Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Letters from the Reverend Joh Wesley,...

Group Title: The works of the Rev. John Wesley, A.M. : sometime Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford.
Title: The works of the Rev. John Wesley, A.M.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076196/00012
 Material Information
Title: The works of the Rev. John Wesley, A.M. sometime Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford
Physical Description: 14 v. : ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wesley, John, 1703-1791
Publisher: Wesleyan Conference Office
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1872
Subject: Theology -- Early works to 1800   ( lcsh )
Theology -- History -- 18th century   ( lcsh )
Methodism   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
General Note: With the last corrections of the author.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076196
Volume ID: VID00012
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03171266

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Letters from the Reverend Joh Wesley, to various persons
        Page 1
        To his father
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
        Seven letters to his mother
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Thirteen letters to his brother Samuel
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
        To a friend
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
            Page 40
        Two Letters to Mr. Oglethorpe
            Page 41
            Page 42
        To Mr. Hutcheson
            Page 43
        To Mr. Vernon
            Page 44
        To Mr.- , of Lincoln College
            Page 45
        To Mrs. Chapman
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
        Three letters to the Rev. William Law
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
        To Count Zinzendorf, at Marienborn
            Page 54
        To the Church at Hernhuth
            Page 55
        To the Bishop of Bristol - Six Letters to Mr. John Smith
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
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            Page 103
            Page 104
        Sixty-six letters to his Brother Charles
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
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            Page 154
            Page 155
        Three letters to the Rev. George Whitefield
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
            Page 159
        To the Rev. James Hervey
            Page 160
        Three letters to the Rev. John Fletcher
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
            Page 164
        Thirty-nine letters to Mr. Ebenezer Blackwell
            Page 165
            Page 166
            Page 167
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
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            Page 189
            Page 190
            Page 191
            Page 192
        To certain proprietors of East-India stock - Four letters to Mr. John Downes
            Page 193
            Page 194
            Page 195
        Twenty-three letters to Miss Furly, afterwards Mrs. Downes
            Page 196
            Page 197
            Page 198
            Page 199
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            Page 209
        To Dr. Robertson
            Page 210
            Page 211
            Page 212
            Page 213
            Page 214
            Page 215
        Nine letters to Mrs. Sarah Ryan
            Page 216
            Page 217
            Page 218
            Page 219
            Page 220
            Page 221
            Page 222
        Three letters to Mr. Joseph Cownley
            Page 223
        Two Letters to Miss
            Page 224
            Page 225
            Page 226
        To Miss H
            Page 227
            Page 228
            Page 229
        Two Letters to -
            Page 231
            Page 232
            Page 233
            Page 234
        To -
            Page 230
        To Miss Elizabeth Hardy
            Page 235
            Page 236
        To Lady
            Page 237
        To Mr. Hosmer
            Page 238
        To Mr. Alexander Coates
            Page 239
            Page 240
        To Mr. S. F.
            Page 241
        To Lord
            Page 242
            Page 243
        To the Rev. Mr. H
            Page 244
        To the Rev. Mr. Plenderlieth
            Page 245
            Page 246
        To Mr. S., at Armagh
            Page 247
            Page 248
        To -
            Page 249
            Page 250
        Two letters to Mr. John Trembath
            Page 251
            Page 252
            Page 253
        To Mr. Jonathan Maskew
            Page 254
        To Mr. Knox
            Page 255
            Page 256
        To Mrs. Maitland
            Page 257
        To Mr. Hart
            Page 258
        To Miss T
            Page 259
        To Miss L
            Page 260
            Page 261
        To the Rev. Mr. G
            Page 262
            Page 263
        To the Rev. Mr. D
            Page 264
        To Mrs. R
            Page 265
        To Mr.
            Page 266
        To the Society at Monyash, Derbyshire
            Page 267
        To the Rev. Mr. Wanley, Dean of Ripon
            Page 268
        To Mary Yeoman, of Mousehole, Cornwall - Seven letters to Mr. Merryweather, of Yarm
            Page 269
            Page 270
            Page 271
        Two letters to Mrs. Emma Moon, Yarm
            Page 272
        Thirty-seven letters to a member of the society
            Page 273
            Page 274
            Page 275
            Page 276
            Page 277
            Page 278
            Page 279
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        Thirty-three letters to Mr. Christopher Hopper
            Page 305
            Page 306
            Page 307
            Page 308
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            Page 317
            Page 318
        To Mr. Thomas Carlill
            Page 319
        Fifteen letters to Mr. Thomas Rankin
            Page 320
            Page 321
            Page 322
            Page 323
            Page 324
            Page 325
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            Page 327
            Page 328
            Page 329
        Two letters to Mr. James Dempster
            Page 330
        To Mr. John King
            Page 331
        Three Letters to Mr. John King
            Page 332
        To Mrs. A. F.
            Page 333
        Eighteen letters to Lady Maxwell
            Page 334
            Page 335
            Page 336
            Page 337
            Page 338
            Page 339
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        Eight letters to Mrs. Crosby
            Page 353
            Page 354
            Page 355
            Page 356
        Seven letters to Miss A
            Page 357
            Page 358
            Page 359
            Page 360
            Page 361
        To Lady M
            Page 362
        Four letters to Miss Pywell
            Page 363
            Page 364
        To the Rev. Mr. F
            Page 365
            Page 366
        To the Rev. Mr. -
            Page 367
        To Lady
            Page 368
        Thirty-two letters to Miss Jane Hilton, afterwards Mrs. Barton, of Beverley
            Page 369
            Page 370
            Page 371
            Page 372
            Page 373
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            Page 382
            Page 383
        To the stewards of the foundery
            Page 384
        Twenty-seven letters to Mrs. Bennis, of Limerick
            Page 385
            Page 386
            Page 387
            Page 388
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            Page 390
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        Nineteen letters to Miss Bosanquet, afterwards Mrs. Fletcher
            Page 400
            Page 401
            Page 402
            Page 403
            Page 404
            Page 405
            Page 406
            Page 407
            Page 408
        Thirty-six letters to Mr. Joseph Benson
            Page 409
            Page 410
            Page 411
            Page 412
            Page 413
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        To Mrs. Benson - Fourteen letters to Mr. Walter Churchey, of Brecon
            Page 432
            Page 433
            Page 434
            Page 435
            Page 436
            Page 437
            Page 438
        Nineteen letters to a young disciple
            Page 439
            Page 440
            Page 441
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            Page 449
            Page 450
        Ten letters to Mr. John Mason
            Page 451
            Page 452
            Page 453
            Page 454
            Page 455
        Two letters to Mr. Henry Eames, after his emigration to America
            Page 456
        To Mr. George Shadford - To Miss Ball, of High-Wycomb
            Page 457
        To Mr. Alexander Hume, Peeltown, Isle of Man - Two letters to the Rev. Peard Dickinson
            Page 458
            Page 459
        To Mr. Charles Perronet - To Miss Perronet
            Page 460
        Four letters to Miss Briggs
            Page 461
        To Lady Huntingdon
            Page 462
            Page 463
        To the Rev. Dean D
            Page 464
        To the assistant preachers
            Page 465
        To the members and friends of the Methodist Societies (circular) - Six letters to Mr. Richard Tompson
            Page 466
            Page 467
            Page 468
            Page 469
            Page 470
            Page 471
            Page 472
            Page 473
        Four letters to Samuel Sparrow, Esq
            Page 474
            Page 475
            Page 476
            Page 477
        Fourteen letters to Miss Bolton
            Page 478
            Page 479
            Page 480
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            Page 482
            Page 483
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        Six letters to Mr. John Valton
            Page 488
            Page 489
            Page 490
        Six letters to Mr. Francis Wolfe
            Page 491
        To Miss Fuller
            Page 492
        To Miss H - Six letters to Mrs. Marston, of Worcester
            Page 493
            Page 494
            Page 495
            Page 496
        Seven letters to Mrs. Mary Savage, of Worcester
            Page 497
            Page 498
            Page 499
            Page 500
        Fifteen letters to Mr. Samuel Bardsley
            Page 501
            Page 502
            Page 503
            Page 504
            Page 505
        To Miss Penelope Newman
            Page 506
        To Mr. Jonathan Brown - To Mr. Thomas Funnell - To Mr. William Ferguson, of Hoxton
            Page 507
        To Mrs. Ferguson - To the Rev. Mr. Davenport
            Page 508
        Three letters to Mrs. Rebecca Gains
            Page 509
        To the commanding officer in Lowestoft - Two letters to Mr. Richard Rodda
            Page 510
        To Richard Davenport, Esq
            Page 511
        To Mr. Samuel Wells - Five letters to Mr. Gidley, officer of excise
            Page 512
            Page 513
        Nine letters to Miss Mary Stokes
            Page 514
            Page 515
            Page 516
            Page 517
            Page 518
            Page 519
            Page 520
        Two letters to Mr. James Bogie
            Page 521
        To Mr. John Watson - To Mr. George Flamank, Officer of excise, in Plymouth
            Page 522
        To Mr. Abraham Orchard, of Bath - To Mr. Isaac Brown - To Mrs. Mullis, of Hackney
            Page 523
        To Mr. Richard Bunt, Bideford, Devon - To Mr. William Mears, Chatham - Five Letters to Mr. Jasper Winscom
            Page 524
            Page 525
        Two Letters to Mr. Abraham Brames, Brompton
            Page 526
        Four letters to Mr. John Ogilvie
            Page 527
            Page 528
Full Text








[Ulltfrfb at ttnirrr' ~ iaI.]



Four Letters to his Father ....................... 1

Seven Letters to his Mother...................... 8

Thirteen Letters to his Brother Samue. ............. 17

To a Friend .................... .. ........ 37

Two Letters to Mr. Oglethorpe .................. 41

'o Mr. Hutcheson ........................... 43

To Mr. Vernon ..................... ........ 44

To Mr. of Lincoln College .. ............... 45

To Mrs. Chapman ........................... 46

Three Letters to the Rev. William Law. ............. 4

To Count Zinzendorf, at Marienborn ............... 54

To the Church at Hernhuth...................... 5

To the Bishop of Bristol ...................... 56

Six Letters to Mr. John Smith .................. 56

Sixty-six Letters to his Brother Charles ............ 105

Three Letters to the Rev. George Whitefield ......... 156

To the Rev. James Hervey. ..................... 160

Three Letters to the Rev. John Fletcher ............ 161


Thirty-nine Letters to Mr. Ebenezer Blackwell........ 165

To certain Proprietors of East-India Stock .......... 193

Four Letters to Mr. John Downes. ................. 193

Twenty-three Letters to Miss Furly, afterwards Mrs.
D ownes ............................... 196

To Dr. Robertson ........................... 210

Nine Letters to Mrs. Sarah Ryan ................ 216

Three Letters to Mr. Joseph Cownley .............. 223

Two Letters to Miss ..................... 224

To Miss H-. ............................. 227

To- ................................ 230

Two Letters to- ......................... 231

To Miss Elizabeth Hardy ...................... 235

To Lady ............................. 237

To Mr. Hosmer.............................. 238

To Mr. Alexander Coates....................... 239

To Mr. S. F............................... 241

To Lord- ............................ 242

To the Rev. Mr. H- ...................... 244

To the Rev. Mr. Plenderlieth ................ .... 245

To Mr. S., at Armagh ........................ 247

To- .................................. 249

Two Letters to Mr. John Trembath. ............... 251

To Mr. Jonathan Maskew ..................... 254

To M r. Knox .............................. 255

To Mrs. Maitland............................ 257

To M r. Hart .............................. 258

To Miss T-- ............................ 259

To M iss L- ........................... 260

To the Rev. Mr. G--........................ 262

To the Rev. Mr. D ...................... 264

To Mrs. R-- ............................ 265

To M r. .............................. 266

To the Society at Monyash, Derbyshire ............. 267

To the Rev. Mr. Wanley, Dean of Bipon ............ 268

To Mary Yeoman, of Mousehole, Cornwall .......... 269

Seven Letters to Mr. Merryweather, of Yarm ........ 2(69

Two Letters to Mrs. Emma Moon, Yarm ........... 272

Thirty-seven Letters to a Member of the Society ....... 273

Thirty-three Letters to Mr. Christopher Hopper ...... 305

To Mr. Thomas Carlill ....................... 319

Fifteen Letters to Mr. Thomas Rankin ............. 320

Two Letters to Mr. James Dempster .............. 330

To Mr. John King .......................... 331

Three Letters to Mr. John King ................. 332

To Mrs. A. F. ............................ 333

Eighteen Letters to Lady Maxwell .............. 334

Eight Letters to Mrs. Crosby ................... 353

Seven Letters to Miss A- ................... 357

To Lady M-............................. 362

Four Letters to Miss Pywell .................... 363

To the Rev. Mr. F-- ....................... 365

To the Rev. Mr. -- ........................ 367

To Lady -- ............................. 368

Thirty-two Letters to Miss Jane Hilton, afterwards Mrs.
Barton, ofBeverley ...................... 369

To the Stewards of the Foundery ................. 384

Twenty-seven Letters to Mrs. Bennis, of Limerick ..... 385

Nineteen Letters to Miss Bosanquet, afterwards Mrs.
Fletcher ............................... 400

Thirty-six Letters to Mr. Joseph Benson ........... 409

To Mrs. Benson ............................ 432

Fourteen Letters to Mr. Walter Churchey, of Brecon ... 432

Nineteen Letters to a Young Disciple .............. 439

Ten Letters to Mr. John Mason ................. 451

To- ................................. 455

Two Letters to Mr. Henry Eames, after his Emigration
S to America ............................ 456

To Mr. George Shadford ...................... 457

To Miss Ball, of High-Wycomb .................. 457

To Mr. Alexander Hume, Peeltown, Isle of Man ....... 458

Tw) Letters to the Rev. Peard Dickinson ........... 458

To Mr. Charles Perronet ............. .......... 460

To Miss Perronet ........................... 460

Four Letters to Miss Briggs ............... ... 461

To Lady Huntingdon ..........................462

To the Rev. Dean D- ...................... 464

To the Assistant Preachers ..................... 465

To the Members and Friends of the Methodist Societies 466

Six Letters to Mr. Richard Tompson. ............. 466

Four Letters to Samuel Sparrow, Esq .............. 474

Fourteen Letters to Miss Bolton .................. 478

Six Letters to Mr. John Valton ................. 488

Six Letters to Mr. Francis Wolfe ................ 491

To Miss Fuller ........................... 492

To Miss H-- ............................ 493

Six Letters to Mrs. Marston, of Worcester .......... 493

Seven Letters to 31rs. Mary Savage, of Worcester ..... 497

Fifteen Letters to Mr. Samuel Bardsley ............ 501

To Miss Newman ........................... 506

To Mr. Jonathan Brown ...................... 507

To Mr. Thomas Funnell ............. ...... .. 507

To Mr. William Ferguson, of Hoxton ............. 507

To Mrs. Ferguson ........................... 508

To the Rev. Mr. Davenport .................... 508

Three Letters to Mrs. Rebecca Gains .............. 509

To the Commanding Officer in Lowestoft ........... 510

Two Letters to Mr. Richard Rodda .............. 510

To Richard Davenport, Esq. .................. 511

To Mr. Samuel Wells ........................ 512

Five Letters to Mr. Gidley, Oficer of Excise ........ 512

Nine Letters to Miss Mary Stokes .......... .... 514

Two Letters to Mr. James Bogie ................ 521

To Mr. John Watson ........................ 522

To Mr. George Flamank, Officer of Excise, in Plymouth. 522

To Mr. Abraham Orchard, of Bath ............... 523

To Mr. Isaac Brown .......................... 523

To Mrs. Mullis, of Hackney ................... 523

To Mr. Richard Bunt, Bideford, Devon ............ 524

To Mr. William Mears, Chatham ................ 524

Five Letters to Mr. Jasper Winscom .............. 524

Two Letters to Mr. Abraham Brames, Brompton ..... 526

Four Letters to Mr. John Ogilvie ................ 527






I.-To his Father.
DEAR SIR, Lincoln College, December 19, 1729.
As I was looking over, the other day, Mr. Ditton's
Discourse on the Resurrection of Christ, I found, toward the
end of it, a sort of essay on the Origin of Evil. I fancied the
shortness of it, if nothing else, would make you willing to
read it; though very probably you will not find much in it
which has not occurred to your thoughts before.
"Since the supreme Being must needs be infinitely and
essentially good, as well as wise and powerful, it has been
esteemed no little difficulty to show how evil came into the
world. Unde malum,* has been a mighty question." (Page
There were some who, in order to solve this, supposed two
supreme, governing principles; the one a good, the other an
evil one: Which latter was independent on, and of equal
power with, the former, and the author of all that was
irregular or bad in the universe. This monstrous scheme
the Manichees fell into, and much improved; but were
sufficiently confuted by St. Austin, yho had reason to be
particularly acquainted vith their tenets.
But the plain truth is, the hypothesis requires no more to
the confutation of it, than the bare proposing it. Two
supreme, independent principles, is next door to a contradic-


* Whence did evil arise ?-EDIT.






I.-To his Father.
DEAR SIR, Lincoln College, December 19, 1729.
As I was looking over, the other day, Mr. Ditton's
Discourse on the Resurrection of Christ, I found, toward the
end of it, a sort of essay on the Origin of Evil. I fancied the
shortness of it, if nothing else, would make you willing to
read it; though very probably you will not find much in it
which has not occurred to your thoughts before.
"Since the supreme Being must needs be infinitely and
essentially good, as well as wise and powerful, it has been
esteemed no little difficulty to show how evil came into the
world. Unde malum,* has been a mighty question." (Page
There were some who, in order to solve this, supposed two
supreme, governing principles; the one a good, the other an
evil one: Which latter was independent on, and of equal
power with, the former, and the author of all that was
irregular or bad in the universe. This monstrous scheme
the Manichees fell into, and much improved; but were
sufficiently confuted by St. Austin, yho had reason to be
particularly acquainted vith their tenets.
But the plain truth is, the hypothesis requires no more to
the confutation of it, than the bare proposing it. Two
supreme, independent principles, is next door to a contradic-


* Whence did evil arise ?-EDIT.


tion in terms. It is the very same thing, in result and conse-
quence, as saying two absolute infinites; and he that says
two, had as good say ten or fifty, or any other number what-
ever. Nay, if there can be two essentially distinct, absolute
infinites, there may be an infinity of such absolute infinites;
that is as much as to say, none of them all would be an
absolute infinite, or, that none of them all would be properly
and really infinite. "For real infinity is strict and absolute
infinity, and only that."
"From the nature of liberty and free-will, we may deduce
a very possible and satisfactory (perhaps the only possible
just) account of the origin of evil.
"There are, and necessarily must be, some original,
intrinsic agreements and disagreements, witnesses and unfit-
nesses, of certain things and circumstances, to and with each
other; which are antecedent to all positive institutions,
founded on the very nature of those things and circumstances,
considered in themselves, and in their- relation to each other.
"As these all fall within the comprehension of an infinite,
discerning mind, who is likewise infinite, essential rectitude
arid reason; so those on the one side must necessarily (to
speak after.the manner .of men) be chosen or approved of by
him, as the other disliked- and disapproved; and this on the
score of the eternal, intrinsic agreeableness and disagreeable-
ness of them.
"Farther: It noway derogated from, any one.perfection of
an infinite Being, to endow other beings which.he made.with
such a power as we call liberty; that is, to furnish them with
such capacities, dispositions, and principles of action, that it
should be possible for them either to observe or to deviate
from those eternal rules and measures of fitness and agreeable-
ness, with respect to certain things and circumstances, which
were so conformable to the infinite rectitude of his own will,
and which infinite reason must necessarily discover. Now,
evil is a deviation from those measures of eternal, unerring
order and reason; not to choose what is worthy.to be chosen,
and is accordingly chose by such a will as the divine. And
to bring this about, no more is necessary, than the exerting
certain acts of that power we call free-will.. By which power
we are enabled to choose or refuse, and to determine ourselves
to action accordingly. Therefore, without having recourse to
any ill principle, we may fairly account for the origin of evil,


From the possibility of a various use of our liberty; even as
'that capacity or possibility itself is ultimately founded on the
defectibility and finiteness of a created nature."
I am, dear Sir,
Your dutiful and affectionate son.

II.-To the Same.
"DEAR SIR, January, 1731.
T HOUGH some of the postulata upon which Archbishop
iKing builds his hypothesis of the Origin of Evil be such as
'very few will admit of, yet, since the superstructure is regular
;and well contrived, I .thought you would not be unwilling to
:see the scheme of that celebrated work. He divides it into
five chapters.
SThe sum .of the first chapter is this:-The first notions we
have of outward things are our conceptions of motion, matter,
and space. Concerning each of these, we soon observe that
it does not exist of itself; and, consequently, that there must
hbe some first cause, to which all of them owe their existence.
.Although we have no faculty for the direct perception of this
First Cause, and so can know very little more of Him than
ablind man of light, yet thus much we know of him, by the
Faculties we; have, that He is one, infinite in nature and
(power, free, intelligent, and omniscient; :that, consequently,
,he proposes to himself an end in every one of his actions;
-and that the, end of his creating the world was, the exercise
,of.his power, and wisdom, and goodness; .which he therefore
made. as perfect as it could be made by infinite goodness, and
power, and wisdom.
*Chapter II. But, if so, how came evil into the world? If
the world was made by such an agent, with such an intention,
.how is it that either imperfection or natural or moral evils
have a place in it? Is not this difficulty best solved by the
Manichiean supposition, that there is an evil as well as a good
principle? By no means; for it is just as repugnant to
infinite goodness to create what it foresaw would be spoiled by
.another, as to create what would be spoiled by the constitu-
ition of its own nature: Their supposition therefore leaves the
*difficulty .as it found it. But ifit;could be proved, that to
permit evils in the world is consistent with, nay, necessarily
results from, infinite goodness, then the difficulty would vanish;
and to prove this, is the design of the following treatise.


Chapter III. All created beings, as such, are necessarily
imperfect; nay, infinitely distant from supreme perfection.
Nor can they all be equally perfect; since some must be only
parts of others. As to their properties too, some must be
perfecter than others; for suppose any number of the most:
perfect beings created, infinite goodness would prompt the-
Creator to add less perfect beings to those, if their existence-
neither lessened the number nor conveniences of the more
perfect. The existence of matter, for instance, neither lessens
the number nor the conveniences of pure spirits. Therefore,
the addition of material beings to spiritual, was not contrary
to, but resulted from, infinite goodness.
Chapter IV. As the evils of imperfection necessarily spring
from this, that the imperfect things were made out of
nothing, so natural evils necessarily spring from their being
made out of matter. For matter is totally useless without
motion, or even without such a motion as will divide it into
parts; but this cannot be done without a contrariety of
motions; and from this necessarily flows generation and
The material part of us being thus liable to corruption,
pain is necessary to make us watchful against it, and to warn
us of what tends toward it; as is the fear of death likewise,
which is of use in many cases that pain does not reach,
From these all the passions necessarily spring; nor can these
be extinguished while those remain. But if pain and the
fear of death were extinguished, no animal could long subsist.
Since, therefore, these evils are necessarily joined with more
than equivalent goods, the permitting these is not repugnant
to, but flows from, infinite goodness. The same observation
holds as to hunger, thirst, childhood, age, diseases, wild
beasts, and poisons. They are all, therefore, permitted,
because each of them is necessarily connected with such a
good as outweighs the evil.
Chapter V. Touching moral evils, (by which I mean
"inconveniences arising from the choice of the sufferer,") I
propose to show, 1. What is the nature of choice or election.
2. That our happiness consists in the elections or choices we
make. 3. What elections are improper to be made. 4. How
we come to make such elections. And, 5. How our making
them is consistent with the divine power and goodness.
1. By liberty, I mean, an active, self-determining powen,.


which does not choose things because they are pleasing, but
is pleased with them because it chooses them.
That God is endued with such a power, I conclude, (1.)
Because nothing is good or evil, pleasing or displeasing, to
him, before he chooses it. (2.) Because his will or choice is
the cause of goodness in all created things. (3.) Because if
God had not been endued with such a principle, he would
never have created anything.
But it is to be observed, farther, that God sees and chooses
whatever is connected with what he chooses in the same
instant; and that he likewise chooses whatever is convenient
for his creatures, in the same moment wherein he chooses
to create them.
That man partakes of this principle I conclude, (1.) Because
experience shows it. (2.) Because we observe in ourselves
the signs and properties of such a power. We observe we
can counteract our appetites, senses, and even our reason, if
ewe so choose; which we can no otherwise account for, than
by admitting such a power in ourselves.
2. The more of this power any being possesses, the less
subject he is to the impulses of external agents; and the
more commodious is his condition. Happiness rises from a
due use of our faculties : If, therefore, this be the noblest of
all our faculties, then our chief happiness lies in the due use
of this; that is, in our elections. And, farther, election is
the cause why things please us: He therefore who has an
uncontrolled power of electing, may please himself always;
:and if things fall out contrary to what he chooses, he may
change his choice and suit it to them, and so still be happy.
Indeed in this life his natural appetites will sometimes
disturb his elections, and so prevent his perfect happiness;
yet is it a fair step towards it, that he has a power that can
.at all times find pleasure in itself, however outward things
3. True it is, that this power sometimes gives pain;
,namely, when it falls short of what it chooses; which may
come to pass, if we choose either things impossible to be had,
or inconsistent with each other, or such as are out of our
power; (perhaps because others chose them before us;) or,
lastly, such as necessarily lead us into natural evils.
4. And into these foolish choices we may be betrayed
,either by ignorance, negligence, by indulging the exercise of


liberty too far, by obstinacy or habit; or, lastly, by the"
importunity of our natural appetites. Hence it appears how
cautious we ought: to be in choosing; for though we may-
alter our choice, yet to make that alteration is painful; the
more painful,: the longer we have'persisted in it. *
5. There are three ways by which God might have,
hindered his creatures from thus abusing their liberty. First,
by not creating any being free; but had this method been
taken, then,'(1.) The whole'universe would have been a mere.
machine.: (2.) That would have been wanting which is most
pleasing to God of anything in the universe; 'namely, the
free service of his reasonable creatures. (3.) His reasonable-
creatures would have been in a worse state than they are-
now : For only free agents can be perfectly happy; as,.
without'a possibility of choosing .wrong; there can be no.
freedom. :
The Second way by which God might prevent the abuse of
liberty, is, by overruling this power; and constrainiingus to,
choose right. But this would be to do and undo, to contra-
dict himself, to take away what he had given.'
The Third way by which God might have hindered his-
creatures from making an ill use of liberty, is, by placing-
them where they should have no temptation to' abuse it.
But this too would have been the same, in effect, 'as to have
given them no liberty at all.
I am, dear Sir,
Your affectionate and dutiful son.

III.-To the Same.
June 11, 1731.
Ovn walk was not so pleasant to Oxford as from it,.,
though in' one respect it was more useful; for it let us see
that four or five and twenty miles is an easy and safe 'day's.
journey in hot weather as well as cold. We have made-
another discovery too, which may be of some service; that it
is easy to read as we walk ten or twelve 'miles; and that it
neither makes us faint,':nor gives us any other symptom of"
weariness, more than the'mere'walking without reading at all.
'Since our return, our little company that used to meet us.
on a Sunday evening is shrunk into almost none at all. M:r.
Morgan is sick at Holt; Mr. Boyce is at his father's' house
at Barton;:Mr. Kirkham must very shortly leave Oxford, to,


be his : uncle's Curate; and a young gentleman of Christ
Church who used to make a fourth, either afraid or ashamed,
or both, is returned to the ways of the world, and studiously
shuns our company. However, the poor at the Castle have
still the gospel preached to them, and some of their temporal
wants supplied, our little fund rather increasing than
diminishing. Nor have we yet been forced to discharge any
of :the children which Mr. Morgan left to our care: Though
I wish they too do not find the want of him; I am sure some
of their parents will.
Some, however, give us a better prospect; John Whitelamb
in .particular.* I believe with this you will receive some
account from himself how his time is employed. He reads
one English, one Latin, and one Greek book alternately; and
never meddles with a new one in any of the languages till he
has ended the old one. If he goes on as he has begun, I dare
take upon me to say,.that, by the time he has been here four
or five years,,there will not be such an one, of his standing,
in .Lincoln College, perhaps not in the University of Oxford,

SIV.-To the Same.
June 13, 1733.
STHE effects of my last journey, I believe, will make me
more cautious of staying any time from Oxford for the future;
at least till I have no pupils to take care of, which probably
will be within a year or two. One of my young gentlemen
told me at my return, that he was more and more afraid, of
singularity; another, that he had read an excellent piece of
Mr. Locke's, which had convinced him of the mischief of
regarding authority. Both of them agreed, that the observing
of Wednesday as a fast was an unnecessary singularity; the
Catholic Church (that is, the majority of it) having long since
repealed, by contrary custom, the injunction she formerly
gave concerning it. A third, who could not yield to this
argument, has been convinced by a fever, and Dr. Frewin.
Our seven-and-twenty communicants at St..Mary's were on
Monday shrunk to five; and the day before, the last of Mr.
Clayton's pupils, who continued with us, informed me, that
he did not design to meet us any more.,
My ill success, as they call it, seems to be what :has
frightened every one away from a falling house. On Sunday
He afterwards married one of Mr. Wesley's sisters.-En~r,


I was considering the matter a little more nearly; and
imagined, that all the ill consequences of my singularity
were reducible to three,-diminution of fortune, loss of friends
and of reputation. As to my fortune, I well know, though
perhaps others do not, that I could not have borne a larger
than I have; and as for that most plausible excuse for desiring
it, "While I have so little, I cannot do the good I would,"
I ask, Can you do the good God would have you do? It is
enough! Look no further. For friends, they were either
trifling or serious: If triflers, fare them well; a noble escape:
If serious, those who are more serious are left, whom the
others would rather have opposed than forwarded in the
service they have done, and still do, us. If it be said, But
these may leave you too; for they are no firmer than the
others were:" First, I doubt that fact; but, next, suppose
they should, we hope then they would only teach us a nobler
and harder lesson than they have done hitherto: "It is
better to trust in the Lord, than to put any confidence in
man." And as for reputation, though it be a glorious instru-
ment of advancing our Master's service, yet there is a better
than that,-a clean heart, a single eye, a soul full of God!
A fair exchange, if by the loss of reputation we can purchase
the lowest degree of purity of heart! We beg my mother
and you would not cease to work together with us, that,
whatever we lose, we may gain this; and that, having tasted
of this good gift, we may count all things else but dung and
dross in comparison of it.

V.-To his Mother.
June 18, 1725.
You have so well satisfied me as to the tenets of Thomas
h Kempis, that I have ventured to trouble you once more on
a more dubious subject. I have heard one I take to be a
person of good judgment say, that she would advise no one
very young to read Dr. Taylor on Holy Living and Dying.
She added, that he almost put her out of her senses when she
was fifteen or sixteen years old; because he seemed to exclude
all from being in a way of salvation who did not come up to
his rules, some of which are altogether impracticable. A
fear of being tedious will make me confine myself to one or


rtwo instances, in which I am doubtful; though several others
might be produced of almost equal consequence.. In refer-
*ence to humility, the Bishop says, "We must he sure, in
:some sense or other, to think ourselves the worst in every
company where we come." And in treating of repentance
he says, Whether God has forgiven us or no, we know not;
therefore be sorrowful for ever having sinned." I take the
more notice of this last sentence, because it seems to contra-
flict his own words in the next section, where he says, that
,by the Lord's supper all the members are united to one
.another, and to Christ the Head. The Holy Ghost confers
*on us the graces necessary for, and our souls receive the
*seeds of, an immortal nature. Now surely these graces are
not of so little force as that we cannot perceive whether We
.have them or not; if we dwell in Christ, and Christ in us,
which he will not do unless we are regenerate, certainly we
must be sensible of it. If we can never have any certainty of
*our being in a state of salvation, good reason it is, that
*every moment should be spent, not in joy, but in fear and
trembling; and then undoubtedly, in this life, we are of all
*men most miserable. God deliver us from such a fearful
expectation as this! Humility is undoubtedly necessary to
,salvation; and if all these things are essential to humility,
vwho can be humble, who can be saved ?

VI.-To the Same.
January, 1727.
I AM shortly to take my Master's Degree. As I shall
from that time be less interrupted by business not of my own
choosing, I have drawn up for myself a scheme of studies,
from which I do not intend, for some years at least, to vary.
J am perfectly come over to your opinion, that there are
:many truths it is not worth while to know. Curiosity,
indeed, might be a sufficient plea for our laying out some
:time upon them, if we had half a dozen centuries of life to
,come; but methinks it is great ill-husbandry to spend a
considerable part of the small pittance now allowed us, in
what makes us neither a quick nor a sure return.
Two days ago I was reading a dispute between those
*celebrated masters of controversy, Bishop Atterbury and
Bishop Hoadly; but must own, I was so injudicious as to
break off in the middle. I could not conceive that the


dignity of the end was at all proportioned to the difficulty of
attaining it. And I thought the labour of twenty or thirty
hours, if I was sure of succeeding, which I was not, would be
but ill rewarded by that important piece of knowledge,.
whether Bishop Hoadly had misunderstood Bishop Atterbury
or no.
About a year and a half ago I stole out of company at
eight in the evening, with a young gentleman with whom I
was intimate. As we took a turn in an aisle of St. Mary's-
church, in expectation of a young lady's funeral, with whom.
we were both acquainted, I asked him if he really thought;
himself my friend; and, if he did, why he would not do me
all the good he could. He began to protest; in which I cut
him short, by desiring him to oblige me in an instance,.
which he could not deny to be in his own power; to let me-
have the pleasure of making him a whole Christian, to which.
I knew he was at least half persuaded already; that he could
not do me a greater kindness, as both of us would be fully
convinced when we came to follow that young woman.
He turned exceedingly serious, and kept something of that
disposition ever since. Yesterday was a fortnight, he died of'
a consumption. I saw him three days before he died; and,.
on the Sunday following, did him the last good office I could
here, by preaching his funeral sermon; which was his desire
when living.

VII.-To the Same.
March 19, 1727.
ONE advantage, at least, my degree has given me: I:
am now at liberty, and shall be in a great measure for some
time, to choose my own employment. And as I believe I:
know my own deficiencies best, and which of them are most
necessary, to be supplied, I hope my time will turn to some-
what better account than when it was not so much in my own
The conversation of one or two persons, whom you may
have heard me speak of, (I hope never without gratitude,)
first took off my relish for most other pleasures; so far that
I despised them in comparison of that.' I have since.
proceeded a step further; to slight them absolutely. And I
am so little at present in love with even company,-the-
most elegant entertainment next to books,-that, unless the:


persons have a religious turn of thought, I am much better
pleased without them. I think it is the settled temper of my
soul; that I should prefer, at least for some time, such a
retirement as would seclude me from all the world, to the
station I am now in. Not that this is by any means
unpleasant to me; but I imagine it would be more improving
to 'be in a place where I might confirm or implant in my
mind:what habits I would, without interruption, before the
flexibility of youth be over.
A school in Yorkshire was proposed to me lately, on which
I shall'think more when it appears whether I may have it or
not.,. A good salary is annexed to it. But what has made
me wish for it most, is the frightful description, as they call
it, which some gentlemen who know the place gave me of it
yesterday. "It:lies in a little vale, so pent up between two
hills, that it is scarcely accessible on any side; so that you
can expect little company from without, and within there is
none at all:" I should therefore be entirely at liberty to
converse with company of my own choosing, whom for that
reason I would bring with me; and company equally agree-
able, wherever I fixed, could not put me to less expense.
The sun that walks his airy way
To cheer the world, and bring the day;
The moon that shines with borrow'd light;
The stars that gild the gloomy night;
All of these, and all I see,
Should be sung, and sung by me:
These praise their Maker as they can,
But want and ask the tongue of man.
I am full of business; but have found a way to write,
without taking any time from that. It is but rising an hour
sooner in the morning, and going into company an hour
later in the evening; both which may be done without any
VIII.-To the Same.
June 11, 1731.
-THE motion and sun together, in our last hundred-and-
fifty miles' walk, so thoroughly carried off:all our superfluous
huniours, that.we continue perfectly ini health, though it is
here a very sickly season. And Mr. Kirkham assures us, on
the word of a Priest and a Physician, that if we will but take
the same medicine once or twice a year, we shall never need
any other to keep us from the gout. When we were with


him, we touched two or three times upon a nice subject, but
did not come to any full conclusion. The point debated was,
What is the meaning of being righteous over much, or by
*the more' common phrase of being too strict in religion?
and what danger there was of any of us falling into that
extreme ?
All the ways of being too righteous or too strict which we
could think of, were these: Either the carrying some one
particular virtue to so great a height, as to make it clash
with some others; or, the laying too much stress on the
instituted means of grace, to the neglect of the weightier
matters of the law; or, the multiplying prudential means
upon ourselves so far, and binding ourselves to the observance
of them so strictly, as to' obstruct the end we aimed at by
them, either by hindering our advance in heavenly affections
if general, or by retarding our progress in some particular
virtue. Our opponents seemed to think my brother and I
were] in some danger of being too strict in this last sense;
of laying burdens on ourselves too heavy to be borne, and,
consequently, too heavy to be of any use to us.
It is easy to observe, that almost every one thinks that
rule totally needless which he does not need himself; and as
to the Christian spirit itself, almost every one calls that
degree of it which he does not himself aim at, enthusiasm.
If therefore we plead for either, (not as if we thought the
former absolutely needful, neither as if we had attained the
latter,) it is no great wonder that they who are not for us
in practice should be against us. If you, who are a less
prejudiced judge, have perceived us faulty in this matter,
too superstitious or enthusiastic, or whatever it is to be
called; we earnestly desire to be speedily informed of our
error, that we may no longer spend our strength on that
which profiteth not. Or whatever there may be on the
other hand, in which you have observed us to be too remiss,
that likewise we desire to know as soon as possible. This is
a subject which we would understand with as much accuracy
as possible; it being hard to say which is of the worse
consequence,-the being too strict, the really carrying things
too far, the wearying ourselves and spending our strength in
burdens that are unnecessary,-or the being frightened by
:hose terrible words, from what, if not directly necessary,
would at least be useful.


IX.-To the Same.
February 28, 1732.
ONE consideration is enough to make me assent to his
and your judgment concerning the holy sacrament; which
is, that we cannot allow Christ's human nature to be present
in it, without allowing either CON- or TRANs-substantiation.
But that his divinity is so united to us then, as he never is
but to worthy receivers, I firmly believe, though the manner
of that union is utterly a mystery to me.
That none but worthy receivers should find this effect, is
not strange to me, when I observe how small effect many
means of improvement have upon an unprepared mind. Mr.
Morgan and my brother were affected, as they ought, by the
observations you made on that glorious subject; but though
my understanding approved what was excellent, yet my
heart did not feel it. Why was this, but because it was.
pre-engaged by those affections with which wisdom will not
dwell? because the animal mind cannot relish those truths
which are spiritually discerned? Yet I have those writings.
which the Good Spirit gave to that end! I have many of
those which he hath since assisted his servants to give us; I
have retirement to apply these to my own soul daily; I have-
means both of public and private prayer; and, above all, of
partaking in that sacrament once a week. What shall I do,.
to make all these blessings effectual, to gain from them that.
mind which was also in Christ Jesus?
To all who give signs of their not bi ng strangers to it, L
propose this question,-and why not to you rather than any ?
Shall I quite break off my pursuit of all learning, but what.
immediately tends to practice? I once desired to make a
fair show in languages and philosophy: But it is past; there
is a more excellent way, and if I cannot attain to any progress
in the one, without throwing up all thoughts of the other,
why, fare it well! Yet a little while, and we shall all be
equal in knowledge, if we are in virtue.
You say you "have renounced the world." And what
have I been doing all this time? What have I done ever
since I was born? Why, I have been plunging myself into.
it more and more. It is enough: "Awake, thou that
sleepest." Is there not "one Lord, one Spirit, one hope of
our calling ? one way of attaining that hope ? Then I am,


to renounce the world, as well as you. That is the very thing
I want to do; to draw off my affections from this world, and
six them on a better. But how? What is the surest and
the shortest way ? Is it not to be humble? Surely, this is
a large step in the way. But the question recurs, How am I
to do this ? To own the necessity of it is not to be humble.
In many things you have interceded for me and prevailed.
Who knows but in this too you may be successful? If you
.can spare me only that little part of Thursday evening,
which you formerly bestowed upon me in another manner, I
-doubt not but it would be as useful now for correcting my
heart, as it was then for forming my judgment.
When I observe how fast life flies away, and how slow
,improvement comes, I think one can never be too much
.afraid of dying before one has learned to live I mean, even
in the course of nature. For were I sure that "the silver
.cord" should not be violently "loosed;" that "the wheel"
should not "be broken at the cistern," till it was quite
worn away by its own motion; yet what a time would this
,give for such a work? A moment to transact the business
of eternity What are forty years in comparison of ,this?
:So that were' I sure of what never man yet was sureof, how
little would it alterthe case How justly still might I cry
"Downward I hasten to my destined place; : .
S' There none obtain thy aid, none sing thy praise!
; :Soon shall I lie in death's deep ocean drown'd;
Is mercy there, is sweet forgiveness found ?
0 save me yet, while on the brink I stand;
Rebuke these storms, and set me safe on land !
O make my longings and thy mercy sure I
Thou art the God of power."

X.-To the Same.
August 17, 1733.
THE thing that gives offence here, is, the being singular
with regard to time, expense, and company. This is evident
beyond exception, from the case of Mr. Smith, one of our
Fellows, who no sooner began to husband his time, to
retrench unnecessary expenses, and to avoid his irreligious
:acquaintance, but he was set upon, by not only all those
:acquaintance; but many others too, as if he had entered into
:a conspiracy to cut all their throats; though to this day he

Ihas not advised any single person, unless in a word or. two
zand by accident, to act as he did in any of those instances.
It is true, indeed, that "the devil hates offensive war
most;" and that whoever tries to rescue more than his own
-soul from his hands, will have more enemies, and meet with
greater opposition, than if he was content with "having his
own life for a prey." That I try to do this, is likewise
-certain; but I cannot say whether I "rigorously impose any
observances on others," till I know what that phrase means.
What I do, is this: When I am entrusted with a person who
is first to understand and practise, and then to teach, the law
*of Christ, I endeavour, by an intermixture of.reading and
*conversation, to show him what that law, is; that is, to
,renounce all insubordinate love of the world, and to love
and obey God with all his strength. When he appears
:seriously sensible of this, I propose to him the means God
hath commanded him to use, in order to that end; and, a
week, or a month, or a year after, as the state of his soul
seems to require it, the several prudential means recommended
,by wise and good men. As to the times, order, measure, and
manner, wherein these are to be proposed, I depend upon the
Holy Spirit to direct me, in and by my own experience and
reflection, joined to the advices of my religious friends here
.and elsewhere. Only two rules it is my principle to-observe
in, all cases; First, to begin, continue, and end all my
.advices in the spirit of meekness; as knowing that "the
warath" or severity "of man worketh not the righteousness
of God:" And, Secondly, to add to meekness, longsuffering;
:in pursuance of a rule which I fixed long since,-never to
.give up any one till I have tried him, at least, ten years.
How long hath God had pity on thee?
If the wise. and good will believe those falsehoods which
;the bad invent, because I endeavour to save myself and my
-friends from them, then I shall lose my reputation, even
among them, for (though not perhaps good, yet) the best
.actions I ever did in my life. This is the very case. I try
to act as my Lord commands; ill men say all manner of evil
-of me, and good men believe them. There is a way, and
there is but one, of making my peace: God forbid I should
,ever take it! I have as many pupils as I need, and asmany
friends; when more are better for me, I shall have more. If
I have no more pupils after these are gone from me, I shall


then be glad of a curacy near you: If I have, I shall take it
as a signal that I am to remain here. Whether here or
there, my desire is, to know and feel that I am nothing,
that I have nothing, and that I can do nothing. For
whenever I am empty of myself, then know I of a surety,
that neither friends nor foes, nor any creature, can hinder
me from being filled with all the fulness of God." Let not
my father's or your prayers be ever slack in behalf of your
affectionate son.
XI.-To the Same.
March 18, 1736.
I DOUBT not but you are already informed of the many
blessings which God gave us in our passage; as my brother
Wesley must, before now, have received a particular account
of the circumstances of our voyage; which he would not faith
to transmit to you by the first opportunity.
We are likely to stay here some months. The place is<
pleasant beyond imagination; and, by all I can learn,.
exceeding healthful,-even in summer, for those who are not.
intemperate. It has pleased God that I have not had a,
moment's illness of any kind since I set my foot upon the-
Continent; nor do I know any' more than one of my seven.
hundred parishioners who is sick at this time. Many of
them, indeed, are, I believe, very angry already: For a.
gentleman, no longer ago than last night, made a ball; but
the public prayers happening to begin about the same time,
the church was full, and the ball-room so empty, that the
entertainment could not go forward.
I should be heartily glad, if any poor and religious men or
women of Epworth, or Wroote, would come over to me:.
And so would Mr. Oglethorpe too: He would give them land
enough, and provisions gratis, till they could live on the
produce of it. I was fully determined to have wrote to my
dear Emmy* to-day; but time will not permit. O hope ye
still in God; for ye shall yet give him thanks, who is the
help of your countenance, and your God! Renounce the
world; deny yourselves; bear your cross with Christ, and
reign with him My brother Hooper, too, has a constant,
place in our prayers. May the good God give him the same
zeal for holiness which he has given to a young gentleman

* His sister Emelia.-EDIT.


.at Rotterdam, who was with me last night. Pray for us,
and especially for, dear mother,
Your dutiful and affectionate son.

XII.-To his Brother Samuel.
Lincoln College, OxoN., April 4, 1726.
I SHOULD have written long before now, had not a
'Gentleman of Exeter made me put it off from day to day, in
.hopes of getting some little poems of his, which he promised
ito write out for me. Yesterday I saw them, though not
much to my satisfaction, as being all on very wrong subjects,
.and run chiefly on the romantic notions of love and gallantry.
I have transcribed one which is much shorter than any of
the rest, and am promised by to-morrow night, if that will
-do me any service, another of a more serious nature.
I believe, I have given Mr. Leybourn, at different times,
five or six short copies of verses: The latest were a translation
*of part of the Second Georgic, and an imitation of the sixty-
fifth Psalm. If he has lost them, as it is likely he has, in so
dlng a time, I can write them over in less than an hour, and
:send them by the post.
My father, very unexpectedly, a week ago, sent me, in a
better, a bill on Dr. Morley, for twelve pounds, which he had
paid to the Rector's use, at Gainsborough; so that, now
,several of my debts are paid, and the expenses of my treat
*defrayed, I have above ten pounds remaining; and if I could
have leave to stay in the country till my College allowance
-commences, this money would abundantly suffice me till
As far as I have ever observed, I never knew a College
-besides ours, whereof the members were so perfectly satisfied
with one another, and so inoffensive to the other part of the
'University. All I have yet seen of the Fellows are both
well-natured and well-bred; men admirably disposed as well
-to preserve peace and good neighbourhood among themselves,
as to promote it wherever else they have any acquaintance.



; ON God supreme our hope-depends,
Whose omnipresent sight
Even to the pathless realms extends
Of uncreated night.

Plunged.in the' abyss of de'p di tress,
To Him we raise our cry;
s mercy bids our s6orows cease,
And fills our tongue with joy.
,Though earth her ancient seat forsake, '
SBy'pangs convulsive torn;
Though her self-balanced fabric shake,
And ruin'd nature mourn;.
Though hills be in. the ocean lost, .
With all their shaggy load;
No fear shall e'er molest the just,
Or shake his trust in God.
What though the' ungovern'd, wild abyss.
His fires tumultuous pours;
S .What though the watery legions iise,
And lash the';affrighted shores;
S What though the trembling mountains nod,
Nor stand the rolling war;'
Sion, secure, enjoys the flood,, -
Loud echoing from afar.
The God most high on Sion's hill
Has fix'd his sure abode;
Nor'dare the' impetuous waves assail
The city of our God.
Nations remote, and realms unknown,
'In vain reject his sway;
For, lo Jehovah's voice is shown,
And earth shall melt away... : .
Let war's devouring surges rise,
And rage on every side, .
The Lord of Hosts our refuge is,
And Jacob's God our guide.

Mr. Le Hunte and Mr. Sherman send'their service.
'I ain
Your loving brother.
I believe I could put off two or three more receipts if I hacD
them. Pray, my love to my brother and sister.

The other verses mentioned at the beginning of this letter are omitted, for
the reason assigned by Mr. Wesley: They are on a wrong subject."-EDIT.


On Friday, St. Peter's church in the Baily was beaten
*down, by the fall of the steeple. Saturday morning, a
chandler here murdered two men and wounded a third; in
the evening, a fire broke out at the Mitre, but was stopped
in a few hours.
XIII.-To the ame.
DEAR BROTHER, .[Without date.]
.. I RETURN you thanks for your favourable judgment on
my sermon, and for the alterations you direct me to make in
it; yet, in order to be still better informed, I take the liberty
to make some objections to-some -of them, in one or two of
which I believe you misunderstood me.
I. The reasons why I conceive the Samaritans to have
been idolaters; are, First, because our Saviour says of them,
"Ye worship' ye know not what;" which seems to refer
plainly to the object of their worship: And, Secondly, because
the old inhabitants of Samaria, who succeeded the Israelites,
were undoubtedly so; and I never heard that they were
much amended in after-times: "These nations feared the
Lord, and served their graven images, both their children
and their children's children." (2 Kings xvii. 41.)
II. Were the Jews obliged to love wicked men? And is
not our commandment extended to some cases to which
theirs did not reach? to the excluding some instances of
revenge/ which were indulged to them ?
We are doubtless to love good men:more than others; but
to have inserted it, where I was only to prove that we were
to love them, and not how much, would not, I think, have
been to my purpose. Where our.Saviour exerts his authority
against his opposers, I cannot think it safe for me to follow
him. I would much sooner, in those cases, act by his precepts
than example; the one was certainly designed for me, the
other possibly was not. The Author had power to dispense
with his own laws, and wisdom to know when it was neces-
Sary; I have neither.
No one would blame a man for using such sharpness of
speech as St. Stephen does; especially in a prayer made in
the article of death, with the same intention as his,
III. What you understand as spoken of rulers, I expressly
say of private men: "As well every ruler as every private
man must act in a legal way; and the latter might,. with
equal reason, apply the civil sword himself, as use violent


neans" (by which I here mean reviling, studiously and
unnecessarily defaming, or handing about ill stories of
wicked men) "to preserve the church."
1. I believe it to be more especially the duty of Governors,
to try to amend scandalous offenders. 2. That flagrant
immorality is a sufficient reason to shun any one. 3. That
to the weak and private Christian, it is an unanswerable
-reason for so doing. 4. That in many cases a private
Christian, in some, a Clergyman, is not obliged to admonish
more than once. But this being allowed, still the main
.argument stands, that the Scripture nowhere authorizes a
private person to do more than to shun an heretic, or (which
I expressly mention) an obstinate offender. I had not the
least thought of any retrospect in them, neither when I
wrote or spoke those words: "If Providence has pointed you
out," &c.
My mother's reason for my cutting off my hair, is, because
she fancies it prejudices my health. As to my looks, it
would doubtless mend my complexion to have it off, by
letting me get a little more colour, and perhaps it might
contribute to my making a more genteel appearance. But
these, till ill health is added to them, I cannot persuade
myself to be sufficient grounds for losing two or three pounds
a year: I am ill enough able to spare them.
Mr. Sherman says, there are garrets somewhere in Peck-
water to be let for fifty shillings a year; that there are, too,
some honest fellows in College, who would be willing to chum
in one of them; and that, could my brother but find one of
these garrets, and get acquainted with one of these honest
fellows, he might very possibly prevail upon him to join in
taking it; and then, if he could but prevail upon some one
else to give him seven pounds a year for his own room, he
would gain almost six pounds a year clear, if his rent were
well paid. He appealed to me, whether the proposal was not
exceeding reasonable; but as I could not give him such an
answer as he desired, I did not choose to give him any at all.
Leisure and I have taken leave of one another; I propose
to be busy as long as I live, if my health is so long indulged
to me. In health and sickness I hope I shall ever continue,
with the same sincerity,
Your loving brother.
My love and service to my. sister.


XIV.-To the Same.
Lincoln College, November 17, 1731.
CONSIDERING the other changes that I remember in
myself, I shall not at all wonder if the time comes when we
differ as little in our conclusions as we do now in our
premises. In most we seem to agree already; especially as
to rising, not keeping much company, and sitting by a fire,
which I always do, if any one in the room does, whether at
home or abroad. But these are the very things about which
others will never agree with me. Had I given up these, or
but one of them,-rising early, which implies going to bed
early, (though I never am sleepy now,) and keeping so little
company, not one man in ten of those that are offended at
me, as it is, would ever open their mouth against any of the
other particulars. For the sake of these, those are mentioned;
the root of the matter lies here. Would I but employ a
third of my money, and about half my time, as other folks
do, smaller matters would be easily overlooked. But I think
nil anti est.* As to my hair, I am much more sure that
what this enables me to do is according to the Scripture, than
I am that the length of it is contrary to it.
I have often thought of a saying of Dr. Hayward's, when
he examined me for Priest's orders: "Do you know what
you are about? You are bidding defiance to all mankind.
He that would live a Christian Priest ought to know that,
whether his hand be against every man or no, he must expect
every man's hand should be against him." It is not strange
that every man's hand who is not a Christian, should be
against him that endeavours to be so. But is it not hard,
that even those that are with us should be against us ? that
a man's enemies (in some degree) should be those of the
same household of faith ? Yet so it is. From the time that
a man sets himself to his business, very many, even of those
who travel the same road, many of those who are before, as
well as behind, him, will lay stumbling-blocks in his way.
One blames him for not going fast enough; another, for
having made no greater progress; another, for going too far,
which, perhaps, strange as it is, is the more common charge
Nothing is worth such a sacrifice as this.-EDIT.


of the two: For this comes from people of all sorts; not only
Infidels, not only half-Christians, but some of the best of men
are very apt to make this reflection: "He lays unnecessary
burdens upon himself; he is too precise; he does what God
has nowhere required to.be done." True, he has not required
it of those that are perfect; and even as to those who are
not, all men are not required to use all means; but every
man is required to use those which he finds most useful to
himself. And who can tell better than himself, ,whether he
finds them so or no? "Who knoweth the things of a man
better than the spirit of a man that is in him ? ". .
This being a -point of no common concern, I desire to
explain myself upon it once for all, and to tell you,: freely
and clearly, those general positions on which I ground, (I
think) all those practices, for which (as you would have seen,
had you read that paper through) I am generally, accused of
singularity. First. As to the end of my being, I lay it down
for a rule, that I cannot be too happy, or, therefore, too holy;
and thence infer, that the more steadily I keep .my eye upon
the prize of our high calling, the better, and the more of my
thoughts, and words, and actions are directly pointed at the
attainment of it. Secondly. As to the, instituted means of
attaining it, I likewise lay it down -for a rule,, that I am to
use them every time I may. Thirdly. As. to prudential
means, I believe this rule holds of things indifferent in
themselves : Whatever I know to do me hurt, that to me.is
not indifferent, but resolutely to be abstained from; whatever
I know to do me good, that to me is not indifferent, but
resolutely to be embraced,
But it will be said, I am whimsical. True;. and what
then? If by whimsical be meant simply singular, I own it;
if singular without any reason, I deny it with both my hands,
and am ready to give a reason to any that asks me, of every
custom wherein I wilfully differ from the world. I grant, in
many single actions, I differ unreasonably: from others; but
not wilfully; no, I shall extremely thank any one who will
teach me to help it. But can I totally:help it, till I have
more breeding, or more prudence ? to neither of which I am
much disposed. naturally; and I greatly .fear my acquired
stock of either will give me small assistance.
I have but one thing to add, and that is, as to my being
formal. If by that be meant, that I am not easy and


.unaffected enough in my carriage, it is very true; but how
:shall I help it? I cannot be genteelly behaved by instinct;
;.and if I am to try after it by experience and observation of
Others, that is not the work of a month, but of years. If by
formal be meant, that I.am serious, this, too, is very true;
but why should I help it? Mirth, I grant, is fit for you;
but does it follow .that it is fit for me? Are the same
tempers, any more than the same words or actions, fit for all
circumstances? If you are to "rejoice evermore," because
you have put your enemies to flight, am I to do the same
while they continually assault me ? You are glad, because
you are "passed from death to life:" Well, but let him be
afraid, who knows not whether he is to live or die. Whether
this be my condition or no, who can tell better than myself?
Him who can, whoever he be, I allow to be a proper
judge, whether. I do well to be generally as serious as I
can. .. .
John Whitelamb wants a gown much, and I; am not rich
,enough to buy himy one, at present. If you are willing my
twenty shillings (that .were) should.go toward that, 'I will add
.ten to them, and let it lie till I have tried my interest with
,my friends to make up the price of a new one. .
I am, dear brother,
Yours, and my sister's, affectionate brother.
The Rector is much at your service; I fancy I shall, some
Time or other, have much to. say to you about him. All are
,pretty well at Epworth, my sister Molly says. :

XV.-To the Same.
;DEAR BROTHER, OXON., January 15, 1734-5.
HAD not my brother Charles:desired it might be other-
wise, I should have sent:you only an extract of the following
letter.* But if you will be at the pains, you will soon reduce
the argument of it to two or three points, which, if to be
..answered at all; will be easily answered. By it you may
'observe my present purpose is founded -on my present weak-
ness.: But it is not indeed probable that my father should
live till that weakness is removed.
Your second argument I had no occasion to mention
before. To it I answer, that I do not, nor ever did, resolve

Written to his father.-EDrT.


against undertaking a cure of souls. There are four cures
belonging to our College, and consistent with a Fellowship::
I do not know but I may take one of them at Michaelmas,
Not that I am clearly assured that I should be false to my
engagement, were I only to instruct and exhort the pupils.
committed to my charge. But of that I should think more.
I desire your full thoughts upon the whole, as well as your
prayers, for,
Dear brother,
Your obliged and affectionate brother.

XVI.--To the Same.
DEAR BROTHER, February 13, 1734.
NEITHER you nor I have any time to spare; so I must
be as short as I can.
There are two questions between us; one relating to being
good, the other to doing good. With regard to the former,
1. You allow I enjoy more of friends, retirement, freedom
from care, and divine ordinances, than I could do elsewhere;;
and I add, (1.) I feel all this to be but just enough: (2.) I
have always found less than this to be too little for me; and,
therefore, (3.) Whatever others do, I could not throw up any
part of it, without manifest hazard to my salvation. As to.
the latter,
2. I am not careful to answer, what good I have done at
Oxford; because I cannot think of it without the utmost
danger. I am careful about what good I may do at Epworth,.
(1.) Because I can think of it without any danger at all.
(2.) Because I cannot, as matters now stand, avoid thinking:
of it without sin.
3. Another can supply my place at Epworth better than at
Oxford; and the good done here is of a far more diffusive-
nature. It is a more extensive benefit to sweeten the foun-
tain, than to do the same to particular streams.
4. To the objection, "You are despised at Oxford; there-
fore, you can do no good there :" I answer, (1.) A Christian
will be despised anywhere. (2.) No one is a Christian till he-
is despised. (3.) His being despised will not hinder his.
doing good, but much further it, by making him a better
Christian. Without contradicting any of these propositions,
I allow that every one to whom you do good directly must
esteem you, first or last. N.B. A man may despise you


for one thing, hate you for a second, and envy you for a
5. God may suffer Epworth to be worse than before; but
I may not attempt to prevent it, with so great hazard to my
own soul.
Your last argument is either ignoratio elenchi, or implies
these two propositions: (1.) "You resolve against any paro-
chial cure of souls." (2.) The Priest who does not undertake
the first parochial cure that offers is perjured." Let us add
a third: "The Tutor who, being in orders, never accepts or
a parish is perjured;" and then I deny all three.
I am, dear brother,
Your obliged and affectionate brother.

XVII.--To the Same.
March 4, 1735.
I HAD rather dispute with you, if I must dispute, than.
with any man living; because it may be done with so little
expense of time and words. The question is now brought to,
one point, and the whole argument will lie in one single
syllogism: "Neither hope of doing greater good, nor fear of
any evil, ought to deter you from what you have engaged
yourself to do : But you have engaged yourself to undertake
the cure of a parish; therefore, neither that hope nor that:
fear ought to deter you from it." The only doubt which
remains is, whether I have so engaged myself or not. You
think I did at my ordination, "before God and his High
Priest:" I think, I did not. However, I own I am not the
proper judge of the oath I then took; it being certain, and
allowed by all, Verbis, in qu~e quis jurejurando adigitur,
sensum genuinum, ut et obligation sacramenti modum ac-
mensuram, prwstitui a mente non praestantis sed exigentis-
juramentum: "That the true sense of the words of an oath,
and the mode and extent of its obligation, are not to be
determined by him who takes it, but by him who requires
it." Therefore, it is not I, but the High Priest of God
before whom I contracted that engagement, who is to judge-
of the nature and extent of it.
Accordingly, the post after I received yours, I referred it
entirely to him, proposing this single question to him,-
Whether I had, at my ordination, engaged myself to under-
take the cure of a parish or no. His answer runs in these


words:.: "It doth;not seem to me, that, at your ordination,
you engaged yourself to undertake the cure of any parish,
provided you can, as a Clergyman, better serve.God and his
Church in your present or some other station." Now, that I
can, as a Clergyman, better serve God and his Church in my
present station, .I have all reasonable evidence.

XVIII.-To the Same.
GRAVESEND, on board the Simmonds, October 15, 1735.
I PRESENTED "Job"* to the. Queen on Sunday, and
had many good words and smiles. Out of what is due to me
,on that account, I beg you would first pay yourself what I
.owe you; and if I live till spring, I can then direct what I
would have done with the remainder.
The uncertainty of my having another opportunity to tell
you my thoughts in this life obliges me to tell you what I
have often thought of, and that.in as few and plain words as
I can.: Elegance of style is not to be weighed against purity
,of:heart; purity both from the lusts of the flesh, the lusts
-of the eye, and the pride of life. Therefore, whatever has
any tendency to impair that purity is not to be tolerated,
much less recommended, for the.sake of that elegance. But
-of this sort (I speak not from the reason of the thing only,
nor from my single experience) are the most of:the classics
usually read in great schools; many of them tending to
inflame the lusts of the flesh, -(besides Ovid, Virgil's "iEneid,"
and Terence's "Eunuch,") and .more to feed the lust of the
eye, and the pride of life, I beseech you, therefore, by the
mercies of God, who would have us holy, as he is holy, that
you banish all such poison from your school, that you intro-
duce in their place such Christian authors as will. work
together with you in building:up your flock in the knowledge
and love of God. For assure yourself, dear brother, you are
even now.called to the converting of Heathens, as well as I.
So many souls are committed to your charge by God, to be
prepared for a happy eternity. You are ,to instruct them,
not only in the beggarly elements of Greek and Latin, but
much more in the gospel. You are to labbur with all your
might.to convince them that Christianity is not a negation,
A folio volume in Latin, consisting of Dissertations on the Book of Job, by
his father, and dedicated to the Queen.-EDIT.


or an external thing, but :a new heart,:a:mind conformed to
that of Christ, "faith working by love.'. ., : ...
We:recommend you and yours to God. Pray for us., !
Your affectionate brother and servant in Christ .

XIX.-To the Same.
SAVANNAH, November 23, 1736.
'0 PBAY write, and, if it may be, speak, that they may
remember him again, who did run: well, but are. now
hindered !
I think the rock on which I had the nearest made ship-
-wreck of the faith, was, .the writings of the Mystics; under
which term I comprehend all, and only those, who,slight
.any of the means of grace.
I have drawn up a short scheme of their doctrines,:partly
(from conversations I have had, and letters, and partly from
;their most approved writers, such as Tauler, Molinos, and
the author of "Theologia Germanica.". ,,I :beg your.thoughts
upon it, as soon as, you can conveniently; and that you
'would give me them as particularly, fully, and strongly ,as
your time .will permit. They may be of consequence; not
-only to all this province, but to nations of Christians;yet
"All means are not necessary for all men; therefore each
person must use such means, and such only, as he finds
necessary for him. But -since we can never attain our end
;by being wedded to the same means; therefore, we must not
'obstinately cleave unto anything, lest it become hinderance,
;not a help.
"Observe, further, when the end is attained, the means
,cease. Now, all the other things enjoined are means to love;
-and love is attained by them who are in the inferior way,
who are utterly divested of free-will, of self-love, and -self-
-activity, and are entered into the passive state. These. deified
men, in whom the superior will has extinguished the inferior,
enjoy such a'contemplation as is, not only above; faith,, but
;above sight, such as is entirely free from images, :thoughts;
.and discourse, and never interrupted by sins of infirmity,, or
,voluntary distractions. They have absolutely renounced
their reason and understanding; else they could not be
Guided by a divine light. They seek no clear or particular


knowledge of anything; but only an obscure, general know-
ledge, which is far better. They know it is mercenary to look.
for a reward from God, and inconsistent with perfect love.
"Having thus attained the end, the means must cease.
Hope is swallowed up in love. Sight, or something more-
than sight, takes place of faith. All particular virtues they
possess in the essence, being wholly given up to the divine-
will, and therefore need not the distinct exercise of them.
They work likewise all good works essentially, not accidentally,
and use all outward means, only as they are moved thereto;.
and then to obey superiors, or to avoid giving offence; but
not as necessary or helpful to them.
"Public prayer, or any forms, they need not; for they
pray without ceasing. Sensible devotion in any prayer they
despise; it being a great hinderance to perfection. The-
Scripture they need not read; for it is only His letter with,
whom they converse face to face. And if they do read it,
now and then, as for expounders, living or dead, reason,.
philosophy, (which only puffs up, and vainly tries to bindc
God by logical definitions and divisions,) as for knowledge of'
tongues, or ancient customs, they need none of them, any
more than the Apostles did, for they have the same Spirit..
Neither do they need the Lord's supper; for they never-
cease to remember Christ in the most acceptable manner ,,
any more than fasting, since, by constant temperance, they
can keep a continual fast.
"You that are to advise them that have not yet attained,
perfection, press them to nothing, not to self-denial, constant
private prayer, reading the Scriptures, fasting, communicating.
If they love heathen poets, let them take their full swing iots
them; speak but little to them, in the mean time, of eternity.
If they are affected at any time with what you say, say no-
more; let them apply it, not you. You may advise them toc
some religious books, but stop there; let them use them as
they please, and form their own reflections upon them
without your intermeddling. If one who was religious falls.
off, let him alone. Either a man is converted to God, or not :-
If he is not, his own will must guide him, in spite of all youA
can do; if he is, he is so guided by the Spirit of God, as not.
to need your direction.
"You that are yourselves imperfect, know love is your endj
All things else are but means. Choose such means as lead.


.you most to love; those alone are necessary for you. The
means that others need are nothing to you: Different men
are led in different ways. And be sure be not wedded to any
means. When anything helps you no longer, lay it aside;
for you can never attain your end, by cleaving obstinately to
the same means: You must be changing them continually.
Conversation, meditation, forms of prayer, prudential rules,
fixed return of public or private prayer, are helps to some;
Ibut you must judge for yourself. Perhaps fasting may help
you for a time, and perhaps the holy communion. But you
will be taught by the Holy Spirit, and by experience, how
soon, how often, and how long it is good for you to take it.
'Perhaps too you may need the Holy Scripture. But if you
can renounce yourself without reading, it is better than all
the reading in the world. And whenever you do read it,
trouble yourself about no helps: The Holy Ghost will lead
you into all truth.
As to doing good, take care of yourself first. When you
are converted, then strengthen your brethren. Beware of
(what is incident to all beginners) an eager desire to set others
a good example. Beware of an earnestness to make others
feel what you feel yourself. Let your light shine as nothing
to you. Beware of a zeal to do great things for God. Be
charitable first; then do works of charity; do them when
you are not dissipated thereby, or in danger of losing your
soul by pride and vanity. Indeed, till then, you can do no
good to men's souls; and without that, all done to their
,bodies is nothing. The command of doing good concerns
not you yet. Above all, take care never to dispute about
:anv of these points. Disputing can do no. good. Is the man
wicked? Cast not pearls before swine. Is he imperfect?
He that disputes any advice, is not yet ripe for it. Is he
good? All good men agree in judgment; they differ only in
-words, which all are in their own nature ambiguous."
May God deliver you and yours from all error, and all
unholiness! My prayers will never, I trust, be wanting for
I am, dear brother,
My sister's and your most affectionate brother.
Pray remember me to Philly.


S .XX.-To the Same.
;' REtJOICE greatly at the temper with which you now"
write, and trust there is not only mildness but love also in
your heart. If so, you shall know of this doctrine, whether
it be of God 3 though, perhaps, not by my ministry.
To this hour you have pursued an ignoratio elenchi. Your
assurance and mine are as different as light and darkness. I
mean, an assurance that I am now in a state of salvation;:
you, an assurance that I shall persevere therein., The very
definition of the term cuts off your Second and Third obser-
vation. As to'the First, I would take notice, 1. No kind of
assurance, (that I know,) or of faith, or repentance;, is:
essential to their salvation who die infants. 2. I believe,
God is ready to give all true penitents who fly to his free-
grace in Christ a fuller sense of pardon than .they-had before-
they fell. I know this to be true of several: Whether these-
are exempt cases, I know not. 3: Persons that were of :a
melancholy and-gloomy constitution, even:to some degree of
madness, I have known in a moment (let it :be called a.
miracle, I quarrel not) brought into a'state offirm, lasting
peace and joy. "' .
My dear brother, the whole question turns chiefly, -if not.
wholly, on matter of fact. You deny that God does now
work these'effects; ;at least,; that he works them in such a
manner. I !affirm both, because I have heard those 'facts.
with my ears,'and seen them with my eyes.' I have seen, as
far as it can be seen, very many persons changed in a moment
from the spirit of horror, fear, and despair, to the 'spirit of
hope, joy, peace; and from sinful desires; till then reigning-
over them, to a pure desire of doing the will of God. -These
are matters:of fact, whereof I have been, and almost daily
am, eye or'ear witness.' What (upon the same evidence, as
to the suddenness and reality of the change) I believe, or
kfow, touching visions and dreams. 'This'I Jknowr Several
persons in whom this great change from the power of Satan
unto God was wrought either in sleep, or: during a strong
representation to the eye of their minds of Christ, either on
the cross or in glory. This is the fact. Let any judge of it
as they please. But that such a change was then wrought,
appears, not from their shedding tears only, or sighing, or


singing psalms, as your poor correspondent did by the womami
of Oxford, but from the whole tenor of their life, till then,
many ways wicked; from that time holy, just, and good.
Saw you him that was a lion till then, and is now a lamb;
he that was a drunkard, but now exemplarily sober; the
whoremonger that was, who now abhors the very lusts of the-
flesh? These are my living arguments for what I assert,--
that God now, as aforetime; gives remission of. sins and the-
gift of the Holy Ghost, which may be called visions;. If it be-
not so, I am found a false witness; but, -however, I do and
will testify the things I -have both seen and:heard: ; -,
I do not now expect to see your face in the flesh. Not
that I believe God will -discharge you yet; -but .I believe I
have'nearly finished my course. 0 may I be found in him,
not having my own righteousness!
When I thy promised Christ have seen,
And clasp'd him in my soul's embrace,
Possess'd of thy salvation, then,
Then may I, Lord, depart in peace.
The great blessing of God be upon you and yours..
I.am, dear brother,
Your ever affectionate and obliged brother.
I expect'to stay here some time, perhaps as long as I -am
in the body.
XXI.-To the Same.
MARIENBOURN, near Frankfort July 7, (O.S.,) 1738.-
GOD has given me at length the desire of my heart. I
arm with a Church whose conversation is in heaven, .in whom
is the mind that was in Christ, and who so walk as he
walked. As they have all one Lord and one faith, so they
are all partakers of one Spirit, the spirit of meekness and
love, which uniformly and continually animates all their
conversation. O how high and holy a thing Christianity is!
and how widely distant.from that (I know:not what) which is
so called; though it neither purifies the heart, ;nor renews.
the life after the image of our blessed Redeemer!.'
I grieve to think how that holy name by which we are
called, must be blasphemed among the Heathen, while they
see discontented Christians, passionate Christians, resentful
Christians, earthly-minded Christians; yea, (to-come to what
we are apt to count small things,) while they see Christians


judging one another, ridiculing one another, speaking evil of
one another, increasing, instead of bearing, one another's
burdens. How bitterly would Julian have applied to these,
See, how these Christians love one another !" I know I
myself, I doubt you sometimes, and my sister often, have
been under this condemnation. O may God grant we may
never more think to do Him service, by breaking those
commands which are the very life of his religion But may
we utterly put away all anger, and wrath, and malice, and
bitterness, and evil-speaking.
I was much concerned when my brother Charles once
incidentally mentioned a passage that occurred at Tiverton:
Upon my offering to read," said he, "a chapter in the
Serious Call, my sister said, 'Who do you read that to?
Not to these young ladies, I presume; and your brother and
I do not want it.'" Yes, my sister, I must tell you, in the
spirit of love, and before God, who searcheth the heart, you
do want it; you want it exceedingly. I know no one soul
that wants to read, and consider deeply, so much the chapter
of Universal Love, and that of Intercession. The character
of Susurrus there, is your own. I should be false to God
and you, did I not tell you so. 0 may it be so no longer;
ibut may you love your neighbour as yourself, both in word
and tongue, and in deed and truth !
I believe in a week Mr. Ingham and I shall set out for
Hernhuth, about three hundred and fifty miles from hence.
O pray for us, that God would sanctify to us all those precious
,opportunities, that we may be continually built up more and
.more in the spirit of power, and love, and of a sound mind!
I am, dear Brother,
Your most affectionate friend and brother.

XXII.-To the Same.
DEAR BROTHER, LONDON, October 30, 1738.
THAT you will always receive kindly what is so intended,
I doubt not. Therefore I again recommend the character of
Susurrus both to you and my sister, as (whether real or feigned)
%striking at the root of a fault, of which both she and you
were, I think, more guilty than any other two persons I have
known in my life. O may God deliver both you and me
from all bitterness and evil-speaking, as well as from all false
doctrine, heresy, and schism!


With regard to my own character, and my doctrine like-
wise, I shall answer you very plainly. By a Christian, I
mean one who so believes in Christ, as that sin hath no
more dominion over him: And in this obvious sense of the
word, I was not a Christian till May the 24th last past.
For till then sin had the dominion over me, although I
fought with it continually ; but surely, then, from that time
to this it hath not;-such is the free grace of God in Christ.
What sins they were which till then reigned over me, and
from which, by the grace of God, I am now free, I am
ready to declare on the house-top, if it may be for the glory
of God.
If you ask by what means I am made free, (though not
perfect, neither infallibly sure of my perseverance,) I answer,
By faith in Christ; by such a sort or degree of faith as I had
not till that day. My desire of this faith I knew long before,
though not so clearly till Sunday, January the 8th last, when
being in the midst of the great deep, I wrote a few lines, in
the bitterness of my soul, some of which I have transcribed;
and may the good God sanctify them both to you and me!
By the most infallible of all proofs, inward feeling, I am
1. Of unbelief; having no such faith in Christ, as will
prevent my heart's being troubled; which it could not be if
I believed in God, and rightly believed also in him.
2. Of pride throughout my life past; inasmuch as I
thought I had what I find I had not. Lord, save, or'I
perish! Save me,
(1.) By such a faith in thee and in thy Christ as implies
trust, confidence, peace in life and in death.
(2.) By such humility as may fill my heart, from this
hour for ever, with a piercing, uninterrupted sense, Nihil
est quod hactenus feci;* having evidently built without a
(3.) By such a recollection, that I may cry to thee every
moment, but more especially when all is calm, (if it should
so please thee,) "Give me faith, or I die! Give me a lowly
spirit, otherwise, mihi non sit suave vivere."t Amen! Come,
Lord Jesus! Tie Aa e', escro-o taos.
What I have been hitherto doing amounts to nothing.-EDIT.
+ May life itself no longer be pleasant to me.-EDrT.
Son of David, have mercy upon me.-EnlT.


Some measure of this faith, which bringeth salvation, or
victory over sin, and which implies peace, and trust in God
through Christ, I now enjoy by his free mercy; though in
very deed it is in me but as a grain of mustard-seed: For
the wArpo0opia Pwirewr,-the seal of the Spirit, the love of
God shed abroad in my heart, and producing joy in the Holy
Ghost, "joy which no man taketh away, joy unspeakable
and full of glory ;" this witness of the Spirit I have not, but
I patiently wait for it. I know many who have already
received it; more than one or two in the very hour we were
praying for it. And having seen and spoken with a cloud of
witnesses abroad, as well as in my own country, I cannot
doubt but that believers who wait and pray for it will find
these scriptures fulfilled in themselves. My hope is, that
they will be fulfilled in me: I build on Christ, the Rock of
Ages; on his sure mercies described in his word, and on his
promises, all which I know are yea, and amen. Those who
have not yet received joy in the Holy Ghost, the love of God,
and the plerophory of faith, (any or all of which I take
to be the witness of the Spirit with our spirit, that we are
the sons of God,) I believe to be Christians in that imperfect
sense wherein I may call myself such; and I exhort them to
pray that God would give them also "to rejoice in hope of
'the glory of God," and to feel "His love shed abroad in
their hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto them.A':
On men I build not, neither on Matilda Chipman's word,
whom I have not talked with five minutes in my life; nor
on anything peculiar in the weak, well-meant relation of
William Hervey, who yet is a serious, humble-acting Christian.
But have you been building on these? Yes; I find them,
more or less, in almost every letter you have written on the
subject. Yet were all that has been said on visions, dreams,
and balls of fire," to be fairly proposed in syllogisms, I believe
it would not prove a jot more on one than on the other side
of the question.
O brother, would to. God you would leave disputing
concerning the things which you know not, (if indeed you
know them not,) and beg of God to fill up what is yet
wanting in you! Why, should not you also seek till you
receive that peace of God which passeth all understanding ?"
Who shall hinder you, notwithstanding the manifold tempta-
tions, from rejoicing "with joy unspeakable, by reason of


glory?" Amen! Lord Jesus! May you, and all who are
near of kin to you, (if you have it not already,) feel his love
shed abroad in your heart, by his Spirit which dwelleth in
you; and be sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise, which is
the earnest of your inheritance.
I am
Yours and my sister's most affectionate brother.

XXIII.-To the Same.
November 30, 1738.
I BELIEVE every Christian who has not yet received it,
should pray for the witness of God's Spirit with his spirit
that he is a child of God. In being a child of God, the
pardon of his sins is included; therefore I believe the Spirit
of God will witness this also. That this witness is from God,
the very terms imply; and this witness I believe is necessary
for my salvation. How far invincible ignorance may excuse
others, I know not. But this, you say, is delusive and
dangerous, because it encourages and abets idle visions and
dreams. It encourages,-true; accidentally, but not essen-
tially. And that it does this accidentally, or that weak
minds may pervert it to an idle use, is no objection against
it; for so they may pervert every truth in the oracles of God;
more especially that dangerous doctrine of Joel, cited by St.
Peter: "It shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I
will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: And your sons and
your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see
visions, and your old men shall dream dreams," Such
visions, indeed, as you mention are given up: Does it follow
that visions and dreams in general "are bad branches of a
bad root? God forbid. This would prove more than you
XXIV.-To the.Same.
THE having abundance of work upon my hands is only
a cause of my not writing sooner. The cause was rather my
unwillingness to continue an unprofitable dispute.
The Gospel promises to you and me, and our children,
and all that are afar off, even as many of those whom the
Lord our God shall call, as are not disobedient unto the
heavenly vision, "the witness of God's Spirit with their
spirit, that they are the children of God;" that they are


now, at this hour, all accepted in the Beloved; but it
witnesses not that they shall be. It is an assurance of
present salvation only; therefore, not necessarily perpetual,
neither irreversible.
I am one of many witnesses of this matter of fact, that
God does now make good this his promise daily, very
frequently during a representation (how made I know not,
but not to the outward eye) of Christ either hanging on the
cross, or standing on the right hand of God. And this I
know to be of God, because from that hour the person so
affected is a new creature, both as to his inward tempers and
outward life. Old things are passed away; and all things
become new."
A very late instance of this I will give you: While we
were praying at a society here, on Tuesday the 1st instant,
the power of God (so I call it) came so mightily among us,.
that one, and another, and another, fell down as thunder-
struck. In that hour many that were in deep anguish of
spirit, were all filled with peace and joy. Ten persons, till
then in sin, doubt, and fear, found such a change, that sin
had no more dominion over them; and instead of the spirit
of fear, they are now filled with that of love, and joy, and a,
sound mind. A Quaker who stood by was very angry at
them, and was biting his lips and knitting his brows, when.
the Spirit of God came upon him also, so that he fell down
as one dead. We prayed over him, and he soon lifted up.
his head with joy, and joined with us in thanksgiving.
A bystander, one John Haydon, was quite enraged at this,.
and, being unable to deny something supernatural in it,,
laboured beyond measure to convince all his acquaintance,,
that it was a delusion of the devil. I was met in the street
the next day by one who informed me that John Haydon"
was fallen raving mad. It seems he had sat down to dinner,,
but wanted first to make an end of a sermon he was reading..
At the last page he suddenly changed colour, fell off his
chair, and began screaming terribly, and beating himself
against the ground. I found him on the floor, the room
being full of people, whom his wife would have kept away;
but he cried out, No; let them all come; let all the world
see the just judgment of God." Two or three were holding
him as well as they could. He immediately fixed his eyes
on me, and said, "Ay, this is he I said deceived the people;


but God hath overtaken me. I said it was a delusion of the
devil; but this is no delusion." Then he roared aloud, "0
thou devil! Thou cursed devil! Yea, thou legion of devils
Thou canst not stay in me. Christ will cast thee out. I
know his work is begun. Tear me to pieces if thou wilt.
But thou canst not hurt me." He then beat himself again,
.and groaned again, with violent sweats, and heaving of the
breast. We prayed with him, and God put a new song in
his mouth. The words were, which he pronounced with
.a clear, strong voice, "This is the Lord's doing, and it is
marvellous in our eyes. This is the day which the Lord
hath made: We will rejoice and be glad in it. Blessed be
the Lord God of Israel, from this time forth for evermore."
I called again an hour after. We found his body quite
worn out, and his voice lost. But his soul was full of joy
and love, rejoicing in hope of the glory of God.
I am now in as good health (thanks be to God !) as I ever
was since I remember, and I believe shall be so as long
as I live; for I do not expect to have a lingering death.
The reasons that induce me to think I shall not live long
enoughh to be] old are such as you would not apprehend to
be of any weight. I am under no concern on this head.
Let my Master see to it.
O may the God of love be with you and my sister more
and more !
I am, dear brother,
Your ever affectionate brother.

XXV.-To a Friend.
DEAR SIR, October 10, 1735.
I HAVE been hitherto unwilling to mention the grounds
,of my design of embarking for Georgia, for two reasons;-
*one, because they ,were such as I know few men would
judge to be of any weight;-the other, because I was afraid
,of making favourable judges think of me above what they
ought to think: And what a snare this must be to my own
soul, I know by dear-bought experience.
But, on farther reflection, I am convinced that I ought to
speak the truth with all boldness, even though it should
:appear foolishness to the world, as it has done from the


beginning; and that, whatever danger there is in doing the
will of God, he will support me under it. In his name,,
therefore, and trusting in his defence, I shall plainly declare
the thing as it is.
My chief motive, to which all the rest are subordinate, is-
the hope of saving my own soul. I hope to learn the true-
sense of the Gospel of Christ by preaching it to the Heathen.
They have no comments to construe away the text; no vain
philosophy to corrupt it; no luxurious, sensual, covetous,
ambitious expounders 'to soften its unpleasing truths, to.
reconcile earthly-mindedness and faith, the Spirit of Christ
and the spirit of the world. They have no party, no interest:
to serve, and are therefore fit to receive the Gospel in its.
simplicity. They are as little children, humble, willing to-
learn, and eager to do the will of God; and, consequently,.
they shall know of every doctrine I preach, whether it be of
God. By these, therefore, I hope to learn the purity of that
faith which was once delivered to the saints; the genuine
sense and full extent of those laws which none can understand
who mind earthly things.
A right faith will, I trust, by the mercy of God, open the.
way for a right practice; especially when most of those-
temptations are removed which here so easily beset me.
Toward mortifying "the desire of the flesh," the desire of
sensual pleasures, it will be no small thing to be able,
without fear of giving offence, to live on water and the fruits
of the earth. This simplicity of food will, I trust, be a
blessed means, both of preventing my seeking that happiness
in meats and drinks, which God designed should be found
only in faith, and love, and joy in the Holy Ghost; and
will assist me to attain such purity of thought, as suits a
candidate for the state wherein they are as the angels of God
in heaven.
Neither is it a small thing to be delivered from so many
occasions, as now surround me, of indulging "the desire of
the eye." They here compass me in on every side; but an
Indian hut affords no food for curiosity, no gratification of
the desire of grand, or new, or pretty things:-Though, indeed,
the cedars which God has planted round it may so gratify the-
eye as to better the heart, by lifting it to Him whose name-
alone is excellent, and his praise above heaven and earth.
If by "the pride of life" we understand the pomp and


show of the world, that has no place in the wilds of America.
If it mean pride in general, this, alas! has a place every-
where: Yet there are very uncommon helps against it, not
only by the deep humility of the poor Heathens, fully sensible
of their want of an instructor; but by that happy contempt
which cannot fail to attend all who sincerely endeavour to
instruct them, and which, continually increasing, will surely
make them, in the end, as the filth and off-scouring of the
world. Add to this, that nothing so convinces us of our
own impotence, as a zealous attempt to convert our neigh-
bour: Nor, indeed, till he does all he can for God, will any
man feel that he can do nothing.
Further: A sin which easily besets me is, unfaithfulness
to God in the use of speech. I know that this is a talent
intrusted to me by my Lord, to be used, as all others, only
for his glory. I know that all conversation which is not
seasoned with salt, and designed at least to administer grace
to the hearers, is expressly forbid by the Apostle, as "cor-
rupt communication," and as "grieving the Holy Spirit of
God;" yet I am almost continually betrayed into it, by the
example of others striking in with my own bad heart. But,
I hope, from the moment I leave the English shore, under
the acknowledged character of a Teacher sent from God,
there shall be no word heard from my lips but what properly
flows from that character: As my tongue is a devoted thing,
I hope from the first hour of this new era to use it only as
such, that all who hear me may know of a truth, the words
I speak are not mine, but His that sent me.
SThe same faithfulness I hope to show, through His grace,
in dispensing the rest of my Master's goods, if it please him
to send me to those who, lite his first followers, have all
things common. What a guard is here against that root
of evil, the love of money, and all the vile attractions that
spring from it! One in this glorious state, and perhaps
none but he, may see the height and depth of the privilege
of the first Christians, "as poor, yet making many rich; as
having nothing, yet possessing all things."
I then hope to know what it is to love my neighbour as
myself, and to feel the powers of that second motive to visit
the Heathens, even the desire to impart to them what I have
received,-a saving knowledge of the Gospel of Christ; but
this I dare not think on yet. It is not for me, who have


been a grievous sinner from my youth up, and am yet laden
with foolish and hurtful desires, to expect God should work
so great things by my hands; but I am assured, if I be once
converted myself, he will then employ me both to strengthen
my brethren, and to preach his name to the Gentiles, that
the very ends of the earth may see the salvation of our God.
But you will perhaps ask, "Cannot you save your own
soul in England, as well as in Georgia ?" I answer, No;
neither can I hope to attain the same degree of holiness
here, which I may there; neither, if I stay here, knowing
this, can I reasonably hope to attain any degree of holiness
at all: For whoever, when two ways of life are proposed,
prefers that which he is convinced in his own mind is less
pleasing to God, and less conducive to the perfection of his
soul, has no reason from the Gospel of Christ to hope that
he shall ever please God at all, or receive from him that
grace whereby alone he can attain any degree of Christian
To the other motive,-the hope of doing more good in
America, it is commonly objected, that there are Heathens
enough in practice, if not theory, at home: Why, then,
should you go to those in America?" Why, for a very
plain reason: Because these Heathens have Moses and the
Prophets, and those have not; because these who have the
Gospel trample upon it, and those who have it not earnestly
call for it; "therefore seeing these judge themselves
unworthy of eternal life, lo, I turn to the Gentiles."
If you object, further, the losses I must sustain in leaving
my native country, I ask, Loss of what? of anything I
desire to keep? No; I shall still have food to eat, and
raiment to put on;-enough of such food as I choose to eat,
and such raiment as I desire to put on;-and if any man
have a desire of other things, or of more food than he can
eat, or more raiment than he can put on, let him know, that
the greatest blessing that can possibly befall him, is, to be
cut off from all occasions of gratifying those desires, which,
unless speedily rooted out, will drown his soul in everlasting
But what shall we say to the loss of parents, brethren,
sisters, nay, of the friends which are as my own soul, of
those who have so often lifted up my hands that hung down,
and strengthened my feeble knees, by whom God hath often


enlightened my understanding, and warmed and enlarged
.my heart ?" "What shall we say ? Why, that if you
:add the loss of life to the rest, so much the greater is the
gain. For though "the grass withereth, and the flower
fadeth, the word of our God shall stand for ever;" saying,
that when human instruments are removed, He, the Lord,
will answer us by his own self. And the general answer
"which he hath already given us to all questions of this
-nature is, "Verily, I say unto you, There is no man that
bath left father, or mother, or lands, for my sake, but shall
receive an hundred fold now in this time, with persecutions,
zand in the world to come eternal life."

XXVI.-To Mr. Oglethorpe.
SAVANNAH, April 20, 1736.
SAVANNAH never was so dear to me as now. I believe,
knowing by whom I send, I may write as well as speak
freely. I found so little either of the form or power of
religion at Frederica, that I am sincerely glad I am removed
froni it. Surely, never was any place, no, not London itself,
freer from one vice, I mean hypocrisy.
0 curve in terris anime, et coelestium inanes *
*" Jesus, Master, have mercy upon them!" There is none
of those who did run well, whom I pity more than Mrs.
Hawkins: Her treating me in such a manner would indeed
have little affected me, had my own interests only been
concerned. I have been used to be betrayed, scorned, and
insulted, by those I had most laboured to serve. But when
I reflect on her condition, my heart bleeds for her. Yet
with Thee nothing is impossible!
With regard to one who ought to be dearer to me than
her, I cannot but say, that the more I think of it, the more
.convinced I am that no one, without a virtual renouncing of
the faith, can abstain from the public as well as the private
worship of God. All the Prayers usually read morning and
.evening at Frederica and here, put together, do not last
seven minutes. These cannot be termed long prayers: No
Christian assembly ever used shorter: Neither have they any
0 grovelling souls bent to the earth, and void of heavenly good !-EDIT.


repetitions in them at all. If I did not speak thus plainly to
you, which I fear no one else in England or America will do,
I should by no means be worthy to call myself, Sir,
Yours, &c..

XXVII.-To the Same.
SIR, February 24, 1737.
You apprehended strong opposition before you went
hence; and, unless we are misinformed, you have found it.
Yesterday morning I read a letter from London, wherein it
was asserted that Sir Robert had turned against you; that
the Parliament was resolved to make a severe scrutiny into.
all that has been transacted here; that the cry of the nation
ran the same way; and that even the Trustees were so far
from acknowledging the service you have done, that they
had protested your bills, and charged you with misapplying
the moneys you had received, and with gross mismanage-
ment of the power wherewith you was intrusted. Whether
these things are so, or no, I know not; for it is ill depending-
on a single evidence. But this I know, that if your scheme-
was drawn (which' I shall not easily believe) from that first-
born of hell, Nicholas Machiavel, as sure as there is a God
that governs the earth, he will confound both it and you.
If, on the contrary, (as I shall hope, till strong proof appear,).
your heart was right before God, that it was your real design
to promote the glory of God, by promoting peace and love
among men; let not your heart be troubled; the God whom
you serve is able to deliver you. Perhaps in some things
you have shown you are but a man; perhaps I myself may
have a little to complain of: But O what a train of benefits
have I received to lay in the balance against it I bless
God that ever you was born. I acknowledge his exceeding
mercy in casting me into your hands. I own your generous
kindness all the time we were at sea: I am indebted to you
for a thousand favours here. Why, then, the least I can
say, is, Though all men should revile you, yet, if God shall
strengthen me, will not I: Yea, were it not for the poor
creatures whom you have as yet but half redeemed from
their complicated misery, I could almost wish that you were
forsaken of all; that you might clearly see the difference
between men of honour, and those who are, in the very
lowest rank, the followers of Christ Jesus.


O where is the God of Elijah? Stir up thy strength, and
come and help him! If the desire of his heart be to thy
name, let all his enemies flee before him! Art thou not He
who hast made him a father to the fatherless, a mighty
deliverer to the oppressed? Hast thou not given him to be
feet to the lame, hands to the helpless, eyes to the blind?
Hath he ever withheld his bread from the hungry, or hid his
soul from his own flesh? Then, whatever thou withholdest.
from him, O thou Lover of men, satisfy his soul with thy
likeness; renew his heart in the whole image of thy Christ;
purge his spirit from self-will, pride, vanity, and fill it with
faith and love, gentleness and long-suffering. Let no. guile
ever be found in his mouth; no injustice in his hands!
And, among all your labours of love, it becomes me earnestly
to entreat Him, that He will not forget those you have gone
through for, Sir,
Your obliged and obedient servant.

XXVIII.-To Mr. Hutcheson.
July 23, 1736.
BY what I have seen during my short stay here, I am
convinced that I have long been under a great mistake, in
thinking no circumstances could make it the duty of a
Christian Priest to do anything else but preach the Gospel.
On the contrary, I am now satisfied, that there is a possible
case wherein a part of his time ought to be employed in
what less directly conduces to the glory of God, and peace
and good-will among men. And such a case, I believe, is
that which now occurs; there being several things which
cannot so effectually be done without me; and which,
though not directly belonging to my ministry, yet are, by
consequence, of the highest concern to the success of it. It
is from this conviction that I have taken some pains to
inquire into the great controversy now subsisting between
SCarolina and Georgia; and in examining and weighing the
letters wrote, and the arguments urged, on both sides of the
question. And I cannot but think that the whole affair
might be clearly stated in few words. A Charter was passed
a few years since, establishing the bounds of this province,
and empowering the Trustees therein named to prepare


laws, which, when ratified by the King in Council, should be
of force within those bounds. The Trustees have prepared
a law, which has been so ratified, for the regulation of the
Indian trade, requiring that none should trade with the
Indians who are within this province, till he is so licensed as
therein specified. Notwithstanding this law, the governing
part of Carolina have asserted, both in conversation, in
writing, and in the public newspapers, that it is lawful for
any one not so licensed, to trade with the Creek, Cherokee,
or Chicasaw Indians: They have passed an ordinance, not
-only asserting the same, but enacting that men and money
shall be raised to support such traders; and in fact they
have themselves licensed and sent up such traders, both to
the Creek and Chicasaw Indians.
This is the plain matter of fact. Now, as to matter of
right, when twenty more reams of paper have been spent
upon it, I cannot but think it must come to this short issue
at last: 1. Are the Creeks, Cherokees, and Chicasaws within
the bounds of Georgia or no? 2. Is an Act of the King in
'Council, in pursuance of an Act of Parliament, of any force
within these bounds, or not ? That all other inquiries are
absolutely foreign to the question, a very little consideration
will show. As to the former of these, the Georgian Charter,
compared with any map of these parts which I have ever
seen, determines it: The latter I never heard made a
question of, but inthe neighbourhood of Carolina.
Mr. Johnson's brother has been with us some days. I.
have been twice in company with him at Mr. Oglethorpe's;
and I hope there are in Carolina, though the present
proceeding would almost make one doubt it, many such
gentlemen as he seems to be; men of good nature, good
manners, and understanding. I hope God will repay you
seven-fold for the kindness you have shown to my poor
mother, and in her to, Sir,
Your most obliged, most obedient servant.

XXIX.-To Mr. Vernon.
July, 1736.
As short a time as I have for writing, I could not
pardon myself, if I did not spend some part of it in acknow-


lodging the continuance of your goodness to my mother;
which indeed neither she nor I can ever lose the sense of.
The behaviour of the people of Carolina finds much con-
versation for this place. I dare not say, whether they want
honesty or logic most: It is plain a very little of the latter,
added to the former, would show how utterly foreign to the
point in question all their voluminous defences are. Here is
an Act of the King in Council, passed in pursuance of an
Act of Parliament, forbidding unlicensed persons to trade
with the Indians in Georgia. Nothing therefore can justify
them in sending unlicensed traders to the Creek, Cherokee,
and Chicasaw Indians, but the proving either that this Act
is of no force, or that those Indians are not in Georgia.
Why then are these questions so little considered by them,
and others so largely discussed? I fear, for a very plain,
though not a very honest, reason; that is, to puzzle the-
cause. I sincerely wish you all happiness in time and inm
eternity, and am,
Sir, &c..

XXX.-To Mr. of Lincoln College.
SAVANNAH, AMERICA, February 16, 1736-7.
MR. INGHAM has left Savannah for some months, and[
lives at a house built for him a few miles hence, near the
Indian town. I have now no fellow-labourer but Mr.
Delamotte, who has taken the charge of between thirty and
forty children. There is therefore great need that God
should put it into the hearts of some to come over to us, and
labour with us in his harvest. But I should not desire any
to come, unless on the same views and conditions with us,-
without any temporal wages, other than food and raiment,
the plain conveniences of life. For one or more, in whom
was this mind, there would be full employment in the
province, either in assisting Mr. Delamotte or me, while we
were present here, or in supplying our places when abroad,
or in visiting the poor people in the smaller settlements, as
well as at Frederica, all of whom are as sheep without a,
By these labours of love might any that desired it bet


trained up for the harder task of preaching the Gospel to
the Heathen. The difficulties he must then encounter, God
*only knows; probably martyrdom would conclude them;
but those we have hitherto met with have been small, and
only terrible at a distance. Persecution, you know, is the
portion of every follower of Christ, wherever his lot is cast,
but it has hitherto extended no farther than words with
regard to us; (unless in one or two inconsiderable
instances;) yet it is sure, every man ought, if he would
-come hither, to be willing and ready to embrace (if God
should see good) the severer kinds of it. He ought to be
determined not only to leave parents, sisters, friends, houses,
and land, for his Master's sake, but to take up.his cross too,
and cheerfully submit to the fatigue and danger of (it may
be) a long voyage, and patiently to endure the continual
contradiction of sinners, and all the inconveniences which it
often occasions.
Would any one have a trial of himself, how he can bear
this ? If he has felt what reproach is, and can bear that for
but a few weeks as he ought, I shall believe he need fear
nothing. Other trials will afterwards be no heavier than
that little one was at first; so that he may then have a well-
grounded hope, that he will be enabled to do all things
through Christ strengthening him.
May the God of peace himself direct you to all things
conducive to his glory, whether it be by fitter instruments,
or even by
Your friend and servant in Christ.

XXXI.--To Mrs. Chapman.
March 29, 1737.
TRUE friendship is doubtless stronger than death, else
yours could never have subsisted still in spite of all opposi-
tion, and even after thousands of miles are interposed
between us. In the last proof you gave of it, there are a
few things which I think it lies on me to mention: As to
the rest, my brother is the proper person to clear them up,
as I suppose he has done long ago.
You seem to apprehend, that I believe religion to be
inconsistent with cheerfulness, and with a sociable, friendly


temper. So far from it, that I am convinced, as true
religion or holiness cannot be without cheerfulness, so steady
cheerfulness, on the other hand, cannot be without holiness
or true religion. And I am equally convinced, that religion
has nothing sour, austere, unsociable, unfriendly in it; but,
on the contrary, implies the most winning sweetness, the
most amiable softness and gentleness. Are you for having
as much cheerfulness as you can? So am I. Do you
endeavour to keep alive your taste for all the truly innocent
pleasures of life? So do I likewise. Do you refuse no
pleasure but what is a hinderance to some greater good, or
has a tendency to some evil? It is my very rule; and I
know no other by which a sincere reasonable Christian can
be guided. In particular, I pursue this rule in eating, which
I seldom do without much pleasure. And this I know is
the will of God concerning me; that I should enjoy every
pleasure that leads to my taking pleasure in him, and in
-such a measure as most leads to it. I know that, as to
-every action which is naturally pleasing, it is his will that it
should be so; therefore, iri taking that pleasure so far as it
-tends to this end, (of taking pleasure in God,) I do his will.
Though, therefore, that pleasure be in some sense distinct
from the love of God, yet is the taking of it by no means
.distinct from his will. No; you say yourself, It is his will
I should take it. And here, indeed, is the hinge of the
.question, which I had once occasion to state in a letter to
you; and more largely in a sermon, On the Love of God.
If you will read over those, I believe you will find, you differ
from Mr. Law and me in words only. You say, the
pleasures you plead for are distinct from the love of God, as
the cause from the effect. Why, then, they tend to it; and
those which are only thus distinct from it no one excepts
:against. The whole of what he affirms, and that not on the
.authority of men, but from the words and example of God
incarnate, is, There is one thing needful,-to do the will of
'God; and his will is our sanctification: Our renewal in the
image of God, in faith and love, in all holiness and happi-
ness. On this we are to fix our single eye, at all times, and
in all places; for so did our Lord. This one thing we are to
,do; for so did our fellow-servant, Paul, after his example:
'" Whether we eat or drink, or whatsoever we do, we are to
do all to the glory of God." In other words, we are to do


nothing but what, directly or indirectly, leads to our holi.
ness, which is his glory; and to do every such thing with
this design, and in such a measure as may most promote it.
I am not mad, my dear friend, for asserting these to be
the words of truth and soberness; neither are any of those,.
either in England or here, who have hitherto attempted to-
follow me. I am and must be an example to my flock; not,.
indeed, in my prudential rules, but, in some measure, (if,
giving God the glory, I may dare to say so,) in my spirit,
and life, and conversation. Yet all of them are, in your
sense of the word, unlearned, and most of them of low
understanding; and still, not one of them has been as yet
entangled in any case of conscience which was not solved..
And as to the nice distinctions you speak of, it is you, my
friend, it is the wise, the learned, the disputes of this world,,
who are lost in them, and bewildered more and more, the
more they strive to extricate themselves. We have no need
of nice distinctions; for I exhort all, dispute with none.
I feed my brethren in Christ, as He giveth me power, with,
the pure, unmixed milk of his word. And those who are
as little children receive it, not as the word of man, but as
the word of God. Some grow thereby, and advance apace-
in peace and holiness: They grieve, it is true, for those who.
did run well, but are now turned back; and they fear for
themselves, lest they also be tempted; yet, through the-
mercy of God, they despair not, but have still a good hope
that they shall endure to the end. Not that this hope has.
any resemblance to enthusiasm, which is a hope to attain
the end without the means : This they know is impossible, and
therefore ground their hope on a constant, careful use of all
the means. And, if they keep in this way, with lowliness,
patience, and meekness of resignation, they cannot carry the
principle of pressing toward perfection too far. 0 may you
and I carry it far enough Be fervent in spirit. Rejoice
evermore; pray without ceasing; in everything give thanks."
Do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus. Abound
more and more in all holiness, and in zeal for every good
word and work.


XXXII.-To the Rev. William Law.
Lincoln College, Oxon., June 26, 1734.
I MUST earnestly beg your immediate advice, in a case
*of the greatest importance. Above two years since, I was
intrusted with a young gentleman of good sense, and even
generous temper, and pretty good learning. Religion he had
heard little of; but Mr. Jackson's "Practice of Devotion,"
your two treatises, and Thomas a Kempis, by the blessing
,of God, awakened him, by degrees, to a true notion and
serious practice of it. In this he continued sensibly improv-
ing till last Lent; at the beginning of which, I advised him
to do as he had done the year before, namely, to obey the
order of the Church, by using such a sort and measure of
abstinence as his health permitted, and his spiritual wants
required. He said he did not think his health would permit
to use that abstinence which he did the year before. And,
notwithstanding my reply, that his athletic habit could be
in no danger by only abstaining from flesh, and using
moderately some less pleasing food, he persisted in his
resolution of not altering his food at all. A little before
Easter, perceivinghe had much contracted the time he had
till then set apart for religious reading, I asked him whether
he was not himself convinced that he spent too much time
in reading secular authors. He answered, he was convinced
any time was too much; and that he should be a better
Christian, if he never read them at all. I then pressed him
earnestly to pray for strength, according to that conviction;
and he resolved to try for a week. When that was expired,
le said his desire of classical reading was not inflamed, but a
little abated: Upon which, I begged him to repeat his
resolution for a week or two longer. He said, it signified
nothing; for he could never part with the classics entirely.
I desired him to read that which you say in the Christian
Perfection," on reading vain authors. He readily agreed to
every word of it, but still, in his practice, denied it; though
appearing, in most other particulars, an humble, active,
aeealous Christian. On Tuesday, April 3, being one of the
days the statutes require us to communicate at St. Mary's, I
called upon him just before church, being to set out for
Lincolnshire as soon as the service was over. I asked


whether he still halted between two opinions; and, after
exhorting him as I could to renounce himself, and serve his
- Master with simplicity, I left him. He did not communicate
' that day. On my return, May 21, I immediately inquired
. what state he was in, and found he had never communicated
since, which he used to do weekly; that he had left off
rising early, visiting the poor, and almost all religious
reading, and entirely given himself up to secular. When I
asked. him why he had left off the holy eucharist, he said
fairly, because to partake of it implied a fresh promise to
renounce himself entirely, and to please God alone; and he
did not design to do so. I asked whether he was well
convinced he ought to do so. He said, "Yes." Whether
he wished he could design it. He answered, No, he did not
desire it.
From time to time, particularly a few days ago, I wished
him to tell me upon what he grounded his hope of salvation.
He replied, after some pause, that "Christ died for all men;
but if none were saved by him without performing the
conditions, his death would not avail one in a thousand,.
which was inconsistent with the goodness of God." But
this answer, and every part of it, he soon gave up; adding,
with the utmost seriousness, that he cared not whether it
was true or no; he was very happy at present, and he desired
nothing further.
This morning I again asked him what he thought of his
own state. He said he thought nothing about it. I desired
to know whether he could, if he considered it ever so little,
expect to be saved by the terms of the Christian covenant.
He answered, he did not consider it at all: Nor did all I
could say in the least move him. He assented to all, but
was affected with nothing. He grants, with all composure,
that he is not in a salvable state, and shows no degree of
concern, while he owns he cannot find mercy.
I am now entirely at a loss what step to take: Pray he
cannot, or will not. When I lent him several prayers, he
returned them unused, saying, he does not desire to be
otherwise than he is, and why should he pray for it ? I do
not seem so much as to understand his distemper. It
appears to me quite incomprehensible. Much less can I tell
what remedies are proper for it. I therefore beseech you,
Sir, by the mercies of God, that you would not be slack,


according to the ability He shall give, to advise and pray
for him; and am,
Reverend Sir,
Your most obliged servant.
XXXIII.-To the Same.
REVEREND SIR, May 14, 1738.
IT is in obedience to what I think to be the call of God,
that I, who have the sentence of death in my own soul, take
upon me to write to you, of whom I have often desired to
learn the first elements of the Gospel of Christ.
SIf you are born of God, you will approve of the design,
though it may be but weakly executed. If not, I shall
grieve for you, not for myself. For as I seek not the praise
of men, so neither regard I the contempt either of you or of
any other.
For two years (more especially) I have been preaching
after the model of your two practical treatises; and all that
heard have allowed, that the law is great, wonderful, and
holy. But no sooner did they attempt to fulfil it, but they
found that it is too high for man: And that by doing the
works of the law shall no flesh living be justified."
To remedy this, I exhorted them, and stirred up myself,
to pray earnestly for the grace of God, and to use all the
other means of obtaining that grace, which the all-wise God
hath appointed. But still, both they and I were more and
more convinced, that this is a law by which a man cannot
live;- the law in our members continually warring against it,
and bringing us into deeper captivity to the law of sin.
Under this heavy yoke I might have groaned till death,
had not a holy man, to whom God lately directed me, upon
my complaining thereof, answered at once, "Believe, and
thou shalt be saved. Believe in the Lord Jesus Christ with
all thy heart, and nothing shall be impossible to thee. This
faith, indeed, as well as the salvation it brings, is the free
gift of God. But seek, and thou shalt find. Strip thyself
naked of thy own works, and thy own righteousness, and
fly to him. For whosoever cometh unto him, he will in no
wise cast out."
Now, Sir, suffer me to ask, How will you answer it to our
common Lord, that you never gave me this advice? Did
you never read the Acts of the Apostles, or the answer of


Paul to him who said, "What must I do to be saved? "
Or are you wiser than he ? Why did I scarce ever hear you
name the name of Christ ? never, so as to ground anything
upon faith in his blood?" Who is this who is laying
another foundation? If you say, you advised other things
as preparatory to this; what is this, but laying a foundation
below the foundation ? Is not Christ then the first, as well
as the last? If you say you advised them because you knew
that I had faith already, verily you knew nothing of me;
you discerned not my spirit at all. I know that I had not
faith, unless the faith of a devil, the faith of Judas, that
speculative, notional, airy shadow, which lives in the head,
not in the heart. But what is this to the living, justifying
faith in the blood of Jesus? the faith that cleanseth from
sin; that gives us to have free access to the Father; to
" rejoice in hope of the glory of God;" to have "the love of
God shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost" which
dwelleth in us; and "the Spirit itself bearing witness with
our spirit, that we are the children of God ?"
I beseech you, Sir, by the mercies of God, to consider
deeply and impartially, whether the true reason of your never
pressing this upon me was not this,-that you had it not
yourself? whether that man of God was not in the right,
who gave this account of a late interview he had with you ?-
"I began speaking to him of faith in Christ: He was silent.
Then he began to speak of mystical matters. I spake to him
of faith in Christ again: He was silent. Then he began to
speak of mystical matters again. I saw his state at once."
And a very dangerous one, in his judgment, whom I know to
have the Spirit of God.
Once more, Sir, let me beg you to consider, whether your
extreme roughness, and morose and sour behaviour, at least
on many occasions, can possibly be the fruit of a living faith
in Christ? If not, may the God of peace and love fill up
what is.yet wanting in you !
I am, Reverend Sir,
Your humble servant.

XXXIV.-To the Same.
REVEREND Sit, May 30, 1738.
I SINCERELY thank you for a favour I did not expect,
and presume to trouble you once more.


How I have preached all my life,-how qualified or
unqualified I was to correct a translation of Kempis, and to
translate a preface to it,-whether I have now, or how long
I have had, a living faith,-whether Peter Bdhler spoke
truth in what he said, when two others were present besides
me,-are circumstances on which the main question does not
turn, which is this and no other: Whether you ever advised
me, or directed me to books that did advise me, to seek first
a living faith in the blood of Christ; and that thereby alone
I could be justified."
You appeal to three facts to prove that you did: 1. That
you put into my hands "Theologia Germanica." 2. That
you published an answer to "The plain Account of the
Sacrament." And, 3. That you are governed through all
that you have written and done by these two fundamental
maxims of our Lord: Without me ye can do nothing;"
and, "If any man will come after me, let him take up his
cross and follow me."
The facts I allow, but not the consequence. In Theologia
Germanica," I remember something of Christ our Pattern,
but nothing express of Christ our Atonement. The answer
to "The plain Account of the Sacrament" I believe to be
an excellent book, but not so as to affect the main question.
Those two maxims may imply, but do not express, the thing
itself,-" He is our propitiation, through faith in his blood."
But how are you "chargeable with my not having had
this faith !" If you intimate, that you discerned my spirit,
then you are chargeable thus: 1. You did not tell me
plainly I had it not. 2. You never once advised me to seek
or to pray for it. 3. Your advice to me was only proper for
such as had faith already; advices which led me further
from it, the closer I adhered to them. 4. You recommended
books to me which had no tendency to this faith, but a
direct one to destroy good works.
However, "Let the fault be divided," you say, "between
me and Kempis." No; if I understood Kempis wrong, it
was your part, who discerned my spirit, and saw my mistake,
to have explained him, and to have set me right.
I ask pardon, Sir, if Ihave said anythinginconsistent with the
obligations I owe you, and the respect I bear to your character.
I am, Reverend Sir,
Your most obedient servant.


XXXV.-To Count Zinzendorf, at Marienhorn.
MAY our gracious Lord, who counteth whatsoever is
done to the least of his brethren as done to himself, return
seven-fold to you and the Countess, and to all the brethren,
the kindnesses you did to us! It would have been a great
satisfaction to me, if I could have spent more time with the
Christians who love one another. But that could not be
now; my Master having called me to work in another part
of his vineyard. Nor did I return hither at all before the
time; for though a great door and effectual had been opened,
the adversaries had laid so many stumbling-blocks before it,
that the weak' were daily turned out of the way. Numberless
misunderstandings had arisen, by means of which the way
of truth was much blasphemed: And thence had sprung
anger, clamour, bitterness, evil-speaking, envyings, strifes,
railings, evil surmises; whereby the enemy had gained such
an advantage over the little flock, that "of the rest durst no
man join himself to them."
But it has now pleased our blessed Master to remove, in
great measure, these rocks of offence. The word of the
Lord again runs and is glorified; and his work goes on and
prospers. Great multitudes are everywhere awakened, and
cry out, What must we do to be saved ?" Many of them
see that there is only one name under heaven whereby they
can be saved : And more and more of those who seek it, find
salvation in his name: And these are of one heart and one
soul. They all love one another, and are knit together in
one body and: one spirit, as in one faith and one hope of
their calling. The love and zeal of our brethren in Holland
and Germany, particularly at Hernhuth, has stirred up many
among us, who will not be comforted till they also partake
of the great and precious promises. I hope, if God permit,
to see them at least once more, were it only to give them
the fruit of my love, the speaking freely on a few things
which I did not approve, perhaps because I did not under-
stand them. May our merciful Lord give you a right
judgment in all things, and make you to abound more and
more in all lowliness and meekness, in all simplicity and
godly sincerity, in all watchfulness and seriousness; in a
word,-in all faith and love, particularly to those that are
without; till you are merciful, as your Father which is in


heaven is merciful! I desire your constant and earnest
prayers, that he would vouchsafe me a portion of the same

XXXVI.-To the Church of God which is in Hernhuth,
JOHN WESLEY, an unworthy Presbyter of the Church of
God in England, wisheth all grace and peace in our Lord
Jesus Christ.
October 14. 1738.
GLORY be to God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus
Christ, for his unspeakable gift for giving me to be an eye-
witness of your faith, and love, and holy conversation in
Christ Jesus! I have borne testimony thereof with all
plainness of speech, in many parts of Germany, and thanks
have been given to God by many on your behalf.
We are endeavouring here also, by the grace which is
given us, to be followers of you, as ye are of Christ. Four-
teen were added to us, since our return, so that we have now
eight bands' of men, consisting of fifty-six persons; all of
whom seek for salvation only in the blood of Christ.' As yet
we have only two small bands of women; the one of three,
the other of five persons. But here are many others who
only wait till we have leisure to instruct them, how they may
most effectually build up one another in the faith and love of
Him who gave himself for them.
Though my brother and I are not permitted to preach in
most of the churches in London, yet (thanks be to God!)
there are others left, wherein we have liberty to speak the
truth as it is in Jesus. Likewise every evening, and on set
evenings in the week at two several places, we publish the
word of reconciliation, sometimes to twenty or thirty, some-
times to fifty or sixty, sometimes to three or four hundred
persons, met together to hear it. We begin and end all our
meetings with singing and prayer; and we know that our
Lord heareth our prayer, having more than once or twice
(and this was not done in a corner) received our petitions in
that very hour.
Nor hath he left himself without other witnesses of his
grace and: truth. Ten Ministers know now in England,
who lay the right foundation, "The blood of Christ cleanseth
us from all sin." Over and above whom I have found one


Anabaptist, and one, if not two, of the Teachers among the
Presbyterians here, who, I hope, love the Lord Jesus Christ
in sincerity, and teach the way of God in truth.
O cease not, ye that are highly favoured, to beseech our
Lord that he would be with us even to the end; to remove
that which is displeasing in his sight, to support that which is
weak among us, to give us the whole mind that was in him,.
and teach us to walk even as he walked! And may the
very God of peace fill up what is wanting in your faith, andi
build you up more and more in all lowliness of mind, in all
plainness of speech, in all zeal and watchfulness; that He
may present you to himself a glorious church, not having
spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing, but that ye may be holy
and unblamable in the day of his appearing.

XXXVII.--To,the Bishop of Bristol.
MY LORD, October 13, 1741.
SEVERAL persons have applied to me for baptism. It
has pleased God to make me instrumental in their conver-
sion. This has given them such a prejudice for me, that
they desire to be received into the Church by my ministry.
They choose likewise to be baptized by immersion, and have
engaged me to give your Lordship notice, as the Church

XXXVIII.-To Mr. John Smith.*
SIR, September 28, 1745.
1. I WAS determined, from the time I received yours, to,
answer it as soon as I should have opportunity. But it was
The person who addressed a series of letters to Mr. Wesley in manuscript
under the assumed name of John Smith, and to whom the following answers.
were directed, there is reason to believe, was Dr. Thomas Secker, at that time
Bishop of Oxford, and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury. Seeker was born.
in 1693. The writer of these letters says, "I was confirmed about the age of
fourteen. What childish apprehensions I might have had before that time I
cannot well say, but for about forty years since," &c.-These two periods added
together will give us fifty-four years, or rather fifty-three, from his word about."
Let this be added to 1693, the year of Seeker's birth, and it gives us 1746, the
exact date of his letter. His letters are given entire in the Appendix to Moore's
Life of Mr. Wesley, vol. ii., p. 475, &c..; and some account of the correspond,
ence will be found in the same volume, p. 95, &c.-EDIT.


the longer delayed, because I could not persuade myself to
write at all, till I had leisure to write fully. And this I hope
to do now, though I know you not, no, not so much as your
name. But I take for granted you are a person that fears
God, and that speaks the. real sentiments of his heart. And
on this supposition I shall speak, without any suspicion or
2. I am exceedingly obliged by the pains you have taken
to point out to me what you think to be mistakes. It is a
truly Christian attempt, an act of brotherly love, which I
pray God to repay sevenfold into your bosom. Methinks I
can scarce look upon such a person, on one who is "a
contender for truth and not for victory," whatever opinion he
may entertain of me, as an adversary at all. For what is
friendship, if I am to account him my enemy who endeavours
to open my eyes, or to amend my heart ?
I. 3. You will give me leave (writing as a friend rather
than a disputant) to invert the order of your objections, and
to begin with the third, because, I conceive, it may be
answered in fewest words. The substance of it is this:
"If in fact you can work such signs and wonders as were
wrought by the Apostles, then you are entitled (notwith-
standing what I might otherwise object) to the implicit faith
due to one of that order." A few lines after you cite a case
related in the Third Journal, page 88,* and add: "If you
prove this to be the fact, to the satisfaction of wise and good
men, then I believe no wise and good men will oppose you
any longer. Let me therefore rest it upon your conscience,
either to prove this matter of fact, or to retract it. If upon
mature examination it shall appear that designing people
imposed upon you, or that hysterical women were imposed
upon themselves, acknowledge your zeal outran your wisdom."
4. Surely I would. But what, if on such examination it
shall appear that there was no imposition of either kind ?-
to be satisfied of which, I waited three years before I told
the story. What, if it appear by the only method which
I can conceive, the deposition of three or four eye and ear
witnesses, that the matter of fact was just as it is there
related, so far as men can judge from their eyes and ears;
will it follow, that I am entitled to demand the implicit faith
which was due to an Apostle? By no means. Nay, I know
Vol I., p. 231, of the present edition.-EDIT.


not that implicit faith was due to any or all of the Apostles
put together. They were to prove their assertions by the
written word. You and I are to do the same. Without
:such proof I ought no more to have believed St. Peter
himself, than St. Peter's pretended successor.
5. I conceive,. therefore, this whole demand, common as
it is, of proving our doctrine by miracles, proceeds from a
-double mistake: (1.) A supposition, that what we preach is
not provable from Scripture;-for if it be, what need we
farther witnesses? "To the law and to the testimony!"
(2.) An imagination, that a doctrine not provable by Scrip-
ture might nevertheless be proved by miracles. I believe
not. I receive the written word as the whole and sole rule
of my faith.
II. 6. Perhaps what you object to my phraseology may be
likewise answered in few words. I throughly agree, that
it is best to "use the most common words, and that in the
,most obvious sense;" and have been diligently labouring
-after this very thing for little less than twenty years. I am
not conscious of using any uncommon word, or any word in
an uncommon sense; but I cannot call those uncommon
words which are the constant language of holy writ. These
I purposely use; desiring always to express Scripture sense
in Scripture phrase. And this I apprehend myself to do,
when I speak of salvation as a present thing. How often
,does our Lord himself do thus! how often his Apostles, St.
Paul particularly Insomuch that I doubt whether we can
find six texts in the New Testament, perhaps not three,
where it is otherwise taken.
7. The term "faith" I likewise use in the scriptural
sense, meaning thereby. "the evidence of things not seen."
And, that it is scriptural, appears to me a sufficient defence
of any way of speaking whatever. For however the propriety
of those expressions may vary which occur in the writings of
men, I cannot but think those which are found in the book
of God will be equally proper in all ages. But let us look
back, as you desire, to the age of the Apostles. And if it
appear that the state of religion now is, according to your
own representation of it, the same, in substance, as it was
then, it will follow that the same expressions are just as
proper now, as they were in the apostolic age.
8. At the time of the first preaching of the Gospel," (as


you justly observe,) "both Jews and Gentiles were very
negligent of internal holiness, but laid great stress on
external rites, and certain actions, which if they performed
according to the due forms of their respective religions, they
doubted not but those works would render them acceptable
to God. The Apostles therefore thought they could not
express themselves too warmly against so wicked a persua-
sion, and often declare that we cannot be made righteous by
works; (that is, not by such outward works as were intended
to commute for inward holiness;) but by faith in Christ;'
that is, by becoming Christians both in principle and
9. I have often thought the same thing, namely, that the
Apostles used the expression, salvation by faith," (import-
ing inward holiness by the knowledge of God,) in direct
opposition to the then common persuasion of salvation by
works; that is, going to heaven by outward works, without
any inward holiness at all.
10. And is not this persuasion as common now as it was
in the time of the Apostles ?' We must needs go out of the
world, or we cannot doubt it. Does not every one of our
churches (to speak a sad truth) afford us abundant instances
of those who are as negligent of internal holiness, as either
the Jews or ancient Gentiles were? And do not these at
this day lay so great a stress on certain external rites, that,
if they perform them according to the due forms of their
respective communities, they doubt not but those works will
render them acceptable to God? You and I therefore
cannot express ourselves too warmly against so wicked a
persuasion; nor can we express ourselves against it in more
proper terms than those the Apostles used to that very end.
It cannot be denied that this apostolical language is also
the language of our own Church. But I wave this. What
is scriptural in any Church, I hold fast: For the rest, I let
Sit go.
III. 11. But the main point remains: You think the
doctrines I hold are not founded on holy writ. Before we
inquire into this, I would just touch on some parts of that
abstract of them which you have given.
"Faith (instead of being a rational assent and moral
virtue, for the attainment of which men ought to yield the
utmost attention and industry) is altogether supernatural,


and the immediate gift of God." I believe, (1.) That a
rational assent to the truth of the Bible is one ingredient of
Christian faith. (2.) That Christian faith is a moral virtue
in that sense wherein hope and charity are. (3.) That men
ought to yield the utmost attention and industry for the
attainment of it. And yet, (4.) That this, as every Christian
grace, is properly supernatural, is an immediate gift of God,
which he commonly gives in the use of such means as he-
hath ordained.
I believe it is generally given in an instant; but not
arbitrarily, in your sense of the word; not without any
regard to the fitness (I should say, the previous qualifications),
of the recipient.
12. "When a man is pardoned, it is immediately notified
to him by the Holy Ghost, and that (not by his imperceptibly
working a godly assurance, but) by such attestation as is.
easily discernible from reason or fancy."
I do not deny that God imperceptibly works in some a,
gradually increasing assurance of his love; but I am equally
certain, he works in others a full assurance thereof in one-
moment. And I suppose, however this godly assurance be-
wrought, it is easily discernible from bare reason, or fancy.
"Upon this infallible notification he is saved, is become-
perfect, so that he cannot commit sin."
I do not say, this notification is infallible in that sense,
that none believe they have it, who indeed have it not,
neither do I say that a man is perfect in love, the moment
he is born of God by faith. But even then, I believe, if he-
keepeth himself, he doth not commit (outward) sin.
13. "This first sowing of the first seed of faith, you,
cannot conceive to be other than instantaneous, (ordinarily,),
whether you consider experience, or the word of God, or the
very nature of the thing. Whereas all these appear to me to
be against you. To begin with experience: I believe myself
to have as steady a faith in a pardoning God as you can,
have; and yet I do not remember the exact day when it was
first given."
Perhaps not. Yours may be another of those exempt
cases, which were allowed before.
But "the experience," you say, "of all the pious persons"'
you "are acquainted with, is the very same with" yours.
You will not be displeased with my speaking freely. How


many truly pious persons are you so intimately acquainted
with, as to be able to interrogate them on the subject ? with
twenty? with ten? If so, you are far happier than I was
for many years at Oxford. You will naturally ask, with how
many truly pious persons am I acquainted, on the other
hand. I speak the truth in Christ, I lie not: I am
acquainted with more than twelve or thirteen hundred
persons, whom I believe to be truly pious, and not on slight
grounds, and who have severally testified to me with their
,own mouths that they do know the day when the love of
*God was first shed abroad in their hearts, and when his
Spirit first witnessed with their spirits, that they were the
children of God. Now, if you are determined to think all
these liars or fools, this is no evidence to you; but to me it
is strong evidence, who have for some years known the men
and their communication.
14. As to the word of God, you well observe, "We are
mnot to frame doctrines by the sound of particular texts, but
the general tenor of Scripture, soberly studied and consist-
*ently interpreted." Touching the instances you give, I
would just remark, .(1.) To have sin, is one thing; to commit
sin, is another. (2.) In one particular text it is said, "Ye
are saved by hope;" perhaps in one more, (though I
remember it not,) "Ye are saved by repentance, or holiness."
But the general tenor of Scripture, consistently interpreted,
declares, "We are saved by faith." (3.) Will either the
general tenor of Scripture, or your own conscience, allow
you to say that faith is the gift of God in no other or higher
sense than riches are? (4.) I entirely agree with you that
the children of light walk by the joint light of reason,
Scripture, and the Holy Ghost.
15. "But the word of God appears to" you "to be
manifestly against such an instantaneous giving of faith;
because it speaks of growth in grace and faith as owing to
the slow methods of instruction." So do I. But this is not
the question. We are speaking, not of the progress, but of
the first rise, of faith. "It directs the gentle instilling of
faith, by long labour and pious industry." .Not the first
instilling; and we speak not now of the continuance or
increase of it. It compares even God's part of the work to
the slow produce of vegetables, that, while one plants and
another waters, it is God all the while who goes on giving


the increase." Very true. But the seed must first be
sown, before it can increase at all. Therefore, all the texts
which relate to the subsequent increase are quite wide of the
present question.
Perhaps your thinking the nature of the thing to be so
clearly against me. may arise from your not clearly appre-
hending it. That you do not, I gather from your own
words: "It is the nature of faith to be a full and practical
assent to truth." Surely no. This definition does in nowise
express the nature of Christian faith. Christian saving faith
is a divine conviction of invisible things; a supernatural
conviction of the things of God, with a filial confidence in his.
love. Now, a man may have a full assent to the truth of the
Bible, (probably attained by the slow steps you mention,),
yea, an assent which has some influence on his practice, and.
yet not have one grain of this faith.
16. I should be glad to know to which writings in-
particular of the last age you would refer me, for a thorough
discussion of the Calvinistical points. I want to have those
points fully settled; having seen so little yet wrote on the.
most important of them, with such clearness and strength as.
one would desire.
17. I think your following objections do not properly-
come under any of the preceding heads: "Your doctrine'
of momentaneous illapse, &c., is represented by your
adversaries as singular and unscriptural; and that these
singularities are your most beloved opinions and favourite
tenets, more insisted upon by you than the general and
uncontroverted truths of Christianity : This is their charge."'
And so, I doubt, it will be to the end of the world: For, in
spite of all I can say, they will represent one circumstance
of my doctrine (so called) as the main substance of it. It
nothing avails, that I declare again and again, Love'is the
fulfilling of the law." I believe this love is given in a
moment. But about this I contend not. Have this love,,
and it is enough. For this I will contend till my spirit
returns to God. Whether I am singular or no, in thinking
this love is instantaneously given, this is not my "most
beloved opinion." You greatly wrong me when you advance
that charge. Nay, I love, strictly speaking, no opinion at
all. I trample upon opinion, be it right or wrong. I want,,
I value, I preach, the love of God and man. These are my-


"favourite tenets," (if you will have the word,) "more:
insisted on" by me ten times over, both in preaching and
writing, than any or all other subjects that ever were in the
18. You will observe, I do not say (and who is there that
can ?) that I have no singular opinion at all; but this I say,
that, in my general tenor of preaching, I teach nothing, as.
the substance of religion, more singular than the love of God
and man: And it was for preaching this very doctrine,,
(before I preached or knew salvation by faith,) that several.
of the Clergy forbade me their pulpits.
"But if it be notorious, that you are frequently insisting
on controverted opinions." If it be, even this will not prove-
the charge; namely, "that those are my most beloved
opinions, and more insisted upon by me, than the uncontro.
verted truths of Christianity."
No singularities," is not my answer; but that no singu-
larities are my most beloved opinions; that no singularities
are more, or near so much, insisted on by me, as the general,
uncontroverted truths of Christianity.
19. "Another objection," you say, "I have to make to
your manner of treating your antagonists. You seem to
think you sufficiently answer your adversary, if you put
together a number of naked scriptures that sound in your
favour. But remember, the question between you and them:
is, not whether such words are Scripture, but whether they
are to be so interpreted."
You surprise me! I take your word, else I should never
have imagined you had read over the latter Appeal; so great.
a part of which is employed in this very thing, in fighting-
my ground, inch by inch; in proving, not that such words.
are Scripture, but that they must be interpreted in the,
manner there set down.
20. One point more remains, which you express in these-
words: "When your adversaries tax you with differing from
the Church, they cannot be supposed to charge you with
differing from the Church as it was a little after the Refofm-
ation, but as it is at this day. And when you profess great.
deference and veneration for the Church of England, you
cannot be supposed to profess it for the Church and its
Pastors in the year 1545, and not rather in the year 1745.
If, then, by 'the Church of England' be meant (as ought to.


be meant) the present Church, it will be no hard matter to
show that your doctrines differ widely from the doctrines of
the Church."
Well, how blind was I! I always supposed, till the very
hour I read these words, that when I was charged with
differing from the Church, I was charged with differing from
the Articles or Homilies. And for the compilers of these,
I can sincerely profess great deference and veneration. But
I cannot honestly profess any veneration at all for those
Pastors of the present age, who solemnly subscribe to those
Articles and Homilies which they do not believe in their
hearts. Nay, I think, unless I differ from these men (be
,they Bishops, Priests, or Deacons) just as widely as they do
from those Articles and Homilies, I am no true Church-of-
England man.
Agreeably to those ancient records, by "Christian" or
"justifying faith" I always meant, faith preceded by
repentance, and accompanied or followed by obedience. So
I always preached; so I spoke and wrote. But my warm
adversaries, from the very beginning, stopped their ears, cried
,out, An heretic An heretic and so ran upon meat once.
21. But I let them alone: You are the person I want,
and whom I have been seeking for many years. You have
understanding to discern, and mildness to repeat, (what
would otherwise be,) unpleasing truths. Smite me friendly
and reprove me: It shall be a precious balm; it shall not
break my head. I am deeply convinced that I know nothing
yet as I ought to know. Fourteen years ago, I said, (with
Mr. Norris,) "I want heat more than light;" but now I
know not which I want most. Perhaps God will enlighten
.me by your words. 0 speak and spare not! At least, you
,will have the thanks and prayers of
Your obliged and affectionate servant.

XXXIX.-To the Same.
.SIR, December 80, 1745.
I AM obliged to you for your speedy and friendly
.answer; to which I will reply as clearly as I can.
1. If you have leisure to read the last Appeal, you will
,easily judge, how much I insist on any opinions.
2. In writing practically, I seldom argue concerning the
.meaning of texts; in writing controversially, I do.


3. In saying, "I teach the doctrines of the Church of
England," I do, and always did, mean, (without concerning.
myself, whether others taught them or no, either this year,
or before the Reformation,) I teach the doctrines which are
comprised in those Articles and Homilies to which all the
Clergy of the Church of England solemnly profess to assent,
and that in their plain, unforced, grammatical meaning.
As to the Seventeenth Article, Mr. Whitefield really
believes that it asserts absolute predestination: Therefore, I
can also subscribe to it with sincerity. But the case is quite
different with regard to those who subscribe to the Eleventh
and following Articles; which are not ambiguously worded,
as the Seventeenth (I suppose, on purpose) was.
4. When I say, "The Apostles themselves were to prove
their assertions by the written word," I mean the word
written before their time, the Law and the Prophets; and
so they did. I do not believe the case of Averel Spencer
was natural; yet, when I kneeled down by her bed-side, I
had no thought at all of God's then giving any "attestation
to my ministry." But I asked of God, to deliver an afflicted
soul; and he did deliver her. Nevertheless, I desire none
to receive my words, unless they are confirmed by Scripture
and reason. And if they are, they ought to be received,
though Averel Spencer had never been born.
5. That we ought not to relate a purely natural case in
the Scripture terms that express our Lord's miracles; that
low and common things are generally improper to be told in
Scripture phrase; that scriptural words which are obsolete,
or which have changed their signification, are not to be used
familiarly, as neither those technical terms which were
peculiar to the controversies of those days; I can easily
apprehend. But I cannot apprehend that "salvation" or
"justification" is a term of this sort; and much less that
"faith" and "works," or "spirit" and "flesh," are synony-
mous terms with "Christianity" and "Judaism." I know
this has frequently been affirmed; but I do not know that it
has been proved.
6. However, you think there is no occasion now for the
expressions used in ancient times; since the persuasions
which were common then are now scarcely to be found. For
" does any Church-of-England man," you ask, "maintain
anything like this, that men may commute external works,


instead of internal holiness?" Most surely: I doubt
whether every Church-of-England man in the nation, yea,
every Protestant (as well as Papist) in Europe, who is not
deeply sensible that he did so once, does not do so to this
I am one who, for twenty years, used outward works, not
only as acts of goodness," but as commutations, (though I
did not indeed profess this,) instead of inward holiness. I
knew I was not holy. But I quieted my conscience: by
doing such and such outward works; and therefore I hoped
I should go to heaven, even without inward holiness. Nor
did I ever speak close to one who had the form of godliness
without the power, but I found he had split on the same
Abundance of people I have likewise known, and many I
do know at this day, who "are so grossly superstitious as to
think devotion may be put upon God instead of honesty;"
as to fancy, going to church and sacrament will bring them
to heaven, though they practise neither justice nor mercy.
These are the men who make Christianity vile, who, above
all others, "contribute to the growth of infidelity." On the
contrary, the speaking of faith working by love, of uniform,
.outward religion, springing from inward, has already been
the means of converting several Deists, and one Atheist, (if
not more,) into real Christians.
7. "Infallible testimony" was your word, not mine: I
never use it; I do not like it. But I did not object to your
using that phrase, because I would not fight about words.
If, then, the question be repeated, "In what sense is that
attestation of the Spirit infallible?" any one has my free
leave to answer, In no sense at all. And yet, though I allow
that some may fancy they have it, when in truth they have
it not; I cannot allow that any fancy they have it not, at
the time when they really have. I know no instance of
this. When they have this faith, they cannot possibly doubt
.of their having it; although it is very possible, when they
have it not, they may doubt whether ever they had it or no.
'This was Hannah Richardson's case; and it is, more or less,
the case with many of the children of God.
That logical evidence, that we are the children of God, I
,do not either exclude or despise. But it is far different from
the direct witness of the Spirit; of which, I believe, St. Paul


speaks in his Epistle to the Romans; and which, I doubt
not, is given to many thousand souls who never saw my face.
But I spoke only of those I personally knew, concerning
whom, indeed, I find my transcriber has made a violent
mistake, writing 13,000, instead of 1,800: I might add,
those whom I also have known by their writings. But I
cannot lay so much stress on their evidence. I cannot have
so. full and certain a knowledge of a writer, as of one I talk
with face to face; and therefore I think the experiences of ,/
this kind are not to be compared with those of the other. .' '
One, indeed, of this kind I was reading yesterday, which
is exceeding clear and strong. You will easily pardon my
transcribing part of his words. They are in St. Austin's
Confessions: Intravi in intima mea, duce te: Et potui,
quoniam facts es adjutor meus. Intravi et vidi qualicunque
,oculo animce mete, supra eundem oculum anime mete, supra
mentem meam, lucern Domini incommutabilem: Non hanc
vulgarem, conspicuam omni carni; nec quasi ex eodem genere
grandior erat,-non hoc illa erat, sed aliud; aliud valde ab
istis omnibus. Nec ita erat supra mentem meam, sicut coelum
super terrain. Sed superior, quia ipsa fecit me. Qui novit
veritatem, novit earn. Et qui novit earn, novit ceternitatem.
Charitas novit earn.
0 ceterna Veritas! Tu es Deus meus Tibi suspiro die ac
note. Et cum te primum cognovi, Iu assumpsisti me, ut
:viderem esse .quod viderem.-Et reverberdsti infirmitatem
aspectss mei, radians in me vehementer; et contremui more
.et horror: ,Et inveni me long esse a te.-Et dixi, Nunquid
nihil est veritas? Et clamdsti de longinquo: Immo vero;
Ego sum, qui sum. Et audivi, sicut auditur in corde, et non
.erat prorsus unde dubitarem. Faciliusque dubitarem vivere
me, quam non esse veritatem.* (Lib. 7, cap. 10.)
Under thy guidance and direction, I entered into my inward parts: And I
-was enabled to enter, because thou wast my Helper. I entered, and saw, with
,the eye of my soul, (such as it is,) the unchangeable light of the Lord [shining]
.above this very eye of.my soul, and above my mind. I perceived that the light
was not of this common kind, which is obvious to all flesh : Neither did it appear
.as if it was a larger light of the same kind. It was not a light of this description,
but of another; a light that differed exceedingly from all these. Nor was it
.above my mind, in such a manner as the heavens are above the earth: But it
was superior, because it made me. He who knows the truth is acquainted with
.this light; and he who knows it, knows eternity. Charity [or love] knows it.
"O eternal Truth Thou art my God. Day and night I sigh after thee.
And when I obtained my first knowledge of thee, thou lidst take me to see that
F 2


9. From many such passages as these, which I have
occasionally read, as well as from what I have myself seen
and known, I am induced to believe that God's ordinary
way of converting sinners to himself is, by "suddenly
inspiring them with an immediate testimony of his love,
easily distinguishable from fancy." I am assured thus he
hath wrought in all I have known, (except, perhaps, three or
four persons,) of whom I have reasonable ground to believe
that they are really turned from the power of Satan to
10. With regard to the definition of faith, if you allow,
that it is such an inward conviction of things invisible, as
is the gift of God in the same sense wherein hope and
charity are," I have little to object; or, that it is "such ani
assent to all Christian truths as is productive of all Christian
practice." In terming either faith, or hope, or love super-
natural, I only mean that they are not the effect of any or-
all of our natural faculties, but are wrought in us (be it
swiftly or slowly) by the Spirit of God. But I would rather
say, Faith is productive of all Christian holiness," than of
all Christian practice;" because men are so exceeding apt
to rest in practice, so called; I mean, in outside religion;:
whereas true religion is eminently seated in the heart,.
renewed in the image of Him that created us.
11. I have not found, in any of the writers you mention,.
a solution of many difficulties that occur on the head of'
predestination. And, to speak without reserve, when I
compare the writings of their most celebrated successors,.
with those of Dr. Barrow and his contemporaries, I am.
amazed: The latter seem to be mere children compared with
the former writers; and to throw out such frothy, uncon-
cocted trifles, such indigested crudities, as a man of learning,.
fourscore or a hundred years ago, would have been ashamed
to set his name to.
12. Concerning the instantaneous and the gradual work,.

ijheTe was something which I might behold. Thou didst likewise beat back the-
( weakness of my own sight, and didst thyself powerfully shine into me. I
trembled with love and with horror; and I found myself at a great distance from.
thee.-I exclaimed, Is truth a nonentity ? '-And thou didst reply from atar,.
^No, indeed I AM THAT I AM!'-I heard this, as we are accustomed to,
hear in the heart; and there was no ground whatever for doubting. Nay. I could'
(tnore easily dubt of my existence itself, than that it was not the I:uth."-
EDI r.


what I still affirm is this: That I know hundreds of persons,
whose hearts were one moment filled with fear, and sorrow,
.and pain, and the next with peace and joy in believing, yea,
joy unspeakable, full of glory; that the same moment they
experienced such a love of God, and so fervent a good-will to
all mankind, (attended with power over all sin,) as till then
they were wholly unacquainted with; that nevertheless the
peace and love thus sown in their hearts, received afterward
.a gradual increase; and that to this subsequent increase the
scriptures you mention do manifestly refer. Now, I cannot
:see that there is any quibbling at all in this. No; it is a
plain, fair answer to the objection.
Neither can I apprehend that I have given an evasive
answer to any adversary whatever. I am sure I do not
desire to do it; for I want us to understand each other.
The sooner the better: Therefore let us, as you propose,
return to the main point.
"The charge is," your words are, "that the Methodists
preach sundry singular and erroneous doctrines; in particu-
lar three,-unconditional predestination, perceptible inspira-
tion, and sinless perfection. They set up,' say their
adversaries, 'their own schemes and notions as the great
standard of Christianity, so as to perplex, unhinge, terrify,
-and distract the minds of multitudes, by persuading them
that they cannot be true Christians but by adhering to their
doctrines.' This is the charge. Now you ask, 'What do
you mean by their own schemes, their own notions, their
.own doctrines?' It is plain, we mean their unconditional
(predestination, their perceptible inspiration, and their sinless
The charge then is, that the Methodists preach uncon-
-ditional predestination, perceptible inspiration, and sinless
perfection. But what a charge! Shall John Wesley be
indicted for murder, because George Whitefield killed a
man ? Or shall George Whitefield be charged with felony,
because John Wesley broke a house? How monstrous is
this! How dissonant from all the rules of common sense
and common honesty! Let every man bear his own burden.
If George Whitefield killed a man, or taught predestination,
John Wesley did not: What has this charge to do with
him? And if John Wesley broke a house, or preached
sinless perfection, let him answer for himself. George


Whitefield did neither: Why then is his name put into this
Hence appears the inexcusable injustice of what might
otherwise appear a trifle. When I urge a man in this
manner, he could have no plea at all, were he nbt to reply,
"Why, they are both Methodists." So when he has linked
them together by one nickname, he may hang either instead
of the other.
But sure this will not be allowed by reasonable men..
And if not, what have I to do with predestination ?
Absolutely nothing: Therefore set that aside. Yea, and
sinless perfection too. How so ? Do not you believe it ? "
Yes, I do; and in what sense, I have shown in the sermon
on Christian Perfection. And if any man calls it an error,.
till he has answered that, I must say, Sir, you beg the
question." But I preach, perhaps, twenty times, and say no
more of this, than even a Calvinist would allow. Neither
will I enter into any dispute about it, any more than about
the millennium.
Therefore the distinguishing 'doctrines on which I do.
insist in all my writings, and in all my preaching, will lie in
a very narrow compass. You sum them all up in perceptible
inspiration. For this I earnestly contend; and so do all
who are called Methodist Preachers. But be pleased to.
observe what we mean thereby. We mean that inspiration
of God's Holy Spirit, whereby he fills us with righteousness,
peace, and joy, with love to Him and to all mankind. And.
we believe it cannot be, in the nature of things, that a man
should be filled with this peace, and joy, and love, by the-
inspiration of the Holy Spirit, without perceiving it as clearly
as he does the light of the sun.
This is (so far as I understand them) the main doctrine-
of the Methodists. This is the substance of what we all
preach. And I will still believe, none is a true Christian
till he experiences it; and, consequently, "that people, at all
hazards, must be convinced of this; yea, though that convic-
tion at first unhinge them ever so much, though it should in,
a mariner distract them for a season. For it is better that.
they should be perplexed and terrified now, than that they
should sleep on and awake in hell."
I do not therefore, I will hot, shift the question; though
I know many who desire I should. I know the proposition


I have to prove, and I will not move a hair's breadth from it.
It is this: "No man can be a true Christian without such
an inspiration of the Holy Ghost as fills his heart with peace,
and joy, and love; which he who perceives not, has it not."
This is the point for which alone I contend; and this I take
to be the very foundation of Christianity.
14. The answer, therefore, which you think we ought to
give, is that [which] we do give to the charge of our adver-
saries: "Our singularities (if you will style them so) are
fundamental, and of the essence of Christianity;". therefore
we must preach them with such diligence and zeal as if the
whole of Christianity depended upon them."
15. It would doubtless be wrong to insist thus on these
things if they were "not necessary to final salvation :" But
we believe they are; unless in the case of invincible
ignorance. In this case, undoubtedly many thousands are
saved who never heard of these doctrines: And I am inclined
to think, this was our own case, both at Oxford and for some
time after. Yet I doubt not but had we been called hence,
God would first, by this inspiration of his Spirit, have
wrought in our hearts that holy love without which none can
enter into glory.
16. I was aware of the seeming contradiction you mention.
at the very time when I wrote the sentence. But it is only
a seeming one: For it is true, that from May 24, 1738,
"wherever I was desired to preach, salvation by faith was
my only theme; "-that is, such a love of God and man, as
produces all inward and outward holiness, and springs from
a conviction, wrought in us by the Holy Ghost, of the
pardoning love of God: And that when I was told, "You
must preach no more in this church," it was commonly
added, "because you preach such doctrine!" And it is
equally true, that "it was for preaching the love of God and.
man, that several of the Clergy forbade me their pulpits"
before that time, before May 24, before I either preached or
knew salvation by faith.
17. We are at length come to the real state of the question,
between the Methodists (so called) and their opponents.
" Is there perceptible inspiration, or is there not ? Is there
such a thing (if we divide the question into its parts) as faith
producing peace, and joy, and love, and inward (as well as
outward) holiness? Is that faith which is productive of these


fruits wrought in us by the Holy Ghost, or not? And is he
in whom they are wrought necessarily conscious of them, or
is he not? These are the points on which I am ready to
join issue with any serious and candid man. Such I believe
you to be. If, therefore, I knew on which of those you
desired my thoughts, I would give you them freely, such as
they are; or (if you desire it) on any collateral question.
The best light I have, I am ready to impart; and am ready
to receive farther light from you. My time, indeed, is so
short, that I cannot answer your letters so particularly, or
so correctly, as I would. But I am persuaded you will
excuse many defects where you believe the design is good.
I want to know what, as yet, I know not. May God teach
it me by you, or by whom he pleaseth! "Search me, O
Lord, and prove me! Try out my reins and my heart!
Look well if there be error or wickedness in me; and lead
me in the way everlasting! "
January 3, 1745-6.

XL.-To the Same.
Sir, LONDON, June 25, 1746.
AT length I have the opportunity, which I have long
desired, of answering the letter you favoured me with some
time since. 0 that God may still give us to bear with each
other, and to speak what we believe is the truth in love !
1. I detest all zeal which is any other than the flame of
love. Yet I find it is not easy to avoid it. It is not easy (at
least to me) to be "always zealously affected in a good
thing," without being sometimes so affected in things of an
indifferent nature. Nor do I find it always easy to propor-
tion my zeal to the importance of the occasion; and to
temper it duly with prudence, according to the various and
complicated circumstances that occur. I sincerely thank
you for endeavouring to assist me herein, to guard me from
running into excess. I am always in danger of this, and yet
I daily experience a far greater danger of the other extreme.
To this day, I have abundantly more temptation to luke-
warmness than to impetuosity; to be a saunterer inter sylvas
Academicas,* a philosophical sluggard, than an itinerant
Preacher. And, in fact, what I now do is so exceeding little,
compared with what I am convinced I ought to do, that I am
Among the shades of Aca:demic groves.-EDIT.


often ashamed before God, and know not how to lift up
mine eyes to the height of heaven !
2. But may not love itself constrain us to lay before men
"'the terrors of the Lord?" And is it not better that
:sinners "should be terrified now, than that they should sleep
on, and awake in hell ?" I have known exceeding happy
-effects of this, even upon men of strong understanding; yet
I agree with you, that there is little good to be done by
"the profuse throwing about hell and damnation;" and the
;best way of deciding the points in question with us is, cool
:and friendly argumentation.
I agree, too, "That scheme of religion bids fairest for the
. true, which breathes the most extensive charity." Touching
'the charity due to those who are in error, I suppose, we both
'likewise agree, that really invincible ignorance never did,
nor ever shall, exclude any man from heaven. And hence,
I doubt not, but God will receive thousands of those who
-differ from me, even where I hold the truth. But still, I
.cannot believe He will receive any man into glory (I speak
of those under the Christian dispensation) without such an
inspiration of the Holy Ghost as fills his heart with peace,
:and joy, and love."
3. In this Mr. Whitefield and I agree; but in other points
we widely differ. And therefore I still apprehend it is
inexcusably unjust to link us together, whether we will or
,no. For by this means each is constrained to bear, not only
his own, but another's, burden. Accordingly, I have been
:accused a hundred times of holding unconditional predesti-
nation. And no wonder: For wherever this charge is
:advanced,-"The Methodists preach sundry erroneous doc-
trines; in particular three, unconditional predestination,
*perceptible inspiration, and sinless perfection," the bulk of
mankind will naturally suppose, that the Methodists in
.general hold these three doctrines. It will follow, that if any
,of these afterwards hears, Mr. Wesley is a Methodist," he
will conclude, "Then he preaches unconditional predestina-
-tion, perceptible inspiration, and sinless perfection." And
:thus one man is made accountable (by others, if not by you)
'for all the errors and faults of another.
4. The case of many who subscribe to the Eleventh and
following Articles, I cannot yet think, is exactly the same
,with the case of Mr. Whitefield and me subscribing the


Seventeenth. For each of us can truly say, "I subscribe
this Article in that which I believe from my heart is its
plain, grammatical meaning." Twenty years ago, I subscribed
the Fifteenth Article likewise, in its plain, unforced, gram-
matical meaning. And whatever I do not now believe in
this sense, I will on no terms subscribe at all.
5. I speak variously, doubtless, on various occasions; but
I hope not inconsistently. Concerning the seeming incon-
sistency which you mention, permit me to observe, briefly,
(1.) That I have seen many things which I believe were
miraculous; yet I desire none to believe my words, any
further than they are confirmed by Scripture and reason.
And thus far I disclaim miracles. (2.) That I believe, "he
that marrieth doeth well; but he that doth not, (being a
believer,) doeth better." However, I have doubts concerning
the tract on this head, which I have not yet leisure to weigh
thoroughly. (3.) That a newly justified person has, at once,
in that hour, power over all sin; and finds from that hour
the work of God in his soul slowly and gradually increasing.
And, lastly, that many, who, while they have faith, cannot
doubt, do afterwards doubt whether they ever had it or no.
Yea, many receive from the Holy Ghost an attestation of
their acceptance, as perceptible as the sun at noon-day; and
yet those same persons, at other times, doubt whether they
ever had any such attestation; nay, perhaps more than
doubt, perhaps wholly deny, all that God has ever done for
their souls; inasmuch as, in this hour and power of dark-
ness," they cannot believe they ever saw light.
6. I think St. Austin's description of his own case (whether
it prove anything more or less) greatly illustrates that
light, that assurance of faith, whereof we are now speaking.
He does not appear, in writing this confession to God, to
have had any adversary in view, nor to use any rhetorical
heightening at all; but to express the naked experience of
his heart, and that in as plain and unmetaphorical words as;
the nature of the thing would bear.
7. I believe firmly, and that in the most literal sense,.
that "without God we can do nothing;" that we cannot
think, or speak, or move a hand or an eye, without the
concurrence of the divine energy; and that all our natural
faculties are God's gift, nor can the meanest be exerted
without the assistance of his Spirit. What then do I mean


by saying that faith, hope, and love, are not the effect of any,
or all, our natural faculties? I mean this: That supposing
a man to be now void of faith, and 'hope, and love, he cannot
effect any degree of them in himself by any possible exertion.
of his understanding, and of any or all his other natural
faculties, though he should enjoy them in the utmost perfec-
tion. A distinct power from God, not implied in any of
these, is indispensably necessary, before it is possible he
should arrive at the very lowest degree of Christian faith, or
hope, or love. In order to his having any of these, (which,,
on this very consideration, I suppose St. Paul terms the-
"fruits of the Spirit,") he must be created anew, throughly
and inwardly changed by the operation of the Spirit of God;
by a power equivalent to that which raises the dead, and
which calls the things which are not as though they were.
8. The "living soberly, righteously, and godly" in this;
present world, or the uniform practice of universal piety,
presupposes some degree of these fruits of the Spirit," nor'
can possibly subsist without them. I never said men were
too apt to rest on this practice. But I still say, I know
abundance of men, who quiet their conscience without either
faith or love, by the practice of a few outward works; and
this keeps them as easy and contented, though they are
without hope and without God in the world, as either
the doctrine of irresistible decrees could do, or any theory
Now, what is this but using outward works as commuta-
tions for inward holiness? For, (1.) These men love not
inward holiness; they love the world; they love money;
they love pleasure or praise: Therefore, the love of God is
not in them; nor, consequently, the Christian love of their
neighbour. Yet, (2.) They are in nowise convinced that
they are in the broad way which leads to destruction. They
sleep on, and take their rest. They say,' Peace, peace," to
their soul, though there is no peace. But on what pretence ?
Why, on this very ground, because, (3.) They do such and
such outward works; they go to church, and perhaps to the
Lord's table; they use, in some sort, private prayer; they
give alms; and therefore they imagine themselves to be in
the high road to heaven. Though they have not "the mind
that was in Christ," yet they doubt not but all is safe,
because they do thus and thus, because their lives are not


as other men's are. This is what I mean by using outward
works as commutations for inward holiness. I find more
.and more instances every day of this miserable self-deceit.
The thing is plain and clear. But if you dislike the phrase,
we will drop it, and use another.
Nearly allied to this is the "gross superstition of those
wvho think to put devotion upon God, instead of honesty."
I mean, who practise neither justice nor mercy, and yet hope
to go to heaven because they go to church and sacrament.
Can you find no such men in the Church of England? I
Find them in every street. Nine times in ten, when I have
told a tradesman, "You have cheated me; sold me this for
more than it is worth, which I think is a breach both of
justice and mercy. Are you a Christian? Do you hope to
go to heaven ?" his answer, if he deigned any answer at all,
has been to this effect: "As good a Christian as yourself!
' Go to heaven! Yes, sure; for I keep my church as well
as any man."
Now, what can be plainer, than that this man keeps his
,church, not only as an act of goodness, but as a commutation
instead of goodness; as something which he hopes will do
as well, will bring him to heaven, without either justice or
mercy ? Perhaps, indeed, if he fell.into adultery or murder,
it might awaken him out of his dream, and convince him,
as well as his neighbours, that this worship is not a mitiga-
tion, but an aggravation, of his wickedness: But nothing
short of this will. In spite of all your reasoning and mine,
he will persist in thinking himself a good Christian; and
that if his "brother have aught against him," yet all will be
-well, so he do but constantly "bring his gift to the altar."
I entreat you, Sir, to make the experiment yourself; to
talk freely with any that come in your way. And you will
,surely find it is the very thing which almost destroys the
(so called) Christian world. Every nominal Christian has
,some bit or scrap of outward religion, either negative or
positive: Either he does not do, in some respect, like other
men, or he does something more than they. And by this,
however freely he may condemn others, he takes care to
.excuse himself; and stifles whatever convictions he might
otherwise have, that the wrath of God abideth on him."
After a few impartial inquiries of this kind, I am persuaded
you will not say, As a commutation, surely no Protestant


ever did [receive the sacrament] but yourself." Is there
not something wrong in these words, on another account;
as well as in those, "You should not treat others as the
children of the devil, for taking the same liberty which you'
and Mr. Whitefield take, who continue, notwithstanding, to
be the children of God?" Is there not in both these
expressions (and perhaps in some others which are scattered
up and down in your letters) something too keen? some-
thing that borders too much upon sarcasm? upon tartness,
if not bitterness? Does not anything of this sort, either
make the mind sore, or harden it against conviction ? Does
i't not make us less able to bear plainness of speech ? or at
least less ready to improve by it ? Give me leave to add one
word more, before I proceed. I cannot but be jealous over
you. I fear you do not know, near so well as you suppose,
even what passes in your own mind. I question not but
you believe, that without inward holiness no man shall see
the Lord; but are you sure you never once entertained a
thought that something else might be put upon him in the
stead ? Perhaps not grossly, not if it appeared just in that
shape: No, nor have I, for these twenty years. But I find
the same thought to this day, stealing in continually, under
a thousand different forms. I find a continual danger of
stopping short of a full renewal in the image of God; a,
continual propensity to rest in whatever comes between; to
put some work or other that I do, even for God's sake, or
some gift that I receive, in the stead of that great work ofr
God, "the renewal of my soul after his likeness in righteous-
ness and true holiness."
9. One point of doctrine remains: "Is there any such'
thing as perceptible inspiration or not?" I asserted, "There,
is;" but at the same time subjoined, Be pleased to observe
what we mean thereby: We mean, that inspiration of God's
Holy Spirit, whereby he fills us [every true believer] with.
righteousness, and peace, and joy; with love to him and all
mankind. And we believe it cannot be, in the nature of
things, that a man should be filled with this peace, and joy,.
and love, by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, without
perceiving it as clearly as he does the light of the sun."
You reply, You have now entirely shifted the question."
I think not. You objected, that I held perceptible inspira-
tion. I answered, "I do;" but observe in what sense;


otherwise I must recall my concession: I hold, God inspires
every Christian with peace, joy, and love, which are all
perceptible. You reply, The question is not, whether the
fruits of inspiration are perceptible, but whether the work
of inspiration itself be so." This was not my question; nor
did I till now understand that it was yours. If I had, I
should have returned a different answer, as I have elsewhere
done already.
When one warmly objected, near two years ago, "All
reasonable Christians believe that the Holy Spirit works his
graces in us in an imperceptible manner;" my answer was,
" You are here disproving, as you suppose, a proposition of
mine. But are you sure you understand it ? By the opera-
tions [inspirations or workings] of the Spirit, I do not mean
the manner in which he operates, but the graces which he
operates [inspires or works] in a Christian."
If you ask, But do not you hold, "that Christian faith
implies a direct, perceptible testimony of the Spirit, as
.distinguishable from the suggestion of fancy, as light is
'distinguishable from darkness; whereas we suppose he
imperceptibly influences our minds?" I answer, I do hold
this. I suppose that every Christian believer, over and above
that imperceptible influence, hath a direct perceptible
testimony of the Spirit, that he is a child of God.
As I have little time, I must beg you to: read and consider
what I have already spoken upon this subject, in the First
Part of the "Farther Appeal," at the thirty-eighth and.
following pages;* and then to let me know what kind of
proof it is which you expect in a question of this nature,
over and above that of Scripture, as interpreted by the
writers of the earliest Christian church.
I have not studied the writings of the Quakers enough,
.(having read few of them beside Robert Barclay,) to say
precisely what they mean by perceptible inspiration, and
whether their account of it be right or wrong. And I am
not curious to know; since between me and them there is
a great gulf fixed. The sacraments of baptism and the
Lord's supper keep us at a wide distance from each other;
insomuch that, according to the view of things I have now,
I should as soon commence Deist as Quaker.
I would just add, that I regard even faith itself, not as an
Vol. VIII., p. 70, &c., of the present edition.-EDIT.


end, but a means only. The end of the commandment is
love, of every command, of the whole Christian dispensation.
Let this love be attained, by whatever means, and I am
content; I desire no more. All is well, if we love the Lord
*our God with all our heart, and our neighbour as ourselves.
10. I am aware of one inconvenience, in answering what
you say touching the consequences of my preaching. It
will oblige me to speak what will try your temper beyond
anything I have said yet. I could, indeed, avoid this by
standing on my guard, and speaking with great reserve.
But had you not rather that I should deal frankly with you,
and tell you just what is,in my heart ?
I am the more inclined to do this, because the question
before us is of so deep importance; insomuch that, were I
convinced you had decided it right, there would be an end
at once of my preaching. And it lies in a small compass, as
you say, "I am not making conjectures of what may happen,
but relating mischiefs which actually have happened."
These, then, the mischiefs which have actually happened,"
let us consider as calmly as possible.
But first we may' setaside the "thousands whom (it is
said) we should have had pretending a mission from God,
to preach against the wickedness of. the great, had not the
rebels been driven back." The rebels, blessed be God, are
,driven back.* So that mischief has not actually happened.
We may wave, also, "the legion of monstrous errors and
wickednesses, the sedition, murder, and treason of the last
centuryy" seeing, whatever may be hereafter, it is certain
-these mischiefs also have not yet actually happened. Nor
have I anything to do with that poor madman, (I ,never
heard of any more than one such,) who came some time
since, "preaching in London streets against Prelacy" and
Methodism; and denouncing curses against George White-
field, John Wesley, and all Bishops, Priests, and Deacons."
I was more nearly concerned in what has actually happened
:at Wednesbury, Darlaston, and Walsal. And these were
" shameful disorders" indeed. Publish them not in Gath or
Askelon! Concerning the occasion of which I may speak
:more freely to you than it was proper to do to the public.
When I preached at Wednesbury first, Mr. Egginton
Referring to the discomfiture of the Pretender's forces in the year 1745.-


(the Vicar) invited me to his house, and told me, that the?
oftener I came, the welcomer I should be; for I had done:
much good there already, and he doubted not but I should
do much more. But the next year I found him another
man. He had not only heard a vehement visitation-charge,.
but had been informed that we had publicly preached against
drunkards, which must have been designed for satire on.
him. From this time, we found more and more effects of"
his unwearied labours, public and private, in stirring up the-
people on every side, "to drive these fellows out of the:
country." One of his sermons I heard with my own ears.
I pray God I may never hear such another! The Minister
of Darlaston, and the Curate of Walsal, trod in the same
steps. And these were they who (not undesignedly) occa-
sioned all the disorders which followed there.
You add: In countries which you have not much,
frequented, there have appeared Antinomian Preachers,.
personating your disciples." These have appeared most in
countries I never frequented at all, as in the west of Lanca-
shire, in Dorsetshire, and in Ireland. When I came, they
disappeared, and were seen no more there; at least, not
personating our disciples. And yet, by all I can learn, even,
these poor wretches have done as little harm as good. I
cannot learn that they have destroyed one soul that was.
before truly seeking salvation.
But you think, I myself "do a great deal of harm, by
breaking and setting aside order. For, order once ever so,
little set aside, confusion rushes in like a torrent."
What do you mean by order? a plan of church-discipline ?
What plan ? the scriptural, the primitive, or our own ? It is,
in the last sense of the word that I have been generally
charged with breaking or setting aside order; that is, the-
rules of our own Church, both by preaching in the fields,,
and by using extemporary prayer.
I have often replied, (1.) It were better for me to die,
than not to preach the Gospel of Christ; yea, and in the-
fields, either where I may not preach in the church, or where-
the church will not contain the congregation: (2.) That I
use the Service of the Church every Lord's day; and it has.
never yet appeared to me, that any rule of the Church forbids
my using extemporary prayer on other occasions.
But methinks I would go deeper. I would inquire, What


.is the end of all ecclesiastical order? Is it not to bring
souls from the power of Satan to God; and to build them
up in his fear and love? Order, then, is so far valuable, as
it answers these ends; and if it answers them not, it is
nothing worth. Now, I would fain know, where has order
.answered these ends? Not in any place where I have been;
not among the tinners in Cornwall, the keelmen at New-
castle, the colliers in Kingswood or Staffordshire; not among
the drunkards, swearers, Sabbath-breakers of Moorfields, or
the harlots of Drury-lane. They could not be built up in
the fear and love of God, while they were open, barefaced
servants of the devil; and such they continued, notwith-
standing the most orderly preaching both in St. Luke's and
St. Giles's church. One reason whereof was, they never
came near the church; nor had any desire or design so to do,
-till, by what you term "breach of order," they were brought
to fear God, to love him, and keep his commandments.
It was not, therefore, so much the want of order, as of the
knowledge and love of God, which kept those poor souls for
-so many years in open bondage to a hard master. And,
indeed, wherever the knowledge and love of God are, true
-order will not be wanting. But the most apostolical order,
where these are not, is less than nothing and vanity.
But you say, "Strict order once set aside, confusion
rushes in like a torrent." It has been so far from rushing
din where we have preached most, that the very reverse is
.true. Surely, never was "confusion worse confounded,"
than [it] was a few years since in the forest of Kingswood.
But how has it been since the word of God was preached
:there, even in this disorderly manner?
Confusion heard his voice; and wild uproar
Stood ruled; and order from disorder sprung.
O Sir, be not carried away with the torrent; the clamour
either of the great vulgar, or the small i Re-examine your
very first notions of these things; and then review that
-sentence, "The devil makes use of your honest zeal, to his
.dishonest and diabolical purposes. He well knows, you do
him more service by breach of order, than dis-service by all
your laborious industry." I hope not, (1.) Because I. bring
the very order you contend for into places where it never
was before: And, (2.) Because I bring (yet not I, but the


grace of God) that knowledge and love of God also, in
conjunction wherewith order is of great price, but without
them a worthless shadow.
I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace,
which is able to build you up, and to give you an inherit-
ance among all them which are sanctified, by faith that is in
XLI.-To the Same.
SIR, NEWCASTLE, March 25, 1747.
1. IN your last, I do not find much reason to complain
either of tartness or bitterness. But is it so serious as the
cause requires? If it be asked,-
Ridentem dcere verum
Quis vetat 9 *
I think the nature of the things whereof we speak should
forbid it. For surely, it is a very serious concern, whether
we dwell in.the eternal glory of God, or in the everlasting
fire prepared for the devil and his angels.
2. If those who subscribe the .Eleventh and following
Articles do subscribe in, what they believe from their hearts
,to be the plain, unforced, grammatical meaning of the words,
then they are clear before God.: I trust you can answer for
yourself herein; but you cannot for all our brethren.
..3. .1 am glad that our dispute concerning commutations
in religion proves to be. "entirely verbal: .As we both
agree, (1.) That abundance of those who bear the name of
.Christiansput a part of religion for the whole; generally
some outward work or form of worship: (2.) That whatever
is thus put for the whole of religion, (in particular, where it
is used to supersede or commute for the religion of the
heart,) it is no longer a part of it, it is gross irreligion, it is
mere mockery of God.
4. When you warned me against "excess of zeal," I did
not say, this was not my weak side; that it was not one
weakness to which I am exposed. My words were: "I am
always in danger of this; and yet I daily experience a far
greater danger of the other extreme." I do. I am, to this
day, ashamed before God, that I do so little to what I ought
to do. But this you call over-done humility," and suppose
This quotation from Horace is thus translated by Francis :-
"Yet may not truth in laughing guise be dress'd ? "-EDIT.


it to be inconsistent with what occurs in the ninety-third
and ninety-fourth paragraphs of the "Earnest Appeal." I
believe it is not at all inconsistent therewith; only one
expression there is too strong,-" all his time and strength;"
-for this very cause, "I am ashamed before God." I do
not spend all my time so profitably as I might, nor all my
strength; at least, not all I might have, if it were not for my
own lukewarmness and remissness; if I wrestled with God
in constant and fervent prayer.
You mention four other instances of self-contradiction.
The first: "You claim and you disclaim miracles. You
claim them, as having seen many miraculous attestations to
your ministry. You disclaim them, desiring none to believe
your words further than they are confirmed by Scripture
and reason;" that is, you claim them in one sense, and
disclaim them in another. Perhaps so; but this is no contra-
diction. (2.) You are not at leisure yet, either to permit
or forbid to marry." Indeed I ain. Although I commend
those who are as "eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's
sake;" yet I know "all men cannot receive this saying,"
and that "it is better to marry than to burn." (3.) "The
newly-justified has at once, in that hour, power over all sin,
and finds, from that hour, the work of God in the soul slowly
and gradually increasing. What, until he has power over
more than all sin?" No; but until he has more power over
all sin; the struggle between the flesh and the Spirit
gradually decreasing; and till he has more peace, more joy
in the Holy Ghost, more of the knowledge and love of God..
(4.) "But surely, the tip-top of all inconsistencies is what
follows, even as explained in your own way: Many receive
from the Holy Ghost an attestation of their acceptance,.
as perceptible as the sun at noon-day; and yet these same-
persons, at other times, doubt or deny that they ever had
such attestation."
The fact stands thus: (1.) A man feels in himself the
testimony of God's Spirit, that he is a child of God; andi
he can then no more deny or doubt thereof, than of the
shining of the sun at noon-day. (2.) After a time, this.
testimony is withdrawn. (3.) He begins to reason within
himself concerning it; next, to doubt whether that testimony
was from God; and, perhaps, in the end, to deny that it
was. And yet he may be, all this time, in every other


respect, "of sound memory as well as understanding."
Now, whether these propositions are true or false, they are
not contradictory to each other. They cannot, unless it were
affirmed, that the same person has and has not the same
testimony at the same time.
5. However, you think I assert a thing impossible. What
is impossible? that the Spirit of God should bear a clear,
perceptible witness with our spirit, that we are the children
of God? Surely no Whether this be the fact or not, no
man of reason will say it is impossible. Or that the Spirit
of God should cease to bear this witness? Neither can the
possibility of this be denied. The thing, then, which is
Supposed impossible is this, that a man who once had it
should ever doubt, whether he had it or no; that is, (as you
subjoin,) "if he continue sound in mind" (or understanding)
"and memory." Right! "If he continue:" But the very
supposition is, that, in this respect, he does not continue so.
While he did so continue, he could not doubt. But his
'understanding is now darkened, and the very traces of that
divine work well-nigh erased out of his memory. Nor can
I think, "it is vain to have recourse here to the etpye s of
the power of darkness." I verily believe, as it was the God
of heaven who once shone in his heart, to give the light of
the knowledge of the glory of God; so it is the god of this
world who hath now blinded his heart, so that the glorious
light cannot shine upon it.
6. If the Quakers hold the same perceptible inspiration
with me, I am glad; and it is neither better nor worse for
their holding it: Although, if I "distinguish it away," I do
not hold it at all. But do I distinguish it away? or any
point which I believe to be the truth of God? I am not
conscious of this. But when men tack absurdities to the
truth of God with which it hath nothing to do, I distinguish
away those absurdities, and let the truth remain in its native
It was several months before my correspondence with you,
that I thus distinguished away perceptible inspiration;
declaring to all men, by perceiving' or feeling the opera-
tions of the Spirit,' I mean, being inwardly conscious of
Ihem." "By 'the operations of the Spirit,' I do not mean
the 'manner' in which he operates in a Christian."
This I mentioned in my last. But it is certain, over and


above those other graces which the Holy Spirit inspires into,
or operates in, a Christian, and over and above his imper-
ceptible influences; I do intend all mankind should under-
stand me to assert, (what I therefore express in the clearest
language I am master of,) every Christian believer hath a
perceptible testimony of the Spirit, that he is a child of God.
I use the phrase, "testimony of the Spirit," rather than
"inspiration," because it has a more determinate meaning.
And I desire men to know what I mean, and what I do not;
that I may not fight as one that beateth the air.
7. Is there "not one word said of this, either in the
'Farther Appeal,' or in any one place in the Bible?" I
think there is in the Bible; in the sixteenth verse of the
eighth chapter to the Romans. And is not this very place
proved to describe the ordinary privilege of every Christian
believer in the Farther Appeal," from the forty-fifth to the
forty-ninth, and from the fifty-sixth to the fifty-ninth page? *
Give me leave to remind you of some of the words. In
the forty-ninth page the argument concludes thus: "It will
follow, that this witness of the Spirit is the private testimony
given to our own consciences, which, consequently, all sober
Christians may claim, without any danger of enthusiasm."
In the fifty-seventh page are these words: "Every one that
is born of God, and doth not commit sin, by his very actions,
saith,' Our Father which art in heaven;' the Spirit itself
bearing witness with their spirit, that they are the children
of God. According to Origen, therefore, this testimony of
the Spirit is not any public testimony by miracles, but an
inward testimony belonging in common to all that are born
of God." Once more: In the fifty-eighth page are these
words: "He brings yet another proof of the superiority of
those who had this Spirit of adoption: 'The Spirit itself
beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of
God.' 'I prove this,' says he, 'not only from the voice
itself, but also from the cause whence that voice proceeds.
For the Spirit suggests the words while we thus speak,
which he hath elsewhere expressed more plainly, God hath
sent forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, Abba,
Father! But what is, The Spirit beareth witness with our
spirit?' He means the Paraclete by the gift given unto

Vol. VIII., pp. 83-87, and 93--95, of the present edition.-EnDr.


us." (But that this was an extraordinary gift, we have no
intimation atall, neither before nor after.) "And when the
Spirit beareth witness, what doubt is left? If a man or an
angel spake, some might doubt; but when the Most High
beareth witness to us, who can doubt any longer?" '
I am mistaken if this, does not come home to the point,
to the question now before us; describing a perceptible
testimony of the Holy Ghost, directly felt to be worked by
8. But I will wave all authorities, that of Origen and
Chrysostom, as well as of Hannah Richardson (though not
a weak woman, but eminently the reverse) and Averel
Spencer (though not a wicked one); only observing, that
your argument proves too much. I am as fully assured
to-day, as I am of the shining of the sun, that the Scriptures
are of God. I cannot possibly deny or doubt of it now; yet
I may doubt of it to-morrow; as I have done heretofore a
thousand times, and that after the fullest assurance preced-
ing. Now, if this be "a demonstration that my former
assurance was a mere fancy," then farewell all revelation at
once !
But to come closer yet, and weigh the point in debate in
the balance of plain reason: You must allow there is a
testimony of the Spirit with our spirit, that we are the
children of God. "But," you say, "it is not a perceptible
one." How is this? Let us examine it throughly. It is
allowed, (1.) The Spirit of God, (2.) Bears testimony to my
spirit, (3.) That I am a child of God. But I am not to
perceive it. Not to perceive what? the first, second, or
third particular? Am I not to perceive what is testified,-
that I am a child of God? Then it is not testified at all.
This is saying and unsaying in the same breath. Or am I
not to perceive, that it is testified to my spirit? Yea, but I
must perceive what passes in my own soul. Or, lastly, am I
to perceive that I am a child of God, and that this is testified
to my spirit; but not to perceive who it is that testifies, not
to know it is the Spirit of God? O Sir, if there really be a
man in the world who hath this testimony in himself, can it
be supposed that he does not know who it is that testifies ?
who it is that speaks to his heart? that speaks in his inmost
soul as never man spake? If he does not, he is ignorant of
the whole affair. If you are in this state, I pray God you


may say from the heart, "Lord, what I know not, teach
thou me." How much better were this, than to canonize
your own ignorance, as the only knowledge and wisdom;
and to condemn all the generation of God's children of
idiotism and madness !"
9. Under your last head, you do not confine yourself now
within the bounds you at first proposed; when you said, I
am not making conjectures of what may happen, but relating
mischiefs which actually have happened." Take care you,do
not grow warm when I reply to this: You will have need of
all your patience to bear it.
You begin: "Will you ask what I mean by 'order?'
Was. it not manifest I meant to speak against lay-
preaching?" It was: But not against that alone. There-
fore, before I entered upon the question, I defined the term
in a wider sense, so as to include both this and every
irregularity you had objected. You go on: "How could
you give so strange an answer, 'I bring this order you
contend for into places where it never was before?'" I
reply, This is not my whole answer; it is but one, and that
the.most inconsiderable, part of it: But it is strictly true.
Do you then bring in the ministry of regularly ordained
Ministers, where, before, people were used to the preaching
of lay brethren?" Yes; them who were before used to no
preaching at all, or to that of those whom you would term
lay brethren, I bring to attend on the ministry of those
regular Preachers who have the charge of their several
But very "ill consequences" of our irregular preaching,
you say, have "actually happened: A number of unsent
persons going about the kingdom, and preaching the worst
of heresies." "A number!" Where? Within these nine
years past, I have heard of two, and. no more, (besides that
lunatic Clergyman,) who have gone about thus, though I
.doubt sent neither of God nor man. But I have heard of
no heresy which they preached; only a little smooth,
undigested nonsense. Nor can the ill done by these balance
the thousandth part of the good already done by the
preaching of other laymen; namely, the turning so many
bold, barefaced servants of the devil, into humble, holy
servants of God.
However, evil will happen if any State faction shall join


the irregulars." If they shall! Yea, if they shall attempt
it, (which is far enough off,) the irregulars will not join
them. We bless God that the Government is at present
very fully convinced of this.
"But if unsent, well-meaning laymen may preach, unsent
ill-meaning laymen will, upon the first opportunity, spread
sedition like wild-fire." Yea, and Clergymen as well as
laymen, sent as well as unsent. Thus it ever was, and I
presume ever will be.
10. That the irregularities of Mr. Cartwright did more
harm in the course of a century, than all the labours of his
life did good," is by no means plain to me: And the less so,
because I cannot learn from Mr. Strype, or any other
impartial writer, (whatever his mistakes in judgment were,),
that he fell into any irregularities at all. I look upon him,
and the body of Puritans in that age, (to whom the German
Anabaptists bore small resemblance,) to have been both the
most learned and most pious men that were then in the
English nation. Nor did they separate from the Church;.
but were driven out, whether they would or no. The-
vengeance of God which fell on the posterity of their
persecutors, I think, is no imputation on Mr. Cartwright oa
them; but a wonderful scene of divine Providence, visiting
the sins of the fathers upon their children, (when they also
had filled up the measure of their iniquities,) unto the third,
and fourth generation.
I am not careful for what may be a hundred years hence.
He who governed the world before I was born, shall take
care of it likewise when I am dead. My part is to improve-
the present moment. And, whatever may be the fruits of
lay-preaching, when you and I are gone to our long home,
every serious man has cause to bless God for those he may
now see with his eyes; for the saving so many souls from
death, and hiding a multitude of sins. The instances glare
in the face of the sun. Many indeed God hath taken to.
himself; but many more remain, both young and old, who
now fear God and work righteousness.
11. Perhaps a parallel drawn from physic may hold more
exactly than you was apprized of. For more than twenty
years I have had numberless proofs that regular .Physicians
do exceeding little good. From a deep conviction of this, I
have believed it my duty, within these four months last past,


to prescribe such medicines to six or seven hundred of the
poor as I knew were proper for their several disorders.
Within six weeks, nine in ten of them who had taken these
medicines were remarkably altered for the better; and many
were cured of diseases under which they had laboured for
ten, twenty, forty years. Now, ought I to have let one of
these poor wretches perish, because I was not a regular
Physician? to have said, "I know what will cure you: But
I am not of the College: You must send for Dr. Mead? "
Before Dr. Mead had come in his chariot, the man might
have been in his coffin. And when the Doctor was come,
where was his fee? What! he cannot live upon nothing
So, instead of an orderly cure, the patient dies; and God
requires his blood at my hands !
12. But you think if one should look out of his grave in
the middle of the next century, he would find the orderly
preaching at St. Luke's and St. Giles's church had done
more good than the disorderly preaching at Kennington."
I cannot learn by all the inquiries I have made, that at
present it does any good at all; that either Dr. B. or Dr. G.
has, in all these years, converted one sinner to God. And if
a man saves no souls while he is alive, I fear he will save few
after he is dead.
But "it does abundance less harm." Perhaps not so,
neither. "He that gathereth not with me scattereth;"
more especially if he be a Preacher. He must scatter from
Him, if he does not gather souls to God. Therefore, a
lifeless, unconverting Minister is the murderer-general of his
parish. He enters not into the kingdom of heaven himself,
and those that would enter in he suffers not. He stands in
the gap between them and true religion. Because he has it
not, they are easy without it. Dead form contents him, and
why not them ? "Sure, it is enough if we go as far as our
guide !" And if he is not outwardly vicious, he the more
effectually secures them from all inward, solid virtue. How
choice a factor for hell is this! destroying more souls than
any Deist in the kingdom! I could not have blamed St.
Chrysostom, if he had only said, "Hell is paved with the
skulls of such Christian Priests "
13. 1 must be short on what remains. You suppose the
impression made on men's minds by this irregular way of
preaching is chiefly owing to "the force of novelty." I


believe it was to. obviate this very supposition, that my
preaching has so rarely made any impression at all, till the
novelty of it was over. When I had preached more than
:sixscore times at this town, I found scarce any effect; only
that abundance of people heard, and gaped and stared, and
went away much as they came. And it was one evening,
while I was in doubt if I had not laboured in vain, that such
.a blessing of God was given, as has continued ever since, and
I trust will be remembered unto many generations.
You ascribe it likewise in part to "a natural knack of
persuasion." If either by a natural or an acquired power of
persuasion I can prevail upon sinners to turn to God, am I
to bury even that talent in the earth ? No; but try if you
cannot do more good in a College or in a parish." I have
tried both, and I could not do any substantial good, either
to my pupils or my parishioners. Among my parishioners
in Lincolnshire, I tried for some years; but I am well
.assured I did far more good to them by preaching three days
*on my father's tomb, than I did by preaching three years in
his pulpit.
But you know no call I have to preach up and down; to
,play the part of an itinerant Evangelist." Perhaps you do
:not. But I do: I know God hath required this at my
hands. To me, his blessing my work is an abundant proof;
:although such a proof as often makes me tremble. But is
there not pride or vanity in my heart ? There is; yet this
is not my motive to preaching. I know and feel that the
:spring of this is a deep conviction, that it is the will of God,
:and that were I to refrain, I should never hear that word,
Well done, good and faithful servant;" but, Cast ye the
unprofitable servant into outer darkness, where is weeping,
.and wailing, and gnashing of teeth."

XLII.-To the Same.
:SIR, S ST. IVES, July 10, 1747.
1 You put me in mind of an eminent man, who,
,preaching at St. James's, said, If you do not repent, you
will go to a place which I shall not name before this audi-
'ence." I cannot promise so much, either in preaching or
writing, before any audience, or to any person whatever.
Yet I am not conscious of doing this very often,-of
" profusely flinging about everlasting fire;" though it is true,


I mentioned it in my last letter to you, as I have done now,
a second time; and perhaps I may mention it yet again.
For, to say the truth, I desire to have both heaven and hell
ever in my eye, while I stand on this isthmus of life, between
these two boundless oceans; and I verily think the daily
consideration of both highly becomes all men of reason and
2. I think likewise, (or I would not spend five words upon
the head,) that these are nearly concerned in our present
question. To touch only on one branch of it: If I live in
wilful sin, in a sinful "deviation from established order," am
I not in the way to hell? I cannot take it any otherwise.
I cannot help "blending these two inquiries together." I
must therefore speak seriously, or not at all; and yet, I
trust, "without losing my temper." Do you complain of
this first, that I may not complain? It appears to me that
you show more eagerness of spirit, more warmth and resent-
ment, in your last than you ever have done from the
3. You spoke of "a number of unsent persons going about
-and preaching the worst of heresies." I answered, "Within
these nine years I have heard of two, and no more, who
have gone about thus, though I doubt neither sent of God
nor man." Their names were Jonathan Wildboar, and
'Thomas Smith, alias Moor, alias I know not what; for I
fear he changed his name as often as his place. It is not
unlikely that either of these might steal as well as lie,
which they have done abundantly, particularly in claiming
acquaintance with Mr. Whitefield or me, wherever they
judged it would recommend them to their hearers. I should
not be surprised to hear of two more such; but I have not
yet, in all the counties I have gone through between London
and Berwick-upon-Tweed, or between Deal and the Land's-
4. I would to God, all the Clergy throughout the land
Were "zealous for inward, solid virtue." But I dare not
say one in ten of those I have known are so in any degree.
The two Clergymen of this place, on a late public occasion,
were led home at one or two in the morning in such a
condition as I care not to describe. One of them is Rector
of Lelant also, (a parish east of St. Ives,) of Twidnack, to the
south, and Zennor, to the west. At Zennor he keeps another

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