Citation
Determination of direction of littoral transport along the north shore of Santa Rosa Island, Florida

Material Information

Title:
Determination of direction of littoral transport along the north shore of Santa Rosa Island, Florida
Series Title:
UFLCOEL
Creator:
Wang, Yu-hwa
Chang, T. H
Harrell, Sidney L
University of Florida -- Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory
United States -- Army. -- Corps of Engineers. -- Mobile District
Place of Publication:
Gainesville
Publisher:
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
65 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Littoral drift -- Florida -- Santa Rosa Island ( lcsh )
Littoral drift -- Measurement ( lcsh )
Santa Rosa Island (Fla.) ( lcsh )
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering thesis M.S
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

General Note:
"March, 1977."
General Note:
Sponsor: Department of the Army, Mobile District, Corps of Engineers.
Funding:
This publication is being made available as part of the report series written by the faculty, staff, and students of the Coastal and Oceanographic Program of the Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering.
Statement of Responsibility:
Yu-hwa Wang, T.H. Chang, Sidney L. Harrell.

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Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
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The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
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Full Text
UFL/COEL-77/001

DETERMINATION OF DIRECTION OF LITTORAL TRANSPORT ALONG THE NORTH SHORE OF SANTA ROSA ISLAND, FLORIDA
Yu-Hwa Wang T.H. Chang Sidney L. Harrell
March, 1977
Sponsor: Department of the Army Mobile District, Corps of Engineers Mobile, Alabama




TABLE OF CONTENTS
EUe
I. Introduction I
II. General Description of the Project Area 1
III. Field Measurements and Procedures 1
1. Test site and operating period 1
2. Sampling grid and tracer sand preparation 2
3. Injection of tracer and recovery of samples 2
4. Measurements of environmental factors 3
A. Visual observations 3
B. Recording instruments 3
IV. Results, Discussion and Conclusions 4
V. Recommendations 6
Appendix: List of Figures 7




I. INTRODUCTION
The study described in this report was authorized by a contract dated October 19, 1976 between Department of the Amy, Mobile District, Corps of Engineers, Mobile, Alabama and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, University of Florida. The purpose of this study was to determine the actual direction of littoral transport along the north shore of Santa Rosa Island in the vicinity of Pensacola Beach, Florida. To accomplish this objective the sand tracer method was used for the study. Visual observations and instrument recordings of the environment factors were also made during the tracing operations. The investigation covered a time span from September 14, 1976 to March 12, 1977.
II. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT AREA
Santa Rosa Island is a barrier island facing the Gulf of Mexico that
lies between Pensacola Beach and Fort Walton Beach, Santa Rosa Sound, situated on the north of the island, is an integral part of the intracoastal waterway between Panama City and Mobile Bay. Frequent barge traffic as well as recreational boating was observed during the sand tracing operations., The area of immediate interest to this investigation was the north shore of Santa Rosa Island near Pensacola Beach. It stretches from Avenida 10 to Santa Rosa Villa, a highly developed recreational community.
III. FIELD MEASUREMENTS AND PROCEDURES
1. Test site and operation period:
The sand tracing operation and environmental factor observations were carried out in November 1976 and again in February 1977, The location of the test sites are shown in figure 1. The categories and operating duration are shown in the following table.




Site A 13-14 Nov. 1976 13-14 Nov. 1976
15-20 Feb. 1977 15-20 Feb. 1977
Site B 13-14 Nov. 1976 13-14 Nov. 1976
19-20 Feb, 1977
Site C --------------- 19-20 Feb. 1977
2. Sampling grid and tracer sands preparation:
A. The November 1976 operation: The grid system established at site A
is shown in figure 2. The initial spacing was 25 feet apart, but was expanded to 50 feet and finally 100 feet between sampling stations, A similar grid was established at site.B as shown in figure 3.
B. The February 1977 operation: The initial spacing of 25 feet was
too close. Therefore, 50 feet spacing between the sampling stations are adopted for site A. The grid system is shown in figure 4.
C. Tracer sands: Sands were collected from site A and B shortly before the tracing operation. These sands were coated with fluorescent dye in the Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory (COEL), University of Florida. These colored sands were then injected in the predetermined coordinate system as shown in figures 2 to 4.
3. Injection of tracer and recovery of samples
A. November 1976 operation: Approximately 100 pounds of tracer sand
was dumped instantaneously into the water at site A and B. The location of the injections are shown in figures 2 and 3. A dredge-type sand sampler was used for collecting the samples and the sampling stations were according to the predetermined coordinate system. The sampling frequency was based on the tidal cycles (approximately 24 hours). In this way, the field crew could work alternatively between sites A and B. Each sample was put into a sampling

sand tracing

environmental factor observations




cloth bag (2" x 4") with station number marked on the label, and then, sorted into sample sets for shipping to Gainesville for tracer count in COEL.
B. February 1977 operation: Sands were collected at two locations of site A for making tracers. The sands collected at the high-water mark were dyed blue and green. The sands collected 100 feet wayward from the high water mark were dyed yellow and red. These tracer sands were put back in four locations. Their relative positions are shown in figure 4. The purpose of this arrangement was to see if grain size and injection position influenced the sand tracing technique. However, only blue tracers were counted for the time being. The blue tracer alone was considered adequate for the purpose of determining the littoral drifting direction.
The sampling frequency was chosen to correspond to the high and low water level. The sampling procedure was similar to that for November 1976 operation,
4. Measurement of physical parameters:
A. Visual observations: Wave parameters such as height, length direction, and period, were observed during sampling operations. Littoral drift currents were obtained by following a dye pack. These data are presented in the results and conclusion section of this report.
B. Recording instruments: Two tide recorders were installed. One was located at the Pensacola Beach Causeway Bridge. The second tide gage and a wind anemometer were located at the private pier of Dr. C. Gifford. The data are presented in the results and conclusion section of this report.




IV. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

1. Results
The results are organized according to date and sampling sites in the following tables:
A. November 1976 operation:

Equal Concentration Contours

Environmental Factors

Figures Site Figures Site
November 13, 1976 5a, 7a A, B 6a, 8a A, B
November 14, 1976 5b, 7b A, B 6b, 8b A, B
Wind records for the tracing operating period are given in figures 9a and 9b. Tide records are presented in figures 10a through lOf.
B. February 1977 operation:
Date Equal Concentration Contours Environmental Factors
Figures Site Figures Site
February 15, 1977 lla A 12a A
February 16, 1977 llb A 12b A
February 17, 1977 llc A 12c A
February 18, 1977 lld A 12d A
February 19, 1977 lie A 12e, 13a, 14a A, B, C
February 20, 1977 llf A 12f, 13b, 14b A, B, C

Wind records for the figures 15a through 15e. 17a-17e.

period from February 15 to 20, 1977 are given in Tide records are presented in figures 16a-16d; and

Date




2. Discussion and conclusion:

elliptical bars

arp point transverse bars

l and

F. Considerable bottom changes have taken place between November 1976
and February 1977. The shoals in figure 6b have grown both in size
and in height, as shown in figure 4b. A transverse bar situated between 200 to 300 feet East (figure 4a) in the NE direction has grown out of the water surface. Sandpipers standing on the dry
ridge of this transverse bar can be seen in figure 4c.

L

A. The observed wave parameters in Santa Rosa Sound are directly
related to the wind conditions.
B. There is an observable correspondence between the littoral transpor
and littoral drifting currents.
C. Figures 5a and 5b have shown that the longshore movement was strong
than the on/offshore components.
D. Figures 7a and 7b have shown that the tracer sands moved around
the sharp land feature first and then towards the beach.
E. Many distinctive land features have been observed in the project
area, such as crescent sharp points (e.g. site B), and the semielliptical submerged sand bar which is superimposed with transverse
bars in the NE and NW directions. It seems that all these have a
strong indication of edge wave effects.




G. Different patterns of tracer contour maps between November 1976 and
February 1977 are clearly observable. Contour map figures 5 and 7
are characterized by one peak region while figures lla to llf have
many peaks and valleys.
H. Peaks of the contour map, figures lla to llf, correspond to the
shoals in figure 4b and transverse bar in figure 4c very well. It
may be explained that the tracers left the point of injection and
moved along various route until they stopped at the shoals and
transverse bar.
I. There were relatively high concentration contours along the line
which was parallel to the shore and 300 feet north. A sudden
change in water depth, consequently, a sudden reduction of current
velocity bayward along the line was realized. This may explain
why the deposition of tracers along this line.
J. A study of the sequence of figures lla to llf may shed light for
bar formation in that area.
V. RECOMMENDATIONS
1. It would be desirable to extend the sand tracing study to cover the
summer months.
2. Correlation analyses between (1) distinctive land features, (2) sand
movements and environmental factors, would be most beneficial prior
to any shoreline activities such as a beach nourishment project.
3. The present study provided for the collection of considerable data and
the determination of the direction of littoral transport. It is recommended that the study be extended to obtain additional information about
sand transport from the data already collected.
-6-




APPENDIX
List of Figures




LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No. Page
1. Site Location Map 8
2. Sampling Grid at Site A, November Operation, 1976 9
3. Sampling Grid at Site B, November Operation, 1976 10
4. Sampling Grid at Site A, February Operation, 1977 11-13
5a through 5b. Equal Concentration Contour for Site A, November
Operation, 1976 14-15
6a through 6b. Observed Littoral Current and Wave Parameters at
Site A, November Operation, 1976 16-17
7a through 7b Equal Concentration Contour for Site B, November
Operation, 1976 18-19
8a through 8b. Observed Littoral Current and Wave Parameters at
Site B, November Operation, 1976 20-21
9a through 9b Wind Records, November Operation, 1976 22-23
10a throughl~f. Tidal Records, November Operation, 1976 24-29
Ila through llf. Equal Concentration Contours for Site A,
February Operation, 1977 30-39
12a through 12f. Observed Littoral Current and Wave Parameters
at Site A, February Operation, 1977 40-42
13a through 13b. Observed Littoral Current and Wave Parameters
at Site B, February Operation, 1977. 43-49
14a through 14b. Observed Littoral Current and Wave Parameters
at Site C, February Operation, 1977 50-51
15a through i~e. Wind Records, February Operation, 1977 52-56
16a through 16d. Tidal Records, Private Pier, February Operation, 57-60
1977
17a through 17e. Tidal Records, Causeway Bridge, February Operation, 61-65
1977




I.

- N
- >1
I I -

aOSA

S..--

Site

Site A

Site C

A
p

WHT A-LA T E A
WHITE SANDS: RESCA T

Figure 1. Site location map

3Pr




o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
o 0 0
tracer injecting point-
00 0 0 0 0 '
//// 0/7--70

Distance (ft.)
Figure 2. Sampling grid at site A, November operation, 1976

-300 0
0
-200 o
4
S00o
0 0
0/f




0 100
0

Distance (ft.)

Figure 3. Sampling grid at site B, November operation, 1976




Run No. Color code:

o o o o o o o o0
00
o00
o o oo

275

0 0

175 o o

0 0

0 0

o G o F

0 0

0.-tracer injecting point
75 0 o 0

25 o o

0 0

Figure 4a. Sampling grid at site A, February operation, 1977

Date: Time:

F o E o

D o

o D

o B

"000000 oA
300 200 100 00 100 200 300
Distance (ft.)

125




100

300

200 100

200

Distance (ft.) Figure 4b. Shoal location

-12-

shoal

N 300

I!




300
200 100

transverse bar

Distance (ft.)

Figure 4c. Transverse bar location

-13-




Numbers = tracer sand count per 40 gm sample
(@= tracer sand injection point

Santa Rosa Sound
-Ph- water line
Land -

Distance (ft.)

Figure 5a. Equal concentration contours for site A
Date: 11/13/76

4-, 4
100
4J




Numbers = tracer sand count per 40 gm sample
= tracer sand injection point

Santa Rosa Bay'

__ water

Land

200 100

Distance (ft.)

Figure, 5b. Equal concentration contours for site A
Date: 11/14/76

200

100 -~




- ~ -~ ~ ,t.......~.

0 0
wave length: 10 ft.
wave height: 9 in.
wave period: 2 sec.
0 wave direction: NE300
date: 11/13/76 Time: 9:30 CST
o 0

0 0 0 0 0 0
Average current speed 0.23 fps
0 0 0 0 0 0
o 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4-)
(iA
0 0 0 0 0 '6
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 00 0
tra ri "ecingp
0 0 0 0-

Distance (ft.)

Figure 6a. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site A




wave length: 25 ft.
wave height: 1 ft.
wave period: 2 sec.
Wave direction: NE
date: 11/14/77 Time: 8:40 CST
0.

0 o 0 0 0 0 3000
Average current speed 0.72 fps
0 0 0 0 0 0
o 0 0 0 0 -200o
4
LI
C)
0 0 0 0 0 U 0
4C-

0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0
tracer injecting point
0 0 0 0

Distance (ft.)

Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site A

Figure 6b.




Numbers = tracer sand count per 40 = tracer sand injection point
Santa Rosa Bay
water line x

100
Figure 7a.

u I
Distance (ft.).
I
Equal concentration contoursifor site B Date: 11/13/76 I
I

gm sample
T 200




Numbers = tracer sand count per 40 gm
tracer sand injection point
Santa Rosa Sound
water line Land

200

0
Distance (ft.)

Figure 7b.

Equal concentration contour for site B Date: 11/14/76




wave length: 15 ft. wave height: 7 in. wave period: 1.6 sec.
wave direction: NE Average current speed V = 0.25 ft/sec Date: 11/13/76 Time: 15:37 17:00

distance

.represents sampling stations

,dye pack dropped

Figure 8a.

Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B

-20-




wave length: 25 ft. wave height: 1 ft. wave period: 1.6 sec.
wave direction: NE date: 11/14/76

Average current speed 0.77 fps

scal e
0'T1b01

Figure 8b. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B




5 mph
10 mph 15 mph 20 mph Location: Private pier,Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 11/13/76
Figure 9a. Wind records
-22-




15 mph 20 mph Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 11/14/76
Figure 9b. Wind records
-23-




Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island

Date: 11/9/76 +30t Time: 07:34 CST

+20
+I0
0
-10
Lii

Date: 11/10/76 Time: 07:34 CST

Hours

Figure 10a. Tide records




Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island

Date: 11/10/76 Time: 09:19 CST

Date: 11/11/76 Time: 07:50 CST

Hours

Figure 10b., Tide records




Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island
+3C Date: 11/11/76 Time: 07:53 CST
+2C
0 MSL
'> Hours
'-10+
Uij

Date: 11/12/76 Time: 07:53 CST

Figure lOc. Tide records




Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island

Date:11/12/76 +30t Time:09:25 CST

Date: 11/13/76 Time:09:25 CST

Hours

Figure 10d. Tide records

+20
E
0 +
10
LU
-20




Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach

Date: 11/10/76 +30r Time: 08:22 CST

+20
E
-+10
0
4-10
-20
-30

Date: 11/11/76 Time: 08:22 CST

Hours

Figure l0e. Tide records




Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach

Date: 11/11/76 +30t Time: 08:23 CST

+20
E
-10
0
r-1o
LU
-20
-30

Date: 11/12/76 Time: 08:23 CST

Hours

Figure lOf. Tide records




,0 tracer injecting point,

300 200 100 00 100 200 300
Distance (ft.)

Figure lla-l.

Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/15/77 Time: 13:00 14:00 CST

IQ w




tracer injecting point

'I10

--- w

,0

300 200 100 00 100 200 300
Distance (ft.)

Figure lla-2.

Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/15/77 Time: 20:00 CST




tracer injecting point

300 200 100 00 100 200 300
Distance (ft.)

Figure llb-1.

Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/16/77 Time: 9:00 10:15 CST

30

--- w

-*6--




Stracer injecting point

so 75
, ~~~0 -----75--so
2.20
~, 0
__ N
300 200 100 00 100
Distance (ft.,)
Figure 11b-2. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/16/77 Time: 14:00 15:30 CST

200 300




Stracer injecting point

75
300 200 100 00 100 200 300
Distance (ft.)
Figure llc-1. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/17/77 Time: 9:00 CST




tracer injecting point

I I 00
60
.75
220-0
300 200 100 00 100 200 300
Distance (ft.)
Figure llc-2. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/17/77 Time: 15:00 CST




300 200 100 00 100 200 300
Distance (ft.)

Figure lld-T.

Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/18/77 Time: 9:00 CST




300 200 100 00 100 200 300
Distance -(ft.)
Figure lld-2. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/18/77 Time: 15:30 CST




tracer injecting point

d50
10
300 200 100 00 100 200 300
Distance (ft.)
Figure lle. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/19/77 Time: 11:00 CST




tracer injecting point
I 00
60

1500
20
300 200 100 00 100 200 300
Distance (ft.) Figure 11f. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/20/77 Time: 11:00 CST




Date: 2/15/77

Wave height: 6 in. wave period: 2.5 sec. wave direction: NW Average current speed: 0.51 ft/sec
Date: 2/16/77

wave height: 4 in. wave period: 3 sec. wave direction: NW Average current speed:

0.23 ft/sec

Date: 2/17/77
wave height: 3 in.
wave period: 2 sec.
wave direction: NE
Average current speed: 0.21 ft/sec
Date: 2/18/77
wave height: 6 in.
wave period: 1.7 sec.
wave direction: NW
Average current speed: 0.33 ft/sec.
Figures 12a, 12b, 12c, 12d
Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site A

-40-




0o0

wave length: 12.5 ft. wave height: 3 in., wave period: 1.82 sec wave direction: NW300 date: 2/19/77 Tim

F 0

D o
Bo

0 0

e: 10:30 CST
o o o
0 0
00

S 0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0

275

0 0

Average current speed: C1 = 0.46 fps C2 = 0.59 fps
2

>125

0 0

0 0

..... ,12040: 10o.'. 1) oo 0 C100

75
6110" 7"~

o 0 0 0

o o0 0
0 .0 0

o B

N N

M0 200 150

-~

IUO 50 Wo b5
Distance in feet

Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site A

Zu

300

Figure 12e.

- .. .

o E

I oU




G 0

0 0 0

12:30 CST

wave length: 10 ft. wave height: 1 ft. wave period: 0.5 sec. wave direction: NW30' date: 2/20/77 Time:

0 0 0O

E o

B 0

0 0

Average current speed:

0G

C1 = 0.42 fps C2 = 0.24 fps

175 o

125

0 0

00 0 0

2- 0 o

ooL0,, e \ 0 4 o o o 0

00 200 15o 1 inn

50 00 50 10 150
Distance in feet

Figure 12f. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site A

o F o E

0 D

o B




Date: 2/19/77
Time: 17:30 CST
Average current speed:
C1 = 0,32 fps C2 = 0.45 fps
22
CA)

Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B

0 5100 (ft)
SCALE 1

Figure 13a-1.




Date:- 2/19/77 Time: 17:30 CST Average current speed 0.35 fps

o so loo(ft)
SCALE

Figure 13a-2. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B




Wave length: 12.5 ft. Average current speed:- 0.51 fps
wave height: 10 in.
wave period: 0.5 sec.
wave direction: NW600
Date: 2/20/77 Time: 9:38 CST
-_
*10.

scale
56 1Ob ft.

Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B

Figure 13b-I.-




wave length: 12.5 ft. wave height: 10 in. wave period: 0.5 sec. wave direction: NW600 Date: 2/20/77 Time:

Average current speed:

9:38 CST

scal e
6 5b.0 f t,

Figure 13b-2. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B

= 0. 44 = 0.36 = 0. 58

fps fps5
fps




wave length: 8 ft. wave height: 0.7 ft. wave period: 0.5 sec. wave direction: NW300 Date: 2/20/77 Time:

Average current speed 0.43 fps

14: 00 CST

0 50 100 (ft)
SCALE

Figure 13b-3.

Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B




wave length: 8 ft. Average current speed: C1 = 0.31 fps
wave height: 0.7 ft. C2 = 0.40 fps
wave period: 1.61 sec. wave direction: NW300 Date: 2/20/77 Time: 14:00 CST ,
C1
11

o so 10oo0(ft)
SCALE

Figure 13b-4. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B




wave length: 8 ft. wave height: 0.7 ft. wave period: 1.61 sec. wave direction: NW30' Date: 2/20/77 Time:

Average current speed 0.41 fps

14:00 CST

0 50 100o(ft)
SCALE

Figue 13-5. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B

Figure 13b-5.




Date 2/9/7 Tim: 1:03CSTAverage current speed 0.40 fps

050 l00 (ft)
SCALE
Figure 14a. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site C

Date: 2/19/77

Time: 16:03 CST




wave length: 10 ft. wave height: 0.7 ft. wave period: 1.75 sec. wave direction: NW30 Date: 2/20/77 Time:

Average current speed: C1 = 0.67 fps C2 = 0.57 fps

13:00. CST

0 50 10o(ft)
SCALE

Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site C

Figure 14b.




10 mph 15 mph 20 mph Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Pate: 2/16/77
Figure 15a... Wind records
-52-




2.5 mph
5 mph 10 mph 15 mph Location: Private pier,Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 2/17/77 Figure 15b. Wind records
-53-




10 mph15 mph 20 mph Location: Private pier., Avenida 22, Santa -Rosa Island .Date: 2/18/77
Figure 15c. Wind records
-54-




10 mph 15 mph
20 mph
-Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 2/19/77
Figure 15d. Wind records
-55-




15 mph
20 mph 30 mph
Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 2/20/77.
Figure 15e. Wind records
-56-




Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island
Date: 2/16/77
+30 Time: 11:12 CST
+20
+10
-10 Hours
Ujl

Date: 2/17/77 Time: 09:05 CST

Figure 16a. Tide records




Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island

-Date: 2/17/77 Time: 09:10 CST

Date: 2/18/77 Time: 09:10 CST

Hours

Figure 16b. Tide records

-20
-30




Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island

Date: 2/18/77 Time: 09:35 CST

Date: 2/19/77 Time: 09:35 CST

Hours,

Figure 16c. Tide records




Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island

Date: 2/19/77 Time: 09:35 CST

Date: 2/20/77 Time: 08:38 CST

Hours

Figure 16d. Tide records




Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach

+31 Date: 2/15/77 Time: 08:00 CST +20
Date: 2/15/77 E Time: 16:25 CST
0+10
0 MSL
0
> Hours
,-10
I
LLI
-20
-30-

Figure 17a. Tide records




Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach

Date: 2/15/77 Time: 16:26 CST

Date: 2/16/77 Time: 16:26 CST

Figure 17b. Tide records

2
0
ni




Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach

Date: 2/16/77 Time: 16:39 CST

Date: 2/17/77 Time: 16:39 CST

Figure 17c. Tide records

2

-301




Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach

+30t Date: 2/19/77
Time: 09:00 CST

Date: 2/20/77 Time: 08:19 CST

0 10

Hours

Figure 17d. Tide records




Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach

Date: 2/20/77 Time: 08:19 CST

MSL I '

Hours

Date: 2/20/77 Time: 04:36 CST

Figure 17e. Tide records

+30 +201

0
0
I>
a) r-10
- 20
-30




Full Text

PAGE 1

UFL/COEL-77/001 DETERMINATION OF DIRECTION OF LITTORAL TRANSPORT ALONG THE NORTH SHORE OF SANTA ROSA ISLAND, FLORIDA Yu-Hwa Wang T.H. Chang Sidney L. Harrell March, 1977 Sponsor: Department-of the Army Mobile District, Corps of Engineers Mobile, Alabama

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. Introduction 1 II. General Description of the Project Area 1 III. Field Measurements and Procedures 1 1. Test site and operating period 1 2. Sampling grid and tracer sand preparation 2 3. Injection of tracer and recovery of samples 2 4. Measurements of environmental factors 3 A. Visual observations 3 B. Recording instruments 3 IV. Results, Discussion and Conclusions 4 V. Recommendations 6 Appendix: List of Figures 7

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I. INTRODUCTION The study described in this report was authorized by a contract dated October 19, 1976 between Department of the Army, Mobile District, Corps of Engineers, Mobile, Alabama and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station, University of Florida. The purpose of this study was to determine the actual direction of littoral transport along the north shore of Santa Rosa Island in the vicinity of Pensacola Beach, Florida. To accomplish this objective the sand tracer method was used for the study. Visual observations and instrument recordings of the environment factors were also made during the tracing operations. The investigation covered a time span from September 14, 1976 to March 12, 1977. II. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT AREA Santa Rosa Island is a barrier island facing the Gulf of Mexico that lies between Pensacola Beach and Fort Walton Beach, Santa Rosa Sound, situated on the north of the island, is an integral part of the intracoastal waterway between Panama City and Mobile Bay. Frequent barge traffic as well as recreational boating was observed during the sand tracing operations, The area of immediate interest to this investigation was the north shore of Santa Rosa Island near Pensacola Beach. It stretches from Avenida 10 to Santa Rosa Villa, a highly developed recreational community. III. FIELD MEASUREMENTS AND PROCEDURES 1. Test site and operation period: The sand tracing operation and environmental factor observations were carried out in November 1976 and again in February 1977, The location of the test sites are shown in figure 1. The categories and operating duration are shown in the following table. -1-

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sand tracing environmental factor observations Site A 13-14 Nov. 1976 13-14 Nov. 1976 15-20 Feb. 1977 15-20 Feb. 1977 Site B 13-14 Nov. 1976 13-14 Nov. 1976 19-20 Feb, 1977 Site C ------------19-20 Feb. 1977 2. Sampling grid and tracer sands preparation: A. The November 1976 operation: The grid system established at site A is shown in figure 2. The initial spacing was 25 feet apart, but was expanded to 50 feet and finally 100 feet between sampling stations. A similar grid was established at site B as shown in figure 3. B. The February 1977 operation: The initial spacing of 25 feet was too close. Therefore, 50 feet spacing between the sampling stations are adopted for site A. The grid system is shown in figure 4. C. Tracer sands: Sands were collected from site A and B shortly before the tracing operation. These sands were coated with fluorescent dye in the Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory (COEL), University of Florida. These colored sands were then injected in the predetermined coordinate system as shown in figures 2 to 4. 3. Injection of tracer and recovery of samples A. November 1976 operation: Approximately 100 pounds of tracer sand was dumped instantaneously into the water at site A and B. The location of the injections are shown in figures 2 and 3. A dredge-type sand sampler was used for collecting the samples and the sampling stations were according to the predetermined coordinate system. The sampling frequency was based on the tidal cycles (approximately 24 hours). In this way, the field crew could work alternatively between sites A and B. Each sample was put into a sampling -2-

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cloth bag (2" x 4") with station number marked on the label, and then, sorted into sample sets for shipping to Gainesville for tracer count in COEL. B. February 1977 operation: Sands were collected at two locations of site A for making tracers. The sands collected at the high-water mark were dyed blue and green. The sands collected 100 feet bayward from the high water mark were dyed yellow and red. These tracer sands were put back in four locations. Their relative positions are shown in figure 4. The purpose of this arrangement was to see if grain size and injection position influenced the sand tracing technique. However, only blue tracers were counted for the time being. The blue tracer alone was considered adequate for the purpose of determining the littoral drifting direction. The sampling frequency was chosen to correspond to the high and low water level. The sampling procedure was similar to that for November 1976 operation, 4. Measurement of physical parameters: A. Visual observations: Wave parameters such as height, length, direction, and period, were observed during sampling operations. Littoral drift currents were obtained by following a dye pack. These data are presented in the results and conclusion section of this report. B. Recording instruments: Two tide recorders were installed. One was located at the Pensacola Beach Causeway Bridge. The second tide gage and a wind anemometer were located at the private pier of Dr. C. Gifford. The data are presented in the results and conclusion section of this report. -3-

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IV. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS 1. Results The results are organized according to date and sampling sites in the following tables: A. November 1976 operation: Date Equal Concentration Contours Environmental Factors Figures Site Figures Site November 13, 1976 5a, 7a A, B 6a, 8a A, B November 14, 1976 5b, 7b A, B 6b, 8b A, B Wind records for the tracing operating period are given in figures 9a and 9b. Tide records are presented in figures lOa through lOf. B. February 1977 operation: Date Equal Concentration Contours Environmental Factors Figures Site Figures Site February 15, 1977 la A 12a A February 16, 1977 llb A 12b A February 17, 1977 11c A 12c A February 18, 1977 lld A 12d A February 19, 1977 Ile A 12e, 13a, 14a A, B, C February 20, 1977 11f A 12f, 13b, 14b A, B, C Wind records for the period from February 15 to 20, 1977 are given in figures 15a through 15e. Tide records are presented in figures 16a-16d; and 17a-17e. -4-

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2. Discussion and conclusion: A. The observed wave parameters in Santa Rosa Sound are directly related to the wind conditions. B. There is an observable correspondence between the littoral transport and littoral drifting currents. C. Figures 5a and 5b have shown that the longshore movement was stronger than the on/offshore components. D. Figures 7a and 7b have shown that the tracer sands moved around the sharp land feature first and then towards the beach. E. Many distinctive land features have been observed in the project area, such as crescent sharp points (e.g. site B), and the semielliptical submerged sand bar which is superimposed with transverse bars in the NE and NW directions. It seems that all these have a strong indication of edge wave effects. elliptical bars elliptical bars crescent sharp point transverse bars land F. Considerable bottom changes have taken place between November 1976 and February 1977. The shoals in figure 6b have grown both in size and in height, as shown in figure 4b. A transverse bar situated between 200 to 300 feet East (figure 4a) in the NE direction has grown out of the water surface. Sandpipers standing on the dry ridge of this transverse bar can be seen in figure 4c. -5-

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G. Different patterns of tracer contour maps between November 1976 and February 1977 are clearly observable. Contour map figures 5 and 7 are characterized by one peak region while figures lla to llf have many peaks and valleys. H. Peaks of the contour map, figures lla to llf, correspond to the shoals in figure 4b and transverse bar in figure 4c very well. It may be explained that the tracers left the point of injection and moved along various route until they stopped at the shoals and transverse bar. I. There were relatively high concentration contours along the line which was parallel to the shore and 300 feet north. A sudden change in water depth, consequently, a sudden reduction of current velocity bayward along the line was realized. This may explain why the deposition of tracers along this line. J. A study of the sequence of figures lla to llf may shed light for bar formation in that area. V. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. It would be desirable to extend the sand tracing study to cover the summer months. 2. Correlation analyses between (1) distinctive land features, (2) sand movements and environmental factors, would be most beneficial prior to any shoreline activities such as a beach nourishment project. 3. The present study provided for the collection of considerable data and the determination of the direction of littoral transport. It is recommended that the study be extended to obtain additional information about sand transport from the data already collected. -6-

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APPENDIX List of Figures

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Page 1. Site Location Map 8 2. Sampling Grid at Site A, November Operation, 1976 9 3. Sampling Grid at Site B, November Operation, 1976 10 4. Sampling Grid at Site A, February Operation, 1977 11-13 5a through 5b. Equal Concentration Contour for Site A, November Operation, 1976 14-15 6a through 6b. Observed Littoral Current and Wave Parameters at Site A, November Operation, 1976 16-17 7a through 7b. Equal Concentration Contour for Site B, November Operation, 1976 18-19 8a through 8b. Observed Littoral Current and Wave Parameters at Site B, November Operation, 1976 20-21 9a through 9b Wind Records, November Operation, 1976 22-23 10a throughlOf. Tidal Records, November Operation, 1976 24-29 11a through 1lf. Equal Concentration Contours for Site A, February Operation, 1977 30-39 12a through 12f. Observed Littoral Current and Wave Parameters at Site A, February Operation, 1977 40-42 13a through 13b. Observed Littoral Current and Wave Parameters at Site B, February Operation, 1977. 43-49 14a through 14b. Observed Littoral Current and Wave Parameters at Site C, February Operation, 1977 50-51 15a through 15e. Wind Records, February Operation, 1977 52-56 16a through 16d. Tidal Records, Private Pier, February Operation, 57-60 1977 17a through 17e. Tidal Records, Causeway Bridge, February Operation, 61-65 1977 -7-

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--2 -./ / r 3ss -Site B .Site A 2* WTFigure 1. Site location map vTAs YL.C _OY

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o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -3000 o o o o o o o o o "300 o S0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o o o o o o o 200 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 L20 0 4o .o o0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 000 CO S0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 o 0o 0 0. 0 *0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0. 0 0 0 0 o S/ / / tracer injecting point-' o o 0 o o o0 0o o 500 400 300 200 o 10 0 Distance (ft.) Figure 2. Sampling grid at site A, November operation, 1976

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150 o 100 o 1 0 0 0 50 S. y tracer o o .o o injecting point 0 0 300 200o / 100 0 SDistance (ft.) S 0 0 Figure 3. Sampling grid at site B, November operation, 1976

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Date: Run No. Time: Color code: G o o o o 275 o o o G F 0o o o o o 175 o o o o F E o o o o 0. 125 o o o o o E @ @s--tracer injecting point D o o o. o o 75 o o o o o D B o o o o o 25 o o o o o B \ o o o o o o A 300 200 100 00 100 200 300 Distance (ft.) Figure 4a. Sampling grid at site A, February operation, 1977

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300 200 shoal 1a 00 300 200 100 0 100 200 300 E Distance (ft.) Figure 4b. Shoal location -12-

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300 200 transverse bar 100 300 200 100 0 100 200 Distance (ft.) Figure 4c. Transverse bar location -13-

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Numbers = tracer sand count per 40 gm sample 0 = tracer sand injection point 220 Santa Rosa Sound 100 -~ water line Land 1 ,I 0 500 400 300 200 100 0 Distance (ft.) Figure 5a. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 11/13/76

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Numbers = tracer sand count per 40 gm sample H = tracer sand injection point 200 \\ Santa Rosa Bay a .a 100 500 .400 300 200 100 0 Distance (ft.) Figure 5b. -Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 11/14/76

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S0 0 0 0 a 0 -300 O wave length: 10 ft. Average current speed 0.23 fps wave height: 9 in. wave period: 2 sec. wave direction: NE300 0 0 0 date: 11/13/76 Time: 9:30 CST 0 0 o o o o o -2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 r-, a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a i o 0 poooio II*I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. O O O o 1 500 400 -300 200 100 0 Distance (ft.) Figure 6a. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site A

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0 0 0 0 0 0 -300 wave length: 25 ft. Average current speed 0.72 fps wave height: 1 ft. wave period: 2 sec. SWave direction: NE o o a o o n o date: 11/14/77 Time: 8:40 CST or o o o o o o 0 200 o o o.O o o o o o ( o 4o 0 4ooo o 100o0 S0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 07 500 400 300 206 100 0 Distance (ft.) Figure 6b. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site A

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iumbers = tracer sand count per 40 gm sample 200 S= tracer sand injection point +-Santa Rosa Bay *--* so 1 50 water line -x,* Land -__ I___i 2010 0 100 0 100 Distance (ft.) Figure 7a. Equal concentration contourslfor site B Date : 11/13/76 I ii

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Numbers = tracer sand count per 40 gm ample Stracer sand injection point 20 Santa Rosa Sound \ 50 water line Land 200 100 1 100 Distance (ft.) I I I I Figure 7b. Equal concentration contour for site B Date: 11/14/76

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wave length: 15 .ft. wave height: 7 in. .represents sampling stations wave period: 1.6 sec. wave direction: NE .Average current speed V = 0.25 ft/sec Date: 11/13/76 Time: 15:37 -17:00 200 Bay 0 0 C-) o*' (A o -o 100 00 o -.. • .('a5'-Land tracer injection point 20 10 1 200 dist"ance (ft.) 0 0 -0*dye pack dropped Figure 8a. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B -20-

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wave length: 25 ft. wave height: 1 ft. Average current speed 0.77 fps wave period: 1.6 sec. wave direction: NE date: 11/14/76 scale 0' b0' Figure 8b. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B

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• ---20hrs---------. 5 mph 10 mph 15 mph 20 mph Location: Private pier,Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 11/13/76 Figure 9a. Wind records -22-

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16hrs 20hrs 15 mph 20 mph Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 11/14/76 Figure 9b. Wind records -23-

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Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 11/9/76 Date: 11/10/76 +30 Time: 07:34 CST Time: 07:34 CST +20 S\ I MSL '> Hours .-10 L.I -20 -30 Figure 10a. Tide records

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Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 11/10/76 Date: 11/11/76 Time: 09:19 CST Time: 07:50 CST E 0 .I ]_ _MSL o .a -10 Hours LU .-20 -30 Figure 10b. Tide records j.

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Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 11/12/76 Time: 07:53 CST +3C. Date: 11/11/76 Time: 07:53 CST +2C -! 10 o MSL 04' > Hours -10, LLj -20 -30 Figure lOc. Tide records

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Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date:11/12/76 Date: 11/13/76 +30 Time:09:25 CST Time:09:25 CST +20 E +10 0 MSL -10 Hours LU1 -20 -30 Figure 10d. Tide records

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Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach Date: 11/10/76 Date: 11/11/76 +30 Time: 08:22 CST Time: 08:22 CST +20 -+10 § 1 n I I | I I\ 0 S> I Hours -10 -20 -30 Figure l0e. Tide records

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Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach Date: 11/11/76 Date: 11/12/76 +30 Time: 08:23 CST Time: 08:23 CST +20 E 10 SMSL 403 0 /V S> Hours ,-10 LU -20 -30 Figure lOf. Tide records

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tracer injecting point' N 275 175 990 00 1-30-o 300 200 100 00 100 200 300 Distance (ft.) Figure lla-l. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/15/77 Time: 13:00 -14:00 CST

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tracer injecting point N -275 / ,, 175 -"/0 --60 --60 -200 75 100 300 200 100 00 100 200 300 Distance (ft.) Figure 11a-2. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/15/77 Time: 20:00 CST

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Stracer injecting point N o 275 ./o--.___-.^* 30 -17 16 0 30 -.75 • /--=\ I / c 300 200 100 00 100 200 300 Distance (ft.) Figure llb-1. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/16/77 Time: 9:00 -10:15 CST

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Stracer injecting point N -275 100 -175 60Go S---o---15o so /00 75 300 200 100 00 100 200 300 Distance-(ft.) Figure 11b-2. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/16/77 Time: 14:00 -15:30 CST

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tracer injecting point N S275 90 100 S60 60 2030 w 75 300 200 100 00 100 200 300 Distance (ft.) Figure llc-l. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/17/77 Time: 9:00 CST

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tracer injecting point N 60 275 200 -175 20 -60 \-75 300 200 100 00 100 200 300 Distance (ft.) Figure 11c-2. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/17/77 Time: 15:00 CST

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Stracer injecting point N 275 17 S100500060 too300 200 100 00 100 200 300 Distance (ft.) Figure lld-1. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/18/77 Time: 9:00 CST

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Stracer injecting point N 27 "-1 20 0 o 300 200 100 100 200 300 Distance (ft.) 160 300 200 -300 300 200 100 00 100 200 300 Distance -(ft.) Figure 11d-2. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/18/77 Time: 15:30 CST

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tracer injecting point N 2 7 \ --275 -175 60 20 .75 300 200 100 00 100 200 300 Distance (ft.) Figure lie. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/19/77 Time: 11:00 CST

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Stracer injecting point N -7 \oo lt 200 SO 60 100 60 0 .175 so (00 300 200 100 00 100 200 300 Distance (ft.) Figure 11f. Equal concentration contours for site A Date: 2/20/77 Time: 11:00 CST

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Date: 2/15/77 Wave height: 6 in. wave period: 2.5 sec. wave direction: NW Average current speed: 0.51 ft/sec Date: 2/16/77 wave height: 4 in. wave period: 3 sec. wave direction: NW Average current speed: 0.23 ft/sec Date: 2/17/77 wave height: 3 in. wave period: 2 sec. wave direction: NE Average current speed: 0.21 ft/sec Date: 2/18/77 wave height: 6 in. wave period: 1.7 sec. wave direction: NW Average current speed: 0.33 ft/sec. Figures 12a, 12b, 12c, 12d Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site A -40-

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G 0 0 0 2750 0 G wave length: 12.5 ft. wave height: 3 in. Average current speed: C1 = 0.46 fps wave period: 1.82 sec. wave direction: NW300 C2 = 0.59 fps date: 2/19/77 Time; 10:30 CST F o. o o o o ,175 o o , ~o ^ o F Fo,,oo oo Cs*F SE o o 125 o o o o o E D o o o .o o 75 o o o o o D Il^. .J'1" ), 5• ..2 c B o oo o o 25 o o o o o B D o o 0 0 0 0 o o A Distance in feet Figure 12e. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site A

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G 0 .0 0 0 275 0o o o 0 G wave length: 10 ft. wave height: 1 ft. Average current speed: C1 = 0.42 fps wave period: 0.5 sec. wave direction: NW300 C2 = 0.24 fps date: 2/20/77 Time: 12:30 CST F o o o o o 175 .o o o o F E o o ., o o 125 o o o o o E D o o o oC2 o 75 oo o o o D B o .o \ 0 25 0 0 0 B t-\\ t \ \\/ \ 300 2-0 15 100 50 00 50 100 150 200 300 Distance in feet Figure 12f. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site A

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Date: 2/19/77 Time: 17:30 CST Average current speed: C = 0,32 fps b C2 0.45 fps C1 0 50 100(ft) SCALE Figure 13a-1. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B

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Date: 2/19/77 Time: 17:30 CST Average current speed 0.35 fps 7 | / / / -, o 50 1oo(ft) SCALE Figure 13a-2. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B

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Wave length: 12.5 ft. Average current speed: 0.51 fps wave height: 10 in. wave period: 0.5 sec. wave direction: NW600 Date: 2/20/77 Time: 9:38 CST scale F 50 10 ft. Figure 13b-1. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B

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wave length: 12.5 ft. Average current speed: C1 = 0.44 fps wave height: 10 in. C2 = 0.36 fps wave period: 0.5 sec. C3 = 0.58 fps wave direction: NW600 Date: 2/20/77 Time: 9:38 CST C 3 5b 1 o0 ft. / Figure 13b-2. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B

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wave length: 8 ft. Average current speed 0.43 fps wave height: 0.7 ft. wave period: 0.5 sec. wave direction: NW300 Date: 2/20/77 Time: 14:00 CST I.! 0 50 100oo(ft) SCALE Figure 13b-3. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B

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wave length: 8 ft. Average current speed: C1 = 0.31 fps wave height: 0.7 ft. C2 = 0.40 fps wave period: 1.61 sec. wave direction: NW300 Date: 2/20/77 Time: 14:00 CST / C o 50 loo(ft) SCALE Figure 13b-4. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B

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wave length: 8 ft. Average current speed 0.41 fps wave height: 0.7 ft. wave period: 1.61 sec. wave direction: NW300 Date: 2/20/77 Time: 14:00 CST 0 50 loo(ft) SCALE Figure 13b-5. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site B

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Date: 2/19/77 Time: 16:03 CST Average current speed 0.40 fps | .___ __-j'__12 t 1 I 0 50 100(ft) SCALE Figure 14a. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site C

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wave length: 10 ft. Average current speed: C1 = 0,67 fps wave height: 0.7 ft. C2 = 0.57 fps wave period: 1.75 sec. wave direction: NW30" Date: 2/20/77 Time:13:00 CST U, 3 I ll I I I I 777W,777 77~^ / 77777o 50 1oo(ft) SCALE Figure 14b. Observed littoral current and wave parameters at site C

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10 mph 15 mph I 20 mph Location: Private pier,Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 2/16/77 Figure 15a.. Wind records -52-

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W----)-Q-----1E 16hrs 20hrs 2.5 mph 5 mph 10 mph 15 mph Location: Private pier,Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 2/17/77 Figure 15b. Wind records -53-

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1hrs 20hrs-10 mph 15 mph 20 mph Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 2/18/77 Figure 15c. Wind records -54-

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12hrs -16hrs 20hrs_ _. 10 mph 15 mph 20 mph Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 2/19/77 Figure 15d. Wind records -55-

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2hrs 8hrs ------12hrs -16hrs N-~20hrs----15 mph 20 mph 30 mph Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island .Date: 2/20/77. Figure 15e. Wind records -56-

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Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 2/16/77 Date: 2/17/77 +30 Time: 11:12 CST Time: 09:05 CST +20 +1 0 0 1 MSL 0 F-u10r "de Hours s -20 -30 Figure 16a. Tide records

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Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 2/17/77 Date: 2/18/77 Time: 09:10 CST Time: 09:10 CST +20 +10 r t^ ^' ^ I MSL 0 00 (0 ( 0 > Hours -20, -30 Figure 16b. Tide records

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Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island SDate: 2/18/77 Date: 2/19/77 +0 Time: 09:35 CST Time: 09:35 CST +20 -20 -30 Figure 16c. Tide records

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Location: Private pier, Avenida 22, Santa Rosa Island Date: 2/19/77 Date: 2/20/77 +30 Time: 09:35 CST Time: 08:38 CST +20 -+10 1-00 Hours LU -20 -30 Figure 16d. Tide records

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Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach +31. Date: 2/15/77 Time: 08:00 CST +20 Date: 2/15/77 E+I Time: 16:25 CST 0+100 MSL 0 > I Hours -20 -30 Figure 17a. Tide records

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Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach Date: 2/15/77 Date: 2/16/77 +3, Time: 16:26 CST Time: 16:26 CST. +20 +10 MSL ro I I I S-10Hours -20 -3g Figure 17b. Tide records

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Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach +30 Date: 2/16/77 Date: 2/17/77 Time: 16:39 CST Time: 16:39 CST +20E 0 i I I MSL -10 Hours -20 -30 Figure 17c. Tide records

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Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach +3 Date: 2/19/77 Date: 2/20/77 Time: 09:00 CST Time: 08:19 CST +20 +10 Si MSL -10 Hours -20 -30 Figure 17d. Tide records

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Location: Causeway bridge pier, Pensacola Beach SDate: 2/20/77 Time: 08:19 CST +20 -+10 o I MSL 01 C0 I 0 Hours --10 Date: 2/20/77 -20 Time: 04:36 CST -30 Figure 17e. Tide records