SOMETIME FELLOW OF LINCOLN COLLEGE, OXFORD.
WITH THE LAST CORRECTIONS OF THE AUTHOR.
2, CASTLE STREET, CITY ROAD, E.C.;
AND AT 66, PATERNOSTER ROW, E.G.
t 2 at tt \
[Entert at Stationetr' Jifall.]
HAYMAN, CHRISTY AND LILLY, LTD., HATTON WORKS, FARRINGDON ROAD, E.C.
THE REVEREND JOHN WESLEY, A.M.,
SOMETIME FELLOW OF LINCOLN COLLEGE, OXFORD.
Promr OCTOBER 14, 1735, to NOVEMBER 29, 1745.
THE THIRD EDITION.
FORn some years after Mr. Wesley had entered
upon the office of a Christian Minister his views of
evangelical truth were very defective. His temper
was deeply serious, and it was his sincere and ear-
nest desire to save his own soul, and them that
heard him; but he understood not the nature and
extent of the Christian salvation, nor the faith
by which it is obtained. In this state he wrote
and published little. A revised translation of
Kempis's "Christian's Pattern," a single Sermon,
and a small Collection of Prayers, which he formed
for the use of his pupils at Oxford, were his only
publications at this period of his life. The case
was widely different when he was brought to an
acquaintance, both in theory and experience, with
the truth as it is in Jesus. He then felt that the
world was his parish; and that he had a message
from God to all men. The love of Christ con-
strained him to publish that message in all parts
of the land, regardless of toil, contempt, and
danger; and the same principle rendered him one
of the most voluminous writers of the age. For
fifty years the press was incessantly employed under
his direction, in multiplying books of the most
ii PREFACE TO
useful kind, adapted to the spiritual benefit of all
classes of the community, but chiefly designed for
the instruction of the poor. His different works
were printed in London, Bristol, Dublin, and New-
castle-upon-Tyne; but they were often confided to
the care of men who were incompetent to the task
of correcting them; and the itinerant ministry in
which he was incessantly employed rendered it
impossible that they should undergo his own in-
spection as they passed through the press. The
consequence was, that errors accumulated in them,
till, in several, instances, they failed to express the
Reminded, at length, by advancing years, of his
approaching end, and desirous that, after his decease,
his trumpet should not give an uncertain sound,"
he undertook a careful revision of his whole works,
which he published in a uniform edition. It is
comprised in thirty-two duodecimo volumes; the
first of which bears the date of 1771, and the last
that of 1774. To this edition the following address
"to the reader is prefixed:-
"1. I have had a desire, for several years, if God
should spare me a little longer, to print in one col-
lection all that I had before published in separate
tracts. (I mean, all the prose, except the Notes on
the Bible, the System of Philosophy, the Christian
Library, and the books which were designed for the
use of Kingswood School) These I wanted to see
printed together; but on a better paper, and with
a little larger print than before.
"2. I wanted to methodize these tracts, to range
THE THIRD EDITION.
them under proper heads, placing those together
which were on similar subjects, and in such order
that one might illustrate another. This, it is easy
to see, may be of use to the serious reader, who
will then readily observe, that there is scarce any
subject of importance, either in practical or con-
troversial divinity, which is not treated of more or
less, either professedly or occasionally.
3. But a far more necessary work than that of
methodizing, was the correcting them.. The cor-
recting barely the errors of the press is of much
more .consequence than I had conceived, till I
began to read them over with much more attention
than I had done before. These, in many places,
were such as not only obscured, but wholly de-
stroyed, the sense; and frequently to such a
degree, that it would have been impossible for any
but me to restore it. Neither could I do it myself,
in several places, without long consideration: The
word inserted having little or no resemblance to
that which I had used.
"4. But as necessary as these corrections were,
there were others of a different kind, which were
more necessary still In revising what I had wrote
on so many various subjects and occasions, and for
so long a course of years, I found cause fornot only
literal or verbal corrections, but frequently for cor-
recting the sense also. I am the more concerned to
do this, because none but myself has a right to do
it. Accordingly I have altered many words or sen-
tences; many others I have omitted;. and in various
parts I have added more or less, as I judged the
iv. PREFACE TO
subject required: So that in this edition I present
to serious and candid men my last and maturest
thoughts, agreeable, I hope, to Scripture, reason,
and Christian antiquity.
"5. It may be needful to mention one thing
more, because it is a little out of the common way.
In the extract from M;lton's Paradise Lost,' and
in that from Dr. Young's 'Night Thoughts,' I
placed a mark before those passages which I judged
were most worthy of the reader's notice. The same
thing I have taken the liberty to do throughout
the ensuing volumes. Many will be glad of such
a help; though still, every man has a right to judge
for himself, particularly in matters of religion,
because every man must give an account of him-
self to God.
The printer employed upon this occasion was
William Pine, of Bristol; whose carelessness in a
great measure defeated Mr. Wesley's design in the
correction of his works. In the seventeenth volume,
page 56, the argument is completely ruined by an
omission, which Mr. Wesley has thus noticed in the
table of errata:-" By the inexcusable negligence of
theprinter and corrector, several paragraphs are here
left out." A more grievous instance of the same
kind occurs in the twenty-ninth volume, page 183;
where one hundred and seven pages are omitted,
making a chasm in the Journal of one year and three
months. On this subject the following entry is made
THE THIuD EDITION.
by Mr. Wesleyin the volume which he left in his own
private library:-" N.B. From this day, July 20,
1749, to Nov. 2, 1751, is wanting, by the inexcus-
able negligence of the printer. An entire Journal! "
In addition to these instances of flagrant inatten-
tion, it should also be stated, that Pine's edition of
Mr. Wesley's works is disfigured throughout by
inaccuracies, many of which greatly affect the
sense. Mr. Wesley prepared a list of errata, which
he prefixed to each volume; and in the copy of his
works which he reserved for his personal use, he
corrected the whole with his own hand. One of
these errors may be properly mentioned as an ex-
ample: The number might be greatly increased.
In volume the twenty-eighth, page 98, having given
an account of his mother's death and funeral, Mr.
Wesley inserts a letter written by her, in which she
describes her manner of governing her children
when they were under her care at Epworth. One
of her rules was, as there stated, "That no sinful
action, as lying, pilfering at church, or on the Lord's
day, disobedience, quarrelling, &c., should ever pass
unpunished." This law of the family, as it here
stands, is a perfect libel upon the understanding and
conscience of the excellent mother, and upon the cha-
racter and habits of her well-disciplined children. It
supposes that, under ordinary circumstances, "pil-
fering is not a sinful action; and that it only
becomes such when committed in the church," or
on the Sabbath; and intimates that, if the children
were only honest on that sacred day, and when
engaged in public worship, they-might, at other
times, and in other places, transgress the eighth
commandment with impunity. .Suspicions have
been actually deduced fromthis most objectionable
passage, unfavourable even to the moral character
of the Wesley family. Whereas they were all inno-
cent in this affair. Mrs. Wesley's rule was, That
no sinful action, as lying, pilfering, playing at
church, or on the Lord's day, disobedience, quarrel-
ling, &c., should ever pass unpunished." Thus it
stands in the early editions of the Journal, and
thus it stands corrected by Mr. Wesley. Pine's
most injurious misprint, however, was perpetuated
in the successive editions of the Journal for half a
century; and during that period was also unhappily
transferred to various other publications which
have been extensively circulated.
Mr. Wesley's edition of his own works was ren-
dered particularly valuable by an addition that was
made to those of his Sermons to which a legal
importance was afterwards attached. These Ser-
mons were published at different times, and were
originally comprised in three duodecimo volumes.
The first bears the date of 1746; the second, of
1748; and the third, of 1750. A fourth was added
in the year 1760; containing also some other prac-
tical tracts, partly original and partly selected; and
it was not numbered as connected with the former
series. To these Sermons ten others were now added.
Some of them had been published as separate
pamphlets, having been preached on particular
occasions: The rest appear to have been written
for the express purpose of giving a more complete
THE THIRD EDITION.
view of the author's doctrinal system.* The entire
series is inserted in the first four volumes of the
works in the edition of 1771-1774 ; and to these
Sermons it is that reference is made in the Trust-
Deeds of the Methodist chapels, as embodying,
with his Notes on the New Testament, the doctrines
of the Connexion.
To meet the circumstances of the poor, the cor-
rected and uniform edition of Mr. Wesley's works
was published in weekly numbers, at sixpence
The following are the ten sermons here mentioned :-The Second
Sermon on the Witness of the Spirit;-On Sin in Believers ;-Repent-
ance of Believers ;-The Great Assize;-The Lord our Righteousness;
-Wandering Thoughts;-the Scripture Way of Salvation ;-The
Good Steward;-The Reformation of Manners;-Or the Death of
Mr. Whitefield. It is worthy of remark, that when Mr. Wesley pub-
lished a uniform edition of his Sermons in eight volumes duodecimo,
in 1787 and 1788,-a copy of which he afterwards bequeathed to
every Travelling Preacher,-by some unaccountable inadvertency, a
copy of an early edition of tho doctrinal Sermons was placed before
the Printer; so that not only were the ten discourses here mentioned
left out, but the benefit of the corrections which the author had made
sixteen years before was completely lost to the reader. Of this edition
the fifth and three following volumes consisted of Sermons selected
from the Arminian Magazine.
t The following were the Conditions of publication, as stated on
the cover of each number, drawn up, in all probability, by the printer :-
"1. That the work will be neatly printed in duodecimo, on a fine
paper, and new letter; cast on purpose by Isaac Moore and Co.
2. That a number, containing seventy-two pages, stitched in blue
paper, shall be delivered weekly to the subscribers, till the whole is
completed, at sixpence.
3. That every five numbers will make a handsome volume, con-
taining about three hundred and sixty pages.
"4. That in the last volume will be given a correct and copious Index.
S"5. That particular attention will be paid, through the whole, to
the goodness of the paper, and neatness of the print; so that when
finished, it is not doubted but it will afford general satisfaction to the
subscribers, as well as put them in possession of a uniform and elegant
edition of so valuable a work."
This edition contains a large number of tracts
which were not written by Mr. Wesley, but abridged
and adopted from various authors; and as he lived
nearly twenty years after it was published, and
continued during this interval to write with his
usual diligence, at the time of his death it was, of
course, extremely incomplete. To meet the wishes
of his friends, therefore, in the year 1809 a new
edition of his works, in the octavo size, was com-
menced, and finished in 1813. It is comprised in
sixteen volumes, to which was afterwards added an
Index to the whole. Respecting this edition it
may be observed, that the printer overlooked Mr.
Wesley's tables of errata; that the original
arrangement of the Sermons was altered, those
which were intended by the author to constitute the
standard doctrines of Methodism being mixed up
with others, apparently for the sake of variety;
that two papers, one on baptism, (Vol. XIII., p.
412,) and another on the immortality of the soul,
(Vol. XV., p. 343,) were not written by Mr. Wesley;
and that, as no record of his entire works had been
kept, nor any complete collection of them ever
formed, many pamphlets, and other documents,
written by him, were not known, and therefore not
inserted. The edition was perhaps as complete as cir-
cumstances would then allow; it met the wishes of
the Connexion, and gratified Mr. Wesley's friends;
and the whole was sold in the course of a few years.
With regard to the edition now before the reader,
-which is denominated the third," and is said to
have received the last corrections of the author,"-
THE THIRD EDITION.
it may be requisite to state, that two objects have
been kept in view: The formation of a pure text of
Mr.'Wesley's original writings; and a complete
collection of them. To obtain these, no exertion
has been spared. Of all his larger works Mr.
Wesley left copies in his private library, contain-
ing corrections in his own handwriting. These
corrections are now published for the first time;
and every separate work has been carefully collated
throughout with copies of different "editions which
were printed during the author's life. That no
literal or verbal inaccuracies have escaped detection
is not pretended. A late writer, who was long
practised in typography, has remarked, that abso-
lute correctness in printing is perhaps unattain-
able; and that those are to be the most com-
mended who come the nearest to it." In a few
instances, it has been perceived, letters have been
broken, or drawn out, after the sheets were put to
press; but nothing of the kind, it is believed, has
occurred, so as to mislead the reader, or to render
the author's meaning uncertain. It is not uncom-
mon, in reprinting the works of deceased authors,
to make occasional alterations, according to the
views and taste of the person to whom the correc-
tion of the press is intrusted: A practice which
cannot be too strongly reprobated. In many in-
stances, to alter the style or sentiments of a de-
ceased writer, especially without acknowledgment,
is a far greater crime than that of violating the
sanctity of his tomb. No such liberty has been
taken with a single sentence of Mr. Wesley's works.
It would not have been difficult, indeed, to render
many passages in them more conformable to the
rules of modern grammar; but this would have
been to deprive them of one of their peculiarities, in
which also they resemble the productions of the
most eminent men among his contemporaries.
Every effort has been made to include the whole
of Mr. Wesley's original writings in the present
edition. It contains upwards of twenty pamphlets,
more than five hundred letters, and a large number
of other documents, that were never embodied in
any former collection of his works; and several of
them are of superior interest and importance.
Many of the letters are of great value; and the
rest will serve to show the bent of the writer's mind,
and the nature and extent of his correspondence;
while, at the same time, they contain hints and
allusions which serve to illustrate the history of
Methodism in different places. In the last volume
are given a list of the prose works which Mr. Wesley
abridged from various authors, and another of the
poetical publications of the two brothers. They
exhibit the astonishing mass of information which
the Founder of Methodism placed within the reach
of the common people; and will assist those per-
sons .who wish to form a complete collection of the
works which received his sanction. The prefaces
connected with them, and which are here given
entire, constitute an important part of his instruct-
ive writings. These lists may not be absolutely
perfect. It is possible that some future editor may
discover both original publications of Mr. Wesley,
and tracts abridged by him from the writings of
THE THIRD EDITION. xi
other men, which are at present unknown; but
nothing has been overlooked through inattention.
Judging from internal evidence, the following
tracts are believed not to have been originally
written by Mr. Wesley; but as the means of ascer-
taining their authors were not at hand, they have
been again inserted in his works :-" A Roman
Catechism, with a Reply thereto;" (Vol. X., p. 86;)
"The Origin of Image-Worship among Christians;"
(Ibid., p. 175;) and "Directions concerning Pro-
nunciation and Gesture." (Vol. XIII., p. 518.)
Much of the "Treatise on Baptism" (Vol X., p.
188) is copied from a tract which was written by
Mr. Wesley published a few of his tracts under
different titles; and lest any persons should sup-
pose that they are not inserted in this edition,
because some of the titles do not there occur, it may
be proper to state, that the pamphlet entitled,
Cautions and Directions given to the greatest
Professors in the Methodist Societies, 1762," was
afterwards incorporated in the Plain Account of
Christian Perfection; (Vol. XI., p. 427;) that the
"Plain Account of Genuine Christianity, 1761,"
often reprinted,- which is perhaps the most beauti-
ful of all Mr. Wesley's tracts,-forms the conclu-
sion of his "Letter to Dr. Middleton;" (Vol X.,
p. 67;) and that The Dignity of Human Nature,
1786," is the first chapter of "The Doctrine-of
Original Sin," in answer to Dr. Taylor. (Vol. IX.,
To the uniform edition of his works which Mr.
Wesley published, he appended translations of the
greater part of the classical quotations with which
they abound. This example has been followed upon
the present occasion. His own translations are
preserved; and when he has given none, the best
that could be obtained from other writers have been
adopted. The quotations themselves, which are
sometimes given in an accommodated form, have
been carefully verified. In a few instances short
notes are given at the foot of the page, where the
subject seemed to require some elucidation. It
would have been easy to increase both their num-
ber and length; but it was felt that there would be
an impropriety in loading the volumes with such
explanations as ought rather to be sought in bio-
graphical and historical compilations.
As Mr. Wesley's works are of a very miscellane-
ous character, a copious Index is indispensable in
order to their general utility as books of reference.
This also has been attempted; and no small amount
of time and labour has been expended upon it.
Every subject of importance, and every person and
place of any note, mentioned in these admirable
volumes, it is presumed, may now be referred to
While every attempt has been made to render
this edition worthy of the distinguished author,
and of the Connexion of which he was the Founder,
justice requires that the liberal encouragement
which has been given to it should be acknowledged.
The number of subscribers has regularly increased
from the publication of the first volume; and, not-
withstanding the agricultural and commercial
distress which so generally prevails, two thousand
THE THIRD EDITION.
copies of the work are now in circulation : A cheer-
ing proof of the esteem in which Mr. Wesley's
incomparable writings are held, and of the respect
which is cherished for the talents and virtues of
that apostolic man. It is a favourable circum-
Sstance, that Mr. Wesley's works are completed pre-
cisely at the time when his Life by the Rev. Richard
Watson has made its appearance. In that very
instructive biography Mr. Wesley's doctrinal views
are well explained, and the peculiarities of his
character and conduct are defended with admirable
ability and effect.
In publishing this edition of Mr. Wesley's works,
it is presumed that the Methodist Connexion has
only in part discharged a debt which has long been
due to his memory. That debt will never be fully
cancelled, until the tracts which he abridged
from other writers shall be republished; and es-
pecially until a uniform edition of his poetical
works, and those of his gifted brother, shall be
given to the world. In addition to the volumes of
hymns which they published, and many of which
have long been out of print, Mr. Charles Wesley left
in manuscript five quarto volumes of hymns on the
Four Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles, revised
for publication with the greatest care, both by him-
self and his brother, besides several other volumes
of miscellaneous poetry; the whole of which are
distinguished by his characteristic elegance and
strength, and especially by a spirit of fervent piety.
These compositions have lately become the property
of the Methodist Conference, by purchase from his
heir, and, with those which are already before the
world, form such a body of devotional poetry as
the Christian church has never seen.
The number of Mr. Wesley's publications may
well excite surprise, when viewed in connexion
with his* incessant travelling, his uninterrupted
ministerial labours, and the nature and extent of
his pastoral cares. The works of such men as
Mr. Baxter and Bishop Taylor are more volumin-
ous than his original compositions; but those dis-
tinguished men were compelled to spend the
greater part of their lives in retirement: Whereas
Mr. Wesley's life was one of the greatest activity.
He published more books, travelled more miles, and
preached more sermons, than any other Minister of
his age; and the entire history of human nature
does not furnish a higher example of laborious dili-
gence in the service of God and man.
His style bears a strong resemblance to that of
Addison; and for terseness, perspicuity, simplicity,
and force, has perhaps never been surpassed. He
regarded a great book as a great evil; and in all
his publications, whether original or adopted, aimed
at brevity. By this means he saved his own time
and that of his reader, and secured the sale of his
works among the poor: For, unlike those writers
who are authors by profession, he has distinctly
stated, that he never published anything for the
sake of pecuniary advantage; but simply to defend
the truth, or to convey instruction.
The presumed "ignorance" of Mr. Wesley's
societies has often been a subject of allusion, and of
illiberal remark : But the fact is, that the greater
THE THIRD EDITION.
part of the common people ofEngland were left with
scarcely any knowledge either of religion or of
letters. He taught them the nature and necessity of
Christian piety; and at the same time made provi-
sion for their intellectual improvement. To explain
and enforce practical godliness was his great con-
cern; but in subordination to this, he laboured to
excite a taste for elegant literature, and supplied
persons in comparative poverty with the means of
obtaining useful knowledge in its various branches.
It will be perceived that he published Grammars of
five different languages; a compendium of logic; a
selection of elegant moral poetry; a concise
history of England, and of the Christian church;
a system of natural philosophy; and a commentary
on the entire Scriptures. By more than half a
century he anticipated the laudable exertions
which are now in progress to promote the general
instruction of the community. The cheap and
useful literature of the present day, in the shape
of popular "Libraries," is an imitation, whether
designedly or not, of his Christian Library," and
of the other works just specified. Modern com-
pilers have few difficulties to surmount. They can
readily avail themselves of the improvements of
science, and of that appetite for knowledge which
is excited by the labours of the schoolmaster."
Mr. Wesley had to create that appetite; and he
had to create it in a people deeply sunk in igno-
rance, and addicted to brutal habits. His Chris-
tian Library was a noble effort to render avail-
able to the spiritual interests of the people in
general, the scarce and valuable works of volumi-
xvi PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
nous and learned authors. The historical and
scientific compilations which he published were
adapted to the wants of a people who had already
begun to read and to think; and show that, in
his apprehension, there is a.close connexion be-
tween useful knowledge and vital godliness. Un-
happily, some of the cheap publications of the
present day contain sentiments unfavourable to
religion, morality, and, social order; whereas the
whole of his publications are at once designed and
calculated, not only to improve the understanding,
but also to promote the love of God and man. They
inculcate rational and scriptural piety, universal
benevolence, and the purest loyalty and patriotism.
To young persons who are studying the arts of
composition and correct reasoning, Mr. Wesley's
original works will ever be of inestimable value;
as a record also of the rise and progress of that
revival of true religion which distinguished the
eighteenth century, and from which such import-
ant results have arisen, they possess a deep and
a permanent interest; but their chief excellence
consists in an exhibition of Christianity in its
spirituality and power, and of the scriptural
method of obtaining it. They call the attention of
professing Christians from the vanities of the
world, and from a religion of mere form, to the
" pearl of great price,"-that kingdom of God,"
which "is not meat and drink, but righteousness,
and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost."
May 16th, 1831.
REV. MR. JOHN WESLEY'S JOURNAL.
FROM HIS EMBARKING FOR GEORGIA, TO HIS
RETURN TO LONDON.
What shall we say then? That Israel, which followed after the law of
righteousness, hath not attained to the law of righteousness. Where-
fore? Because they sought it not by Faith, but as it were by the
works of the law. om. i. 30-32.
1. IT was in pursuance of an advice given by
Bishop Taylor, in his Rules for Holy Living and
Dying," that, about fifteen years ago, I began to
take a more exact account than I had done before,
of the manner wherein I spent my time, writing
down how I had employed every hour. This I con-
tinued to do wherever I was, till the time of my
leaving England. The variety of scenes which I
then passed through, induced me to transcribe,
from time to time, the more material parts of my
diary, adding here and there such little reflections
as occurred to my mind. Of this journal thus
occasionally compiled, the following is a short
extract: It not being my design to relate all those
particulars, which I wrote for my own use only;
and which would answer no valuable end to others,
however important they were to me.
2. Indeed I had no design or desire to trouble
the world with any of my little affairs: As cannot
but appear to every impartial mind, from my hav-
ing been so long as one that heareth not; not-
withstanding the loud and frequent calls I have
had to answer for myself. Neither should I have
done it now, had not Captain Williams's affidavit,
published as soon as he had left England, laid an
obligation upon me, to do what in me lies, in obe-
dience to that command of God, Let not the good
which is in you be evil spoken of." With this
view I do at length give an answer to every man
that asketh me a reason of the hope which is in
me," that in all these things I have a conscience
void of offence toward God and toward men."
3. I have prefixed hereto a letter, wrote several
years since, containing a plain account of the rise
of that little society in Oxford, which has been so
variously represented. Part of this was published
in 1733; but without 'my consent or knowr'dge.
It now stands as it was wrote; without any addi-
tion, diminution, or amendment; it being my only
concern herein nakedly to declare the thing as it
4. Perhaps my employment of another kind
may not allow me to give any farther answer to
them who say all manner of evil of me falsely,"
and seem to "think that they do God service."
Suffice it, that both they and I shall shortly "give
an account to Him that is ready to judge the quick
and the dead."
INTRODUCTORY LETTER. '
SIR, Oxox, Oct. 18th, 1732.
THE occasion of my giving you this trouble is of a very
extraordinary nature. On Sunday.last I was informed (as no
doubt you will be ere long) that my brother and I had killed
your son: That the rigorous fasting which he had imposed
upon himself, by our advice, had increased his illness and
hastened his death. Now though, considering it in itself, "it
is a very small thing with me to be judged by man's judg-
ment ;" yet as the being thought guilty of so mischievous an
imprudence might make me the less able to do the work I
came into the world for, I am obliged to clear myself of it, by
observing to you, as I have done to others, that your son left
off fasting about a year and a half since; and that it is not yet
half a year since I began to practise it.
I must not let this opportunity slip of doing my.part towards
giving you a juster notion of some other particulars, relating
both to him and myself, which have been industriously misre-
presented to you.
In March last he received a letter from you, which, not being
able to read, he desired me to read to him; several of the
expressions whereof I perfectly remember, and shall, do, till I
too am called hence. I then determined, that if God was
pleased to take away your son before me, I would justify him
and myself, which I now do with all plainness and simplicity,
as both my character and cause required.
In one practice for which you blamed your son, I am only
concerned as a friend, not as a partner. That, therefore, I shall
consider first. Your own account of it was in effect this:-
" He frequently went into poor people's houses, in the villages
about Holt, called their children together, and instructed them
in their duty to God, their neighbour, and themselves. He
likewise explained to them the necessity of private as well as
public prayer, and provided them with such forms as were best
suited to their several capacities : And being well apprized how
much the success of his endeavours depended on their good-will
towards him, to win upon their affections, he sometimes distri-
buted among them a little of that money which he had saved
from gaming, and the other fashionable expenses of the place."
This is the first charge against him; upon which all that I shall
observe is, that I will refer it to your own judgment, whether
it be fitter to have a place in the catalogue of his faults, or of
those virtues for which he is now numbered among the sons
If all the persons concerned in "that ridiculous society,
whose follies you have so often heard repeated," could but give
such a proof of their deserving the glorious title* which was
once bestowed upon them, they would be contented that their
lives too should be"counted madness, and theirend" thought
to be without honour." But the truth is, their title to holi-
ness stands upon much less stable foundations; as you will
easily perceive when you know the ground of this wonderful
outcry, which it seems England is not wide enough to contain.
In November, 1729, at which time I came to reside at Oxford,
your son, my brother, myself, and one more, agreed to spend
three or four evenings in a week together. Our design was to
read over the classics, which we had before read in private, on
common nights, and on Sunday some book in divinity. In the
summer following, Mr. M. told me he had called at the gaol, to
see a man who was condemned for killing his wife; and that,
from the talk he had with one of the debtors, he verily believed
it would do much good, if any one would be at the pains of now
and then speaking with them. This he so frequently repeated,
that on the 24th of August, 1730, my brother and I walked
with him to the castle. We were so well satisfied with our
conversation there, that we agreed to go thither once or twice a
week; which we had not done long, before he desired me to go
with him to see a poor woman in the town, who was sick. In
this employment too, when we came to reflect upon it, we
-believed it would be worth while to spend an hour or two in a
week; provided the Minister of the parish, in which any such
person was, were not against it. But that we might not depend
wholly on our own judgments, I wrote an account to my father
* The Holy Club.
INTRODUCTORY LETTER. 7
of our whole design; withal begging that he, who had lived
seventy years in the world, and seen as much of it as most
private men have ever done, would advise us whether we had
yet gone too far, and whether we should now stand still, or go
Part of his answer, dated September 21st, 1730, was this:-
And now, as to your own designs and employment, what
can I say less of them than, Valde probo: And that I have
the highest reason to bless God, that he has given me two sons
together at Oxford, to whom he has given grace and courage to
turn the war against the world and the devil, which is the best
way to conquer them. They have but one more enemy to com-
bat with, the flesh; which if they take care to subdue by fast-
ing and prayer, there will be no more for them to do, but to
proceed steadily in the same course, and expect' the crown
which fadeth not away.' You have reason to bless God, as I
do, that you have so fast a friend as Mr. M., who, I see, in the
most difficult service, is ready to break the ice for you. You
do not know of how much good that poor wretch who killed his
wife has been the providential occasion. I think I must adopt
Mr. M., to be my son, together with you and your brother
Charles; and when I have such a ternion to prosecute that
war, wherein I am now miles emeritus,t I shall not be ashamed
when they speak with their enemies in the gate.
"I am afraid lest the main objection you make against your
going on in the business with the prisoners may secretly proceed
from flesh and blood. For 'who can harm you if you are fol-
lowers of that which is so good;' and which will be one of the
marks by which the Shepherd of Israel will know his sheep at
the last day ?-though if it were possible for you to suffer a
little in the cause, you would have a confessor's reward. You
own, none but such as are out of their senses would be preju.
diced against your acting in this manner; but say, 'These are
they that need a physician.' But what if they will not accept
of one, who will be welcome to the poor prisoners ? Go on
then, in God's name, in the path to which your Saviour has
directed you, and that track wherein your father has gone before
you! For when I was an undergraduate at Oxford, I visited
those in the castle there, and reflect on it with great satisfaction
I A soldier past service.
* I greatly approve.
to this day. Walk as prudently as you can, though not fear-
fully, and my heart and.prayers are with you.
",Your first regular step is, to consult with him (if any such
there be) who has a jurisdiction over the prisoners; and the
next is, to obtain the direction and approbation of your Bishop.
This is Monday morning, at which time I shall never forget
you. If it be possible, I should be glad to see you all three
*here in the fine end of the summer. But if I cannot have that
satisfaction, I am sure I can reach you every day, though you
,were beyond the Indies. Accordingly, to Him who is every
where I now heartily commit you, as being
"Your most affectionate and joyful father."
In pursuance of these directions, I immediately went to Mr.
SGerard, the Bishop of Oxford's Chaplain, who was likewise the
person that took care of the prisoners when any were condemned
,to die: (At other times they were left to their own care:) I
proposed to him our design of serving them as far as we could,
and my own intention to.preach there once a month, if the
Bishop approved of it. He much commended our design, and
said he would answer for the Bishop's approbation, to whom he
would take the first opportunity of mentioning it. It was not
long before he informed me he had done so, and that his Lord-
ship not only gave his permission, but was greatly pleased with
the undertaking, and hoped it would have the desired success.
Soon after, a gentleman of Merton College, who was one
of our little company, which now consisted of five persons,
acquainted us that he had been much rallied the day before
.for being a member of The Holy Club; and that it was become
a common topic of mirth at his college, where they had found
out several of our customs, to which we were ourselves utter
strangers. Upon this I consulted my,father again, in whose
.answer were these words:-
"This day I received both yours, and this evening, in the
.course of our reading, I thought I found an answer that would
be more proper than any I myself could dictate; though since it
will not be easily translated, I sendit in the original. HloXXnl po
K avxauo-t' v7rep vtcwvr 7wrerrX lqpcwa Try a rapaKtcx ret, vrteprepo--
*aevoat .ry Xapa,.* (2 Cor.vii. 4.) What would you be ? Would
Great is my glorying of you: I am filled with comfort, I am exceeding
you be angels ? I question whether a mortal can arrive to a
greater degree of perfection, than steadily to do good, and for
that very reason patiently and meekly to suffer evil. For my
part, on the present view of your actions and designs, my daily
prayers are, that God would keep you humble; and then I am
sure that if you continue 'to suffer for righteousness' sake,'
though it be but in a lower degree, the spirit of glory and of
God' shall, in some good measure, rest upon you.' Be never
weary of well-doing : Never look back; foi you know the prize
and the crown are before you : Though I can scarce think so
meanly of you, as that you would be discouraged with 'the
crackling of thorns under a pot.' Be not high-minded, but
fear. Preserve an equal temper of mind under whatever treat-
ment you meet with from a not very just or well-natured
world. Bear no more sail than is necessary, but steer steady.
The less you value yourselves for these unfashionable duties,
(as there is no such thing as works of supererogation,) the more
all good and wise men will value you, if they see your actions
are of a piece; or, which is infinitely more, He by whom ac-
tions and intentions are weighed will both accept, esteem, and
Upon this encouragement we still continued to meet together
as usual; and to confirm one another, as well as we could, in
our resolutions, to communicate as often as we had opportuni-
ty; (which is here once a week;) and do what service we could
to our acquaintance, the prisoners, and two or three poor fami-
lies in the town. But the outcry daily increasing, that we
might show what ground there was for it, we proposed to our
'friends, or opponents, as we had opportunity, these or the
I. Whether it does not concern all men of all conditions to
imitate Him, as much as they can, "who went about doing
Whether all Christians are not concerned in that command,
"While we have time, let us do good to all men ?"
Whether we shall not be more happy hereafter, the more
good we do now?
Whether we can be happy at all hereafter, unless we have,
according to our power, fed the hungry, clothed the naked,
visited those that are sick, and in prison;" and made all these
actions subservient to a higher purpose, even the saving of
souls from death?
SWhether it be not our bounden duty always to remember,
that He did more for us than we can do for him, who assures
us, "Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of
these my brethren, ye have done it unto me?"
II. Whether, upon these considerations, we may not try to
Sdo good to our acquaintance ? Particularly, whether we may
not try to convince them of the necessity of being Christians ?
Whether of the consequent necessity of being scholars ?
Whether of the necessity of method and industry, in order
to either learning or virtue?
Whether we may not try to persuade them to confirm and
increase their industry, by communicating as often as they can?
Whether we may not mention to them the authors whom
we conceive to have wrote the best on those subjects ?
Whether we may not assist them, as we are able, from time
to time, to form resolutions upon what they read in those au-
thors, and to execute them with steadiness and perseverance ?
III. Whether, upon the considerations above-mentioned, we
may not try to do good to those that are hungry, naked, or sick?
In particular, whether, if we know any necessitous family, we
may not give them a little food, clothes, or physic, as they want ?
Whether we may not give them, if they can read, a Bible,
Common-Prayer Book, or Whole Duty of Man ?
Whether we may not, now and then, inquire how they have
used them; explain what they do not understand, and enforce
what they do ?
Whether we may not enforce upon them, more especially, the
necessity of private prayer, and of frequenting the church and
Whether we may not contribute, what little we are able,
toward having their children clothed and taught to read ?
Whether we may not take care that they be taught their
catechism, and short prayers for morning and evening ?
IV. Lastly: Whether, upon the considerations above-men-
tioned, we may not try to do good to those that are in prison ?
In particular, Whether we may not release such well-disposed
persons as remain in prison for small sums?
Whether we may not lend smaller sums to those that are of
any trade, that they may procure themselves tools and mate-
rials to work with?
Whether we may not give to them who appear to want it
most, a little money, or clothes, or physic ?
Whether we may not supply as many as are serious enough
to read, with a Bible, and Whole Duty of Man?
Whether we may not, as we have* opportunity, explain and
enforce these upon them, especially with respect to public and
private prayer, and the blessed sacrament?
I do not remember that we met with any personwho answered
any of these questions in the negative; or who even doubted,
whether it were not lawful to apply to this use that time and
money which we should else have spent in other diversions.
But several we met with who increased our little stock of money
for the prisoners and the poor, by subscribing something quar.
terly to it; so that the more persons we proposed our designs to,
the more we were confirmed in the belief of their innocency, and
the more determined to pursue them, in spite of the ridicule,
which increased fast upon us during the winter. However, in
spring I thought it could not be improper to desire farther
instructions from those who were wiser and better than our.
selves; and, accordingly, (on May 18th, 1731,) I wrote a par-
ticular account of all our proceedings to a Clergyman of known
wisdom and integrity. After having informed him of all the
branches of our design, as clearly and simply as I could, I next
acquainted him with the success it had met with, in the following
words:-" Almost as soon as we had made our first attempts
this way, some of the men of wit in Christ Church entered the
lists against us; and, between mirth and anger, made a pretty
many reflections upon the Sacramentarians,as they were pleased
to call us. Soon after, their allies at Merton changed our title,
and did us the honour of styling us, The Holy Club. But most
of them being persons of well-known characters, they had not
the good fortune to gain any proselytes from the sacrament, till
a gentleman, eminent for learning, and well esteemed for piety,
joining them, told his nephew, that if he dared to go to the
weekly communion any longer, he would immediately turn him
out of doors. That argument, indeed, had no success: The
young gentleman communicated next week; upon which his
uncle, having again tried to convince him that he was in the
wrong way, by shaking him by the throat to no purpose, changed
his method, and by mildness prevailed upon him to absent from
it the Sunday following; as he has done five Sundays in six ever
since. This much delighted our gay opponents, who increased
their number apace; especially when, shortly after, one of the
seniors of the college having been with the Doctor, upon his
return from him sent for two young gentlemen severally, who
had communicated weekly for some time, and was so successful
in his exhortations, that for the future they promised to do it
only three times a year. About this time there was a meeting
(as one who was present at it informed your son) of several of
the'officers and seniors of the college, wherein it was consulted
what would be the speediest way to stop the progress of enthusi-
asm in it. The result we know not, only it was soon publicly
reported, that Dr. and the censors were going to blow up
The Godly Club. This was now our common title; though we
were sometimes dignified with that of The Enthusiasts, or The
Part of the answer I received was as follows:-
" GOOD SIn,
"A PRETTY while after the date, yours came to my hand.
I waved my answer till I had an opportunity of consulting your
father, who, upon all accounts, is a more proper judge of the
affair than I am. But I could never find a fit occasion for it.
As to my own sense of the matter, I confess, I cannot but hear-
tily approve of that serious and religious turn of mind that
prompts you and your associates to those pious and charitable
offices; and can have no notion of that man's religion, or concern
for the honour of the University, that opposes you, as far as your
design respects the colleges. I should be loath to send a son of
mine to any seminary, where his conversing with virtuous young
men, whose professed design of meeting together at proper times
was to assist each other in forming good resolutions, and
encouraging one another to execute them with constancy and
steadiness, was inconsistent with any received maxims or rules
of life among the members. As to the other branch of your
design, as the town is divided into parishes, each of which has its
proper Incumbent, and as there is probably an Ecclesiastic who
has the spiritual charge of the prisoners, prudence may direct
you to consult them: For though I dare not say you would be
too officious, should you of your own mere motion seek out the
persons that want your instructions and charitable contribu-
tions; yet should you have the concurrence of their proper
Pastor, your good offices would be more regular, and less liable
Your son was now at Holt: However, we continued to meet
at our usual times, though our little affairs went on but heavily
without him. But at our return from Lincolnshire, in Septem-
ber last, we had the pleasure of seeing him again; when, though
he could not be so active with us as formerly, yet we were
exceeding glad to spend what time we could in talking and
reading with him. It was a little before this time my brother
and I were at London,'when going into a bookseller's shop, (Mr.
Rivington's, in St. Paul's Church-yard,) after some other con-
versation, he asked us whether we lived in town; and upon our
answering, No; at Oxford,"-" Then, gentlemen," said he,
"let me earnestly recommend to your acquaintance a friend I
have there, Mr. Clayton, of Brazennose." Of this, having
small leisurefor contracting new acquaintance, we took no notice
for the present. But in the spring following, (April 20th,) Mr.
Clayton meeting me in the street, and giving Mr. Rivington's
service,I desired his company to my room,and then commenced
our acquaintance. At the first opportunity I acquainted him
with our whole design,which he immediately and heartily closed
with: And not long after, Mr. M- having then left Oxford,
we fixed two evenings in a week to meet on, partly to talk upon
that subject, and partly to read something in practical divinity.
The two points whereunto, by the blessing of God and your
son's help, we had before attained, we endeavoured to hold fast:
I mean, the doing what good we can; and, in order thereto,
communicating as often as we have opportunity. To these, by
the advice of Mr. Clayton, we have added a third,-the observ-
ing the fasts of the Church; the general neglect of which we
can by no means apprehend to be a lawful excuse for neglecting
them. And in the resolution to adhere to these and all things
else which we are convinced God requires at our hands, we trust
we shall persevere till he calls us to give an account of our stew-
ardship. As for the names of Methodists, Supererogation-men,
and so on, with which some of our neighbours are pleased to
compliment us, we do not conceive ourselves to be under any
obligation to regard them, much less to take themfor arguments.
"To the law and to the testimony" we appeal, whereby we
ought to be judged. If by these it can be proved we are in an
error, we will immediately and gladly retract it: If not, we
"have not so learned Christ," as to renounce any part of his
service, though men should say all manner of evil against us,"
with more judgment and as little truth as hitherto. We do,
indeed, use all the lawful means we know, to prevent "the good
which is in us from being evil spoken of: But if the neglectof
known duties be the one condition of securing our reputation,
why, fare it well; we know whom we have believed, and what
we thus lay out He will pay us again. Your son already stands
before the judgment-seat of Him who judges righteous judg-
ment; at the brightness of whose presence the clouds remove:
His eyes are open, and he sees clearly whether it was "blind
zeal, and a thorough mistake of true religion, that hurried him
on in the error of his way; or whether he acted like a faithful
and wise servant, who, from a just sense that his time was short,
made haste to finish his work before his Lord's coming, that
" when laid in the balance he might not" be found wanting."
I have now largely and plainly laid before you the real ground
of all the strange outcry you have heard; and am not without
hope that by this fairer representation of it than you probably
ever received before, both you and the Clergyman you formerly
mentioned may have a more favourable opinion of a good cause,
though under an ill name. Whether you have or no, I shall
ever acknowledge my best services to be due to yourself and
your family, both for the generous assistance you have given
my father, and for the invaluable advantages you son has
(under God) bestowed on,
Your ever obliged
and most obedient servant.
ON THE DEATH OF
MR. MORGAN, OF CHRIST CHURCH.
BY THE REV. MR. SAMUEL WESLEY.
We fools counted his life madness.
IF aught beneath them happy souls attend,
Let Morgan hear the triumph of a friend,
And hear well-pleased. Let libertines so gay
With careless indolence despise the lay;
Let critic wits, and fools for laughter born,
Their verdict pass with supercilious scorn;
Let jovial crowds, by wine their senses drown'd,
Stammer out censure in their frantic round;
Let yawning sluggards faint dislike display,
Who, while they trust to-morrow, lose to-day;-
Let such as these the sacred strains condemn;
For 'tis true glory to be hiss'd by them.
Wise in his prime, he waited not for noon;
Convinced that mortal never lived too soon.
As if foreboding then his little stay,
He made his morning bear the heat of day.
Fix'd, while unfading glory he pursues,
No ill to hazard, and no good to lose:
No fair occasion glides unheeded by;
Snatching the golden moments as they fly,
He by few fleeting hours ensures eternity.
Friendship's warm beams his artless breast inspire,
And tend'rest rev'rence for a much-loved sire.
He dared for heaven this flattering world forego,
Ardent to teach, as diligent to know;
Unwarp'd by sensual views or vulgar aims,
By idle riches, or by idler names;
Fearful of sin in every close disguise;
Unmoved by threatening or by glozing lies.
Seldom indeed the wicked came so far,
Forced by his piety to defensive war;
Whose zeal for other men's salvation shown,
Beyond the reach of hell secured his own.
ON THE DEATH 0P MR. MORGAN.
Gladd'ning the poor where'er his steps he turn'd;
Where pined the orphan, or the widow mourn'd;
Where prisoners sigh'd beneath guilt's horrid stain,
The worst confinement and the heaviest chain;
Where death's sad shade the uninstructed sight
Veil'd with thick darkness in the land of light.
Our Saviour thus fulfilled his great design,
(If human we may liken to divine,)
Heal'd each disease that bodies frail endure,
And preach'd the' unhoped-for Gospel to the poor.
To means of grace the last respect he show'd,
Nor sought newpaths, as wiser than his God:
Their sacred strength preserved him from extremes
Of empty outside or enthusiast dreams;
Whims of Molinos, lost in rapture's mist,
Or Quaker, late-reforming quietist.
He knew that works our faith must here employ,
And that 'tis heaven's great business to enjoy.
Fix'd on that heaven he death's approaches saw,
Nor vainly murmur'd at our nature's law;
Repined not that his youth so soon should go,.
Nor grieved for fleeting pleasures here below.
Of sharpest anguish scorning to complain,
He fills with mirth the intervals of pain.
Nor only unappall'd, but joyful, sees
The dark, cold passage that must lead to peace;
Strong with immortal bloom secure to rise,
The tears for ever banish'd from his eyes.
Who now regrets his early youth would spend
The life so nobly that so soon should end ?
Who blames the stripling for performing more
Than Doctors grave, and Prelates of threescore ?
Who now esteems his fervour indiscreet,
His prayers too frequent, or his alms too great ?
Who thinks, where blest he reigns beyond the sky,
His crown too radiant, or his throne too high ?
Who but the Fiend, who once his cause withstood,
And whisper'd,--" Stay till fifty to be good ?"
Sure, if believed, to' obtain his hellish aim,
Adjourning to the time that never came.
FROM OCTOBER 14, 1735, TO FEBRUARY 1, 1737-8.
Tuesday, OCTOBER 14,.1735.-Mr. Benjamin Ingham, ot
Queen's College, Oxford, Mr. Charles Delamotte, son of a
merchant, in, London, who had offered himself some days
before, my brother Charles Wesley, and myself, took boat
for Gravesend, in order to embark for Georgia. Our end in
leaving our native country was not to avoid want, (God hav-
ing given us plenty of temporal blessings,) nor to gain the
dung or dross of riches or honour; but singly this,-to save
our souls; to live wholly to the glory of God. _n the after-
noon we found the Simmonds off Gravesend, and immedi-
ately went on board.
Wednesday and Thursday we spent with one or two of
our friends, partly on board and partly on shore, in exhorting
one another "to shake off every weight, and to run with
patience the race set before us.'
Fri. 17.-1 began to learn German, in order to converse
with the Germans, six-and-twenty of whom we had on board.
On Sunday, the weather being fair and calm, we had the
Morning Service on quarter-deck. I now first preached
extempore, and then administered the Lord's supper to six or
seven communicants. A little flock. May God increase it!
Mon..20.-Believing the denying ourselves, even in the
smallest instances, might, by the blessing of God, be helpful
to us, we wholly leftoff:the use of flesh and wine, and con-
fined ourselves to vegetable food,-chiefly rice and biscuit.
In the afternoon, David, Nitschman, Bishop of the Germans,
and two others, began to learn English. O may we be, not
only of one tongue, but of one mind and of one heart!
Tues. 21.-We sailed from Gravesend. When we were
past about half the Goodwin Sands, the wind suddenly
failed. Had the. calm continued till ebb, the ship had pro.
bably been lost. But the gale sprung up again in an hour, and
carried us into the Downs.
We now began to be a little regular. Our common way of
VOL. I. C
REV. J. WESLEY'S
living was this :-From four iti the morning till five, each of us
used private prayer. From five to seven we read the Bible
together, carefully comparing it (that we might not lean to our
own understandings) with the writings of the earliest ages. At
seven we breakfasted. At eight were the public prayers. From
nine to twelve, I usually learned German, and Mr. Delamotte,
Greek. My brother wrlt sermons, and Mr. Ingham instructed
the children. At twelve we met to give an account to one
another what we had done since our last meeting, and what we
designed to do before our next. About one we dined. The
time from dinner to four, we spent in reading to those whom
each of us had taken in charge, or in speaking to them severally,
as need required. At four were the evening prayers; when
either the second lesson was explained, (as it always was in the
morning,) or the children were catechised and instructed before
the congregation. From five to six we again used private prayer.
From six to seven I read in our cabin to two or three of the pas-
sengers, (of whom there were about eighty English on board,)
and each of my brethren to a few more in theirs. At seven I
joined with the Germans in their public service; while Mr.
Ingham was reading between the decks, to as many as desired
to hear. At eight we met again, to exhort and instruct one
another. Between nine and ten we went to bed, where neither
the roaring of the sea, nor the motion of the ship, could take
away the refreshing sleep which God gave us.
Fri. 24.-Having a rolling sea, most of the passengers found
the effects of it. Mr. Delamotte was exceeding sick for several
days; Mr. Ingham, for about half an hour. My brother's
head ached much. Hitherto it hath pleased God, the sea has
not disordered me at all; nor have I been hindered one quarter
of an hour from reading, writing, composing, or doing any
business I could have done on shore.
During our stay in the Downs, some or other of us went, as
often as we had opportunity, on board the ship that sailed in
company with us, where also many were glad to join in prayer
and hearing the word.
Fri. 31.-We sailed out of the Downs. At eleven at night
I was waked by a great noise. I soon found there was no
danger. But the bare apprehension of it gave me a lively con-
viction what manner of men those ought to be who are every
moment on the brink of eternity.
Sat. Nov. 1.-We came to St. Helen's harbour, and the
next day into Cowes road. The wind was fair, but we waited
for the man-of-war which was to sail with us. This was a
happy opportunity of instructing our fellow-travellers. May
He whose seed we sow, give it the increase!
Sun, 16.-Thomas Hird, and Grace his wife, with their
children, Mark, aged twenty-one, and Phebe, about seventeen,
late Quakers, were, at their often-repeated desire, and after
careful instruction, admitted to baptism.
Thur. 20.-We fell down into Yarmouth road, but the
next day were forced back into Cowes. During our stay here
there were several storms; in one of which two ships in
Yarmouth road were lost.
The continuance of the contrary winds gave my brother an
opportunity of complying with the desire of the Minister of
Cowes, and preaching there three or four times. The poor
people flocked together in great numbers. We distributed a
few little books among the more serious of them, which they
received with all possible expressions of thankfulness.
Fri. 21.-One recovering from a dangerous illness desired
to be instructed in the nature of the Lord's supper. I
thought it concerned her to be first instructed in the nature
of Christianity; and, accordingly, fixed an hour a day to read
with her in Mr. Law's Treatise on Christian Perfectioni.
Sun. 23.-At night I was awaked by the tossing of the
ship and roaring of the wind, and plainly showed I was
unfit, for I was unwilling, to die.
Tues. DEC. 2.-I had much satisfaction in conversing with
one that was very ill and very serious. But in a few days she
recovered from her sickness and from her seriousness together.
Sun. 7.-Finding nature did not require so frequent sup-
plies as we had been accustomed to, we agreed to leave off
suppers; from doing which, we have hitherto found no incon-
Wed. 10.-We sailed from Cowes, and in the afternoon
passed the Needles. Here the ragged rocks, with the waves
dashing and foaming at the foot of them, and the white side
of the island rising to such a height, perpendicular from the
beach, gave a strong idea of Him that spanneth the heavens,
and holdeth the waters in the hollow of His hand !"
To-day I spoke closely on the head of religion, to one I had
talked with once or twice before. Afterwards she said, with
REV. J. WESLEY'S
'many tears, My mother died when I was but ten years old.
Some of her last words were, 'Child, fear God; and though
you lose me, you shall never want a friend.'. I have now
found a friend when I most wanted and least expected one."
From this day to the fourteenth, being in the Bay of
Biscay, the sea was very rough. Mr. Delamotte and many
others were more sick than ever; Mr. Ingham, a little;. I,
not at all. But the fourteenth being a calm day, most of the
sick were cured at once.
Thur. 18.-One who was big with child, in a high fever, and
almost wasted away with a violent cough, desired to receive the
holy communion before she died. At the hour of her receiving
she began to recover,and in afewdayswas entirelyout of danger.
Sun. 21.-We had fifteen communicants, which was our
usual number on Sundays: On Christmas-day we had nine-
teen; but on New Year's day fifteen only.
Thur. JAN. 15, 1736.-Complaint being made to Mr.
Oglethorpe, of the unequal distribution of the water among
the passengers, he appointed new officers to take charge of it.
.At this the old ones and their friends were highly exasperated
against us, to whom they imputed the change. But "the
fierceness of man shall turn to Thy praise."
Sat. 17.-Many people were very impatient at the contrary
wind. At seven in the evening they were quieted by a storm.
It rose higher and higher till nine. About nine the sea broke
over us from stem to stern; burst through the windows of the
state cabin, where three or four of us were, and covered us all
over, though a bureau sheltered me from the main shock.
About eleven I lay down in the great cabin, and in a short
time fell asleep, though very uncertain whether I should wake
alive, and much ashamed of my unwillingness to die. O how
pure in heart must he be, who would rejoice to appear before
God at a moment's warning I Toward morning, He re-
buked the winds and the sea, and there was a great calm."
Sun. 18.-We returned God thanks for our deliverance, of
which a few appeared duly sensible. But the rest (among
whom were most of the sailors) denied we had been in any
danger. I could not have believed that so little good would
have been done by the terror they were in before. But
it cannot be that they should long obey God from fear, who
are deaf to the motives of love.
Fri. 23.-In the evening another storm began. In the
morning it increased, so that they were forced to let the ship
drive. I could not but say to myself, How is it that thou
hast no faith ? being still unwilling to die. About one in
the afternoon, almost as soon as I had stepped out of the
great cabin-door, the sea did not break as usual, but came
with a full, smooth tide over the side of the ship. I was
vaulted over with water in a moment, and so stunned that I
scarce expected to lift up my head again, till the sea should:
give up her dead. But thanks be to God, I received no hurt
at all. About midnight the storm ceased.
Sun. 25.-At noon our third storm began. At four it was
more violent than before. Now, indeed, we could say, "The
waves of the sea were mighty, and raged horribly. They rose
up to the heavens above, and" clave "down to hell beneath."
The winds roared round about us, and (what I never heard;
before) whistled as distinctly as if it had been a human voice.
The ship not only rocked to and fro with the utmost violence,
but shook and jarred with so unequal, grating a motion, that
one could not but with great difficulty keep one's hold of any
thing, nor stand a moment without it. Every ten minutes'
came a shock against the stern or side of the ship, which one
would think should dash the planks in pieces. At this time
a child, privately baptized before, was brought to be received
into the church. It put me in mind of Jeremiah's buying
the field, when the Chaldeans were on the point of destroying
Jerusalem, and seemed a pledge of the mercy God designed
to show us, even in the land of the living.
We spent two or three hours after prayers, in conversing,
suitably to the occasion, confirming one another in a calm
submission to the wise, holy, gracious will of God. And now
a storm did not appear so terrible as before. Blessed be the
God of all consolation !
At seven I went to the Germans. I had long before
observed the great seriousness of their behaviour. Of their
humility they had given a continual proof, by performing.
those servile offices for the other passengers, which none of'
the English would, undertake; for which they desired, and
would receive no pay, saying, "it was good for their proud
hearts," and "their loving Saviour had done more for them."
And every day had given them occasion of showing a meekness'
REY. J. WESLEY'S
which no injury could move. If they were pushed, struck, or
thrown down, they rose again and went away; but no com-
plaint was found in their mouth. There was now an oppor-
tunity of trying whether they were delivered from the spirit
of fear, as well as from that of pride, anger, and revenge. In
the midst of the psalm wherewith their service began, the sea
broke over, split the main-sail in pieces, covered the ship, and
poured in between the decks, as if the great deep had already
swallowed us up. A terrible screaming began among the
English. The Germans calmly sung on. I asked one of them
afterwards, "Was you not afraid ?" He answered, I thank
God, no." I asked, "But were not your women and children
afraid?" He replied, mildly, "No; our women and children
are not afraid to die."
From them I went to their crying, trembling neighbours,
and pointed out to them the difference in the hour of trial,
between him that feareth God, and him that feareth him not.
At twelve the wind fell. This was the most glorious day
which I have hitherto seen.
Mon. 26.-We enjoyed the calm. I can conceive no differ-
ence comparable to that between a smooth and a rough sea,
except that which is between a mind calmed by the love of
God, and one torn up by the storms of earthly passions.
Thur. 29.-About seven in the evening, we fell in with the
skirts of a hurricane. The rain as well as the wind was ex-
tremely violent. The sky was so dark in a moment, that the
sailors could not so much as see the ropes, or set about furling
the sails. The ship must, in all probability, have overset, had
not the wind fell as suddenly as it rose. Toward the end of it,
we had that appearance on each of the masts, which (it is
thought) the ancients called Castor and Pollux. It was a small
ball of white fire, like a star. The mariners say, it appears
either in a storm, (and then commonly upon the deck,) or just
at the end of it; and then it is usually on the masts or sails.
Fri. 30.-We had another storm, which did us no other harm
than splitting the fore-sail. Our bed being wet, I laid me down
on the floor, and slept sound till morning. And, I believe, I
shall not find it needful to go to bed (as it is called) any more.
Sun. FEB. 1.-We spoke with a ship of Carolina; and
Wednesday, 4, came within soundings. About noon, the trees
were visible from the mast, and in the afternoon from the main
deck. In the Evening Lesson were these words: A great
door, and effectual, is opened." O let no one shut it !
Thur. 5.-Between two and three in the afternoon, God
brought us all safe into the Savannah river. We cast anchor
near Tybee Island, where the groves of pines, running along
the shore, made an agreeable prospect, showing, as it were, the
bloom of spring in the depth of winter.
Fri. 6.-About eight in the morning, we first set foot on
American ground. It was a small uninhabited island, over
against Tybee. Mr. Oglethorpe led us to a rising ground, where
we all kneeled down to give thanks. He then took boat for
Savannah. When the rest of the people were come on shore,
we called our little flock together to prayers. Several parts of
the Second Lesson (Mark vi.) were wonderfully suited to the
occasion; in particular, the account of the courage and suffer-
ings of John the Baptist; our Lord's directions to the first
Preachers of his Gospel, and their toiling at sea, and deliver-
ance; with these comfortable words: "It is I, be not afraid."
Sat. 7.-Mr. Oglethorpe returned from Savannah with Mr.
Spangcnberg, one of the Pastors of the Germans. I soon
found what spirit he was of; and asked his advice with regard
to my own conduct. He said, My brother, I must first ask
you one or two questions. Have you the witness within your-
self? Does the Spirit of God bear witness with your spirit,
that you are a child of God ? I was surprised, and knew not
what to answer. He observed it, and asked, Do you know
Jesus Christ ? I paused, and said, I know he is the Saviour
of the world." "True," replied he; but do you know he
has saved you?" I answered, "I hope he has died to save
me." He only added, Do you know yourself? I said, I
do." But I fear they were vain words.
SMon. 9.-I asked him many questions, both concerning.
himself and the church at Hernhuth. The substance of his
answers was this:-
"At eighteen years old, I was sent to the university of Jena,
where I spent some years in learning languages, and the vain
philosophy, which I have now long been labouring to forget.
Here it pleased God, by some that preached his word with
power, to overturn my heart. I immediately threw aside all my
learning, but what tended to save my soul. I shunned all com-
pany, and retired into a solitary place, resolving to spend my
REV. J. WESLEY'S
life there. For three days I had much comfort here; but on
the fourth it was all gone. I was amazed, and went for advice
to an experienced Christian. When I came to him, I could
not speak. But he saw my heart, and advised me to go back
to my house, and follow the business Providence called me to.
I went back, but was fit for nothing. I could neither do busi-
ness, nor join in any conversation. All I could say to any one,
was Yes, or No. Many times I could not say that, nor under-
stand the plainest thing that was said to me. My friends and
acquaintance looked upon me as dead, came no more to me,
nor spoke about me.
"When I grew better, I began teaching some poor children.
Others joining with me, we taught more and more, till there
were above thirty teachers, and above two hundred scholars. I
had now invitations to other universities. But I could not
accept of any; desiring only, if it were the will of God, to be
little and unknown. I had spent some years thus, when Pro-
fessor Breithaupt, of Halle, died : Being then pressed to remove
thither, I believed it was the call of God, and went. I had not
been long there, before many faults were found, both with my
behaviour and preaching; and offences increased more and
more, till, after half a year, a petition against me was sent to
the King of Prussia, who sent an order to the commander at
Halle; in pursuance whereof I was warned to leave the city in
forty-eight hours. I did so, and retired to Hernhuth to Count
"The village of Hernhuth contains about a thousand souls,
gathered out of many nations. They hold fast the discipline,
as well as the faith and practice, of the apostolical Church. I
was desired by the brethren there last year, to conduct sixteen
of them to Georgia, where two lots of ground are assigned us;
and with them I have staid ever since."
I asked, "Whither he was to go next ? He said, "I have
thoughts of going to Pennsylvania. But what God will do with
me I know not. I am blind. I am a child. My Father
knows; and I am ready to go wherever He calls."
Fri. 13.-Some of the Indians sent us word of their inten-
tion to come down to us. In our course of reading to-day, were
these words: Thus saith the Lord of Hosts, It shall yet come
to pass, that there shall come people, and the inhabitants of
many cities: And the inhabitants of one city shall go to another,
Feb. 1736.] JOURNAL. 25
saying, Let us go speedily to pray before the Lord, and to
seek the Lord of Hosts: I will go also. Yea, many people
and strong nations shall come to seek the Lord of Hosts in
Jerusalem, and to pray before the Lord." (Zech. viii. 20-22.)
Sat. 14.-About one, Tomo Chachi, his nephew Thleeanou-
hee, his wife Sinauky, with two more women, and two or three
Indian children, came on board. As soon as we came in, they
all rose and shook us by the hand; and Tomo Chachi (one
Mrs. Musgrove interpreted) spoke as follows :-
"I am glad you are come. When I was in England, I
desired that some would speak the great Word to me; and my
nation then desired to hear it; but now we are all in confusion.
Yet I am glad you are come. I will go up and speak to the
wise men of our nation; and I hope they will hear. But we
would not be made Christians as the Spaniards make Chris-
tians : We would be taught, before we are baptized."
I answered, There is but One, Hie that sitteth in heaven,
who is able to teach man wisdom. Though we are come so far,
we know not whether He will please to teach you by us or no.
If He teaches you, you will learn wisdom, but we can do
nothing." We then withdrew.
Sun. 15.-Another party of Indians came; they were all
tall, well-proportioned men, and had a remarkable softness in
their speech, and gentleness in their whole behaviour. In the
afternoon, they all returned home but three, who stayed to go
Mon. 16.-Mr. Oglethorpe set out for the new settlement
on the Alatamahaw river. He took with him fifty men, besides
Mr. Ingham, Mr. Hemsdorf, and the three Indians.
Thur. 19.-My brother and I took boat, and, passing by
Savannah, went to pay our first visit in America to the poor
Heathens. But neither Tomo Chachi nor Sinauky. was at
home. Coming back, we waited upon Mr. Causton, the chief
Magistrate of Savannah. From him we went with Mr. Span-
genberg to the German brethren. About eleven we returned
to the boat, and came to our ship about four i, the morning.
Sat. 21.-Mary Welch, aged eleven days, was baptized
according to the custom of the first church, and the rule of the
Church of England, by immersion. The child was ill then,
but recovered from that hour.
Tues. "24.-Mr. Oglethorpe returned. The day following
REV. J. WESLEY'S
I took my leave of most of the passengers of the ship, who all
appeared serious. It may be, all the seed is not fallen upon
In the evening I went to Savannah again, whence Mr. Span-
genberg, Bishop Nitschman, and Andrew Dober, went up with
us to Mrs. Musgrove's, to choose a spot for the little house,
which Mr. Oglethorpe had promised to build us. Being after-
ward disappointed of our boat, we were obliged to pass the
night there. But wherever we are it is the same thing, if it be
the will of our Father which is in heaven.
At our return the next day, (Mr. Quincy being then in the
house wherein we afterwards were,) Mr. Delamotte and I took
up our lodging with the Germans. We had now an oppor-
tunity, day by day, of observing their whole behaviour. For
we were in one room with them from morning to night, unless
for the little time I spent in walking. They were always
employed, always cheerful themselves, and in good humour
with one another; they had put away all anger, and strife, and
wrath, and bitterness, and clamour, and evil-speaking; they
walked worthy of the vocation wherewith they were called,
and adorned the Gospel of our Lord in all things.
Sat. 28.-They met to consult concerning the affairs of
their Church; Mr. Spangenberg being shortly to go to Penn-
sylvania, and Bishop Nitschman to return to Germany. After
several hours spent in conference and prayer, they proceeded to
the election and ordination of a Bishop. The great simplicity,
as well as solemnity, of the whole, almost made me forget the
seventeen hundred years between, and imagine myself in one
of those assemblies where form and state were not; but Paul
the tent-maker, or Peter the fisherman, presided; yet with the
demonstration of the Spirit and of power.
Sun. 29.-Hearing, Mr. Oglethorpe did not come any more
to Savannah, before he went to Frederica, I was obliged to go
down to the ship again, (Mr. Spangenberg following me thi-
ther,) and receive his orders and instructions on several heads.
From him we went to public prayers; after which we were
refreshed by several letters from England. Upon which I could
not but observe, how careful our Lord is to repay whatever we
give up on his account. When I left England, I was chiefly
afraid of two things: One, that I should never again have so
many faithful friends as I left there; the other, that the spark
of love which began to kindle in their hearts would cool and die
away. But who knoweth the mercy and power of God ? From
ten friends I am awhile secluded, and he hath opened me a door
into a whole Church. And as to the very persons I left behind,
his Spirit is gone forth so much the more, teaching them not to
trust in man, but "in Him that raised the dead, and calleth
the things that are not, as though they were." About four,
having taken leave of Mr. Spangenberg, who was the next
morning to set out for Pennsylvania, I returned to Savannah.
Sat. MARCH 6.-I had a long conversation with John Rei-
nier, the son of a gentleman, who, being driven out of France,
on account of his religion, settled at Vivay, in Switzerland, and
practised physic there. His father died while he was a child.
Some years after, he told his mother he was desirous to leave
Switzerland, and to retire into some other country, where he
might be free from the temptations which he could not avoid
there. When her consent was at length obtained, he agreed
with a master of a vessel, with whom he went to Holland by
land, thence to England, and from England to Pennsylvania.
He was provided with money, books, and drugs, intending to
follow his father's profession. But no sooner was he come to
Philadelphia, than the Captain, who had borrowed his money
before, instead of repaying it, demanded the full pay for his
passage, and under that pretence seized on all his effects. He
then left him in a strange country, where he could not speak to
be understood, without necessaries, money, or friends. In this
condition he thought it best to sell himself for a servant, which
he accordingly did, for seven years. When about five were
expired, he fell siak of a lingering illness, which made him use-
less to his master; who, after it had continued half a year,
would not keep him any longer, but turned him out to shift for
himself. He first tried to mend shoes, but soon after joined
himself to some French Protestants, and learned to make but-
tons. He then went and lived with an Anabaptist; but soon
after, hearing an account of the Germans in Georgia, walked
from Pennsylvania thither, where he found the rest which he
had so long sought in vain.
Sun. 7.-I entered upon my ministry at Savannah, by
preaching on the Epistle for the day, being the thirteenth of the
first of Corinthians. In the second lesson (Luke xviii.) was
our Lord's prediction of the treatment which he himself (and,
REV. J. WESLEY'S
consequently, his followers) was to meet with from the world ;
and his gracious promises to those who are content, nudi nudum
Christum sequi: "Verily I say unto you, There is no man
that hath left house, or friends, or brethren, or wife, or child-
ren, for the kingdom of God's sake, who shall not receive
manifold more in this present time, and in the world to come
Yet, notwithstanding these plain declarations of our Lord,-
notwithstanding my own repeated experience,-notwithstand-
ing the experience of all the sincere followers of Christ whom I
have ever talked with, read or heard of; nay, and the reason:
of the thing evincing to a demonstration that all who love not
the light must hate Him who is continually labouring to pour it
in upon them; I do here bear witness against myself, that
when I saw the number of people crowding into the church,
the deep attention with which they received the word, and the
seriousness that afterwards sat on all their faces; I could scarce
refrain from giving the lie to experience and reason and Scrip-
ture all together. I could hardly believe that the greater, the
far greater part of this attentive, serious people would here-
after trample under foot that word, and say all manner of evil
falsely of him that spake it. O who can believe what their
heart abhors? Jesus, Master, have mercy on us! Let us
love thy cross; then shall we believe, if we suffer with thee,
we shall also reign with thee! "
This evening one of the Germans, who had been long ill of
a consumption, found himself much worse. On my mention-
ing it to Bishop Nitschman, he smiled and said, "He will
soon be well; he is ready for the Bridegroom."
Sun. 14.-Having before given notice of my design to do
so, every Sunday and holiday, according to the rules of our.
Church, I administered the holy communion to eighteen per-
sons. Which of these will endure to the end ?
Mon. 15.-Mr. Quincy going for Carolina, I removed into
the Minister's house. It is large enough for a larger family
than ours, and has many conveniences, besides a good garden,
I could not but reflect on the well-known epigram:-
Aypos AXazpevtaou yetvo4lv v7rofe vvv P e Mcvtrrou.t
Naked to follow a naked Christ.-EDIT.
t Formerly I was the estate of Achemenides, but I am now the property of
How short a time will it be before its present possessor is
removed I perhaps to be no more seen'!
Sun. 28.-A servant of Mr. Bradley's sent to desire to speak
with me. Going to him, I found a young man ill, but perfectly
sensible. He desired the rest to go out, and then said, On
Thursday night, about eleven, being in bed, but broad awake,
I heard one calling aloud, Peter Peter Wright !' and look-
ing up, the room was as light as day, and I saw a man in very
bright clothes stand by the bed, who said, Prepare yourself,
for your end is nigh;' and then immediately all was dark as
before." I told him, The advice was good, whencesoever it
came." In a few days he recovered from his illness; his whole
temper was changed as well as his life; and so continued to be,
till after three or four weeks he relapsed, and died in peace.
Tues. 30.-Mr. Ingham, coming from Frederica, brought
me letters, pressing me to go thither. The next day Mr. Dela-
motte and I began to try, whether life might not as well be
sustained by one sort as by a variety of food. We chose to make
the experiment with bread; and were never more vigorous and
healthy than while we tasted nothing else. "Blessed are the
pure in heart;" who, whether they eat or drink, or whatever
they do, have no end therein but to please God To them all
things are pure. Every creature is good to them, and nothing
to be rejected. But let them who know and feel that they are
not thus pure, use every help, and remove every hinderance;
always remembering, He that despiseth little things shall fall
by little and little."
Sun. APRIL 4.-About four in the afternoon I set out for
Frederica, in a pettiawga,-a sort of flat-bottomed barge. The
next evening we anchored near Skidoway Island, where the
water, at flood, was twelve or fourteen foot deep. I wrapped
myself up from head to foot, in a large cloak, to keep off the
sand-flies, and lay down on the quarter-deck. Between one and
two I waked under water, being so fast asleep that I did not
find where I was till my mouth was full of it. Having left my
cloak, I know not how, upon deck, I swam round to the other
side of the pettiawga, where a boat was tied, and climbed up
by the rope without any hurt, more than wetting my clothes.
Thou art the God of whom cometh salvation: Thou art the
Lord by whom we escape death.
The winds were so contrary, that on Suturday, 10, we could
but just get over against Doboy Island, twenty miles from
REV. J. WESLEY'S
Frederica, but could not- possibly make the creek, having a
strong tide also against us. Here we lay beating off till past
one, when the lightning and rain, which we had long seen at a
distance, drove down full upon us; till, after a quarter of an
hour, the clouds parted, some passing on the right, and some
on the left, leaving us a clear sky, and so strong a wind right
after us, as in two hours brought us to Frederica.
A little before we landed, I opened my Testament on these
words: If God be for us, who can be against us ? Coming
on shore, I found my brother exceeding weak, having been for
some time ill of a flux; but he mended from the hour he saw
me. This also hath God wrought!
Sun. 11.-I preached at the new storehouse on the first verse
of the Gospel for the day: "Which of you convinceth me of
sin? And if I say the truth, why do ye not believe me ? "
There was a large congregation, whom I endeavoured to con-
vince of unbelief, by simply proposing the conditions of salva-
tion, as they are laid down in Scripture; and appealing to their
own hearts, whether they believed they could be saved on no
In every one of the six following days, I had some fresh proofs
of the absolute necessity of following that wise advice of the
Apostle: "Judge nothing before the time; until the Lord
come,who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness,
and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts."
Sat. 17.-We set out for Savannah, and reachedit on Tues-
day evening. O blessed place, where, having but one end in
view, dissembling and fraud are not; but each of us can pour
out his heart without fear into his brother's bosom !
Not finding, as yet, any door open for the pursuing our main
design, we considered in what manner we might be most useful
to the little flock at Savannah. And we agreed, 1. To advise
the more serious among them to form themselves into a sort of
little society, and to meet once or twice a week, in order to
reprove, instruct, and exhort one another. 2. To select out of
these a smaller number for a more intimate union with each
other, which might be forwarded, partly by our conversing
singly with each, and partly by inviting them all together to
our house; and this, accordingly, we determined to do every
Sunday in the afternoon.
Wed. MAY 5.-I was asked to baptize a child of Mr. Parker's,
second Bailiff of Savannah; but Mrs. Parker told me, Neither
Mr. P. nor I will consent to its being dipped." I answered,
" If you 'certify that' your 'child is weak, it will suffice'
(the rubric says) 'to pour water upon it."' She replied,
"Nay, the child is not weak; but I am resolved it shall not
be dipped." This argument I could not confute. So I went
home; and the child was baptized by another person.
Sun. 9.-I began dividing the public prayers, according to
the original appointment of the Church: (Still observed in a
few places in England:) The morning service began at five;
the Communion Office, (with the sermon,) at eleven; the
evening service, about three; and this day I began reading
prayers in the court-house,-a large and convenient place.
Mon. 10.-I began visiting my parishioners in order, from
house to house; for which I set apart (the time when they
cannot work, because of the heat, viz.) from twelve till three
in the afternoon.
Sun. 16.-We were surprised in the evening by my brother,
just come from Frederica.: After some conversation, we con-
sulted how the poor people there might be taken care of during
his absence: And it was at last agreed that Mr. Ingham and
I should take our turns in assisting them; and the first was
allotted me. Accordingly, on Tuesday, 18th, I walked to Thun-
derbolt; whence the next afternoon we set out in a small boat.
In the evening, we touched at Skidoway, and had a small, but
attentive, congregation to join with us in evening prayer.
Sat. 22.-About four in the afternoon we entered upon
Doboy Sound. The wind, which was right a-head, was so
high, when we were in the middle of it, and the sea so rough,
being driven in at the inlet, that the boat was on the point of
sinking every moment. But it pleased God to bring us safe
to the other side in half an hour, and to Frederica the next
morning. We had public prayers at nine, at which nineteen
persons were present; and (I think) nine communicants.
Fri. 28.-I read the Commendatory Prayer by Mr.
Germain, who lay at the point of death. He had lost his
speech and his senses. His eyes were set, neither had he any
discernible motion, but the heaving of his breast. While we
stood round him, he stretched out his arms, rubbed his head,
recovered his sight, speech, and understanding; and immedi-
ately sending for the Bailiffs, settled the affairs of his family;
and thenlay down, and died.
REVY. J WESLEY'S
At the first service on Sunday, May 30th, were only five;
at the second, twenty-five. The next day I made Mr. Lassel's
will; who, notwithstanding his great weakness, was quite
revived when any mention was made of death or of eternity.
Tues. JUNE 1.-After praying with him, I was surprised
to find one of the most controverted questions in divinity,
disinterested love, decided at once by a poor old man, with-
out education or learning, or any instructor but the Spirit of
God. I asked what he thought of %paradise; (to which he
had said he was going;) he said, "To be sure, it is a fine
place. But I don't mind that; I don't care what place I
am in. Let God put me where He will, or do with me what
He will, so I may but set forth His honour and glory."
Thur. 3.-Being Ascension Day, we had the holy commu-
nion; but only Mr. Hird's family joined with us in it. One
reason why there were no more was, because a few words
which a woman had inadvertently spoken had set almost all
the town in a flame. Alas! how shall a city stand that is thus
divided against itself? where there is no brotherly love, no
meekness, no forbearing or forgiving one another; but envy,
malice, revenge, suspicion, anger, clamour, bitterness, evil
speaking, without end Abundant proof that there can be
no true love of man, unless it be built on the love of God.
Sun.- 6.-Calling on Mr. Lassel, and asking how he did,
"My departure," said he, "I hope is at hand." I asked,
"Are you troubled at that ?" He replied, 0 no; to depart,
and to be with Christ, is far better. I desire no more of this
bad world. My hope and my joy and my love is there." The
next time I saw him he said, "I desire nothing more,
than for God to forgive my many and great sins. I would be
humble. I would be the humblest creature living. My heart
is humble and broken for my sins. Tell me, teach me, what
shall I do to please God ? I would fain do whatever is His will."
I said, "It is His will you should suffer." lie answered, "Then
I will suffer. I will gladly suffer whatever pleases Him."
Mon. 7.-Finding him weaker, I asked, Do you still desire
to die?" He said, "Yes; but I dare not pray for it, for fear
I should displease my heavenly Father. His will be done.
Let Him work His will, in my life, or in my death."
Thur. 10.-We began to execute at Frederica what we had
before agreed to do at Savannah. Our design was, on Sundays,
in the afternoon, and every evening, after public service, to
spend some time with the most serious of the communicants,
in singing, reading, and conversation. This evening we had
only Mark Hird. But on Sunday Mr. Hird and two more
desired to be admitted. After a psalm and a little conversa-
tion, I read Mr. Law's "Christian Perfection," and con-
cluded with another psalm.
Sat. 12.-Being with one who was very desirous to con.
verse with me, but not upon religion, I spoke to this effect:-
"Suppose you was going to a country where every one spoke
Latin, and understood no other language, neither would con-
verse with any that did not understand it: Suppose one was
sent to stay here a short time, on purpose to teach it you; sup-
pose that person, pleased with your company, should spend his
time in trifling with you, and teach you nothing of what he
came for: Would that be well done ? Yet this is our case.
You are going to a country where every one speaks the love of
God. The citizens of heaven understand no other language.
They converse with none who do not understand it. Indeed
none such are admitted there. I am sent from God to teach
you this. A few days are allotted us for that purpose. Would
it then be well done in me, because I was pleased with your
company, to spend this short time in trifling, and teach you
nothing of what I came for ? God forbid I will rather not con-
verse with you at all. Of the two extremes, this is the best."
Wed. 16.-Another little company of us met; Mr. Reed,
Davidson, Walker, Delamotte, and myself. We sung, read a
little of Mr. Law, and then conversed. Wednesday and
Friday were the days we fixed for constant meeting.
Thur. 17.-An officer of a man-of-war, walking just
behind us, with two or three of his acquaintance, cursed and
swore exceedingly: But upon my reproving him, seemed
much moved, and gave me many thanks.
Sat. 19.-Mr. Oglethorpe returned from the south, and
gave orders on Sunday, the 20th, that none should profane
the day (as was usual before) by fishing or fowling upon it.
In the afternoon I summed up what I had seen or heard at
Frederica, inconsistent with Christianity, and, consequently,
with the prosperity of the place. The event was as,it ought:
Some of the hearers were profited, and the rest deeply offended,
VOL. I. D
REV. J. WESLEY'S
This day, at half an hour past ten, God heard the prayer
of his servant; and Mr. Lassel, according to his desire, was
"dissolved that he might be with Christ."
Tues. 22.-Observing much coldness in Mr. 's beha-
viour, I asked him the reason of it. He answered, "I like
nothing you do. All your sermons are satires upon particu-
lar persons, therefore I will never hear you more; and all the
people are of my mind, for we won't hear ourselves abused.
"Besides, they say they are Protestants. But as for you,
they cannot tell what religion you are of. They never heard
of such a religion before. They do not know what to make
of it. And then your private behaviour :-All the quarrels
that have been here since you came, have been 'long of you.
Indeed there is neither man nor woman in the town who
minds a word you say. And so you may preach long enough;
but nobody will come to hear you."
He was too warm for hearing an answer. So I had nothing
to do but to thank him for his openness, and walk away.
Wed. 23.-I had a long conversation with Mr. upon
the nature of true religion. I then asked him, why he did
not endeavour to recommend it to all with whom he con-
versed. He said, I did so once; and for some time, I thought
I had done much good by it. But I afterwards found they
were never the better, and I myself was the worse. Therefore
now, though I always strive to be inoffensive in my conversa-
tion, I do not strive to make people religious, unless those
that have a desire to be so, and are, consequently, willing to
hear me. But I have not yet (I speak not of you or your
brother) found one such person in America."
He that hath ears to hear, let him hear Mark the ten-
dency of this accursed principle If you will speak only to
those who are willing to hear, see how many you will turn
from the error of their ways If, therefore, striving to do
good, you have done hurt, what then? So did St. Paul. So
did the Lord of life. Even His word was "the savour of
death," as well as the savour of life." But shall you, there-
fore, strive no more ? God forbid Strive more humbly, more
calmly, more cautiously. Do not strive as you did before,-
but strive while the breath of God is in your nostrils I
Baei9 tc leave Frederica in the evening, I took the more
notice of these words in the Lesson for the day: Whereunto
shall I liken the men of this generation ? They are like unto
children sitting in the market-place, and saying, We have
piped unto you, and ye have not danced ; we have mourned to
you, and ye have not wept. For John the Baptist came
neither eating bread nor drinking wine; and ye say, He hath
a devil. The Son of Man is come eating and drinking; and
ye say, Behold a gluttonous man, and a wine-bibber, a friend
of publicans and sinners!" (Luke vii. 31-34.)
About eleven at night we took boat; and on Saturday, 26,
about one in the afternoon, came to Savannah. O what do
we want here, either for life or godliness If suffering, God
will send it in his time.
Sun. 27.-About twenty joined with us in morning prayer.
An hour or two after, a large party of Creek Indians came;
the expectation of whom deprived us of our place of public
worship, in which they were to have their audience.
Wed. 30.-I hoped a door was opened for going up imme-
diately to the Choctaws, the least polished, that is, the least cor-
rupted, of all the Indian nations. But upon my informing Mr.
Oglethorpe of our design, he objected, not only the danger of
being intercepted, or killed by the French there; but much
more, the inexpediency of leaving Savannah destitute of a
Minister. These objections I related to our brethren in the
evening, who were all of opinion, We ought not to go yet."
Thur. JULY 1.-The Indians had an audience; and another
on Saturday, when Chicali, their head man, dined with Mr.
Oglethorpe. After dinner, I asked the grey-headed old man,
what he thought he was made for.. He said, He that is
above knows what he made us for. We know nothing. We
are in the dark. But white men know much. And yet white
men build great houses, as if they were to live for ever. But
white men cannot live for ever. In a little time, white men will
be dust as well as I." I told him, If red men will learn the
good book, they may know as much as white men. But neither
we nor you can understand that book, unless we are taught by
Him that is above: And He will not teach, unless you avoid
what you already know is not good" He answered, "I
believe that. He will not teach us while our hearts are not
white. And our men do what they know is not good: They
kill their own children. And our women do what they know
REV. J. WESLEY S
is not good: They L1_ the child before it is born. Therefore,
He that is above does not send us the good book."
Hearing the younger of the Miss Boveys was not well, I
called upon them this evening. I found she had only the
prickly heat, a sort of rash, very common here in summer.
We soon fell into serious conversation, after I had asked, if
they did not think they were too young to trouble themselves
with religion yet; and, whether they might not defer it ten
or a dozen years. To which one of them replied, If it will
be reasonable ten years hence to be religious, it is so now : I
am not for deferring one moment."
Wed. 7.-1 called there again, being determined now to
speak more closely. But meeting company there, prudence
induced me to put it off till another opportunity.
Thur. 8.-Mr. 0. being there again, and casually speaking
of sudden death, Miss Becky said, If it was the will of God,
I should choose to die without a lingering illness." Her sis-
ter said, "Are you, then, always prepared to die?" She
replied, "Jesus Christ is always prepared to help me. And
little stress is to be laid on such a preparation for death, as is
made in a fit of sickness."
Sat. 10.-Just as they had done drinking tea, Mrs. Mar-
garet, seeing her colour change, asked if she was well? She
did not return any answer; and Dr. Talser soon after going
by, she desired him to step in, and said, Sir, my sister, I
fear, is not well." He looked earnestly at her, felt her pulse,
and replied, Well Madam ; your sister is dying How-
ever, he thought it not impossible bleeding might help. She
bled about an ounce, leaned back, and died!
As soon as I heard of it I went to the house, and begged
they would not lay her out immediately, there being a possibi-
lity, at least, she might only be in a swoon; of which, indeed,
there was some slight hope, she not only being as warm as ever,
but having a fresh colour in her cheeks, and a few drops of
blood starting out upon bending her arm; but there was no
pulse and no breath; so that having waited some hours, we
found her "spirit was indeed returned to God that gave it."
I never saw so beautiful a corpse in my life. Poor comfort
to its late inhabitant! I was greatly surprised at her sister.
Tinere was, in all her behaviour, such an inexpressible mixture
of tenderness and resignation. The first time I spoke to her,
she said, "All my afflictions are nothing to this. I have lost
not only a sister, but a friend. But it is the will of God. I
rely on Him; and doubt not but He will support me under it."
This evening we had such a storm of thunder and lightning
as I never saw before, even in Georgia. This voice of God,
too, told me I was not fit to die; since I was afraid, rather
than desirous of it. O when shall I wish to be dissolved and
to be with Christ? When I love Him with all my heart.
Almost the whole town was the next evening at the funeral;
where many, doubtless, made a world of good resolutions. O
how little trace of most of these will be left in the morning !
It is a true saying, Hell is paved with good intentions."
STues. 20.-Five of the Chicasaw Indians (twenty of whom
had been in Savannah several days) came to see us, with Mr.
Andrews, their interpreter. They were all warriors, four of
them head men. The two chief were Paustoobee and Mingo
Mattaw. Our conference was as follows:-
Q. Do you believe there is One above who is over all things ?
Paustoobee answered, We believe there are four beloved
things above;-the clouds, the sun, the clear sky, and He that
lives in the clear sky.
Q. Do you believe there is but One that lives in the clear sky?
A. We believe there are two with him, three in all.
Q. Do you think he made the sun, and the other beloved
A. We cannot tell. Who hath seen?
Q. Do you think he made you?
A. We think he made all men at first.
Q. How did he make them at first ?
A. Out of the ground.
Q. Do you believe he loves you?
A. I do not know. I cannot see him.
Q. But has he not often saved your life ?
A. He has. Many bullets have gone on this side, and many
on that side; but he would never let them hurt me. And many
bullets have gone into these young men; and yet they are alive.
Q. Then, cannot he save you from your enemies now ?
A. Yes, but we know not if he will. We have now so many
enemies round about us, that I think of nothing but death.
And if I am to die, I shall die, and I will die like a man. But
REV. J. WESLEY'S
if he will have me to live, I shall live. Though I had ever so
many enemies, he can destroy them all.
Q. How do you know that ?
A. From what I have seen. When our enemies came
against us before, then the beloved clouds came for us. And
often much rain, and sometimes hail, has come upon them;
and that in a very hot day. And I saw, when many French,
and Choctaws, and other nations came against one of our
towns; and the ground made a noise under them, and the
beloved ones in the air behind them ; and they were afraid,
and went away, and left their meat and drink, and their guns.
I tell no lie. All these saw it too.
Q. Have you heard such noises at other times?
A. Yes, often; before and after almost every battle.
Q. What sort. of noises were they ?
A. Like the noise of drums, and guns, and shouting.
Q. Have you heard any such lately ?
A. Yes; four days after our last battle with the French.
Q. Then you heard nothing before it ?
A. The night before. I dreamed I heard many drums up
there; and many trumpets there, and much stamping of feet
and shouting. Till then I thought we should all die. But
then I thought the beloved ones were come to help us. And
the next day I heard above a hundred guns go off before the
fight began; and I said, When the sun is there, the beloved
ones will help us; and we shall conquer our enemies." And
we did so.
Q. Do you often think and talk of the beloved ones ?
A. We think of them always, wherever we are. We talk
of them and to them, at home and abroad; in peace, in war,
before and after we fight; and, indeed, whenever and wherever
we meet together.
Q. Where do you think your souls go after death ?
A. We believe the souls of red men walk up and down, near
the place where they died, or where their bodies lie; for we
have often. heard cries and noises near the place where any
prisoners had been burned.
Q. Where do the souls of white men go after death ?
A. We cannot tell. We have not seen.
Q. Our belief is, that the souls of bad men only walk up and
down; but the souls of good men go up.
A. I believe so too. But I told you the talk of the nation.
(Mr. Andrews.-They said at the burying, they knew what
you was doing. You was speaking to the beloved ones above,
to take up the soul of the young woman.)
Q. We have a book that tells us many things of the beloved
ones above; would you be glad to know them ?
A. We have no time now but to fight. If we should ever be
at peace, we should be glad to know.
Q. Do you expect ever to know what the white men know ?
(Mr. Andrews.-They told Mr. O., they believed the time
will come when the red and white men will be one.)
Q. What do the French teach you ?
A. The French black kings* never go out. We see you go
about;-we like that;-that is good.
Q. How came your nation by the knowledge they have?
A. As soon as ever the ground was sound and fit to stand
upon, it came to us, and has been with us ever since., But we
are young men; our old men know more: But all of them do
not know. There are but a few whom the beloved one chooses
from a child, and is in them, and takes care of them, and
teaches them: They know these things; and our old men prac-
tise; therefore they know. But I do not practise; therefore I
Mon. 26.-My brother and I set out for Charlestown, in
order to his embarking for England; but the wind being con-
trary, we did not reach Port-Royal, forty miles from Savannah,
till Wednesday evening. The next morning we left it. But
the wind was so high in the afternoon, as we were crossing the
neck of St. Helena's sound, that our oldest sailor cried out,
"Now every one must take care for himself." I told him,
"God would take care for us all." Almost as soon as the
words were spoken, the mast fell. I kept on the edge of the
boat, to be clear of her when she sunk, (which we expected
every moment,) though with little prospect of swimming ashore,
against such a wind and sea. But, low is it that thou hadst
no faith ?" The moment the mast fell, two men caught it, and
pulled it into the boat; the other three rowed with all their
might, and God gave command to the wind and seas;" so
that in an hour we were safe on land.
* So they call the Priests.
REV. J. WESLEY'S
Sat. 31.-We came to Charlestown. The church is of brick,
but plastered over like stone. I believe it would contain three
or four thousand persons. About three hundred were present
at the Morning Service the next day; (when Mr. Garden desired
me to preach;) about fifty at the holy communion. I was glad
to see several Negroes at church; one of whom told me, she
was there constantly; and that her old mistress (now dead) had
many times instructed her in the Christian religion. I asked
her, what religion was. She said, she could not tell. I asked,
if she knew what a soul was. She answered, "No." I said,
"Do not you know there is something in you different from
your body? Something you cannot see or feel?" She replied,
"I never heard so much before." I added, Do you think,
then, a man dies altogether as a horse dies ? She said, Yes,
to be sure." O God, where are thy tender mercies? Are they
not over all thy works ? When shall the Sun of Righteousness
arise on these outcasts of men, with healing in his wings !
Mon. AUG. 2.-I set out for the Lieutenant-Governor's seat,
about thirty miles from Charlestown, to deliver Mr. Ogle-
thorpe's letters. It stands very pleasantly, on a little hill, with
a vale on either side, in one of which is a thick wood; the other
Sis planted with rice and Indian corn. I designed to have gone
back by Mr. Skeene's, who has about fifty Christian Negroes.
But my horse tiring, I was obliged to return the straight way
I had sent the boat we came in back to Savannah, expecting
a passage thither myself in Colonel Bull's. His not going so
soon, I went to Ashley-Ferry on Thursday, intending to walk
to Port-Royal. But Mr. Belinger not only provided me horse,
but rode with me himself ten miles, and sent his son with me
to Cumbee-Ferry, twenty miles farther; whence, having hired
horses and a guide, I came to Beaufort (or Port-Royal) the
next evening. We took boat in the morning; but, the wind
being contrary, and very high, did not reach Savannah till
Sunday, in the afternoon.
Finding Mr. Oglethorpe was gone, I stayed only a day at
Savannah; and leaving Mr. Ingham and Delamotte there, set
out on Tuesday morning for Frederica. In walking to Thunder-
bolt I was in so heavy a shower, that all my clothes were as
wet as if I had gone through the river. On which occasion I
cannot but observe that vulgar error, concerning the hurtful-
ness of the rains and dews of America. I have been
thoroughly wet with these rains more than once; yet without
any harm at all. And I have lain many nights in the open
air, and received all the dews that fell; and so, I believe,
might any one, if his constitution was not impaired by the
softness of a genteel education.
At Thunderbolt we took boat; and on Friday, August 13th,
came to Frederica, where I delivered Mr. 0. the letters I had
brought from Carolina. The next day he set out for Fort St.
George. From that time I had less and less prospect of doing
good at Frederica; many there being extremely zealous, and
indefatigably diligent, to prevent it; and few of the rest daring
to show themselves of another mind, for fear of their displeasure.
Sat. 28.-I set apart (out of the few we had) a few books
towards a library at Frederica. In the afternoon I walked to
the fort on the other side of the island. About five we set out
homeward; but, my guide not being perfect in the way, we were
soon lost in the woods. We walked on, however, as well as we
could, till between nine and ten; when, being heartily tired, and
thoroughly wet with dew, we laid down, and slept till morning.
About day-break, on Sunday, the 29th, we set out again,
endeavouring to walk straight forward ; and soon after sunrise
found ourselves in the Great Savannah, near Frederica. By
this good providence I was delivered from another fear,-that
of lying in the woods; which experience showed was, to one in
tolerable health, a mere lion in the way."
Thur. SEPT. 2.-I set out in a sloop, and about ten on Sun-
day morning came to Skidoway; which (after reading prayers,
and preaching to a small congregation) I left, and came to
Savannah in the evening.
Mon. 13.-I began reading with Mr. Delamotte, Bishop
Beveridge's Pandectce Canonum Conciliorum. Nothing could
so effectually have convinced us, that both particular and gene-
ral Councils may err, and have erred; and that things ordained
by them as necessary to salvation, have neither strength nor
authority, unless they be taken out of holy Scripture.
Mon. 20.-We ended (of which also I m.ast confess I once
thought more highly than I ought to think) the Apostolical
Canons; so called, as Bishop Beveridge observes, "because
partly grounded upon, partly agreeing with, the traditions deli-
vered down from the Apostles." But he observes farther, (in
REV. J. WESLEY'S
the 159th page of his Codex Canonum Ecclesia Primitive :
And why did he not observe it in the first page of the book ?)
"They contain the discipline used in the Church at the time
when they were collected : Not when the Council of Nice met;
for then many parts of it were useless and obsolete."
Tues. OCT. 12.-We considered if any thing could yet be
done for the poor people of Frederica; and I submitted to the
judgment of my friends ; which was, that I should take another
journey thither: Mr. Ingham undertaking to supply my place
at Savannah, for the time I should stay there. I came hither
on Saturday, the 16th, and found few things better than I
expected. The morning and evening prayers, which were read
for a while after my leaving the place, had been long discon-
tinued; and from that time every thing grew worse and worse,
not many retaining any more of the form than the power of
I was at first a little discouraged, but soon remembered the
word which cannot fail: Greater is He that is in you than he
that is in the world." I cried to God to arise and maintain
his own cause;" and after the evening prayers were ended,
invited a few to my house; as I did every night while I stayed
at Frederica. I read to them one of the exhortations of
Ephraim Syrus: The most awakening writer, I think, of all
the ancients. We concluded our reading and conversation
with a psalm; and I trust our God gave us his blessing.
Mon. 18.-Finding there were several Germans at Frederica,
who, not understanding the English tongue, could not join in
our public service, I desired them to meet me at my house;
which they did every day at noon from thence forward. We
first sung a German hymn; then I read a chapter in the
New Testament; then explained it to them as well as I could.
After another hymn, we concluded with prayer.
Mon. 25.-I took boat, and, after a slow and dangerous
passage, came to Savannah on Sunday, the 31st.
Tues. Nov. 23.-Mr. Oglethorpe sailed for England, leaving
Mr. Ingham, Mr. Dclamotte, and me, at Savannah; but with
less prospect of preaching to the Indians than we had the first
day we set foot in America. Whenever I mentioned it, it was
immediately replied, "You cannot leave Savannah without a
Minister." To this indeed my plain answer was," I know not
that I am under any obligation to the contrary. I never pro-
mised to stay here one month. I openly declared both before,
at, and ever since my coming hither, that I neither would nor
could take charge of the English any longer than till I could
go among the Indians." If it was said, But did not the
Trustees of Georgia appoint you to be Minister of Savannah ? "
I replied, They did; but it was not done by my solicitation:
It was done without either my desire or knowledge. Therefore
I cannot conceive that appointment to lay me under any obli-
gation of continuing there any longer than till a door is opened
to the Heathens; and this I expressly declared at the time I
consented to accept of that appointment." But though I had
no other obligation not to leave Savannah now, yet that of love
I could not break through: I could not resist the importunate
request of the more serious parishioners, "to watch over their
souls yet a little longer, till some one came who might supply
my place." And this I the more willingly did, because the
time was not come to preach the Gospel of peace to the Hea-
thens; all their nations being in a ferment; and Paustoobee
and Mingo Mattaw having told me, in terms, in my own
house, Now our enemies are all about us, and we can do
nothing but fight; but if the beloved ones should ever give us
to be at peace, then we would hear the great word."
Thur. DEc. 9.-Hearing of one dangerously ill, I went to
her immediately. She told me, that she had many things to
say:" But her weakness prevented her saying them then ; and
the next day God required her soul of her.
Wed. 22.-Mr. Delamotte and I, with a guide, set out to
walk to the Cowpen. When we had walked two or three hours,
our guide told us plainly, he did not know where we were.
However, believing it could not be far off, we thought it best
to go on. In an hour or two we came to a Cypress Swamp,
which lay directly across our way: There was not time to walk
back to Savannah before night; so we walked through it, the
water being about breast high. By the time we had gone a
mile beyond it, we were out of all path; and it being now past
sunset, we sat down, intending to make a fire, and to stay there
till morning; but finding our tinder wet, we were at a stand.
I advised to walk on still; but my companions, being faint and
weary, were for lying down, which we accordingly did about
six o'clock: The ground was as wet as our clothes, which
(it being a sharp frost) were soon froze together; however, I
REV. J. WESLEY'S
slept till six in the morning. There fell a heavy dew in the
night, which covered us over as white as snow. Within an
hour after sunrise, we came to a plantation; and in the even-
ing, without any hurt, to Savannah.
Tues. 28.-We set out by land with a better guide for
Frederica. On Wednesday evening we came to Fort Argyle,
on the back of the river Ogeechy. The next afternoon we
crossed Cooanoochy river, in a small canoe; our horses swim-
ming by the side of it. We made a fire on the bank, and,
notwithstanding the rain, slept quietly till the morning.
Sat. JAN. 1, 1737.-Our provisions fell short, our journey
being longer than we expected; but having a little barbecued
bear's flesh, (that is, dried in the sun,) we boiled it, and found
it wholesome food. The next day we reached Darien, the
settlement of the Scotch Highlanders: A sober, industrious,
friendly, hospitable people; whose Minister, Mr. M'Leod, is
a serious, resolute, and, I hope, a pious man.
On Monday evening we left Darien, and on Wednesday, the
5th, came to Frederica. Most here were, as we expected, cold
and heartless: We found not one who retained his first love.
O send forth thy light and thy truth, that they may guide
them Let them not yet follow their own imaginations!
After having beaten the air in this unhappy place for twenty
days, on January 26th I took my final leave of Frederica. It
was not any apprehension of my own danger, though my life
had been threatened many times, but an utter despair of doing
good there, which made me content with the thought of
seeing it no more.
In my passage home, having procured a celebrated book, (The
Works of Nicholas Machiavel,) I set myself carefully to read
and consider it. I began with a prejudice in his favour ; having
been informed, he had often been misunderstood, and greatly
misrepresented. I weighed the sentiments that were less com-
mon; transcribed the passages wherein they were contained;
compared one passage with another, and endeavoured to form a
cool, impartial judgment. And my cool judgment is, that if
all the other doctrines of devils which have been committed to
writing since letters were in the world were collected together
in one volume, it would fall short of this; and, that should a
Prince form himself by this book, so calmly recommending
hypocrisy, treachery, lying, robbery, oppression, adultery,
whoredom, and murder of all kinds, Domitian or Nero would
be an angel of light, compared to that man.
Mon. 31.-We came to Savannah. Tuesday, February 1,
being the anniversary feast, on account of the first convoy's
landing in Georgia, we had a sermon and the holy communion.
Thursday, 24. It was agreed Mr. Ingham should go for Eng-
land, and endeavour to bring over, if it should please God,
some of our friends to strengthen our hands in his work.
Saturday, 26. He left Savannah.
By Mr. Ingham I writ to Dr. Bray's associates, who had
sent a parochial library to Savannah. It is expected of the
Ministers who receive these, to send an account to their bene-
factors of the method they use in catechising the children and
instructing the youth of their respective parishes. That part
of the letter was as follows:-
Our general method is this:-A young gentleman, who
came with me, teaches between thirty and forty children to read,
write, and cast accounts. Before school in the morning, and
after school in the afternoon, he catechises the lowest class, and
endeavours to fix something of what was said in their under-
standings as well as their memories. In the evening, he
instructs the larger children. On Saturday, in the afternoon,
I catechise them all. The same I do on Sunday, before the
Evening Service. And in the church, immediately after the
Second Lesson, a select number of them having repeated the
Catechism, and been examined in some part of it, I endeavour
to explain at large, and to enforce that part, both on them and
Some time after the Evening Service, as many of my
parishioners as desire it, meet at my house, (as they do also
on Wednesday evening,) and spend about an hour in prayer,
singing, and mutual exhortation. A smaller number (mostly
those who design to communicate the next day) meet here
on Saturday evening; and a few of these come to me on
the other evenings, and pass half an hour in the same employ-
Fri. MARCH 4.-I writ the Trustees for Georgia an account
of our year's expense, from March 1, 1736, to March 1, 1737;
which, deducting extraordinary expenses, such as repairing the
parsonage house, and journeys to Frederica, amounted, for Mr.
Delamotte and me, to 441. 4s. 4d.
REV. J. WESLEY'S
From the directions I received from God this day, touching
an affair of the greatest importance, I could not but observe,
as I had done many times before, the entire mistake of those
who assert, "God will not answer your prayer, unless your
heart be wholly resigned to his will." My heart was not wholly
resigned to his will. Therefore, not daring to depend on
my own judgment, I cried the more earnestly to Him to
supply what was wanting in me. And I know, and am
assured, He heard my voice, and did send forth his light and
Thur. 24.-A fire broke out in the house of Robert Hows,
and in an hour burned it to the ground: A collection was
made for him the next day, and the generality of the people
showed a surprising willingness to give a little out of their
little for the relief of a necessity greater than their own.
About this time Mr. Lacy, of Thunderbolt, called upon me;
when observing him to be in a deep sadness, I asked what
was the reason of it: And a terrible one indeed he gave, in
the relation following:-
In 1733, David Jones, a saddler, a middle-aged man, who
had for some time before lived at Nottingham, being at Bristol,
met a person there, who, after giving him some account of
Georgia, asked whether he would go thither; adding, his trade
(thatofa saddler) was an exceedinggood trade there, upon which
he might live creditably and comfortably. He objected his want
of money to pay his passage and buy some tools, which he should
have need of. The gentleman (Capt. W.) told him, he would
supply him with that, and hire him a shop when he came to
Georgia, wherein he might follow his business, and so repay him
as it suited his convenience. Accordingly to Georgia they
went; where, soon after his arrival, his master (as he now styled
himself) sold him to Mr. Lacy, who set him to work with the
rest of his servants, in clearing land. He commonly appeared
much more thoughtful than the rest, often stealing into the
woods alone. He was now sent to do some work on an island,
three or four miles from Mr. Lacy's great plantation. Thence
he desired the other servants to return without him, saying he
would stay and kill a deer. This was on Saturday. On Monday
they found him on the shore, with his gun by him, and the
forepart of his head shot to pieces. In his pocket was a paper
book; all the leaves thereof were fair, except one, on which
ten or twelve verses were written; two of which were these:
(Which I transcribed thence from his own hand-writing:)
Death could not a more sad retinue find;
Sickness and pain before, and darkness all behind I
Sun. APRIL 3, and every day in this great and holy week,
we had a sermon and the holy communion.
Mon. 4.-I began learning Spanish, in order to converse with
my Jewish parishioners; some of whom seem nearer the mind
that was in Christ than many of those who call him Lord.
Tues. 12.-Being determined, if possible, to put a stop to
the proceedings of one in Carolina, who had married several of
my parishioners without either banns or licence, and declared,
he would do so still, I set out in a sloop for Charlestown. I
landed there on Thursday, and related the case to Mr. Garden,
the Bishop of London's Commissary, who assured me, he would
take care no such irregularity should be committed for the
Sun. 17.-Mr. Garden (to whom I must ever acknowledge
myself indebted for many kind and generous offices) desiringme
to preach, I did so, on these words of the Epistle for the day:
" Whatsoever is born of God, overcometh the world." To that
plain account of the Christian state which these words naturally
led me to give, a man of education and character seriously
objected, (what is indeed a great truth,) "Why, if this be
Christianity, a Christian must have more courage than Alex-
ander the Great."
Tues. 19.-We left Charlestown; but meeting with stormy
and contrary winds, after losing our anchor, and beating out at
sea all night, on Thursday, the 21st, we with some difficulty
got back into Charlestown harbour.
Fri. 22.-It being the time of their annual Visitation, I had
the pleasure of meeting with the Clergy of South Carolina;
among whom, in the afternoon, there was such a conversation
for several hours on Christ our Righteousness," as I had not
heard at any Visitation in England, or hardly on any other
Sat. 23.-Mentioning to Mr. Thompson, Minister of St.
Bartholomew's, near Ponpon, my being disappointed of a pas-
sage home by water, he offered me one of his horses, if I would
go by land, which I gladly accepted of. He went with me
REV. J. WESLEY'S
twenty miles, and sent his servant to guide me the other twenty
to his house. Finding a young Negro there, who seemed more
sensible than the rest, I asked her how long she had been in
Carolina: She said, two or three years; but that she was born
in Barbadoes, and had lived there in a Minister's family from a
child. I asked whether she went to church there. She said,
" Yes, every Sunday,-to carry my mistress's children." I
asked, what she had learned at church. She said, Nothing;
I heard a deal, but did not understand it." But what did your
master teach you at home ? Nothing." Nor your mistress ?
"No." I asked, But don't you know, that your hands and
feet, and this you call your body, will turn to dust in a little
time ? She answered, Yes." But there is something in
you that will not turn to dust, and this is what they call your
soul. Indeed, you cannot see your soul, though it is within you;
as you cannot see the wind, though it is all about you. But if
you had not a soul in you, you could no more see, or hear, or
feel, than this table can. What do you think will become of
your soul when your body turns to dust ? "I don't know."
" Why, it will go out of your body, and go up there, above the
sky, and live always. God lives there. Do you know who God
is?" "No." You cannot see Him, any more than you can
see your own soul. It is He that made you and me, and all men
and women, and all beasts and birds, and all the world. It is
He that makes the sun shine, and rain fall, and corn and fruits
to grow out of the ground. He makes all these for us. But
why do you think He made us ? What did He make you and
me for?" I can't tell." He made you to live with himself
above the sky. And so you will, in a little time,-if you are
good. If you are good, when your body dies, your soul will go
up, and want nothing, and have whatever you can desire. No
one will beat or hurt you there. You will never be sick. You
will never be sorry any more, nor afraid of any thing. I can't
tell you, I don't know how happy you will be; for you will be
The attention with which this poor creature listened to in-
struction is inexpressible. The next day she remembered all,
readily answered every question; and said, she would ask
Him that made her, to show her how to be good.
Sun. 24.-I preached twice at Ponpon chapel, on the their.
teenth chapter of the first Epistle to the Corinthians. O how
will even those men of Carolina, who come eight, ten. or
twelve miles to hear the Gospel, rise in judgment against those
who hear it not, when it is preached at their own doors!
Wed. 27.-I came to Mr. Belinger's plantation at Chulifinny,
where the rain kept me till Friday. Here I met with an half
Indian, (one that had an Indian mother and a Spanish father,)
and several Negroes, who were very desirous of instruction.
One of them said, "When I was at Ashley-Ferry, I went to
church every Sunday; but here we are buried in the woods.
Though if there was any church within five or six miles, I
am so lame I cannot walk, but I would crawl thither."
Mr. Belinger sent a Negro lad with me to Purrysburg, or,
rather, to the poor remains of it. O how hath God stretched
over this place the lines of confusion, and the stones of
emptiness!" Alas for those whose lives were here vilely
cast away, through oppression, through divers plagues and
troubles! 0 earth! how long wilt thou hide their blood?
How long wilt thou cover thy slain ?
This lad too I found both very desirous and very capable of
instruction. And perhaps one of the easiest and shortest ways
to instruct the American Negroes in Christianity, would be,
First, to inquire after and find out some of the most serious of
the planters. Then, having inquired of them which of their
slaves were best inclined and understood English, to go to them
from plantation to plantation, staying as long as appeared
necessary at each. Three or four gentlemen at Carolina I have
been with, that would be sincerely glad of such an assistant,
who might pursue his work with no more hinderances than
must everywhere attend the preaching of the Gospel.
Sat. 30.-I came to Savannah, and found my little flock in
a better state than I could have expected: God having been
pleased greatly to bless the endeavours of my fellow-labourer,
while I was absent from them.
Wed. MAY 18.-I discovered the first convert to Deism
that, I believe, has been made here. He was one that for
some time had been zealously and exemplarily religious. But
indulging himself in harmless company, he first made ship.
wreck of his zeal, and then of his faith. I have since found
several others that have been attacked. They have, as yet,
maintained their ground; but I doubt the devils apostles are
too industrious to let them long halt between two opinions.
VOL. I. E
REV. J. WESLEY'S
Wed. 25.-I was sent for by one who had been several years
of the Church of Rome; but was now deeply convinced, (as were
several others,) by what I had occasionally preached, of the
grievous errors that Church,is in, and the great danger of con-
tinuing a member of it. Upon this occasion I could not but
reflect on the many advices I had received, to beware of the
increase of Popery; but not one, that I remember, to beware
of the increase of infidelity. This was quite surprising when I
considered, 1. That in every place where I have yet been, the
number of the converts to Popery bore no proportion to the
number of the converts to infidelity. 2. That as bad a religion,
as Popery is, no religion is still worse; a baptized infidel being
always found, upon the trial, two-fold worse than even a bigoted
Papist. 3. That as dangerous a state as a Papist is in, with
regard to eternity, a Deist is in a yet more dangerous state, if
he be not (without repentance) an assured heir of damnation.'
And, lastly, That as hard as it is to recover a Papist, it is still
harder to recover an infidel: I myself having known many
Papists, but never one Deist, reconverted.
MAY 29.-Being Whitsunday, four of our scholars, after
having been instructed daily for several weeks, were, at their
earnest and repeated desire, admitted to the Lord's table. I
trust their zeal hath stirred up many to remember their
Creator in the days of their youth, and to redeem the time,
even in the midst of an evil and adulterous generation.
Indeed, about this time we observed the Spirit of God to
move upon the minds of many of the children. They began
more carefully to attend to the things that were spoken both
at home and at church, and a remarkable seriousness
appeared in their whole behaviour and conversation. Who
knows but some of them may grow up to the measure of
the stature offthe fulness of Christ ?"
JUNE 25.-Mr. Causton, the store-keeper and chief magis.
trate of Savannah, was seized with a slow fever. I attended
him every day, (as I did any of my parishioners who were in
any painful or dangerous illness,) and had a good hope, from
the thankfulness he showed, that my labour was not in vain.
Sun. JULY 3.-Immediately after the holy communion, I
mentioned to Mrs. Williamson (Mr. Causton's niece) some
things which I thought reprovable in her behaviour. At this
she appeared extremely angry; said, she did not expect such
usage from me; and at the turn of the street, through which
we were walking home, went abruptly away. The next day
Mrs. Causton endeavoured to excuse her; told me she was
exceedingly grieved for what had passed the day before, and
desired me to tell her in writing what I disliked; which I
accordingly did the day following.
But first, I sent Mr. Causton the following note:-
To this hour you have shown yourself my friend; I ever
have and ever shall acknowledge it. And it is my earnest
desire, that He who hath hitherto given me this blessing,
would continue it still.
But this cannot be, unless you will allow me one request,
which is not so easy an one as it appears: Do not condemn
me for doing, in the execution of my office, what I think it
my duty to do.
If you can prevail upon yourself to allow me this, even
when I act without respect of persons, I am persuaded there
will never be, at least not long, any misunderstanding between
us. For even those who seek it, shall, I trust, find no occasion
against me, except it be concerning the law of my God.'
"July 5, 1737. I am," &c.
Wed. 6.-Mr. Causton came to my house, with Mr. Bailiff
Parker, and Mr. Recorder, and warmly asked, "How could
you possibly think I should condemn you for executing any
part of your office?" I said short, Sir, what if I should
think it the duty of my office to repel one of your family from
the holy communion?" He replied, "If you repel me or
my wife, I shall require a legal reason. But I shall trouble
myself about none else. Let them look to themselves."
Sat. 9.-Meeting with a Frenchman of New-Orleans on the
Mississippi, who had lived several months among the Chicasaws,
he gave us a full and particular account of many things
which had been variously related. And hence we could not
but remark, what is the religion of nature, properly so called;
or, that religion which flows from natural reason, unassisted
by Revelation: And that even in those who have the know-
ledge of many truths; and who converse with their beloved
ones day and night. But too plainly does it appear by the
fruits, that the gods of these Heathens too are but devils."
REV, J. WESLEY'S
The substance of his account was this:-" Some years past.
the Chicasaws and French were friends. The French were then
mingled with the Nautchee Indians, whom they used as slaves;
till the Nautchees made a general rising, and took many of the
French prisoners. But soon after, a French army set upon
them, killed many, and carried away the rest. Among those
that were killed were some Chicasaws, whose death the Chica-
saw nation resented; and, soon after, as a French boat was
going through their country, they fired into it, and killed all
the men but two. The French resolved on revenge; and
orders were given for many Indians and several parties of
white men to rendezvous on the 26th of March, 1736, near
one of the Chicasaw towns. The first party, consisting of
fifty men, came thither some days before the time. They
staid there till the 24th, but none came to join them. On the
25th, they were attacked by two hundred Chicasaws. The
French attempted to force their way through them. Five or
six and twenty did so; the rest were taken prisoners. The
prisoners were sent two or three to a town to be burned.
Only the commanding officer and one or two more were put
to death on the place of the engagement.
"I," said he, "and one more were saved by the warrior
who took us. The manner of burning the rest was, holding
lighted canes to their arms and legs, and several parts of
their bodies, for some time, and then for a while taking them
away. They likewise stuck burning pieces of wood into their
flesh all round, in which condition they kept them from
morning till evening. But they commonly beat them before
they burn them. I saw the Priest that was with us carried to
be burnt; and from head to foot he was as black as your coat
with the blows which they had given him."
I asked him, what was their manner of life. He said,
"They do nothing but eat, and drink, and smoke, from morn-
ing till night; and, in a manner, from night till morning.
For they rise at any hour of the night when they wake, and
after eating and drinking as much as they can, go to sleep
again." See The Religion of Nature truly Delineated I "
Sat. 23.-Reflecting on the state I was now in, I could _3t
but observe in a letter to a friend, How to attain to the being
crucified with Christ, I find not, being in a condition I neither
desired nor expected in America,-in ease, and honour, and
abundance. A strange school for him who has but one
business, Tvyura~Ge eavrov 7rpoT evac~eetav." *
Wed. 27.-I rejoiced to meet once more with that good
soldier of Jesus Christ, August. Spangenberg, with whom,
on Monday, August 1, I began my long-intended journey to
Ebenezer. In the way, I told him, the calm we had so long
enjoyed was now drawing to an end; that I hoped he would
shortly see I was not (as some had told him) a respecter of
persons; but was determined (God being my helper) to
behave indifferently to all, rich or poor, friends or enemies.
I then asked his advice as to the difficulty I foresaw; and
resolved, by God's grace, to follow it.
In the evening, we came to New-Ebenezer, where the poor
Saltzburghers are settled. The industry of this people is
quite surprising. Their sixty huts are neatly and regularly
built, and all the little spots of ground between them improved
to the best advantage. One side of the town is a field of
Indian corn; on the other are the plantations of several pri-
vate persons; all which together one would scarce think it
possible for a handful of people to have done in one year.
Wed. AUG. 3.-We returned to Savannah. Sunday, 7, I
repelled Mrs. Williamson from the holy communion. And
Monday, 8, Mr. Recorder, of Savannah, issued out the
Georgia. Savannah ss.
"To all Constables, Tithingmen, and others, whom these may
"You, and each of you, are hereby required to take the
body of John Wesley, Clerk:
And bring him before one of the bailiffs of the said town,
to answer the complaint of William Williamson and Sophia
his wife, for defaming the said Sophia, and refusing to admi.
nister to her the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, in a public
congregation, without cause; by which the said William
Williamson is damaged one thousand pounds sterling: And
for so doing, this is your warrant, certifying what you are to
do in the premises. Given under my hand and seal the 8th
day of August, Anno Dom. 1737. THO. CHRISTIE."
To exercise himself unto godliness.
REV. J. WESLEY'S .
Tues. 9.-Mr. Jones, the Constable, served the warrant, and
carried me before Mr. Bailiff Parker and Mr. Recorder. My
answer to them was, that the giving or refusing the Lord's
Supper being a matter purely ecclesiastical, I could not
acknowledge their power to interrogate me upon it. Mr.
Parker told me, However, you must appear at the next
Court, holden for Savannah." Mr. Williamson, who stood by,
said, Gentlemen, I desire Mr. Wesley may give bail for his
appearance." But Mr. Parker immediately replied, "Sir,
Mr. Wesley's word is sufficient."
Wed. 10.-Mr. Causton (from a just regard, as his letter
expressed it, to the friendship which had subsisted between us
till this affair) required me to give the reasons in the Court-
house, why I repelled Mrs. Williamson from the holy commu-
nion. I answered, "I apprehend many ill consequences may
arise from so doing: Let the cause be laid before the Trustees."
Thur. 11.-Mr. Causton came to my house, and among
many other sharp words, said, Make an end of this matter:
Thou hadst best. My niece to be used thus I have drawn
the sword, and I will never sheath it till I have satisfaction."
Soon after, he added," Give the reasons of your repelling
her before the whole congregation." I answered, Sir, if
you insist upon it, I will; and so you may be pleased to tell
her." He said, Write to her, and tell her so yourself." I
said, "I will; and after he went, I wrote as follows:-
To Mrs. Sophia Williamson.
"AT Mr. Causton's request, I write once more. The
rules whereby I proceed are these:-
'So many as intend to be partakers of the holy commu-
nion, shall signify their names to the Curate, at least some
time the day before.' This you did not do.
And if any of these-have done any wrong to his neigh-
'ours, by word or deed, so that the congregation be thereby
offended, the Curate- shall advertise him, that in any
wise he presume not to come to the Lord's table, until he
hath openly declared himself to have truly repented.'
"If you offer yourself at the Lord's table on Sunday, I
will advertise you, (as I have done more than once,) wherein
you have done wrong. Aknd when you have openly declared
yourself to have truly related, I will administer to you the
mysteries of God. JOHN WESLEY.
"August 11, 1737."
Mr. Delamotte carrying this, Mr. Causton said, among many
other warm sayings, "I am the person that am injured. The
affront is offered to me; and I will espouse the cause of my
niece. I am ill-used; and I will have satisfaction, if it be to be
had in the world."
Which way this satisfaction was to be had, I did not yet
conceive. But on Friday and Saturday it began to appear:-
Mr. Causton declared to many persons, that Mr. Wesley had
repelled Sophy from the holy communion, purely out of
revenge; because he had made proposals of marriage to her,
which she rejected, and married Mr. Williamson."
I could not but observe the gracious providence of God, in
the course of the Lessons all this week. On Monday evening
God spake to us in these words:-" Call to remembrance the
former days, in which ye endured a great fight of afflictions:
Partly whilst you were made a gazing stock, both by reproaches
and afflictions, and partly whilst ye became companions of them
.that were so used.-Cast not away, therefore, your confidence,
which hath great recompense of reward; for ye have need of
patience, that after ye have done the will of God, ye might
receive the promise." (Heb. x. 32-36.)
The Evening Lesson on Tuesday was the eleventh of the
Hebrews; in reading which I was more particularly encouraged
by his example, who chose rather to suffer affliction with the
people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season:
Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the
treasures of Egypt."
The Lesson on Wednesday began with these words: "Where-
fore seeing we are compassed about with so great a cloud
of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight,-and run with
patience the race that is set before us: Looking unto Jesus,
the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that
was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame,
and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God." (Heb.
xii. 1, 2.)
In the Thursday Lesson were these comfortable words: I
will never leave thee nor forsake thee. So that we may boldly
say, The Lord is my helper, and I will not fear what man shall
do unto me." (Heb. xiii. 5, 6.)
The words of St. James, read on Friday, were, Blessed is
the man that endureth temptation:" And those on Saturday,
REV. J. WESLEY'S
" My brethren, have not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ,-
with respect of persons." (James ii. 1.)
I was only afraid, lest those who were weak should "be
turned out of the way; at least so far as to forsake the public
"assembling of themselves together." But I feared where no
fear was. God took care of this also. So that on Sunday, the
14th, more were present at the Morning Prayers than had been
for some months before. Many of them observed those words
in the first Lesson, Set Naboth on high among the people;
and set two men, sons of Belial, before him, to bear witness
Tues. 16.-Mrs.Williamson swore to and signed an affidavit,
insinuating much more than it asserted; but asserting, That
Mr. Wesley had many times proposed marriage to her; all
which proposals she had rejected. Of this I desired a copy:
Mr. Causton replied, Sir, you may have one from any of the
newspapers in America."
On Thursday or Friday was delivered out a list of twenty-
six men, who were to meet, as a Grand Jury, on Monday the
22d. But this list was called in the next day, and twenty-four
names added to it. Of this Grand Jury, (forty-four of whom
only met.) one was a Frenchman, who did not understand
English, one a Papist, one a professed infidel, three Baptists,
sixteen or seventeen others Dissenters; and several others
who had personal quarrels against me, and had openly vowed
To this Grand Jury, on Monday the 22d, Mr. Causton gave
a long and earnest charge, to beware of spiritual tyranny,
and to oppose the new, illegal authority which was usurped
over their consciences." Then Mrs. Williamson's affidavit
was read: After which, Mr. Causton delivered to the Grand
Jury a paper, entitled,-
"A list of grievances, presented by the Grand Jury for
Savannah this day of August, 1737."
This the majority of the Grand Jury altered in some par-
ticulars, and on Thursday, September 1, delivered it again to
the Court, under the form of two presentments, containing
ten bills, which were then read to the people.
Herein they asserted, upon oath, "That John Wesley,
Clerk, had broken the laws of the realm, contrary to the
peace of our Sovereign Lord the King, his crown and dignity.
"1. By speaking and writing to Mrs. Williamson, against
her husband's consent.
"2. By repelling her from the holy communion.
"3. By not declaring his adherence to the Church of
"4. By dividing the Morning Service on Sundays.
"5. By refusing to baptize Mr. Parker's child, otherwise
than by dipping, except the parents would certify it was weak,
and not able to bear it.
"6. By repelling William Gough from the holy communion.
7. By refusing to read the Burial Service over the body
of Nathaniel Polhill.
"8. By calling himself Ordinary of Savannah.
"9. By refusing to receive William Aglionby as a godfather,
only because he was not a communicant.
"10. By refusing Jacob Matthews for the same reason:
And baptizing an Indian trader's child with only two spon-
sors." (This, I own, was wrong; for I ought, at all hazards,
to have refused baptizing it till he had procured a third.)
Fri. 2.-Was the third Court at which I appeared since
my being carried before Mr. P. and the Recorder.
I now moved for an immediate hearing on the first bill,
being the only one of a civil nature: But it was refused. I
made the same motion in the afternoon; but was put off till
the next Court-day.
On the next Court-day I appeared again; as also at the two
Courts following: But could not be heard, because (the Judge
said) Mr. Williamson was gone out of town.
The sense of the minority of the Grand Jurors themselves
(for they were by no means unanimous) concerning these pre-
sentments, may appear from the following paper, which they
transmitted to the Trustees:-
To the Honourable the Trustees for Georgia.
"WHEREAS two presentments have been made, the one of
August 23, the other of August 31, by the Grand Jury for the
town and county of Savannah, in Georgia, against John
We, whose names are underwritten, being members of the
said Grand Jury, do humbly beg leave to signify our dislike of
the said presentments; being, by many and divers circum-
REV. J. WESLEY'S
stances, throughly persuaded in ourselves, that the whole
charge against Mr. Wesley is an artifice of Mr. Causton's,
designed rather to blacken the character of Mr. Wesley, than
to free the colony from religious tyranny, as he was pleased, in
his Charge to us, to term it. But as these circumstances will
be too tedious to trouble your Honours with, we shall only beg
leave to give the reasons of our dissent from the particular bills.
With regard to the First bill, we do not apprehend that
Mr. Wesley acted against any law, by writing or speaking to
Mrs. Williamson, since it does not appear to us, that the said
Mr. Wesley has either spoke in private, or wrote to the said
Mrs. Williamson, since March 12, (the day of her marriage,)
except one letter of July the 5th, which he wrote at the
request of her uncle, as a Pastor, to exhort and reprove her.
The Second we do not apprehend to be a true bill; because
we humbly conceive Mr. Wesley did not assume to himself any
authority contrary to law: For we understand, Every person
intending to communicate, should signify his name to the Cu-
rate, at least some time the day before;' which Mrs. Williamson
did not do; although Mr. Wesley had often, in full congrega-
tion, declared, he did insist on a compliance with that Rubric,
and had before repelled divers persons for non-compliance
The Third we do not think a true bill; because several of us
have been his hearers, when he has declared his adherence to the
Church of England, in a stronger manner than by a formal
declaration; by explaining and defending the Apostles', the
Nicene, and the Athanasian Creeds, the Thirty-nine Articles,
the whole Book of Common-Prayer, and the Homilies of the
said Church; and because we think a formal declaration is not
required, but from those who have received institution and
The fact alleged in the Fourth bill we cannot apprehend to
be contrary to any law in being.
"The Fifth we do not think a true bill; because we con-
ceive Mr. Wesley is justified by the Rubric, viz., 'If they' (the
parents) 'certify that the child is weak, it shall suffice to pour
water upon it.' Intimating (as we humbly suppose) it shall
not suffice, if they do not certify.
The Sixth cannot be a true bill; because the said William
Gough, being one of our members, was surprised to hear himself
named, without his knowledge or privity; and did publicly
declare, it was no grievance to him, because the said John
Wesley had given him reasons with which he was satisfied.
The Seventh we do not apprehend to be a true bill; for
Nathaniel Polhill was an Anabaptist, and desired in his life-
time, that he might not be interred with the Office of the
Church of England. And farther, we have good reason to
believe, that Mr. Wesley was at Frederica, or on his return
thence, when Polhill was buried.
"As to the Eighth bill we are in doubt, as not well knowing
the meaning of the word Ordinary.' But for the Ninth and
Tenth, we think Mr. Wesley is sufficiently justified by the
Canons of the Church, which forbid 'any person to be admitted
godfather or godmother to any child, before the said person has
received the holy communion;' whereas William Aglionby
and Jacob Matthews had never certified Mr. Wesley that they
had received it."
This was signed by twelve of the Grand Jurors, of whom
three were Constables, and six more Tithingmen; who, conse-
quently, would have made a majority, had the Jury consisted,
as it regularly should have done, of only fifteen members, viz.,
the four Constables and eleven Tithingmen.
Fri. SEPT. 30.-Having ended the Homilies, I began read-
ing Dr. Rogers's eight sermons to the congregation: Hoping
they might be a timely antidote against the poison of infidelity
which was now with great industry propagated among us.
OCTOBER 7.-I consulted my friends, whether God did not
call me to return to England? The reason for which I left it had
now no force; there being no possibility, as yet, of instruct-
ing the Indians; neither had I, as yet, found or heard of any
Indians on the continentof America who had the least desire of
being instructed. And as to Savannah, having never engaged
myself, either by word or letter, to stay there a day longer than
I should judge convenient, nor ever taken charge of the people
any otherwise than as in my passage to the Heathens, I looked
upon myself to be fully discharged therefrom, by the vacating
of that design. Besides, there was a probability of doing more
service to that unhappy people, in England, than I could do in
Georgia, by representing, without fear or favour tothe Trustees,
the real state the colony was in. After deeply considering these
things, they were unanimous, "That I ought to go; but not
yet." So I laid the thoughts of it aside for the present:
REV. J. WESLEY'S
Being persuaded, that when the time was come, God would
" make the way plain before my face."
Sat. 15.-Being at Highgate, a village five miles from
Savannah, consisting of (all but one) French families, who, I
found, knew but little of the English tongue, I offered to read
prayers there in French every Saturday in the afternoon. They
embraced the offer gladly. On Saturday, the 22d, I read
prayers in German likewise, to the German villagers of Hamp-
stead; and so continued to do, once a week. We began the
Service (both at Highgate and Hampstead) withsinging a psalm.
Then I read and explained a chapter in the French or German
Testament, and concluded with prayers and another psalm.
Sat. 29.-Some of the French of Savannah were present at
the prayers at Highgate. The next day I received a message
from them all, That as I read prayers to the French at High-
gate, who were but few, they hoped I would do the same to
those of Savannah, where there was a large number who did not
understand English." Sunday, 30th, I began so to do; and
now I had full employment for that holy day. The first Eng-
lish prayers lasted from five till half an hour past six. The
Italian (which I read to a few Vaudois) began at nine. The
second service for the English (including the sermon and the
holy communion) continued from half an hour past ten, till
about half an hour past twelve. The French service began at
one. At two I catechised the children. About three began
the English service. After this was ended, I had the happiness
of joining with as many as my largest room would hold, in
reading, prayer, and singing praise. And about six, the ser-
vice of the Moravians, so called, began: At which I was glad
to be present, not as a teacher, but a learner.
Thur. Nov. 3.-I appeared again at the Court, holden on
that day; and again at the Court held Tuesday, November
22d. On which day Mr. Causton desired to speak with me.
He then read me some affidavits which had been made Sep-
tember 15th last past; in one of which it was affirmed, that
I then abused Mr. Causton in his own house, calling him liar,
villain, and so on. It was now likewise repeated before several
persons, which indeed I had forgot, that I had been repri-
manded at the last Court for an enemy to, and hinderer of,
the public peace.
I again consulted my friends, who agreed with me, that the
time we looked for was now come. And the next morning,
calling on Mr. Causton, I told him, I designed to set out for
England immediately. I set up an advertisement in the Great
Square to the same effect, and quietly prepared for my journey.
Fri. DEC. 2.-I proposed to set out for Carolina about noon,
the tide then serving. But about ten, the Magistrates sent for
me, and told me, I must not go out of the province; for I had
not answered the allegations laid against me. I replied, "I
have appeared at six or seven Courts successively, in order to
answer them. But I was not suffered so to do, when I desired it
time after time." Then theysaid,however,I must not go, unless
I would give security to answer those allegations at their Court.
I asked, "What security ? After consulting together about
two hours, the Recorder showed me a kind of bond, engaging
me, under a penalty of fifty pounds, to appear at their Court
when I should be required. He added, But Mr. Williamson
too has desired of us, that you should give bail to answer his
action." I then told him plainly, Sir, you use me very ill, and
so you do the Trustees. I will give neither any bond, nor any
bail at all. You know your business, and I know mine."
In the afternoon, the Magistrates published an order, requir-
ing all the officers and centinels to prevent my going out of
the province; and forbidding any person to assist me so to do.
Being now only a prisoner at large, in a place where I knew by
experience, every day would give fresh opportunity to procure
evidence of words I never said, and actions I never did; I saw
clearly the hour was come for leaving this place: And as soon
as Evening Prayers were over, about eight o'clock, the tide
then serving, I shook off the dust of my feet, and left Georgia,
after having preached the Gospel there (not as I ought, but as
I was able) one year, and nearly nine months.
During this time I had frequent opportunities of making
many observations and inquiries concerning the real state of
this province, (which has been so variously represented,) the
English settlements therein, and the Indians that have inter-
course with them. These I minuted down from time to time;
a small extract of which I have subjoined.
1. Georgia lies in the 30th and 31st degree of north latitude.
The air is generally clear, the rains being much shorter, as
well as heavier, than in England. The dews are very great.
REV. J. WESLEY'S
Thunder and lightning are expected almost every day in May,
June, July, and August. They are very terrible, especially to
a stranger. During those months, from ten in the morning to
four in the afternoon, the sun is extremely scorching. But the
sea-breeze generally blows from ten till three or four. The
winter is nearly of the same length as in England. But the
mid-day sun is always warm, even when the mornings and
evenings are very sharp, and the nights piercing cold.
2. The land is of four sorts,-pine-barren, oak-land, swamp,
and marsh. The pine-land is of far the greatest extent, espe-
cially near the sea-coasts. The soil of this is a dry, whitish
sand, producing shrubs of several sorts, and between them a
spiry, coarse grass, which cattle do not love to feed on. But
here and there is a little of a better kind, especially in the
savannahs. (So they call the low, watery meadows, which are
usually intermixed with pine-lands.) It bears naturally two
sorts of fruit,-hurtle-berries, (much like those in England,)
and Chincopin-nuts; a dry, harsh nut, about the size of a
small acorn. A laborious man may, in one year, clear and
plant four or five acres of this land : It will produce, the first
year, from two to four bushels of Indian corn, and from four
to eight of Indian pease, per acre. The second year it usually
bears half as much; the third, less; the fourth, nothing.
3. Vines, mulberries, and peach-trees it bears well. The
white mulberry is not good to eat. The black is about the
size of a blackberry, and has much the same flavour. In fresh
pine-land, Indian potatoes grow well; (which are more
luscious and larger than the Irish;) and so do water-melons
and sewee-beans, about the size of our scarlet, but to be shelled
and eaten like Windsor beans.
4. Oak-land commonly lies in narrow streaks between pine-
land and some swamp, creek, or river. The soil is a blackish
sand, producing several kinds of oak, (though none exactly like
the English,) bay, laurel, ash, walnut, sumac-trees, gum-trees,
(a sort of sycamore,) dog-trees, (covered in spring with large
white flowers,) and many hickary-trees, which bear a bad kind
of walnut. In the moistest part of this land some porsimmon-
trees grow, (which bear a sort of yellow, clear, luscious plum,)
and a few mulberry and cherry trees. The common wild grapes
are of two sorts,-both red: The fox-grape grows two or three
only on a stalk, is thick-skinned, large-stoned, of a harsh taste,
and of the size of a small Kentish cherry. The cluster-grape
is of a harsh taste too, and about the size of a white currant.
5. This land requires much labour to clear; but when it is
cleared, it will bear any grain, for three, four, or sometimes
five years, without laying any manure upon it. An acre of
it generally bears ten bushels of Indian corn, besides five of
pease, in a year. So that this at present is justly esteemed
the most valuable land in the province.
6. A swamp is, any low, watery place, which is covered
with trees or canes. They are here of three sorts, cypress,
river, and cane swamps. Cypress-swamps are mostly large
ponds, in and round which cypresses grow. Most river-
swamps are overflown every tide, by the river which runs
through or near them. If they were drained, they would pro-
duce good rice; as would the cane-swamps also; which in
the mean time are the best feeding for all sorts of cattle.
7. The marshes are of two sorts; soft marsh, which is all a
quagmire, and absolutely good for nothing; and hard marsh,
which is a firm, but barren sand, bearing only sour rushes.
Marshes of both sorts abound on the sea islands, which are
very numerous, and contain all sorts of land. And upon
these chiefly, near creeks and runs of water, juniper-trees
and cedars grow.
8. Savannah stands on a flat bluff, (so they term any high.
land hanging over a creek or river,) which rises forty-five feet
perpendicular from the river, and commands it several miles
both upward and downward. The soil is a white sand for
above a mile in breadth, south-east and north-west. Beyond
this, eastward, is a river-swamp; westward a small wood, in
which was the old Indian town. On the other side of the
river is a marshy island, covered with large trees. South-
west of the town is a large pine-barren, which extends
backward to a branch of the Alatamahaw river.
9. St. Simon's Island, having on the south-east the Gulf
of Florida, on the other sides, branches of the Alatamahaw,
is about one hundred miles south of Savannah, and extends
in length about twenty, in breadth from two to five miles.
On the west side of it, on a low bluff stands Frederic&, hav-
ing woods to the north and south; to the east, partly woods,
partly savannahs, and partly marshes. The soil is mostly a
blackish sand. There is not much pine-land on the island;
REV. J. WESLEY'
the greatest part being oak-land, intermixed with many
savannahs, and old Spanish or Indian fields.
10. On the sea-point, about five miles south-east of the
town, is the fort where the soldiers are stationed. But the
storehouse in Frederica better deserves that name; being en-
compassed with regular ramparts of earth, and a palisaded
ditch, and mounted with cannon, which entirely command
11. About twenty miles north-west from St. Simon's is
Darien, the settlement of the Scotch Highlanders, a mile from
Fort King George, which was built about seventeen and aban-
doned about eleven years since. The town lies on the main
land, close to a branch of the Alatamahaw, on a bluff about
thirty feet above the river, having woods on all sides. The soil
is a blackish sand. They built at first many scattered huts;
but last spring, (1736,) expecting the Spaniards, they built
themselves a large fort, and all retired within the walls of it.
12. Augusta, distant from Savannah one hundred and fifty
miles, and five from old Savannah Town, is designed to stand
in an old Indian field, on a bluff, about thirty feet high. A
small fort of wooden piles was built there in 1737; but no
house was then built, nor any more ground cleared, than Mr.
Lacy and his men found so.
13. Old-Ebenezer, where the Saltzburghers settled at first,
lies twenty-five miles west of Savannah. A small creek runs by
the town, down to the river, and many brooks run between the
little hills: But the soil is a hungry, barren sand; and upon
any sudden shower, the brooks rise several feet perpendicular,
and overflow whatever is near them. Since the Saltzburghers
removed, two English families have been placed there: But
these too say, that the land is good for nothing; and that the
creek is of little use; it being by water twenty miles to the
river; and the water generally so low in summer-time, that
a boat cannot come within six or seven miles of the town.
14. New-Ebenezer, to which the Saltzburghers removed in
March, 1736, lies six miles eastward from the old, on a high
bluff, near the Savannah river. Here are some tracts of fruitful
land, though the greatest part of that adjoining to the town is
pine-barren. The huts, sixty in number, are neatly and regu-
larly built; the little piece of ground allotted to each for a
garden is every where put to the best use, no spot being left
unplanted. Nay, even one of the main streets, being one more
Dec. 1737.] JOURNAL. 65
than was as yet wanted, bore them this year a crop of Indian
15. About ten miles east of this, on a creek, three miles
from the river, was the village of Abercorn. Ten families set-
tled here in 1733; but it is now without inhabitant. Four
miles below the mouth of Abercorn-Creek is Joseph's Town,
the settlement of two Scotch gentlemen. A mile below was
Sir Francis Bathurst's plantation: And a quarter of a mile
from this, Walter Augustine's settlement. But both these are
left without inhabitant.
16. A mile below this is Captain Williams's plantation : A
mile from thence, Mrs. Mathews's, (late Musgrove,) commonly
known by the name of the Cowpen: Adjoining to which is the
land belonging to Captain Watson; on which is an unfinished
house, swiftly running to ruin. A mile from this is Irene, a
house built for an Indian school, in the year 1736. It stands
on a small, round hill, in a little piece of fruitful ground, given
by the Indians to Mr. Ingham. The Indian town is within a
furlong of it.
17. Five miles south-west of Savannah, on a small rise,
stands the village of Highgate. It has pine-land on three sides,
and a swamp on the fourth. Twelve families were placed here
in 1733; nine whereof remain there. A mile eastward of this
is Hampstead, settled with twelve families also, a little before
Highgate; five of which are still remaining.
18. Six miles south. east of Savannah is Thunderbolt: Three
families are settled here, near a small, ruinous fort. Four miles
south of this is the island of Skidoway: On the north-east
point whereof ten families were placed in 1731; (a small fort
was built here likewise;) but nine of them are either dead, or
removed to other places. A small creek divides Skidoway from
Tybee-Island, on the south-east part of which, fronting the
inlet, the lighthouse is built. Ten families were settled here
in 1734; but they are part dead, and part removed, so that the
island is now again without any fixed inhabitant.
19. Twelve miles southward from Savannah (by land) is M r.
Houstoun's plantation: And forty or fifty miles from him, up
Ogeechy river, that where Mr. Sterling for some time lived.
Fort Argyle stands twenty miles from this, on a high bluff, by
the river Ogeechy. It is a small, square, wooden fort, musket-
proof. Ten freeholders were settled near it; but eight of them
VOL. I. F
REV. J. WESLEY'S
are gone, and the land they had cleared, lying waste, will, in
a few years, be as it was before.
20. The southernmost settlement in Georgia is Fort St.
Andrew. It stands fifty miles south of Frederica, on the south-
west side of Cumberland Island, upon a high neck of land,
which commands the river both ways. The walls are of wood,
filled up with earth, round which are a ditch and palisade.
21. It is hard to pick out any consistent account of the
Georgian Indians from the contradictory relations of their
traders. The following is extracted, partly from those wherein
all, or the generality of them, agree; partly from the relations
of such as have been occasionally amongst them, and have no
interest in making them better or worse than they are.
22. Of the Georgian Indians in general it may be observed,
that they are not so properly nations, as tribes or clans, who
have wandered thither atdifferent times; perhaps expelled their
native countries by stronger tribes; but how or when they can-
not tell, being none of them able to give any rational account
of themselves. They are inured to hardships of all kinds, and
surprisingly patient of pain. But as they have no letters, so
they have no religion, no laws, no civil government. Nor have
they any ki 'gs or princes, properly speaking; their meekos, or
headmen, having no power either to command or punish, no
man obeying them any farther than he pleases. So that every
one doeth what is right in his own eyes; and if it appears
wrong to his neighbour, the person aggrieved usually steals on
the other unawares, and shoots him, scalps him, or cuts off his
ears: Having only two short rules of proceeding,-to do what
he will, and what he can.
23. They are likewise all, except, perhaps, the Choctaws,
gluttons, drunkards, thieves, dissemblers, liars. They are
implacable, unmerciful; murderers of fathers, murderers of
mothers, murderers of their own children : It being a common
thing for a son to shoot his father or mother because they are
old and past labour; and for a woman either to procure abor-
tion, or to throw her child into the next river, because she will
go with her husband to the war. Indeed, husbands, strictly
speaking, they have none; for ,any man leaves his wife (so
called) at pleasure, who frequently, in return, cuts the throats of
all the children she has had by him. Whoredom they account
no crime, and few instances appear of a young Indian woman's
[Dec. 1; 37.
refusing any one. Nor have they any fixed punishment for
adultery; only, if the husband take his wife with another
man, he will do what he can to both, unless speedily pacified
by the present of a gun or a blanket.
24. The Choctaws only have some appearance of an entire
nation, possessing a large extent of land, eight or nine hundred
miles west of Savannah, and many well-inhabited towns.
They are said to have six thousand fighting men, united under
one head. At present they are in league with the French,
who have sent some Priests among them; by whom (if one may
credit the Choctaw traders) ten or twelve have been baptized.
25. Next to these, to the north-east, are the Chicasaws.
Their country is flat, full of meadows, springs, and rivers. In
their fields, though six or seven hundred miles from the sea,
are found sea-shells in great numbers. They have about nine
hundred fighting men, ten towns, and one meeko, at least, in
every one. They are eminently gluttons, eating, drinking,
and smoking all day, and almost all night. They are
extremely indolent and lazy, except in war; then they are the
most indefatigable, and the most valiant of all the Indians:
But they are equally cruel with the rest, torturing and burn-
ing all their prisoners, whether Indian or European.
26., East of them, in the latitude of 35* and 36-, about three
or four hundred miles from Savannah, lie the Cherikees.
Their country is very mountainous, fruitful, and pleasant. They
have fifty-two towns, and above three thousand fighting men.
In each town are three or more headmen, who keep up a sort
of shadow of government, having power to set the rest to work,
and to punish such as will not join in the common labour.
They are civil to strangers, and will do any thing for them,
for pay; being always willing, for a small piece of money, to
carry a message for fifty or sixty miles, and, if required, a
heavy burden too : But they are equally cruel to prisoners with
the Chicasaws, though not equally valiant. They are seldom
intemperate in drinking, but when they can be so in free-cost.
Otherwise, love of drink yields to covetousness: A vice
scarcely to be found in any Indian but a Cherikee.
27. The Uchees have only one small town left, (near two
hundred miles from Savannah,) and about forty fighting men.
The Creeks have been many times on the point of cutting them
off. They are indeed hated by most, and despised by all the
REV. J. WESLEY'S
other nations, as well for their cowardice, as their superlative
diligence in thieving, and for out-lying all the Indians upon
28. The Creek Indians are about four hundred miles from
Savannah. They are said to be bounded on the west by the
Choctaws, to the north by the Chicasaws, to the east by the
Cherikees, and to the south by the Alatamahaw river. They
have many towns, a plain, well-watered country, and fifteen
hundred fighting men.. They have often three or four meekos
in a town; but without so much as the shadow of authority,
only to give advice, which every one is at liberty to take or
leave. But age and reputation for valour and wisdom have
given Chicali, a meeho of the Coweta-Town, a more than ordi-
nary influence over the nation; though not even the show of
regal power. Yet neither age, wisdom, nor reputation, can
restrain him from drunkenness. Indeed all the Creeks, having
been most conversant with white men, are most infected with
insatiate love of drink, as well as other European vices. They
are more exquisite dissemblers than the rest of their country-
men. They know not what friendship or gratitude means.
They show no inclination to learn any thing; but least of all,
Christianity; being full as opinionated of their own parts and
wisdom, as either modern Chinese, or ancient Romans.
Sat. DEc. 3.-We came to Purrysburg early in the morn-
ing, and endeavoured to procure a guide to Port-Royal. But
none being to be had, we set out without one, an hour before
sunrise. After walking two or three hours, we met with an
old man, who led us into a small path, near which was a line
of blazed trees, (that is, marked by cutting off part of the
bark,) by following which, he said, we might easily come to
Port-Royal in five or six hours.
We were four in all; one of whom intended to go to England
with me ; the other two to settle in Carolina. About eleven we
came into a large swamp, where we wandered about till near
two. We then found another blaze, and pursued it, till it
divided into two: One of these we followed through an almost
impassable thicket, a mile beyond which it ended. We made
through the thicket again, and traced the other blaze till that
ended too. It now grew toward sunset; so we sat down, faint
and weary, having had no food all day, except a gingerbread
Dec. 1737.] JOURNAL. 69
cake, which I had taken in my pocket. A third of this we had
divided among us at noon; another third we took now; the
rest we reserved for the morning; but we had met with no water
all the day. Thrusting a stick into the ground, and finding
the end of it moist, two of our company fell a digging with
their hands, and, at about three feet depth, found water. We
thanked God, drank, and were refreshed. The night was
sharp; however, there was no complaining among us; but
after having commended ourselves to God, we lay down close
together, and (I at least) slept till near six in the morning.
Sun. 4.-God renewing our strength, we arose neither
faint nor weary, and resolved to make one trial more to find
out a path to Port-Royal. We steered due east; but finding
neither path nor blaze, and the woods growing thicker and
thicker, we judged it would be our best course to return, if
we could, by the way we came. The day before, in the
thickest part of the woods, I had broke many young trees, I
knew not why, as we walked along: These we found a great
help in several places, where no path was to be seen; and
between one and two God brought us safe to Benjamin
Arieu's house, the old man we left the day before.
In the evening I read French prayers to a numerous family,
a mile from Arieu's; one of whom undertook to guide us to
Port-Royal. In the morning we set out. About sunset, we
asked our guide if he knew where he was; who frankly
answered, No. However, we pushed on till, about seven, we
came to a plantation, and the next evening (after many
difficulties and delays) we landed on Port-Royal Island.
Wed. 7.-We walked to Beaufort; where Mr. Jones, (the
Minister of Beaufort,) with whom I lodged during my short
stay here, gave me a lively idea of the old English hospitality.
On Thursday Mr. Delamotte came; with whom, on Friday,
the 9th, I took boat for Charles-Town. After a slow passage,
by reason of contrary winds, and some conflict (our provisions
falling short) with hunger as well as cold, we came thither
early in the morning, on Tuesday, the 13th. Here I expected
trials of a different kind, and far more dangerous. For con-
tempt and want are easy to be borne: But who can bear
respect and abundance ?
Wed. 14.-Being desired to read public prayers, I was much
refreshed with those glorious promises, contained both in the
REV. J. WESLEY'S
seventy-second Psalm, and in the First Lesson, the fortieth
chapter of Isaiah. Yea, "they that wait upon the Lord shall
renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles;
they shall run, and not be weary; they shall walk, and not faint."
In the afternoon, visiting a dying man, we found him still
full of the freshest advices; and busy in settling the affairs of
the Czarina, Prince Thamas, and the Ottoman Porte. How
natural then is the thought,-
Quse cura nitentis
Pascere equos, eadem sequitur tellure repostos.*
For if a soul quivering on the verge of life has still leisure
for these impertinencies, one might almost believe the same
dreams would continue even in the sleep of death !
Fri. 16.-I parted from the last of those friends who came
with me into America, Mr. Charles Delamotte, from whom I
had been but a few days separate since Oct. 14, 1735.
Sun. 18.-I was seized with a violent flux, which I felt
came not before I wanted it. Yet I had strength enough
given to preach once more to this careless people; and a few
" believed our report."
Thur. 22.-I took my leave of America, (though, if it
please God, not for ever,) going on board the Samuel, Captain
Percy, with a young gentleman who had been a few months
in Carolina, one of my parishioners of Savannah, and a French-
man, late of Purrysburg, who was escaped thence with the
skin of his teeth.
Sat. 24.-We sailed over Charles-Town bar, and about
noon lost sight of land.
The next day the wind was fair, but high, as it was on
Sunday, 25, when the sea affected me more than it had done
in the sixteen weeks of our passage to America. I was
obliged to lie down the greatest part of the day, being easy
only in that posture.
Mon. 26.-I began instructing a Negro lad in the principles
of Christianity. The next day I resolved to break off living
delicately, and return to my old simplicity of diet; and after
I did so, neither my stomach nor my head much complained
of the motion of the ship.
Wed. 28.-Finding the unaccountable apprehensions of I
know not what danger, (the wind being small, and the sea
* The same desires which they cherished on earth, remain in the world of spirits.
smooth,) which had been upon me several days, increase, I
cried earnestly for help; and it pleased God, as in a moment,
to restore peace to my soul.
Let me observe hereon, 1. That not one of these hours ought
to pass out of my remembrance, till I attain another manner of
spirit, a spirit equally willing to glorify God by life or by death.
2. That whoever is uneasy on any account (bodily pain alone
excepted) carries in himself his own conviction, that he is so far
an unbeliever. Is he uneasy at the apprehension of death?
Then he believeth not, that to die is gain." At any of the
events of life ? Then he hath not a firm belief, that all things
work together for his good." And if he bring the matter
more close, he will always find, beside the general want of faith,
every particular uneasiness is evidently owing to the want of
some particular Christian temper.
Sun. JAN. 1, 1738.-All in the ship (except the Captain
and steersman) were present both at the Morning and Evening
Service, and appeared as deeply attentive, as even the poor
people of Frederica did, while the word of God was new to their
ears. And it may be, one or two among these likewise may
"bring forth fruit with patience."
Mon. 2.-Being sorrowful and very heavy, (though I could
give no particular reason for it,) and utterly unwilling to speak
close to any of my little flock, (about twenty persons,) I was in
doubt whether my neglect of them was not one cause of my own
heaviness. In the evening, therefore, I began instructing the
cabin-boy; after which I was much easier.
I went several times the following days, with a design to
speak to the sailors, but could not. I mean, I was quite averse
from speaking; I could not see how to make an occasion, and
it seemed quite absurd to speak without. Is hot this what men
commonly mean by, "I could not speak ? And is this a suf-
ficient cause of silence, or no ? Is it a prohibition from the
Good Spirit? or a temptation from nature, or the evil one?
Fri. 6.-I ended the "Abridgment of Mr. de Renty's Life."
O that such a life should be related by such an historian I who,
by inserting all, if not more than all, the weak things that holy
man ever said or did, by his commendation of almost every
action or word which either deserved or needed it not, and by
his injudicious manner of relating many others which were
indeed highly commendable, has cast the shade of superstition
REV. J. WSLEY'S
and folly over one of the brightest patterns of heavenly
Sat. 7.-I began to read and explain some passages of the
Bible to the young Negro. The next morning, another Negro
who was on board desired to be a hearer too. From them I
went to the poor Frenchman, who, understanding no English,
had none else in the ship with whom he could converse. And
from this time, I read and explained to him a chapter in the
Testament every morning.
Sun. 8.-In the fulness of my heart, I wrote the following
By the most infallible of proofs, inward feeling, I am con-
"1. Of unbelief; having no such faith in Christ as will pre-
vent my heart from being troubled; which it could not be, if I
believed in God, and rightly believed also in him:
"2. Of pride, throughout my life past; inasmuch as I
thought I had what I find I have not:
3. Of gross irrecollection; inasmuch as in a storm I cry to
God every moment; in a calm, not:
"4. Of levity and luxuriancy of spirit, recurring whenever
the pressure is taken off, and appearing by my speaking words
not tending to edify; but most by my manner of speaking of
"Lord, save, or I perish! Save me,
"1. By such a faith as implies peace in life and in death:
"2. By such humility, as may fill my heart from this hour
for ever, with a piercing uninterrupted sense, Nihil est quod
hactenusfeci; having evidently built without a foundation:
3. By such a recollection as may cry to thee every moment,
especially when all is calm : Give me faith, or I die; give me a
lowly spirit; otherwise, mihi non sit suave vivere.t
"4. By steadiness, seriousness, aepivoT, sobriety of spirit;
avoiding, as fire, every word that tendeth not to edifying; and
never speaking of any who oppose me, or sin against God,
without all my own sins set in array before my face."
This morning, after explaining these words of St. Paul, I
beseech you, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye present
your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God," I
* I have done nothing hitherto.
t Let life be a burden to ine.
exhorted my fellow-travellers with all my might, to comply
with the apostle's direction. But "leaving them afterwards
to themselves," the seriousness they showed at first soon
On Monday, 9, and the following days, I reflected much on
that vain desire, which had pursued me for so many years,
of being in solitude, in order to be a Christian. I have now,
thought I, solitude enough. But am I, therefore, the nearer
being a Christian? Not if Jesus Christ be the model of
Christianity. I doubt, indeed, I am much nearer that
mystery of Satan, which some writers affect to call by that
name. So near, that I had probably sunk wholly into it, had
not the great mercy of God just now thrown me upon reading
St. Cyprian's works. 0 my soul come not thou into their
secret !" Stand thou in the good old paths.
Fri. 13.-We had a thorough storm, which obliged us to
shut all close; the sea breaking over the ship continually. I
was at first afraid; but cried to God, and was strengthened.
Before ten, I lay down: I bless God, without fear. About mid-
night we were awakened by a confused noise of seas and wind
and men's voices, the like to which I had never heard before.
The sound of the sea breaking over and against the sides of the
ship, I could compare to nothing but large cannon, or American
thunder. The rebounding, starting, quivering motion of the
ship much resembled what is said of earthquakes. The Captain
was upon deck in an instant. But his men could not hear what
he said. It blew a proper hurricane; which beginning at south-
west, then went west, north-west, north, and, in a quarter of an
hour, round by the east to the south-west point again. At the
same time the sea running (as they term it) mountain-high, and
that from many different points at once, the ship would not obey
the helm; nor indeed could the steersman, through the violent
rain, see the compass. So he was forced to let her run before
the wind, and in half an hour the stress of the storm was over.
About noon the next day it ceased. But first I had
resolved, God being my helper, not only to preach it to all,
but to apply the word of God to every single soul in the ship;
and if but one, yea, if not one of them will hear, I know
"my labour is not in vain."
I no sooner executed this resolution, than my spirit revived;
so that from this day I had no more of that fearfulness and
REV. J. WESLEY'S
heaviness, which before almost continually weighed me down.
I am sensible one who thinks the being in orco, as they phrase
it, an indispensable preparative for being a Christian, would
say, I had better have continued in that state; and that this
unseasonable relief was a curse, not a blessing. Nay, but
who-art thou, O man, who, in favour of a wretched hypo-
thesis, thus blasphemest the good gift of God? Hath not
He himself said, This also is the gift of God, if a man have
power to rejoice in his labour? Yea, God setteth His own
seal to his weak endeavours, while He thus "answereth him
in the joy of his heart."
Tues. 24.-We spoke with two ships, outward-bound, from
whom we had the welcome news, of our wanting but one
hundred and sixty leagues of the Land's-end. My mind was
now full of thought; part of which I writ down as follows:-
I went to America, to convert the Indians; but O who
shall convert me? who, what is he that will deliver me from
this evil heart of unbelief? I have a fair summer religion.
I can talk well; nay, and believe myself, while no danger is
near: But let death look me in the face, and my spirit is
troubled. Nor can I say, 'To die is gain! '
I have a sin of fear, that when I've spun
My last thread, I shall perish on the shore!
I think, verily, if the Gospel be true, I am safe: For I not
only have given, and do give, all my goods to feed the poor;
I not only give my body to be burned, drowned, or whatever
God shall appoint for me; but I follow after charity, (though
not as I ought, yet as I can,) if haply I may attain it. I now
believe the Gospel is true. I show my faith by my works,'
by staking my all upon it. I would do so again and again a
thousand times, if the choice were still to make. Whoever sees
me, sees I would be a Christian. Therefore are my ways not
like other men's ways.' Therefore I have been, I am, I am
content to be, a by-word, a proverb of reproach.' But in a
storm I think,' What if t e Tnapl be not tr'ue? Tle, Ltou
art of all men most foolish. For what hast thou given thy
goods, thy ease, thy friends, thy reputation, thy country, thy
life? For what art thou wandering over the face of the earth ?
-A dream, 'a cunningly-devised fable !' O! who will deliver
me from this fear of death? What shall I do? Where shall I fly
from it? Should I fight against it by thinking, or by not
thinking of it ? A wise man advised me some time since, Be
still, and go on.' Perhaps this is best, to look upon it as my
cross; when it comes, to let it humble me, and quicken all my
good resolutions, especially that of praying without ceasing;
and at other times, to take no thought about it, but quietly to
go on 'in the work of the Lord.'"
We went on with a small, fair wind, till Thursday in the
afternoon; and then sounding, found a whitish sand at
seventy-five fathom: But having had no observation for
several days, the Captain began to be uneasy, fearing we
might either get unawares into the Bristol Channel, or strike
in the night on the rocks of Scilly.
Sat. 28.-Was another cloudy day; but about ten in the
morning (the wind continuing southerly) the clouds began to
fly just contrary to the wind, and, to the surprise of us all,
sunk down under the sun, so that at noon we had an exact
observation; and by this we found we were as well as we could
desire, about eleven leagues south of Scilly.
Sun. 29.-We saw English land once more; which,
about noon, appeared to be the Lizard-point. We ran by it
with a fair wind; and at noon, the next day, made the west
end of the Isle of Wight.
Here the wind turned against us, and in the evening blew
fresh, so that we expected (the tide being likewise strong against
us) to-be driven some leagues backward in the night: But in
the morning, to our great surprise, we saw Beachy-head just
before us, and found we had gone forwards near forty miles.
Toward evening was a calm; but in the night a strong north
wind brought us safe into the Downs. The day before, Mr.
Whitefield had sailed out, neither of us then knowing any
thing of the other. At four in the morning we took boat, and
in half an hour landed at Deal: It being Wednesday, Febru-
ary 1, the anniversary festival in Georgia for Mr. Oglethorpe's
It is now two years and almost four months since I left my
native country, in order to teach the Georgian Indians the
nature of Christianity : But what have I learned myself in the
mean time ? Why, (what I the least of all suspected,) that I who
went to America to convert others, was never myself converted
REV. J. WESLEY'S[
to God.* "I amriot mad," though I thus speak; but "I speak
the words of truth and soberness ;" if haply some of those who
still dream may awake, and see, that as I am, so are they.
Are they read in philosophy ? So was I. In ancient or
modern tongues ? So was I also. Are they versed in the science
of divinity? I too have studied it many years. Can they talk
fluently upon spiritual things ? The very same could I do.
Are they plenteous in alms ? Behold, I gave all my goods to
feed the poor. Do they give of their labour as well as of their
substance ? I have laboured more abundantly than they all. Are
they willing to suffer for their brethren ? I have thrown up my
friends, reputation, ease, country; I have put my life in my
hand, wandering into strange lands; I have given my body
to be devoured by the deep, parched up with heat, consumed by
toil and weariness, or whatsoever God should please to bring
upon me. But does all this (be it more or less, it matters not)
make me acceptable to God P Does all I ever did or can know,
say, give, do, or suffer, justify me in his sight? Yea, or the
constant use of all the means of grace ? (Which, nevertheless,
is meet, right, and our bounden duty.) Or that I know nothing
of myself; that I am, as touching outward, moral righteousness
blameless ? Or (to come closer yet) the having a rational con-
viction of all the truths of Christianity ? Does all this give me
a claim to the holy, heavenly, divine character of a Christian ?
By no means. If the Oracles of God are true, if we are still to
abide by "the law and the testimony;" all these things, though,
when ennobled by faith in Christ, t they are holy and just and
good, yet without it are "dung and dross," meet only to be
purged away by "the fire that never shall be quenched."
This, then, have I learned in the ends of the earth-That I
am fallen short of the glory of God:" That my whole heart is
altogether corrupt and abominable ;" and, consequently, my
whole life; (seeing it cannot be, that an evil tree" should
bring forth good fruit : ") That alienated" as I am from
the life of God," I am a child of wrath," an heir of hell:
That my own works, my own sufferings, my own righteousness,
are so far from reconciling me to an offended God, so far from
making any atonement for the least of those sins, which are
I am not sure of this.
t I had even then the faith ot a servant, though not that of a son.
I I believe not.
more in number than the hairs of my head," that the most spe-
cious of them need an atonement themselves, or they cannot
abide his righteous judgment; that "having the sentence of
death" inmy heart, and having nothing in or of myself to plead,
I have no hope, but that of being justified freely, through the
redemption that is in Jesus :" I have no hope, but that if I seek
I shall find Christ, and be found in him not having my own
righteousness, but that which is through the faith of Christ,
the righteousness which is of God by faith." (Phil. iii. 9.)
If it be said, that I have faith, (for many such things have I
heard, from many miserable comforters,) I answer, So have the
devils, -a sort of faith; but still they are strangers to the cove-
nant of promise. So the apostles had even at Cana in Galilee,
when Jesus first manifested forth his glory ;" even then they,
in a sort, believed on him ;"but they had not then the faith
that overcometh the world." The faith I want is,* a sure
trust and confidence in God, that, through the merits of Christ,
my sins are forgiven, and I reconciled to the favour of God."
I want that faith which St. Paul recommends to all the world,
especially in his Epistle to the Romans: That faith which
enables every one that hath it to cry out, I live not; but
C'irist liveth in me; and the life which I now live, I live by
faith in the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for
me." I want that faith which none can have without know-
ing that he hath it; (though many imagine they have it, who
have it not;) for whosoever hath it, is "freed from sin, the"
whole body of sin is destroyed" in him : He is freed from
fear, having peace with God through Christ, and rejoicing
in hope of the glory of God." And he is freed from doubt,
"having the love of God shed abroad in his heart, through
the Holy Ghost which is given unto him;" which "Spirit
itself beareth witness with his spirit, that he is a child of
The faith of a son.
REV. MR. JOHN WESLEY'S JOURNAL.
FROM FEBRUARY 1, 1737-8, TO HIS RETURN
For this cause I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus Christ might shcw
forth all long-suffering, for a pattern to them which should hereafter
believe on him to life everlasting. 1 Tim. i. 16.
1. THAT men revile me, and say all manner of
evil against me; that I am become as it were a
monster unto many; that the zealous of almost
every denomination cry out, "Away with such a
fellow from the earth:" This gives me, with
regard to myself, no degree of uneasiness. For
I know the scripture must be fulfilled, "If they
have called the Master of the house Beelzebub,
how much more them of his household ?" But
it does give me a concern, with regard to those
who, by this artifice of the devil, are prevented
from hearing that word which is able to save their
2. For the sake of these, and indeed of all who
desire to hear the truth of those things which have
been so variously related, I have been induced to
publish this farther account; and I doubt not but
it will even hence appear, to all candid and impar-
tial judges, that I have hitherto lived in all good
conscience toward God.
3. I shall be easily excused, by those who either
love or seek the Lord Jesus in sincerity, for speak-
ing so largely of the Moravian Church; a city
which ought to be set upon a hill: Their light
hath been too long hid under a bushel: It is high
time it should at length break forth, and "so
shine before men, that others also may glorify their
Father which is in heaven."
4. If any should ask, "But do you think even
this Church is perfect, without spot, or wrinkle,
or any such thing ? I answer plainly, No;
though I trust it will be, when patience has had
its perfect work." But neither do I think it right
to entertain the world with the spots of God's
5. It has been further asked, whether I imagine
God is to be found only among them. I reply,
" By no means. I know there is a God in England,
and we need not go to seek Him in strange lands."
I know that in our own, He is very nigh unto all
that call upon Him; and therefore I think those
unwise (to say no more) who run to inquire after
Him in Holland or Germany.
6. When I went, the case was widely different.
God had not then made bare his arm before us
as he hath now done; in a manner (I will be bold
to say) which had not been known either in Holland
or Germany at that time, when He who ordereth
all things wisely, according to the counsel of his
own will," was pleased by me to open the inter-
course between the English and the Moravian
7. The particular reason which obliged me to
relate so much of the conversation I had with those
holy men, is this:-In September, 1738, when I
returned from Germany, I exhorted all I could to
follow after that great salvation, which is through
faith in the blood of Christ; waiting for it, in all
the ordinances of God," and in doing good, as
they had opportunity, to all men." And many
found the beginning of that salvation, being justi-