs I r t7t.
66. But sometimes it has more, sometimes fewer, feet; and
frequently Spondees or other feet in the place of Iambics.
67. It matters not what quantity the last syllable of a versz
is of.
68. The last vowel of a word is cut off, if h or another vowel
follow; and so is m, with the vowel going before it: Only hea
and 0 are never cut off.



SECTION XII.

OF FIGURES.

1. A FIGURE is an elegantly uncommon way of speaking.
2. All the sorts of Grammatical Figures may be reduced
to three,-an Ellipsis, a Pleonasm, and an Enallagc.







A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR.


3. An Ellipsis is a defect; a Pleonasm, a redundance; an
Enallage, a change of letters or words.
4. The most common sorts of Ellipses and Pleonasms are
contained in the following verses:--
Dernit Aphaeresis initio, sed Prothesis t addit:
Syncope : de medio tollit, sed Epenthesis infert:
Detrahit Apocope 11 fini, sed dat Paragoge.T[
5. The most common sorts of Enallage are, Tmesis, which
divides a word into two parts; as, cum quibus erat cunque.
6. Hypallage, which changes Cases for each other; as, in
nova mulatas corpora formas.
7. Antiptosis, which puts one Case for another; as, ipsum
ut vivat optant: And,
8. Enallage, strictly so called, which puts one Voice, Mood,
or Tense, for another; as, turn prora avertit, for avertitur;
turn omnes fortunes meas laudare, for laudabant.
9. The most common Poetical Figures are, Synxeresis, which
contracts two syllables into one; as, alve for alv3o.
10. Diaeresis, which divides one syllable into two; as,
evoluisset, for evolvisset.
11. Systole, which makes a long syllable short; as, sletrunt-
que come : And,
12. Diastole, which makes a short syllable long; as, exercet
Diana choros.
13. The most common Rhetorical Figures are, a Metaphor,
which puts one word for another resembling it; as, ridet ager.
14. A Metonymy, which puts one word for another that
bears a relation to it: Suppose, the effect for the cause; as,
poenas dedit illud opus; that is, Ovidius, author operis: The
adjunct for the subject; as, ternos necte colors; that is, licia
triumn colorumn: The time for the thing done; as, secula
mitescent; for homines in seculo: The place for that which is
placed in it; as, vina coronant; for pocula: Or the abstract
for the concrete, or vice versa ; as, ubi i/lic scelus est ? for
scelestus.
15. A Synecdoche, which puts a general word for a particu-
lar; as, perniciosum animal perdidimus; that is, Calilinam:
The whole for the part, vice versa, part for the whole; as, fon-
tem ferebant; that is, aquam fontis: The Plural Number for

'st, for est. t Tetuli, for tull. Dixti, for dixisti.
Induperalor, for imperator. ii Viden', for videsne. Claudier, for claudi.






A SHORT LATIN GRAMMAR. 77

the Singular, or vice versa ; as, obtulimus nos periculis;
obtuli me.
16. An Hyperbole, which expresses more than is true; as,
ocyor Euro.
17. A Catachresis, which is the abuse of a word; as, vir
gregis, for a ram.
18. An Allegory, which is a continued Metaphor; as, 0
navis, referent in mare te novi fluctus!
19. A Climax, which is a gradation of several sentences,
rising each above the other: And,
20. A Prosopopmia, which represents a thing as if it were
a person; as, tecum, Catilina, patria sw aget ?












A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.




SECTION I.

OF LETTERS.

1. THE Letters in Greek arc Twenty-four:-

Their Figure. Their Name. Their Power.
A a Alpha a
B 3 or 9 Beta b
F 7 or I Gamma g
A 8 Delta d
E Epsilon c short
Z F or ( Zeta z
II 1 Eta e long
0 5 or 0 Theta th
I Iota i
K Kappa k
A Lambda 1
M [. Mu m
N v Nu n
SXi x
0 o Omicron o short
1 oT or r Pi p
P c or p Rho r
E o- or S final Sigma s
T r or 7 Tau t
T u Upsilon u
I Phi ph
X X Chi ch
q Psi ps
2 w Omega o long.






A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


2. Seven of these are vowels, a, e, n, s, o, v, 0; of which 1,
w, are long; e, o, short; a, i, v, are doubtful.
3. There are nine diphthongs; of which, at, au, e6, Ev, o0, 8,
are proper; nu, v,, wu, improper. The diphthongs, ai, au, o<,
are changeable; ei, eu, ou, are not.
4. Seven of the consonants are called semi-vowels; of
which , 4+, are double consonants; A, p, v, p, liquids.
5. The rest are mutes; of which w, x, 7, are termed lenes;
y, 7, 6, middles; 4, X, S, aspirates.
6. II, 3, p, are analogous to each other; so arc x, 7, X;
and 7, a, -.
7. A lene consonant, when its vowel is cut off, before an
aspirate, is changed into an aspirate; as ip' p.
8. Two lenes are so changed before an aspirate; as vYU0'
Sv, for vWax, ny.
9. O6x before an aspirate becomes o6X.
10. OraM, aXp', and p'xps, have c added, if a vowel follows.
11. An aspirate is scarce ever changed.
12. The letter 7, before y, x, or X, sounds like 27g; as

13. The letter v is changed into y, before y, x, or X.
14. into f, before p., w, 9, 4.
15. into a, p, o-, before two conso-
nants.
16. Every initial vowel has a spirit prefixed.
17. This is either lene, as o'pog; or aspirate, as o'pog.
18. An initial v, or p, is always aspirated; as n), i';.
19. If two rhos meet in the middle of a word, the first has
a lene spirit, the second an aspirate; as wvsow.
20. A semicolon is marked thus (*)
21. A note of interrogation thus (;)
22. A letter is called pure, which has a vowel before it;
impure, which has a consonant.



SECTION II.

OF ACCENTS.

1. THERE are three accents; an acute ('), a grave C), a
circumflex (").






A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


2. The last, last but one, or last but two syllables, whether
long or short, may have an acute accent; the last, or last but
one, if long, may have a circumflex.
3. A grave is never placed but upon the last.
4. If a word has an acute on the last syllable but two, it is
termed an ante-penacute; as, ayfThAo. If on the last but
one, a penacute; as, mXuo L0. If it has either an acute or a
grave on the last, it is termed acute-toned; as, apu,5.
5. If the last syllable but one is circumflected, it is termed
an ante-circumflected; if the last, a circumflex word.
6. A word that has no accent on the last syllable is termed
a grave-toned; as &dO0o. For a grave is understood over every
syllable which has no accent.
7. An acute cannot be on the third, nor a circumflex on
the second syllable, if the last is long; so &y xwv, o-uxe.
8. If a long syllable, that precedes a final short one, has
any accent, it is a circumflex ; as, pgo-a.
9. A final as or oi is accounted short; as, av pwror unless
contracted, or in the Optative Mood.
10. An accent is on the same syllable in other Cases as in
the Nominative; so qpovT', ppo'riaSo;.
11. Nouns of the First Declension circumflect the Genitive
Plural; as, aK-cwyv.
12. But the Genitive Plural Feminine of Adjectives of
three endings in og pure are accented like their Masculines;
as, G. dy'w`v aylyv ay cy. So is the Genitive Plural of Xx'.c,
Tho-0o;, Xpn"'v; as, %?Xuwv, &c.
13. Acute-toned words of the First and Second Declension
circumflex all their Genitives and Datives.
14. Imparisyllabical monosyllables circumflect their Geni-
tives in the Dual and Plural Numbers; as, Xeipoyv, Xzp'V.,
15. The Vocative Case circumflects e6 and o7, and throu s
back the accent when it ends in sp" as, aar-, Z&TEp.
16. Monosyllables, unless contracted, are acuted: But, it'
they are contracted or cut off by Aphmeresis, they are circum-
flected; as, cs of qpao, 7v for ;v or i';p- and so arc 3;, o-5u,
/5;, apbS, and some others.
17. In dissyllables, and others, when the last but one i.s
long, and the last short, (or long by position,) the last but
one, if it has an accent, is circumflected; as, -pa Sivo0,

18. Otherwise, in dissyllables the last but one, if it has any






A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


accent, must be acuted, be the last long or short; as, xoyos,

19. In polysyllables, if the last is short, the last but two is
acuted; as, avOpwrog.
20. But (1.) Participles of the Preterperfcct Passive,
Verbals in -rog, Compounds of Nouns, and the Preterperfect
of the Middle Voice, are excepted; as, TSTuppvo;, ,'-rio?,
&vfpoi65.
21. So (2.) are Diminutives ending in Iaxo;, and xosg" as,
v.av'ia-xo, vauTrbo : And a few other Nouns; as, wapOfivoc,
Oxlyo5, ivavrio0, &Opo'o;, and some others: Also, Adverbs of
Place in SEv, a,, and a-E, from Nouns which have the accent on
the last; as, Apavo'0v, Apavooi, pavofwa-, from cpavo's.
22. But if the last is long, the last but one is acuted; as,

23. But the Attic and Ionic Dialects are excepted; as,
McvcXewg, w Xsw;, Alvs'ew for AIvE'/.
24. In Contractions, an acute and a grave make a circum-
flex ; as, Pxma, Wao-,s OEwo, WO,(Z' PoaETr, 0oar5.
25. But a grave and an acute make an acute; as, -Cafw;,

26. An Enclitic is a word that throws its accent on another
word.
27. Enclitics quite lose their accent, (1.) When a mono-
syllable Enclitic follows a word acuted on the last but one;
as, 2aa o-H : (2.) When any Enclitic follows a word with its
last syllable circumflected or acuted; as, 6pc nra;, &p r:.
Examples of all Enclitics.
Monosyllables. Dissyllables.
KU'po1' r8 KU'Po'g CS5I K6pio's o-od 4i5
AgAo4 -tou 89X0,; EsI TU~rTO'Ja-A FL TJVE-
Ao'yo crou Xoyo5s E5-i a-vo H
AcZ -ou Oecso E5- E'-s 1 aO?..
Qeoss &\ is-s, r6-' &;X.
28. Monosyllables of the Third Declension have their
accent on the last syllable of their Genitives and Datives, but
on the first of their Nominatives, Accusatives, and Vocatives;
as, X6,p Xsp0, X 1P, xpaX X^ps, Xsjo70"' XEs7p XZs'pcv, X f,

29. So have such words as are declined by a syncope; as,
&vap, dvapo' and also yu~;, syuvaixog.
VOL. XIV. G







A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


30. But Participles are excepted; as, s,", S '.vro"' v, ovrog
to which add these Genitives Plural, dqawv, aphcv, xprcwv,
xA'wv, alwv, rpcov, wy, corwv, wrivrTwv, and Owao-i.
31. The accents of Verbs and Participles remain on the
same syllable, in all their Tenses, as in their Roots ; TrUrTW,
ri-cwv, 1 ,-"s- unless some general rule obstructs.
32. These Fourteen Monosyllables have no accent; 6, h, ol,
al, A, icX, a, e'l, Ev, v, s or 6s, ix or c.
33. But A, ex, and os, have an acute when they end a
sentence; as, 6 6i i'9i, 4.





SECTION III.


OF ABBREVIATIONS, PARTS OF SPEECH, AND ARTICLES.


1. GREEK words are not always writ at length: Observe,
therefore, these usual Abbreviations.


Short.




vm,

)



'dsM





aAo


'/t
'i'j


Plain.

Za,






dil





i'
er,



vti
l.!


Short.





' .

00
/49





cv7




a
.r"

ewb


Plain. Short.


pa?






oa

00
Whro;
Wapa



Ca


4-





r.:

rei


2



ty
1%'
faa


Plain

ar
cQ

or
cr?



ax

17.X
7at





791


V,
ValB


2. There are eight sorts of words, five of which are declina-
ble; Article, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle: Three inde-
clinable; Adverb, Conjunction, Preposition.






A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


3. There are three Numbers; the Singular, Dual, and
Plural.
4. The Singular speaketh but of one; as, Mpg-sa, a song:
The Dual speaketh properly of two; as, UTOra, two songs.
The Plural speaketh of many; as, p;o-a,, songs.
5. The Article prefixed to most Substantives is declined
thus:-
Singular. Dual. Plural.
N. G. D. Ac. N. S A. G. ~ D. N. G. D. Ac.
M. 6 T8 TWTO7' T() TOlL ol T;OV TO7l0 TV;
F. h) Tnj5 Tg T Tij Ta7 as Ta75 TC;
N. TO TW T T W T TO7V Ti -- T0l Ta'.
6. There is no Ablative Case in Greek.



SECTION IV.

OF SUBSTANTIVE NOUNS.

1. THERE are five Declensions; three of Simple, and two
of Contracted Nouns.
2. The FIRST Declension has four terminations; as, r,
Masculine; a, v, Feminine.
3. It forms the Genitive Case in 8 or %I, the Dative in a
or p.
Examples of the First Declension.
Singular.
Norn. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc.

'ATi'


Dual.
Nor. Ac. Voc. Tapia. Gen. S Dat. Tap'ioy.
Plural.
N. Taxpl-ac, G. cv, D. aig, Ac. c;, V. as. And so the rest.

4. Nouns ending in 8a, Sa, pa, and a pure, retain a in the
Genitive and Dative; as, O'p-a, Ca, a.
G2







A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


5. Some Nouns in ac form the Genitive in a, and the
Accusative in av- especially proper names, whose last syllable
is circumflected; as, N. OwgFs, G. OwpaF, Ac. OwpFv.
6. Nouns ending in w15 or 7Tg, Gentile Nouns, and those
compounded of pseTpE, WoX66, TpiSw, form the Vocative in a,
as, XXsrTg, XESrTa.
7. The SECOND has two terminations; o5, Masculine or
Feminine; ov, Neuter.
8. It forms the Genitive in a, the Dative in q.

Examples of the Second Declension.
Singular.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc.
xtps-og s c ov e
o-xrp-ov s T ov ov

Dual.
Norm. Acc. Voc. Gen. Dat.
w o0v
Plural.
Norm. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc.
XJPi-oi WY 01; oU; 01
oaxirTp-a Wv oig a. %

9. Iota is subscribed to all Datives in a, n, m.
10. The THIRD has many terminations, all which are
contained in the following verses:-
Masculea av, nv, uv, w oY ap, cc, ;, w1 '
Eic, ou., Z, +/. Feminea sip, iv, TI;, 15, us, 4rwm,
Sic a5, aco;s Sunt Neutra as, aTros Vocalis, ap aut op.

11. It forms the Genitive in og, the Dative in s.

Examples of the Third Declension.
Singular.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc.
Tirca' TiTav-o5 ac
o-taijUe 47wma-To0 Ts a-c&y' OZpao
Dual.
Nom. Acc. Voc. Gen. Dat.
TiTaxE TITcYOixY
(rwuCETE TCI)WCrw C1i7






A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


Norm.

(ra~To


Gen.
TITUVMV
O-W.MaTcv


Plural.
Dat.

a-wyPa-v


Ace.

Tc'
TITV
T;7UVU


Voc.
TITUVEC
Ta


12. Nouns ending in a form the Genitive in aro5- i makes
Tro0 or 1o0" v, uo5 or eo co oo" v and p, oc and T70 -, o0, 7o0, ,
so0, 8o0, vo5, or v7TO5 I, yo0, Xo;, or XTOg" s, o0, 2ro5, or 4o5. But
use is the best master.
13. Sometimes w in the Nominative is changed into o in
the Genitive, and I into E" as, 6 wp'lwv, wplovo;- 6 acip, a'OSpo5.
14. Some Nouns ending in rp lose s in the Genitive and
Dative Singular; waTrp, rT-p, ya5'p- G. c'rarpio, D. arTpl,
A. =-cTepa.
15. But A/p,-rTp and suyT ,p lose e in all the oblique
cases.
16. 'Avip takes 8 for e cut off; as, G. &vapoi, D. &vpl.
17. Add to these, &rv, a&pvis and xuwv, xuvo .
18. The FOURTH Declension, which is the First of the Con-
tracts, has three terminations; uc, (which in a grave-toned
word is Masculine, as, go'rpu-" in an acute-toned word Femi-
nine, as, iAu) ; and w and w5, always Feminine.
19. It forms the Genitive in uog, oo;, ou;v the Dative, ui,
o', o7.
Examples of the Fourth Declension.


Singular.
Nom. Gen. Dat.
3OTp-u;, uo0 u';

Dual.
Norm. Ace. Voc.
o'Tpus


Plural.
Gen. Dat.
PSOTPUW, o'S6pU--_O


Singular.



Dual.
Norn. Ace. Voc.
Aey-ch


Ace. Voc.



Ten. Dat.



Acc. Voc.
vUt, *)C ve;, U5


Gen., Dat.



Gen. Sy Dat.
07Y


Nom.
foTpuS;, Tpu5






A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


Plural.
Norn. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc.

like a regular Noun of the Second Declension.

20. The rIFTH Declension, which is the Second of the Con-
tracts, has seven terminations: ng, su5, vc, Masculine; gs,
Feminine; o,, i, v, Neuter.
21. It forms the Genitive in sog, sc, or "Yo" the Dative in
E6, I, or 4, 1.

Examples of the Fifth Declension.
Singular.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc.
EOXprt-rs, eo{, 8 Eil, El ea, ) E;

ET-o, S7 EY, el U U
lo- gA, sy 0v i)
10A, S iv i
oairy)T-l 1i, A U U


Dual.
Nom. Ace. Voc. Gen.. Dat.

TVeXE-ct Y .0v olv
The rest are regular.

Plural.
Nom. Voc. Gen. Dat. Ace.

ehg 6WY, CF seac, h)



"iO -lia, $ LOAWY 10I l$a, 1


22. In all the Imparisyllabical Declensions, the Accusative
of grave-toned Nouns impurely declined is formed in a or v'
as, Eplg, EpiBa, or Ep'i: Of Nouns purely declined, in v only;
a23., The Vocative;, Tis generally like the Nominative.
23. The Vocative is generally like the Nominative.







A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


24. But Nouns ending in 5; eog, wp opo;, wv ovo;, ip ipo;, and
Adjectives in ,v Evog, shorten the long vowel; as, mxp Tris,
2cixpar-;: Also, w-wrp, cormrp.
25. Nouns forming the Genitive in v70; drop roa" as, AEwv,
Xsovo70, aso'v. Ei EvW7o; drop s and To;' as, w axo'E ss Xa.Oslgo,
,axyo'ea and waaxo'sv.
26. A; acvo forms the Vocative in ay" so p/sha phaXavos,
p.EAav.
27. Grave-toned Nouns in ic or uc, and even acted Adjec-
tives, drop ;" so r-pns; r'sp,, 06g ku6.
28. So does a diphthong as, Pea-iXsbs OiuTiED. Except

29. Sometimes is dropped; as, Uva, ava.
30. The Dative Plural is formed of the Dative Singular,
by inserting T- before j, dropping 8, 3, v, and T- as, a-aikli.

31. It is formed from the Nominative Singular, by adding
i to Nouns ending in i4, or T-, after a diphthong; as, x'pa

32. But x lis makes x7eTa-' Wr, Wo071 8;, abo-i: The Coin-
pounds of s;, Eo-r as, .M)s; gp o-T.
33. EA7i becomes 6a-r, oa7s, eoa- so, ruwOEv7i, rupOses' Xsov7s,

34. P becomes pUao- in Nouns that have a Syncope; as,
Warpl WaTpao-' only Yar9p ya-s1po-s.
35. I becomes poetically so-i or ETo-a- as, 71`i7 ers-O'-S.
36. I in the Dative Plural takes v before a vowel; as,
Xspolv & iVo70o. So does esxoo-i in all Cases.
37. HETEROCLITE Nouns, which differ from tie common
way of declining, are either Defective, Variant, or Redundant.
38. Nouns are defective either in Number or in Case.
39. All Proper Names, and those Nouns which are Singu-
lar only by signification, as the names of vices, metals, fruits
of the earth, liquors, and the ages of men, want the Dual and
Plural; as, ) phxoo-opia, yTpa5, y7xax, Xpuo-o';. Yet we read,
oi &ep&s, from &ap' at ya7, from y- rad upd, from wGp.
40. These want the Singular and Dual, namely, the feasts
of the gods; as, rd Kpova : Some names of cities; as, a;
'AO vai. So do 'Aasoli, E/.sEv1S2F, "E0o1o0, Tr E71riP2T ra ovsl-
PaTU, Tca Kispea.
41. Nouns defective in Case are,-
(1.) Aptots: as the Names of Letters, r-, Gra- foreign






A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


Names, as Augla- words expressing the natural voice of crea-
tures, as the xoda of frogs, xoi of young pigs; Nouns cut off
by Apocope, as, cS for ZSpa, or increased by Paragogo, as,
S-parTip for s-parTo' and Numbers, from four to an hundred.
Add these Neuters; 8ao0, a4lag, EhExwp, 80o, Irop, xycag or xcs,
p,Xo; or [-Xp, vcZxap, 0 ;s, ox'ivp, Tr pap and rTEwp, 'rop,
peo or Xp4wa, pewv.
(2.) Monoptots: as, f 8U;, al xTa7axAss, TO rVy, and
others.
(3.) Diptots: as, Atp a&iPol7' ol o007os, TrC; Q007a5.
(4.) Triptots: as, N. aFpr-u, A. p vpruv, D. jApTruo-a and
G. &u.\\,\mv, D. &\\Xfjo,5, a,, 015, A. A x, x' ',c, a.
42. Nouns vary either in Gender or in Case.
43. The following Nouns are Masculine in the Singular,
and Masculine and Neuter in the Plural; as, Sing. N. 6
ea-Oc, Pin. ol sEo-Jioi and TC E-l" u' po, X uxoC, AxXvoY,
5-aOpo;, o-Tro;, TpXjios, ax7u0oc, php6, pogXo{, and others.
But Sibn. x 0uOos, Plu. ai xExeuOof and rd xX!u6.- Sing. 6
xas ; Tip7apo-, Plu. T rTp7Oapa Sing. 6 ouyos and T- fuyov, Plu.
only Ta ,y-. So 6 vcroS and TO vTrov, Pin. Tr vTar- and
some others.
44. Neuters in up make a70o in the Genitive; as, SaEitp,
"aA4i~ap, Ss\p, siccp, Map, 7roap, xcapiap, xsctp, OvEslp, 80ap,
sipc, a, s ppE-p' Gen. &Xsia7os, &c. Add to these, yaAa
-y/aux7o0, O'Yap dVClpc70':, 8g &T ), O(XCip ODcaTO5, Ucop 5'a7o5,
'yuv yuvaixO;, Voc. yu!va. Sing. Nom. 6 ZsEu, Gen. ZnVOS or
A,~s, Dat. ZIVI or Ad', Acc. Zva or Aia, Voc. I ZED.
Fi'u and ZJpu, in prose, make yo'va7os and 6' pa7os in the
,Genitive. But the Poets use y8o5 and a8po'.
Na5;, in prose, is thus declined: Sing. Norm. vaDc, Gen.
ve;c, Dat. v1l, Ace. valv. Plur. Norm. v;es, Gen. vw6v, Dat.
vauol, Ace. va55.
45. Redundants in the Nominative are,-
(1.) Several Masculines in tp and cop, as, x, Tnp and xnrwp"
in np and )), as, wxag-np, w -\is : Also, ulo, ule6 .
(2.) Many Feminines in a and n, as, aYra, Yj* in ng and
os' and in j5 and a : Also, &jcvY and &aP .
(3.) Many Neuters in o; and ov, as, TO' Evpo;, vlpov' in ov
and jov, as, 3'eO.ov -iov.
(4.) These also are redundant in the Nominative; s-pa7; ia,
Pa.Uos; i5, abXP.; Pi, & Air.v P ax p Iv, &x i71 Iv, is; i-" with
many others.






A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


46. Several Nouns ending in 8g, ws, a;, and Ng, are redundant
in the Genitive; as, Nom. vRc, Gen. 9 and oo'g Mlu'w;, Gen. w
and wo=- 6 ywxv;, wlo; and w. h rTiypa, Gen. jao0 and 1so5" Vyq,
8o0 and sros" 6 8'p s, Gen. & and Y,7o;" with some others.




SECTION V.

OF ADJECTIVE NOUNS.

1. ADJECTIVES are of one, two, or three terminations.
2. Adjectives of Three Terminations, ending in og, a5, s;,
wv, v;, are declined thus:-


Nom.
M. xaxos
F. xaxl
N. xaxOv


Singular.
Gen. Dat.





Dual.


Nom. Acc. Voc.
cv


Gen. Dat.
07V
alv
0~IV


Nom.
M. xxXo2
F. xaxal
N. xac,


Nom.
M. wag
F. ora
N. Way


Plural.
Gen. Dat.
cia oi7



Singula'.
Gen. Dat.


~WT


Acc.

,
"5


Acc. Voc.



Cway wCay


Dual.


Norn. Ace. Voc.
M. "
F. W-caT
N. wavn


Gen. Dat.
WaeTe19


Voc.
01
a!
a'


WOIYvTb







A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


Nom. Voc.
M. WvoVT65
F. WFxo-ac
N. wv-Yrac


Plural.
Gen.

waSo-for
wYTSmy


Nom.
M. gaopl-s3l
F. Xapi'-eo aE
N. xapi-ey


Singular.
Gen. Dat. Ace.
EVTOS SVTS EvTa
StI
eTT-s EToT SYo-aV
SYTO EVTi Ev


Dual.


Plural.
Gen.


E0Tcav
evcu


Singular.
Gen. Dat.
OVTO5 O'vT


0Vr05 O1vr5


.Dat. Ace.

eaocu 'aoi-a


Acc.
o-ra

ov


Dual.


Nom. Acc. Voc.
M. 1re
P. gToat
N. O'TI


Norn. Voc. Gen
M. o'TES 0o70
OyTa OVTW
F. o-,
N. o'r 'r


Plural.



yV
y
y


Dat.
ro-a


;o-s


Dat.


WC'aoeq


Ace.
IBTC
/c1d


Voc.
El, V
E 3'


Nomr. Acc. Voc.
M. E3TE
F. Eoa-oa
N. e3VT


Gen. Dat.
EVTOIv
Eo-acwJ
e r.


Norn. Voc.
M. EVTE;
F. EoOTU
N. E v r




Norn.
M. ix-C'i
F. ic-o-a-
N. Ex-;v


Gen. Dat.
OVTOwY

OVTOIY


Aca.



o'yror






A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


Singular.
Nom. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc.
M. o^-u? 1o0 l, el w b
F. esla sHo; et
N. U 60; es; s U

Dual.
ANom. Ace. Voc. Gen. Dat.
M. es o0v
F. Elot j1
N. f oy

Plural.
NAom. Voc. Gen. Dat. Ace.
M. eew Elm e;e
N. f' cv f I

3. Adjectives ending in o5 pure or po; form the Feminine
in a" as, ayi'o, Aykl', cy'ov xca0apo., xaOap& : But those ending
in so;, oo;, or compounded of a;xo'os, in n- as, o'yoo;g, 3ySao'
4TA7[oo, &arA6o,.
4. "Axxog and 8g form the Neuter in o.
5. rHox,; and ptcya; form their Neuter Singular woxb and
/' ea, and their Accusative Masculine wobvy and isyv.
Their other Cases they borrow from mwoxx; and p-syaog;
obsolete: So Gen. woxAx, wouxx, woi, &c.
6. Adjectives of Two Terminations, ending in v, p, or {
pure, are declined thus :-

Singular.
Nom. Voc. Gen. Dat. Ace.
M. F. 1S TiV0 TvI TIvaM
N. T
Dual.
Nom. Ace. Voc. Gen. Dat.
M. F. TrevIs Trviov

Plural.
Nomn. Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc.
M. F. TirvI; TaviV T) riv;
N. TAia TIM






A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


Nom.
F. pp-v


Singular.
Gen. Dat.


Acc. Voc.


svos Il eay tv


Dual.


Nom. Acc. Voc.
M. F. EVE


Gen. Dat.
EVJOy


Nom. Voc.
M. F. eCvc
N. Ela


Nomn.
F. &XYi.vsg


Plural.
Gen. ]



Singular.
Gen. Dat.
EOs, 5s Es, Es


Iual.


Nom. Acc. Voc.
M. F. 's, ii1


Nom. Voc.
F. ^



Norm.
F. vbo-o;


Plui al.
Gen.



Singular.
Gen. Dat.
8 1O


Dat. Acc.




Acc. Voc.
ov e


Nom. Ace. Voc.
M. P. w


Nom. Voc.
F. o


Singular.
Nom. Gen. Dat.
F. icaxp-v, uo00 Ut


Ace. Voc.

U U


Ace.
it.,Y


Gen. Dat.
sosV, ol7


Dual.



Plural.
Gen.
WY


Gen. Dat.
oMY


Dat.
oi?







A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


Nomr. Acc. Voc.
M. F. &aaxp-Ue


Norn. Voc.
M. F. ts;, us
N. ua


6


Norn.
F. e6aq4-.v


Norn. Ace. Voc.
M. F. ova


Norm. Voc.
F. ove5


Dual.



Plural
Gen.
Vv


Singula
?eq.


Dual.


Plural.
Gen.
mI /


Gen. Dat.
UOIv


Dat. Acc.
u0- t vJts, us

.r.
Dat. Acc. Voc.

0v 0Y


Gen. Dat.
ovolv


Dat.


Acc.
ova5
ova


7. Adjectives of Three Terminations are elegantly declined
by Two; as, alowog, ,aiviov : Those of Two, by Three; as,
h&ivaro5, n, o/.
8. Adjectives of One Termination end in (, g impure, iv, p,
"' and are declined thus :-

Singular.


Nom. Voc.
M. F. N. s x,.


Nom. Ace. Voc.
M. F. xe


Dat.
x&


Dual.


Gen. Dat.
XMOl


Plural.
Nom. Voc. Gen. Dat. Acc.
M. F. xE XWv I xa;
N. The Comparative is declined thus:-

9. The Comparative is declined thus:-


Nom. Voc.
M. F. &a s'v-wv
N. o


Singular.
Gen.
ova;


Dat. Ace.
oYn ova, oa0, W


.






A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


Dual.
Nom. Ace. Yoc. Gen. Dat.
M. F. apdv-OVE 'vewo
Plural.
Yorn. Voc. Gen. Dat. Ace.
M. F. ovqE, OEC, 8; Oy y O0- OVyc, g0;, 8;
N. ova, oa, w ova W,

10. Adjectives ending in o; form the Comparative by
changing s into Trpos, and the Superlative into 7a70;o as,
0-=PV0y, o- Ivorspog, a-spvoTa7lo.
11. But o, after a short vowel, becomes co- as, qpo'v.Qpo,
tpovqCirWTpo;, -Evg5, 5svoTepog, s5'0vorc70o.
12. If the preceding syllable is common, it is either o'Tspo;
dTa7oc, or rTspo;s Wra7-lo as, 'oi-og, 0o-sOpos or io-cTrspos, &c. Such
are also la'vpos, 13. Adjectives ending in Es1 are changed into epos and

14. Those ending in i;, ap, and is, take to themselves repos
and raios.
15. Those that end in n;, us, and aO, add to their Neuters
TsEoS and ralos.
16. Adjectives ending in nv and yv add to their Nomina-
tives Plural TEps; and aTo0s.
17. Those ending in f change os of their Genitive into
s'-epo; and s-'~7o5.
El;, Xaplescq, e-Epo;, e's'a705o
i;, Frspss, repos, "a7o$"
ap, Maxip,


Us, Edpug, u, TE ;0, TaT06'
ag, MEAay, av,
nv, Tepnv, EVE;,
v, rlpoppwyv, ovyes;,
M, Ba', xo;, f'-Epg0, Is-a2o0.

18. Adjectives in vs are also changed into icw, ao;s- as,
]9, sog ov, e,"s'a,0;.
19. Some change o; into Eg-spo, 15is-spog, a7apog'r as, A o,
?ia^)'S-spo' y-woi,, p.'o-a'ivpos*






A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


20. A few drop a vowel; as, i[xo;, IXA7spo;, (Xc7aro;.
21. The following Adjectives are compared irregularly:-
'Er 'oA, .v.'v, Opr' y0O5, 7o, opifo-.
or 'AyaObs, lkv or 13XT-poc, xpsoiaw-av f.Xri-os, xpSi'ro.
Awuw', (pEpog' xCs-o0, 6pl72T0 or f75-o0.
Kaxoc, xa~xxcTEpCp or xacxlov, XEl or O spewcov'
xaxi -8o, ,Ep15os0.
M yar, -f/aC 'w, IJy ro1-09.
Mjxpog, tPxpO'TEpO, JeiSjWV' iJ.elOTEpo, PFlgs-o;.
'or E~aX, csoaao-m, Go-wV- EAcIaI-og, 1xisgo.


'PAO0oc, b 'Cov, 'og.
22. The following Adjectives want the Positive, and most
of them are derived from Adverbs; xspmowv, xepaos"' e&uTE poo,
sduTah70' avWrTpo, aviTador xarrEpo;, xaW-Ta7o;- and others.
'AvOpWnrivoc, &v0pwmrivYalo'g c auTo, ro'raTToos, want the Compa-
rative. "EG-Xa7o;, the last; w d.a7os, the utmost; xUSis-ro,
most famous ; want the Positive and Comparative.
23. Comparatives and Superlatives are generally declined
like other Adjectives.
24. E i, 16o, w, TrpiC, r Es-a-aps, are thus declined:-

Singular.
Nomr. Voc. Gen. Dat. Ace.
M. Ei1 evo; En eva
F. p-ia pla5
N. 'Ev 1Vs EI ey
Dual.
NoMr. Acc. Voc. Gen. Dat.
M. Auo or Auw 6uoT7 (ue7by, Fem.) uol


Plural.
Nom. Acc. Voc. Gen. Dat.
M. F. Tp--jg (I'a, Neut.) ,Zv ,ul
Norn. Voc. Gen. Dat. Ace.
M. F. T'ao-ap-Eg (-, Neut.) wV o-Ai a (a, Neut.)

25. Other Numerals, to XarTo, an hundred, are indeclinable.
26. HpwTrog and the other Ordinals are declined as xxo's.






A SHORT GREEK GRAMMAR.


27. Letters express numbers: The first nine, units; the
next eight, tens ; the rest, hundreds.
28. Only g- is irregularly inserted to express 6, j to express
90, and -' to express 900.
29. Letters with Points subjoined stand for thousands;
as, a, 1000; 6, 2000, &e.
30. The Capital I stands for 1; II, 5; A, 10; X, 1000;
M, 10,000, &c.



SECTION VI.

OF PRONOUNS.

1. THERE are eighteen Pronouns; of which nine are
Primitives, iye, ab, 8ros, x.-ivos, a6rOs, b', .';, elva.
2. Eleven are Derivatives; pos, co-i, 'o or i;s, vwr;-po,
$Tpmheppos, fETep05{, UF4ETep9O, T; iTSpo0, jk=sa70o5, upks/ vo;, and

3. 'Eycu, a-u, and 8, are Substantives, and are declined
thus :-
Singular.


Nom.


Gen. Dat. Acc.
Da, PO'i, P40 6t, tk
Dual.


Nom. Acc.


Gen. Dat.
vw'lv, voCZ
I.


Plural.
Gen. L


Singular.
ri. Dat.


Dual.


Nom. Acc.


Plural.
Nom. Gen. Dat.
6-16g btpcov 614Y


Acc.
ijPas


Ace.
oe


Gen. Dat.



Acc. Voc.
6t&&; v6iei


Nom.
YIPksIS


Nom.
vu




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