• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Copyright
 Dedication
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Main
 England to Madeira
 Madeira
 Madeira
 Madeira
 Madeira to Trinidad
 Trinidad
 Trinidad
 Trinidad
 Venezuela
 Jamaica
 Across Jamaica
 Jamaica to the Bahamas
 Bahamas
 Bahamas
 Bahamas to Bermudas
 Bermuda
 Bermuda
 Bermuda to the Azores
 Azores
 Postscript
 Appendix
 Index
 Back Cover
 Spine






Title: In the trades, the tropics, & the roaring forties
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076089/00001
 Material Information
Title: In the trades, the tropics, & the roaring forties
Physical Description: xiv p., 1 l., 532 p. : illus., 9 maps (2 fold.) ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brassey, Annie (Allnutt), 1839-1887
Publisher: Longmans, Green, & co.
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1885
 Subjects
Subject: Voyages and travels   ( lcsh )
Description and travel -- West Indies, British   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: By Lady Brassey. With 292 illustrations engraved on wood by G. Pearson and J. Cooper after drawings by R. T. Pritchett.
General Note: Illustrated t.-p.
General Note: Half-title: 14,000 miles in the ʻSunbeam' in 1883.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076089
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001366264
oclc - 02748846
notis - AGM7749
lccn - 01020778

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Dedication
        Dedication 1
        Dedication 2
    Preface
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        List of Illustrations 5
    Main
        Map
    England to Madeira
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Madeira
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Madeira
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Unnumbered ( 53 )
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
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        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Madeira
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
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        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Madeira to Trinidad
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Trinidad
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Unnumbered ( 112 )
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Trinidad
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
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        Page 111
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        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
    Trinidad
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Venezuela
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Unnumbered ( 183 )
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
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        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Unnumbered ( 218 )
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Jamaica
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Unnumbered ( 225 )
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
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        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
    Across Jamaica
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
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        Page 274
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        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
    Jamaica to the Bahamas
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
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        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
    Bahamas
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Unnumbered ( 330 )
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
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        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
    Bahamas
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
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        Page 355
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        Page 357
        Page 358
    Bahamas to Bermudas
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
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        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
    Bermuda
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Unnumbered ( 413 )
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
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        Page 414
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        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
    Bermuda
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
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        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
    Bermuda to the Azores
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
    Azores
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Unnumbered ( 496 )
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
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        Page 509
    Postscript
        Page 510
        Page 511
        Page 512
    Appendix
        Page 513
        Page 515
        Page 516
        Page 517
        Page 518
        Page 519
        Page 520
        Page 521
    Index
        Page 522
        Page 523
        Page 524
        Page 525
        Page 526
        Page 527
        Page 528
        Page 529
        Page 530
        Page 531
        Page 532
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text
























































't; "


k **.
'% *"-
' ?-*





















14,000 MILES IN THE 'SUNBEAM'
IN 1883















































'AND THE CARE-WORN TOILER IN DUSTY WAYS
THE THINGS THAT I SEE SHALL SEE,

AND SHALL GIVE TO THE GIVER HIS SONG OF PRAISE,
AS HE SHARES MY JOY WITH ME.'

Bs1110or OF BEDiFOtr D.












EOTHEN ALBATROSS CYMBA
















STHE 'RO S.






8 rLBA *RO'ADY BR SSEY. I



















With 292 Illustrations engraved on wood by G. Pearson and J. Cooper
after drawings by R. T. Pritchett
LONDON: LONGMANS, GREEN, & CO.
1885
I--#Y'R -77












R ONO: INTHEY'[ADES, 1


.Ill r'il' / r r,' r l












































































































LONDON PItINTED BY
SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NLEW-STICEITr SQI-ARE

AND PAItLIA.M INT STIIIRE'E






















P! HIS WORK is dedicated,
as a tribute of admi-

S ration and gratitude, to

the noble band of Navigators and

Explorers, of all ages and of every

nation, who have devoted their

lives to 1. i, ;i. Research, for the

good of their fellow-men and the

glory of their country.







































ai

~S(Q:
4 ~'tr\`d
r O
-r



I IsB



















,r T is with great diffidence that, stimulated
D it may be by the kind reception which
has been accorded to my previous efforts,
- i I venture again to put before the public
I a book of travel. The short-comings of
I the work are indeed only too plainly
S apparent to me; but should it be found
to possess any attractions, the fact will be due in great
measure to the talent displayed, both by artist and engravers,
in the illustrations, the sketches for which were, as a rule,
prepared under circumstances of haste and difficulty.


I owe an equal debt of gratitude to the friends who ac-
companied me on the voyage, and to those who have since
helped me with and encouraged me to persevere in my task.
From ill-health I have been often tempted to abandon it in
despair, and its completion has been considerably delayed
from the same cause.


I can only venture to hope that my readers may be







PREFA CE.


disposed to receive the result of my labours in as kindly

a spirit as possible, and to treat even the most glaring

faults with leniency.







NoI'T3muxI]Ir CoUTr: October, 18S8l.





















CIIAPTEI 1'A (iE
I. ENGLAND TO MADEIRA I
II. MADEIRA 23
III. MADEIRA 35
IV. MADEIRA 57
V. M-ADEIRA TO TRINIDAD So
VI. TmINIDAD 93

VII. TRNIDAD 104
VIII. TRINIDAD .. 124
IX. TRINIDAD 150
X. VENEZUELA .. 163
XI. JAMAICA 203
XII. AcRoss JAMAICA 244
XIII. JAMAICA TO THE BAHAMAS. 285
XIV. THE BAHAMIAS 307
XV. BAIIAS 328

XVI. DAHAMAS TO BERUDAS. 359
XVII. BERMUDA 389

XVIII. BERMUDA 419
XIX. BERMUDA TO THE AZOES. 458
XX. THE AZOES 470
POSTSCRIPT 510
APPENDIX 513
INDEX 521


IY




























TITLE-PAGE.
DEDICATION.
THE Boo WALK, JAMAICA viii
FAREWELL TO THE OLD COUNTRY I
DARTMOUTH EN FETE. 3
ONE OF TIE 'CASTLE LINE 4
ALL AFLOAT 5
SCALDED .. 6
LADDER WASHED AWAY 8
11.45 A.M. 0
11.46 A.M. o
DRENCHED .. II
CASCADES BAY .12
MULETAS .. 13
FRUIT MARKET, LISBON 14
THE OLD ALMONER 15
LISBON, MARKET SCENE .
HAY-BOATS OFF PALMELLA .. 17
TAKING SIGHTS UNDER DIFFICUL-
TIES 17
OUT TO DRY.. 19
NORIIAM CASTLE IN TIE OLDEN
TIME 20
A HEAVY SEA 23
MADEIRA .. 24
GOOD-BYE ..25
BULLOCK CART 27
TIE LOO OCK 29
PEASANT NEAR FUNCIIAL 3
TIE ENDEAVOUR' 34
SOCCORRIDOS 35
PIC-NIC AT CARO GIRIXo .


MOUNTAIN HUTS
CIIILD'S FUNERAL
HAMMOCK
A HAPPY TRIO .
PREPARED FOR THE WORST
LANDING AT CALIIETA
WATERMILL
RABAQAL
WHERE IS SIR ROGER ?.
VINTE-CINCO FONTES
THE FAIRIES' CAVE
OLD FORT .
IN THE ENGLISH CEMETERY
THE START.
PREPARATIONS FOR TIE EXI
TION .
CAPITAL
PIco RUIVO
EN ROUTE
AN AL FRESCO LAUNDRY
A MITIIERLESS BAIRN '
EL B.LCo .
A STARTLING INCIDENT .
THE LOCAL BANANA.
SANTA ANNA .
SPINNING .
THE ARBOUR, SANTA ANNA
FAYAL .
BIBEIRO1 FRIO
PEASANTS RETURNING FROM
FESTIVAL
1ENIIA D'AGUIA


S40
42
S44
45
47
48
S49
50
51
S 53
S54
56
57
'EDI-
58
59
6o
6o
6i
S62
62
63
64
66
66
67
68
69
THE
70
71


-TR I ON-
:T









xii ILL USTRA TIONS.


PYROTECHNIC DISPLAY
MACHICO
CANICAL
SPECIMEN OF FOSSIL


S 72
* 72
* 74
S 74


FOSSIL LAND
ON THE SHORE AT CANIAL .
MRS. PAGE'S SEDAN CHAIR
THE HOUR OF MIDNIGHT
SCRUBBING DECKS. A COLD
BATH
SWEET POTATOES .
S.S. ARMATHWAITE'
'UP ABOVE THE WORLD SO HIGH.'
RAINBOW AND CUMULUS .
ST. JOHN AMBULANCE LECTURE .
CLOUD EFFECTS .
CLOUD AND SHOWER .
TRINIDAD
CORMORANT ON RAFT .
TOBAGO .
FIRST VIEW OF SOUTH AMERICA


75
77
79
So


AND THE BOCAS 95
SIGNAL STATION .. 97
WRECK IN THE BOCA DE LOS
HUEVOS 97
PORT OF SPAIN OO
GOVERNMENT HOUSE 102
MARKET DAY AT TRINIDAD 104
LOCAL DOG TAX. 104
TIMIT CAP 107
GROUP OF VEGETATION III
MENU 114
BLUE BASIN FALLS 117
PRINCE HENRY OF PRUSSIA .. 121
THE OLD ANCHOR 123
PITCH LAKE (six views) 124
CROSSING THE PLANS 127
SANTA MADDALENA 130
MoIICHE PALM 131
PARASOL ANTS 132
HEAVY LOAD 134


CLAXTON PIER 135
SEA FERNS, SWAMP, SAN JUAN 136
'JOHNNY COWS' 137
ACAO AKIN 142
PASSION-FLOWER FRUIT. 142
IN TIlE VERANDAH 146
COOLIES' SERENADE .148
JIBBING HORSES CROSSING
STREAMS. 149
SAN JOSEF .150
FLYING ANTS 152
M. NICOLAS .. 152
HUT IN THE WOODS 152
MARACCAS FALLS .154
MIID-DAY HALT 155
OLD MACHETE ; AND SWIZZLE
STICKS 157
NEAR THE MARAICCAS FALLS 157
GROUP OF VEGETATION 159
TIE OLA 162
TESTIGOS AND MARGARITA 163
COOLIE NECKLET AND ORNAMENTS 165
GROUP ON THE QUARTER-DECK 167
MACUTO 169
HOTEL NETTUNO 170
IENU 171
LANDING-PLACE, LA GUAYn 172
ON TIE RoAD TO CARACAS 174
NEW GUN IN AN OLD FORT 174
CACTI AND ALOES 176
TROPICAL FOREST. 7
FRIGHTENING LOCUSTS ISo
AN AWKWARD MISTAKE .IS3
ENTRANCE TO CARACAS 185
GENERAL VIEW OF CARACAS 86
LOCUST 192
CATHEDRAL AND PLAZA .192
THE LA GUAYRA AND CABACAS
RAILWAY 196
MONGOOSE 199
PEDRERA POINT 202










ILLUSTRA TIONS. xiii


PAGE
SUNSET OFF BUEN AYIE 203
SOUNDING IN THE DINGHY .203
GRuND SUNRISE. 206
OUR PILOT AND HIS BOAT .207
NEWCASTLE AND TIE BLUE
MOUNTAIN S 208
A BLACK SQULL 208
PORT ROYAL 210
OLD ROCK FORT .212
TAKING DOWN TIE LIGHT 212
VIEW FROM TIE OLD ROCK FORT 213
DOCKYARD LOOK-OUT 215
ISLAND BOAT. .217
SCHOONER WITH MAST-FUNNEL 217
PARISH CHURCII, KINGSTON 219
SOME OF TIE CONGREGATION 219
ELM TREE COTTAGE 221
PRIVATE SOLDIER, WEST INDIA
REGIMENT 225
VIEW UP THE VALLEY 0FROM GORi-
DON TOWN .227
LIZARD 227
TIE FORD. SABLE LAUNDRESSES 222
HUTS AT NEWCASTLE 230
VIEW FROM NEWCASTLE 231
FERN VALK 235
A NARROW PATH 237
MEss-HOUSE 239
MISS BURTON'S HOTEL 241
WEST INDIAN MENU 242
LANDING PLACE, PORT HENDERSON 244
A BREAK-DOWN. JOHNNY-CROWS 247
THE CATHEDRAL, SPANISII TOWN 250
INSTEAD MARKET 252
ORANGE HARVEST .255
PITCHER PLANT, ORCHID, AND
ORIIIs .. 257
THE GULLEY ROAD 267
OclIo BIOS 270
BELMONT 273
IN THE PARK 275


PAGE
ON THE SHORE 277
H.M.S. 'DIDo' 279
PORT ANTONIO AND HArBOUI 281
VIEW AT PORT ANTONIO 283
'SUNBEAM BY MOONLIGHT 284
Los ALTARES 285
ANOTHER MOONLIGHT EFFECT 289
MAYSI POINT AND LIGHTHOUSE 290
YUNQUE DE BARACOA 292
RACING THE BRIGANTINE 293
GULF-STREAM BOTTLES 296
GREAT Is.AAc LIGHT AND HEN
AND CHICKENS 298
STIRRUP CAY LIGHT 301
BAHAMA TURBOT 303
FAREWELL TO STIRRUP CAY 306
NASSAU 307
THE TRITON .307
MONTAGUE FORT 310
DIVING OPERATIONS 312
SPONGE-GLASSES 315
KILLARNEY LAKE .320
A WRECKED FOREST .320
GOVERNMENT HOUSE, NASSAU 322
KITE-FLYING .324
DIVING FOR GORONIAS 328
SuIP RAILWAY 333
MESSRS. SAWYER'S SPONGE YARD 337
SPONGE SCHOONERS .339
SILK COTTON TREE .345
IDOLS .347
CONC-SIIELLS AND SEA-FAN 348
THEi MESSAGE OF PEACE' .355
IN THE PINE-APPLE FIELDS 358
SUNRISE AT SEA .359
ELEUTIIERA BOATS 359
S.GASSO WEED 364
REMARKABLE SUNSET 366
OpossM 36S
REVOLVING STORM (DIAGRAM) 371
TOPMASTS HOUSED. 373









ILL USTRAI TIONS.


PAGE
THE BEAUTY' 375
DINING UNDER DIFFICULTIES 377
A SQUALL .382
BEADING IN JEOPARDY 383
A CATASTROPHE 385
BARQUE AT SUNRISE 388
ST. DAVID'S LIGHT AND CAVE,
BERMUDA .. 389
FORT ST. GEORGE. 391
HEALTH BOAT .. 394
H.M.S.' NORTHAMPTON 'AGROUND 395
SCENES IN HAMILTON HAROUR 397
WATER PARTY 40
'BERMUDA' FLOATING DOCK 403
ANGEL-FISH .406
Cow-FISH 407
SEA-PENS .. 409
Hoa-FisH. 411
SOMERSET ISLAND FERRY-BOAT 414
A MOONLIGHT PASSAGE 417
NEPTUNE'S GROTTO 419
WALSINGHAM CAVES 422
MOORE'S CALABASH TREE 424
ST. GEORGE'S AND WRECKS 426
ST. DAVID'S LIGHTHOUSE 428
CHURCHYARD, ST. GEORGE'S 430
MR. BERTRM .431
FAIRYLAND 433
GIBBS HILL LIGHTHOUSE .436
BERMUDA YACHT-RACING 440
PORTUGUESE MAN-OF-WAR 442
BACK OF THE COTTAGE 445
TORPEDO PRACTICE .448
BERMUDA FROM THE COMMIS-
SIONER'S HOUSE 450
.. 451
HONEY BEAR 452
FAREWELL TO BERMUDA. 454


PAGE
PILOT HANGING ON .456
THE LAST OF BERMUDA .457
ALMOST A WATERSPOUT 458
FLYING THROUGH IT BY MOON-
LIGHT .. 462
END OF THE LOG LINE 466
CROSSING TOP-GALLANT YARD .466
LOWERING HEAD-SAIL. 466
MOONLIGHT AND RAINBOW 468
Pico 470
FAYAL; COMPREDA POINT .470
PONTA DELGADA, LANDING PLACE 473
MARKET DAY, PONTA DELGADA 478
FERRARA POINT 478
RIBEIRA GRANDE 480
,, 481
AN OLD-FASHIONED BEDSTEAD 482
BOCCA D'INFERNO 484
CALDEIRA DI TAMBOUR 485
PROVoqAO 487
THE DANCE 491
VILLA FRANCA 492
IN THE VILLAGE SQUARE 493
PAST CHRISTMLAS EVES 496
498
,, 499
CHRISTMAS POST BAG 501
RACING ALONG 501
ROYAL SUNBEAM THEATRE 503
FIIM FRIENDS 505
SIR WILLIAM THOMSON'S SOUND-
ING APPARATUS 506
RAM HEAD 507
MOUNT EDGCUMBE, LOOKING OVER
DRAKE'S ISLAND 509
AT BEST. THE SUNBEAM' IN
DRY DOCK 511
MONKEY IN ENGINE RooM. 519


CHART SHOWING TEMPERATURE OF AIR AND WATER


To face page 520






































TRACK CART


MADEIRA .


TRmINIDAI. I


VENEZUELA


LA GUAYRA AND C.ARACA.S RAILWAY .


JAMIc.A .


BAHAMA ISLAND


BERMUDA ISLAND. .


AZORES


Commencement of book


To face page 36


94


164


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204


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390


S.. 472



















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FROM SEP. TO DEC. 1883.
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FAREWELL TO THE OLD COUNTRY


CHAPTER I.
ENGLAND TO MADEIRA.
Men were made to roam.
My meaning is-it hath been always thus :
They are athirst for mountains and sea foam.
Heirs of this world, what wonder if perchance
They long to see their grand inheritance !

WE arrived at Dartmouth late on the evening of Septem-
ber 27th, 1883, and proceeded straight on board the
'Norham Castle,' in the Britannia's' steam-launch, kindly
lent us by Captain Bowden-Smith. Although the bulk of
our luggage had been shipped in London, our somewhat
numerous packages and parcels comprised a good many little
odds and ends that had been forgotten until the last moment,
as is almost always the case when starting on a long voyage,
B







ON BO.4RD TIHE NORIJi'L4 CASTLE.'


for a somewhat indefinite period, to regions not hitherto ex-
plored, and for which expedition every authority recommends
something novel in the way of imlpedimenta as absolutely
indispensable to comfort, if not to existence.
We found everything satisfactorily arranged on board,
and that the rest of our party, who had embarked at the
Docks, had enjoyed a fairly good passage round from the
Thames, and were all settling down very happily. The child-
ren were soon in bed and asleep; and we speedily followed
their example, so as to be able to make the most of the
morning of the day on which we were to leave England for
so long a time.
The cabin on deck, which Captain Winchester had so
courteously placed at my disposal, was not only spacious, but
was comfortably and even luxuriously fitted up. From the
skylight hung a basket of flowers, on either side of which
sweet potatoes, growing in glasses, sent their tender shoots and
bright green tendrils right across the ceiling. The furniture
comprised a wardrobe, sofa, easy-chair, writing-table, and
bookshelves; so that with some more flowers from dear Nor-
manhurst, and a plentiful supply of newspapers, periodicals,
and books, I felt at once quite at home.
The view from the windows (not ports) early the next
morning was charming. In the east the sun rose behind the
wooded hills that, dotted with old houses and modern villas,
slope gently from the placid waters of the land-locked hrblour:
westward the eye dwelt on the sharply contrasted effects of
light and shade on the picturesque and old-fashioned town of
Dartmouth.
There is no place in England quite equal to Dartmouth
for beauty and originality; and at the period of the regatta,
in August, it is indeed the gayest of spectacles to watch the
innumerable yachts, boats, and craft of all kinds, and the
whole town brightly decorated with flags by day, and with








THE 'BRITANNIA:.


myriads of little coloured lamps hung in festoons by night,
while bands play, and the people seem to enjoy themselves
more than an English crowd generally condescends to do.
At half-past nine the steam-launch came to take us on
board the Britannia,' which vessel we found in the same
perfect order as usual: the cadets all looking well and happy.
Surely, if boys destined for the navy are capable of acquiring the
necessary knowledge anywhere, they should do so here, where
advantages of every kind are so abundant. The old models
of ships used on board for purposes of instruction were very
good; but the new ones that have been lately added are even
more useful and complete. We were greatly interested in
listening to a
lecture that
was being ..
given by one --. ---
of the in- "
structors on
the model of
an ironclad,
divided into DARTMOUTH E-N FTE
four sections;
so that the whole of her interior economy and construction
could be thoroughly understood. Commander Bainbridge told
me that the lads worked well at the models, flag and sail
drill, signalling, and compass instruction; but that naviga-
tion and Euclid were quite a different matter, and that it was,
as a rule, hard to get the cadets to take an interest in those
subjects.
The beauty of the morning had now entirely faded away;
and one could almost imagine that some of the dear ones left
behind were shedding gentle tears at our departure. To put
it more prosaically, a regular west-country mist had come on,
depressing in itself and making everything look damp, dreary,
B2







PARTINGS.


and forlorn. After a brief walk on shore we returned to the
Norham Castle,' just in time to transact a little final busi-















-" ONE OF TIlHE CASTLE LINE

S ness, and to see the last sad partings between those
'outward bound' and those 'left behind.' As-
suredly those who go down to the sea in ships, and have their
business in the great waters, especially those who travel fre-
quently in large steamers, calling at many ports, and carrying
passengers of all nationalities, behold strange and impressive
sights, and have better opportunities of observing human
nature in its various phases than fall to the lot of most people.
Such were my reflections as I heard the last starting-bell
ring and looked out upon the flotilla of small boats by which
we were surrounded, each containing one or more occupants
interested in someone on board. At length the hawser was
slipped from the big buoy; the engines began to move almost
imperceptibly ahead; and our last link with old England was
severed. Heaven grant us all a safe voyage and a happy
return.
We had scarcely got outside Dartmouth, when the Nor-
ham Castle' began to pitch and roll most unpleasantly. As








A MINIATURE DELUGE. 5

the afternoon went on matters became worse. A strong head-
wind was encountered, with a somewhat dense fog and a good
deal of rain, which increased towards six o'clock. Two hours
later, when we sighted Ushant, the vessel was rolling heavily
and shipping much water forward; in consequence of which
I decided to sleep below instead of in the Captain's cabin:
the steward promising to pack up all my things and assur-
ing me that they would be quite safe. I was too sea-sick to
discuss the matter further; and, having seen the children
safely secured in their berths, I lay down on the sofa in their
cabin, where, holding on tightly to the side, I slumbered in
the semi-conscious
condition one falls
t V" into at sea in
." rough weather
until I was
Suddenly
1'awakened
by pierc-
ing cries
\ for help.
y\ On risinll
\\ *: I found
that the
\water was
' r;. i L washing
all about the
cabin, and that
-.-- my big boxes, little
b. oxes, bags, baskets, &c.,
ALL AFLOAT were floating backwards
and forwards across the
floor. 'Sir Roger,' my black poodle, had jumped on the
sofa, which was fairly dry; and, keeping his balance with the







6 A AMISSIONARI"S WIFE IN TROUBLE.

greatest difficulty, surveyed the scene with an air of calm
disapprobation, occasionally uttering a low growl of decided
annoyance and remonstrance, while I quickly put on an ulster
and sea-boots. Outside the cabin the water was pouring
like a cataract down the companion; while the deck above
leaked like a sieve, producing the effect of a continuous shower
bath. Some accident seemed also to have happened to a
steam-pipe, judging from
the clouds of steam which
were escaping, and from
-..J the cries of two men who
Complained that they had
.._ beenn scalded by the boiling
.,i water. Struggling along
the passage between the
S first and second class sa-
loons, I found the water
sufficiently deep to fill my
high sea-boots and to
compel poor Sir Roger,'
.SCA,,ED after a few piteous cries
and fruitless attempts to
walk on his hind legs, to swim after me. I soon met the
poor creature whose shrieks had first roused me:-a mis-
sionary's wife on her way to South Africa, who was attired
in the scantiest of garments, and trying feebly to come aft
and get on deck. She implored me most earnestly to tell
her if I thought we were going to the bottom 'at once,' in
reply to which appeal I assured her that I did not think
there was any immediate danger and that the ship only
leaked from above because, by an unfortunate omission, her
decks and coamings had not been recaulked after her last
voyage to a hot climate in fine weather. It was now evident
that a very heavy gale was blowing; for the ship was not








DROVWAING AS A AIATTER OF TASTE. 7

only rolling at an angle which made it almost impossible to
stand, but was labouring in a way I did not at all like and
shipping large masses of water, a vast quantity of which
streamed below. When the poor lady asked me if there
was any danger, I suppose that I must have hesitated a
little in my answer, for she added immediately, Think
how dreadful it would be to be drowned and go to feed the
dishes! For the moment I could think of no more re-
assuring remark than that we must all die some day and
somehow, and that I thought drowning was preferable to
many other modes of death. My statement so astonished the
poor Missionary's wife that I took the opportunity of her
hesitation in replying to suggest that she should return to
her cabin: a work of no little difficulty, for in her fright she
had entirely forgotten the number and situation of her state-
room. Ultimately, with the assistance of another passenger
we found it, not however without putting our heads into
many other cabins, all in a sloppy condition, and containing
more or less miserable and terrified occupants. Meanwhile,
the gale continued to increase; and the water continued to
pour through the shrunk decks and other wood-work, in spite
of the sky-lights being battened down, and all that could be
done to stop the leakage.
After my midnight excursion I returned to my cabin;
propped myself in a corner ; and proceeded to pass the night
as best I could, in what might be regarded as a very nearly
air-tight but anything but water-tight iron box, rolling about
at an angle of at least 45 degrees. Our berth was close to the
pantry, the noises proceeding from which department were
really appalling. First came vast crashes of crockery, the
fragments of which appeared to get gradually broken up into
smaller pieces as the ship rolled backwards and forwards,
producing a sound like the breaking of waves on a rocky
shore. By degrees the fragments seemed to become smaller







8 THE MORNING AFTER THE GALE.

and smaller, till towards morning the noise produced was that
of the sea breaking on very small pebbles, varied by an occa-
sional fresh crash, as something else was carried away. About
5 A.M. a heavier sea than usual struck the ship, which seemed
to quiver for a minute on her beam-ends before she righted;
and there was a considerable cracking and splintering of
wood-work to be heard, even above the roaring of the gale.
I was afterwards informed that this sea
washed away the starboard accommodation-
ladder, and the meat-safe, and very nearly
lifted overboard the big horse-
box, notwithstan ding the strong
Slashings by which it was secured.















LAlDlOiR WASIIRD AWAY

More than half of it was torn away; and the poor Clydesdale
that was inside had to weather the remainder of the gale with
only one side to his house. The short-horn bull, which was
on his way to Natal, and the good cow that supplied us with
milk, fared rather better, being on the lee side of the deck.
As day broke, matters began to mend and the gale to
moderate. One of our stewards came and helped me to get






THE CAPTALV'S CABIN WRECKED.


the children up; for our maids, though quite well, were per-
fectly helpless. Overwhelmed, I suppose, by the novelty of
the situation, they evidently meant to do nothing but lie in bed
all day. With the usual tenacity of maids in such matters,
instead of being satisfied with the cabin-boxes and bags pro-
vided for them for the voyage, they had insisted on having
their own two big trunks in their cabin, where, washing back-
wards and forwards in water seven or eight inches deep,
the extra luggage became unpleasant articles of encumbrance.
The chief steward took pity on the children and me and
moved us to his own cabin, which was dry though small; and
there we lay in a little heap, sea-sick and wretched, all day.
Frederick (our own servant) and the stewards brought me at
intervals the debris of my property from the Captain's cabin.
It was truly lamentable to behold this wreckage of my belong-
ings: everything being utterly and hopelessly ruined-books,
bags, boots and shoes, alike soaked and useless. Two of the
panels of the cabin had been smashed in by a heavy sea;
and the water had completely filled all the lockers. A great
deal more must also have come in from above and from all
sides, for the sofa-berth, a pretty high one, on which most
of my things had been piled for safety, was inundated. From
my travelling bag, containing all my little needments, more
than a gallon of water was poured; while my favourite de-
spatch bag, in which, among other things, were numerous
letters of introduction, was reduced to a pulp. The contents
of a bank-note case were so saturated and mixed together,
that it was with difficulty the numbers of the notes could be
read. Soon after we had been moved, the steward brought
us a little warm water in a tin pan, apologetically explaining
that every jug in the ship was broken, which news did not
surprise me, after the appalling noises which we heard last
night. He also asked us what we should like to have to cat;
at the same time suggesting that cooking was difficult, and






IO A HOME ON THE 'ROLLING DEEP.'


mentioning that we could not have anything cold, as the
meat-safe and its contents had been washed overboard. I
don't think that it mattered much, for nobody appeared to
have a keen appetite.
The ship continued to roll and labour heavily, and the
seas to wash over her fore and aft, making everything above
and below wet and miserable. One sea, more mountainous
than its predecessors, broke, as we were afterwards informed,
thirty feet over the heads of those on the bridge. This state
of things continued without interruption throughout the
night, until early on Sunday morning, when things began to
look a little brighter. About noon a few passengers might
be seen to creep out of their berths and to compare notes on
the experiences and miseries of the last forty-eight hours.
It was not an enlivening
... i.s cene; even now. The
water was still washing
S about everywhere. It was
S impossible to have a bath,
Because the ten bath-rooms
S" were full of wet cloths and







IF4


\\. di 5 .s.L /\ '" q -w


clothes; the carpets from the cabins were hung up to dry all
over the place, together with garments of every description;








AN ENCAMPMENT IN THE SALOON.


while the passages were cumbered with soaked portman-
teaus, hat-boxes, and luggage of various kinds, which it was
not practicable to send on deck to be dried, as the sea was still
coming over freely fore and aft. The saloon was dark and
airless, owing to the canvas covers on the skylights. There
too the water was swashing backwards and forwards, three
or four inches deep. The few people who were iii the saloon
wore mackintoshes and sea-boots. One old gentleman had
even provided himself with a sou'-wester' and an umbrella,
and was sitting at the centre table holding on to a large glass
of whisky and hot water, a necessary precaution against its
being upset. In another, the driest, corner, was quite a
picturesque little gipsy-like encampment, consisting of a
Caffre and a Hottentot nurse with their mistresses' respec-
tive babies and children, all squatted on the floor on some
bright coloured blankets and shawls, under umbrellas, with
rugs and mackintoshes over them to protect them from the
drippings from above.
Of course it was useless to think of having the usual church
service; but the weather
continued to improve, .
and towards the after- -7 \
noon many of the pas- %' k:
sengers came up to en-
joy the bright sunshine
on the few dry spots on
deck. Among others,
our two maids appeared
in gorgeous array, each
provided with a novel-
with a yellow cover ; but D.:xC. :n
being told by more than
one person that they would be much better employed below
drying the clothes and getting things straight, they promptly







12 AT THE MOUTH OF THE TAGUS.

retired to their berths again and were seen no more. Per-
haps it was as well for their own comfort that they thus
vanished, judging from my own experiences; for, in trying a
little later on to get to my cabin on deck, I was caught by a
sea which struck the vessel heavily, and drenched me to the
skin.















CASCAES BAY

The sea was so much smoother when evening came, that at
dinner there was quite a fair muster of passengers; including
a few ladies; and I decided to sleep in my airy though some-
what damp cabin on deck again, in preference to the stuffy
abode below, which the heat of the steam-pipes from the
pantry rendered almost insufferable. At eleven o'clock we
made the Burling Light some distance off; and the next morn-
ing (Monday, October i) at 4 A.M. we found ourselves rolling
about at the mouth of the Tagus, waiting for daylight, and a
pilot to take us over the bar.
Cascaes Bay, where we have more than once lain in the
'Albatross,' 'Meteor' and 'Sunbeam,' waiting for a storm to
abate, or for the wind to change, looked bright and pretty in
the early dawn, the little fort of St. Julien just catching the








A FLEET OF FISHING BOATS. 13

light between the passing showers; and as the sun rose, its
rays produced the most beautiful rainbow effects on the










MULETAS

mountains of Cintra, and the wooded heights, crowned by
the Castle of Penha. Cintra, lovely Cintra! what happy
days I have spent, time and again, among your groves and
gardens Soon after getting under way again we met a large
fleet of fishing boats going out to their daily labour, the variety
of style shown in their shapes and rigs producing a pleasing
absence of uniformity. Among them might be seen the now
old-fashioned mulctas, with their quaint bows, on board most
of which a man stood on the gunwale throwing water into the
sail with a long-handled metal skeet.' Others were lateen
rigged, with a quaint little sail amidships, which in nearly
every case was now being spread to catch the first faint breeze
of morning. Each boat seemed to carry a large crew; and,
whatever other varieties of style their builders might have
indulged in, one invariable feature was the representation of
an eye painted in bold colours on the bow, to guard the
fishermen from evil, and to ensure the protection of the
Virgin.
At the little village of Cascaes some sort of bathing festi-
val must have been going on, for I never saw so many people
on the beach there before. The king has a palace close by,
where he generally resides at this season of the year ; and the








LISBON


place is also much frequented by the Portuguese in summer.
The views on the water-way up the Tagus to Lisbon, including
the mountains of Setubal and the Castle of Palmella on the
heights on the one side, and the large church and picturesque
Tower of Belem on the other, are delightful.
You may be sure we lost no time after the anchor was
dropped in going ashore in the steam-tug, in which Mr. Pinto
Basto, the Company's agent, had come alongside. Our first
proceeding on landing was to visit a somewhat interesting
market, where we enjoyed some fresh green figs and luscious
grapes; and then we turned our attention to the finny wonders
of the deep in the adjacent fish market and the picturesque
costumes of their vendors. The carriages we had sent for
having at last arrived, some of our party went on an excursion
to Belem; while others, as I did, felt that having already














,VR,"I 1.1 "KEl, TIIAMN

(a brush slu-tch)
conscientiously 'done' the sights of the
neighbourhood, we might be allowed to
amuse ourselves by strolling up and down the streets and
looking about us. We went first to the Silver' and Gold '








FRUIT MARKET, LISBON.


streets which, I was sorry to find, have deteriorated of late.
Twenty, or even ten years ago it was possible to pick up
here the most exquisite brilliant
and paste-work in antique settings
(to say nothing of old orders and
crosses), at modest prices: now
everything is modern and reminds ,
one only of the Palais Royal. We / -
consoled ourselves by a visit to .
another market, where we found .
the entrance to the butchers de- E
apartment, to which our coachman '
drove us by mistake, defended by .
six bull-dogs, tied up, but still
alarmingly fierce. As I led Sir .
Roger,' in terror of his life, past
them, I confess I felt personally Tn: I ui
uncertain as to whether the fero-
cious-looking brutes might not take a piece out of one of
my own ankles in making a dart at the poodle. Inside the
market-place, each stall was sheltered by a huge umbrella;
and very gay the costumes of the market-women looked
among the heaps of scarlet tomatoes, orange, green, and red
capsicums and chilies, oranges, lemons, chestnuts, quinces,
pears, apples, grapes, figs, bananas, and various other fruits,
besides vegetables out of number. In one place there was
an odd-looking old man in a long red coat, something like a
beadle's, collecting coppers for some charitable object; while
in another might be seen an aged priest in a violet cassock
who was making his purchases, followed by a respectable-
looking old major-domo bearing a huge basket in which
to place them. A portion of the market was held in red
wooden sheds, under the shade of some pepper trees, among
which was one specially picturesque stall, presided over by








FRUIT MARKET, LISBON.


a comely dame with a purple and yellow shawl across her
shoulders, looking like a veritable Pomona among her lus-
cious autumn fruits and succulent vegetables. The stall was
hung round with wicker cages and baskets and rush chairs,
and contained an immense stock of gourds, pumpkins, and
vegetable-marrows, which people seemed to purchase, not
exactly by the yard, but by the foot and even the inch, the
required length being cut off for each customer. An entire



[i '










,SIIS N--MA IEK1 SCENE

marrow would certainly have been
too voluminous for any family, how-
ever numerous. Set up on end in
rows, they looked like the stones
placed against the sides of the road to protect the pathway or
the borders of a lawn.
At two o'clock we had to be on board the tug, in which we
returned to the steamer laden with fresh fruit, vegetables,
butter, &c. The 'Norham Castle' was still surrounded by
boats-for although the operation of coaling was finished, she
was still taking in cargo; and the decks were crowded with
people who had come to see their friends, and with vendors
of every imaginable article of Lisbon manufacture. They were







LISBON FISHERMEN


quickly got rid of, however, and we were soon swiftly steaming
down the river again. We met all tie fishing boats returning
from their day's water on to the
work, the men sails, and their
on board still decks laden with
'skeeting' the piles of fish of


Lr. -


II.Y-1;:,.VIS OFF P.MMII..LA


various sorts. They had evidently had a good take; and
the fishermen seemed
in the highest pos-
sible spirits. We also
passed several hay-
boats, which, except
for the shape of the .
bows, differed little in
appearance from tlhe
familiar Thames hay-
flat. Directly we got
outside the ship began
to roll horribly again,
which made diiiner a KING S
most uncomfortable
meal. Everybody was glad when it was over; though on
deck things were not much more pleasant, for we were still
c







18 ADVANTAGES OF SMALL VESSELS.

shipping large quantities of water. There was no alter-
native, consequently, but to turn in early and hope that the
next day might bring an improvement.
The events of the last few days have more than ever con-
firmed me in the opinion which I have always held, that
while, up to a certain point, a big ship has advantages over a
smaller craft in rough weather; directly you get beyond that
point and meet with a really heavy gale, it is far preferable
to' be in a buoyant craft of 500 tons, that bounds lightly
over the waves like a cork, than in one of 4,000 tons that
goes right through them. Of course the smaller vessel
may sometimes have to lie hove-to for many days, where
the larger ship would still be ploughing her way bravely
against the storm and wind; but even under those circum-
stances I think that the former would offer considerable
advantages in the way of comfort, if not of safety. How I
have longed for the dear old Sunbeam' during the last
few days, and how glad I shall be to get on board her
once more!
The next morning was mainly spent in the not very lively
amusement of sorting the debris from the Captain's cabin,
throwing overboard what was utterly spoilt, packing for
England what it was possible to repair, and putting the slight
valid remnant into my boxes for Madeira. If it had not been
intensely annoying it would really have been amusing to see
the curious shapes some of the things had assumed : particu-
larly boots and shoes that had been afloat in the two drawers
under the bed, from which gallons after gallons of water had
been emptied. In the afternoon the first officer took us all
over the ship, and even into the chart room, where we were
allowed to look at the log and see the official description of
the occurrences of the last few days. We were also shown
the clinometer which, having registered a roll of 50 to port
and 4o0 to starboard on the night of the storm, judiciously












S-i
AFTER ASTOR. 19












declined to register any more. The 'Nor-
hiam Castle' is a spar-decked ship; and
S the upper decks form delightful prome-
nades in fine weather. To-day they were
somewhat curiously decorated with strings
of boots and shoes, of which there must
have been many dozen pairs, and with the
6> passengers' clothing hanging up to dry. In
the forward part of the ship there had been
a considerable diminution among the live
stock : one hen-coop had gone bodily over-
board; while the occupants of the others,
as well as some of the sheep, had either
\;,) been washed away or drowned in their pens.
I wonder what the feelings of a poor Dork-
S ing fowl must be, fresh from a nice comfort-
Sable English farm-house, where it pecked
about as fancy led it, or wandered at its own
sweet will among sunny orchards rosy with
flowers in spring and full of fruit in summer
and autumn, suddenly to find itself packed
in a basket, sent off to market, and pent up
in a closely-crowded coop with hundreds of
strange congeners on board a vessel which
rocks and tosses the unhappy bird in the
c2







CONDITION OF THE LIVE STOCK.


most unaccountable manner, quite beyond the scope of all
previous experience, and, perhaps, finally at the mercy of the
waves in the Bay of Biscay. The poor Clydesdale looked
very sorry for himself. The short-horn bull, of which the
stall was on the lee-side of the deck, had not suffered so
much and was pretty cheery; but the poor cow was lowing
piteously and, I believe, utterly refused to give any milk.
The handsome black retriever which General Valiant is
taking out for Mr. Hinton looked rather miserable; but a
little turn on deck and then a warm in the engine-room
passage soon made him all right. We went all through
the engine-room, down into the stoke-hole, and even along
the screw-alley-in fact wherever the chief engineer was
good enough to take us. He showed us the machinery for


NORllIAM CASTLE, IN TIHE OI)EN TIME


producing the electric light and for working the refrigerator
to preserve provisions; both perfect in their way. In fact,







MUSIC IN THE SALOON. 21

nothing could be better arranged than all the appointments
of this magnificent ship. The cooks' and stewards' depart-
ments are equally well managed. The second steward,
William Phiillips, was our bedroom steward on board
the Sunbeam for some months, and went to Cyprus
with us; and as Tom had got him his present situation,
you may be sure lie does his best to look after us. Iis
chief, Mr. Coo, has also been most kind and attentive, as
indeed was everyone on board with whom we had anything
to do.
Our ship's godmother is a picturesque old castle on the
banks of the Tweed, founded about the middle of the seventh
century, by Oswald. It was for many years the stronghold
of ('i i;- 1i i,;i in the north of England; and derives a
special interest from its connection with the marriage of
James IV. and Margaret Tudor, and with the subsequent
union of England and Scotland.
The weather had so far mended in the evening that in
spite of the heavy roll we thought that we would go into the
saloon and try to have some music. This was a work of
some time and difficulty, the piano being already occupied by
a young couple going to settle somewhere in the interior of
Africa, who were trying over duets which they did not in the
least know how to play: very much to their own satisfaction,
but somewhat to the annoyance of other passengers, especi-
ally of those who, seated at a long table, were writing letters
in readiness for to-morrow's homeward mail. The varied
expressions and attitudes of the reluctant listeners were quite
an interesting study. I hope none of the letters were vrcer
urgent, for on the morrow, sad to relate, we met the
' Hawarden Castle' just steaming out of the bay as we
steamed in, and a week must elapse before the departure of
the next mail for England.
Our last night on board. How delicious to think we shall








LAST NIGHT ON BOARD.


arrive at Funchal quite early in the morning and see Tom
and the Sunbeam' again.


Eoll'd to starboard, rolled to larboard,
When the surge was seething free ;
When the wallowing monster spouted
His foam fountains in the sea.



























r~ -


- I


'. .i l 1 'l 1 1 .



II I. ..ii. ti II .-

.1 i .d. 'l .. .1 1 ,I l ... 1 ,111


S i, l i, l ti! .. I, | l l,, -. ,. i ...II. I Ii ,.
iI i ._i. i 1, l 11I ,. I11! i I l l i l,
!, ,, i i r 1 .. ,1 1




melanlcholy to see eachl article, as it was
brouglit in from the drying room and else-
where, looking more deplorable tlian the ]st-
mvi writill-pail a series of loose leaves of a
dusky purple cololur, books that had been rc-






EA14RINAG _1MADEIRA.


duced to pulp and had now become solid grey cakes; paper
and printed matter hopelessly mixed up and impossible
to read or to write upon; letters of introduction in the
same sad condition; and boots and shoes that had as-
sumed the most awkward shapes in the process of drying,
very curious to look at no doubt, but unsuitable for all prac-
tical purposes. Other articles of wearing apparel appeared
to be equally ruined, except what had been packed in Silver's
air-tight cases. These latter I cannot sufficiently praise ; for,
in spite of their having been floating about in water for a
considerable period, none of their contents were injured in
the slightest degree.
Soon all these misfortunes were forgotten, as we saw
Funchal, not very far distant, with the Sunbeam,' looking
more beautiful than ever to my eyes, in a coat of new
white paint, lying at anchor in the Bay, near several other
ships. The engines were slowed; the anchor dropped; and
we saw the Sunbeam's' gig lowered and advancing towards
us, with Tom steering. He was soon under the stern; and
we were able to hold a conversation and compare notes
as to our respective experiences during the past month. It
seems that he has had charming weather throughout, and
that he has thoroughly enjoyed his lonely cruise from Malta
and Gibraltar. As soon as the health-officer had been on
board we were greeted by Mr. Hinton, and were surrounded
by several other friends and people we were glad to see,
including Mr. Cardwell, the manager of the Santa Clara
Hotel. The sellers of every kind of Madeira produce also
flocked on board, and quickly made the decks almost im-
passable. At 8 A.M. the Sunbeam' dressed ship in honour
of our arrival, and fired (with considerable difficulty, as I
afterwards heard) a salute from our two little brass carron-
ades. One large heterogeneous mass of luggage was trans-
ferred to the various Sunbeam and shore boats; and






O~J N t PORI)T!]'NAVlAi


after an early breakfast Tom went the round of the ship with
Captain Winchester, while we said good-bye to all our kind
friends on board.
In a brief space of time we found ourselves once more on
the deck of the yacht, greeting many old friends and making
acquaintance with the new hands, whom we hope to know
better before many weeks are over. Soon afterwards we heard
the farewell bell ring, and then the anchor being weighed,
on board the steamer. As she left the roadstead, she passed
close under
the stern, the
band on the
poop playing,
and eve ry
soul on board,
judging by
the number, ---.. '-
cheering and
waving hats,
caps, and-
handkerchiefs.
It was a kind
thought and a
graceful coIn- noOn-lvYE
pliuent : a
pretty way of bidding us farewell which was much appre-
ciated by us all. I suppose that the weather had kept most
of the passengers below during the voyage, for I had never
seen a twentieth part of them before, close companions as
we must have been for a week.
We lost no time, you may be sure, in making a general
inspection of the Sunbeam,' which we found in the most
perfect order, looking delightfully bright, fresh, and home-
like after our recent voyage.






AN EMIGRANT SHIP


From the yacht we could see an emigrant ship, bound for
Australia, which had put in here to renew her water-supply.
She had had a very rough and prolonged passage from Scot-
land, and the poor emigrants had suffered great discomfort.
The captain had appealed to the Consul, who, in his turn, had
appealed to Tom and Mr. Humphreys, as holding master's
certificates, to hold a formal enquiry into the state of the
water-tanks, the contents of which were condemned as unfit
for consumption.
Tom thought I should be interested to see the vessel, and
we therefore boarded her on our way t tthe shore from the
' Sunbeam.' Our approach evidently created great excite-
ment, and directly we drew near we were received with ringing
cheers and waving of handkerchiefs. The emigrants appeared
to be greatly interested in the children, and would all have
shaken hands with us if they could. One man clapped Tom
hard on the shoulder, and said, Well, sir, you have got the
Missus out safe, and the wee bairns; God bless them and you
too!'
I went into every hole and corner of the ship with the
doctor, including the hospital, where one dear little child was
lying, looking dreadfully ill, but where two new-born babies
and their mothers seemed very bonny. The emigrants, as a
rule, appeared to be of a respectable class; most of them
being married, and having large families of children. Therc
were also many domestic servants going out to make their
way at the antipodes. Sir Roger' caused great amusement
on board, especially among the children, for whose Ibenefit hIe
was put through some of his tricks.
As we said good-bye, with many a hearty hand-shake and
exchange of good wishes, and went down the ladder again,
deafening cheers were raised, which continued as long as we
were in sight. Poor things I felt that we had not done mucli
to deserve such a display of enthusiasm, and wished sincerely






JAA])JAY; IV Ai Ik LAI' I SE-I


that it had been possible to do more to relieve what I fear
must almost inevitably be the misery and discomfort of their
long voyage. It is to be hoped, however, that they may be
better favoured than hitherto in the matter of weather, and
that the renewed water-supp1ly may be more satisfactory than
the first.
From the emigrant ship it was quite a hard pull to the
shore, for the North-east Trades were blowing hard, and
there was (quite a heavy little lump of a sea on. alf-way
we liad all to be transferred to two of the island boats, in
which to go through the surf. The natives manage the land-
ing very cleverly: turning the boat round with her bow
outwards, and keeping her steady till a large wave collies,
on the very crest of which they run her ashore stern fore-
most. On the beach rollers are placed to receive her, and
many willing hands are ready to pull her up the steep,
shelving shore, high 11nd dry, before tle next wave can beat
over her. Once landed, we were surrounded lby people
and carried off along the stony beach, and put into one
of the liqaint mllock carts, wNhlich are the only kind of I














cannot say hirrlw'r carriage, insmuchillll as thIN move on
runners, as (you will see but the only kind of vehicle at all
approaching our idea of a carriage to be mlet with in thle








ON SHORE AT AL4 DEIRA.


island. There are, however, many other conveyances of all
kinds, of which more hereafter. The long-horned, large-
eyed, patient-looking oxen, with two men going in front,
carrying oiled cloths or cactus leaves, which they put under
the runners to make the stones more slippery, dragged us
up the fine shady old avenue of plane trees leading to the
Grande Place, or Praca, where everybody walks and talks
and gossips, and where the band plays two or three times
a week. The old familiar, narrow, steep streets looked
just as they had done in 1876, with their whitewashed
walls, over which fragrant jessamnine, stephanotis, Ihoy;,
roses, gorgeous scarlet hibiscus, grey plumbago, and yellow
allamandas, threw their luxuriant festoons, as if to give a
faint, dreamy idea of the beauties that may be concealed
within.
The distance from the shore to the Santa Clara Hotel is
about half a mile. The hotel, which had been specially re-
commended to us, on account of its high and cool situation
(an all-important consideration at this time of year), is
charmingly situated in the midst of a pretty garden, and con-
tains many cool, airy, clean rooms of all kinds. How trim
they did look, to be sure, after that uncomfortably moist
steamer Mr. Reed, the proprietor, and Mr. Cardwell, tli
manager, and his wife (the latter of whom have both been
servants in English families, and therefore know exactly what
one requires), spare no pains, as we afterwards found, to insure
the comfort of their guests. The table is excellent, the charges
not extravagant, and altogether we had every reason to 1b
satisfied and pleased during our stay. Mr. Cardwell took
charge of our luggage on board the steamer; and though Mr.
Reed, I am afraid, had a great deal of trouble at the Custom
House, especially as to our saddles, 'we suffered none, and
knew nothing more about it until we saw it all in our own
rooms. The contents were unpacked without delay; and tll







A .MADEIRA GARDEN.


balconies, garden, and every available spot, were speedily
covered with the sad dbris and melancholy remains of our
outfits.
In the afternoon we made our first expedition: some of
the party walking, some in hammocks, the latter carried by
bearers in the usual costume of white shirts and trousers,
sailors' hats with gay ribbons, and lneck-handkerchiefs, to see
our old friend, Dr. Grabham, the one English physician here,
a most accomplished man, brimful of information on every
possible subject. His garden contains an interesting collection

















TIll: LOO IOCK

of plants and trees, all of which he showed us, and some of
which particularly attracted my attention. Among them was
the sloth tree (Cecropia), all arms and legs-an old Brazilian
friend-and the scarlet banana, appropriately named tBanana
cardinalis (lMusa cocciinea). Surely never was Cardinal half
so gorgeous as this shrub, with it. brilliant scarlet spikes,
growing beside the quaint orange and purple, crane-headed,
Strelitzia rcqinwe, the :! .... i of which always look to me so
like some arrogant farmyard roosters tI.;n,- their best to get







7'WE-T'S OF MADEIRA.


their heads one above another and to have the last crow.
Dr. ('ra1.bam has a great fancy for clocks, of which he
assesses a beautiful collection. Fifteen are regulated by
onT electrical machine; and I do not know how many are
not regulated at all. Then there was a very fine telescope,
and a variety of other attractive things to be seen, so that
ir visit was somewhat prolonged. I am not sure that the
best did not come almost at the last-the beautiful lily-of-
the-valley tree (C(lthra arborca) which bears branches of
white flowers, like iv~e or six sprays of lilies-of-the-valley
growing from one stalk, and emitting the most delicious scent.
It also vilids a fine white wood, much valued in Madeira.
though scarcely, if at all, known in England. There wa?
also the black Til (Oreodapjhune i'rtens-so called from it;
horrible smell) or native laurel, which produces a hard,
bIlack wood like ebony-and some fine specimens of a lovely
red lily with a gold-coloured tassel in the centre, almost
filling its beautiful scarlet cup. It is a pity that tlie
want of leaves slightly detracts from the otherwise perfeci
lceauty of this lily. Not by any means the least among thi
attractions of this delightful garden are the glorious viVew
that it commands over the bay beneath, in which Nwe could
now see the Duntrune,' 'l ed Jacket,' and other sliip
-ling at anchor, as though in a picture, framed by tlie.
branches of the splendid old tulip tree, planted by Captain
Cook.
The Red Jacket' was, when first built, supposed to li
the fastest clipper afloat. Another interesting ship that was
pointed out to us was the 'Erna,' which, some years ago.
was abandoned by her crew off the northern coast of Scotland.
She remained afloat, however, and was seen again later on
off Queenstown; after which nothing was heard of her until
some fortunate fishermen, going further afield-or afloat-
than usual, to earn their daily bread, found her drifting







A QUIJTA.'


about, and towed her, as a derelict, in to Funchal, where she
now does duty as a coal hulk. The Duntrune' is a type of
one of the fast clipper-built ships of the present day; in,
which category the Sunbeam,' though much smaller, may
also fairly be classed.
A short descent took us to Mr. Blandy's 'quinta,' in the
grounds of which we found almost every flower we could think
of, in the fullest bloom and in the greatest profusion: rare
ferns growing as thickly as weeds, and all the trellises covered
with stephanotis, hoya, roses, and heliotrope, diffusing their
sweetest fragrance on the evening air. There are shady walks
all about the garden, and a capital tennis court of concrete,
close by a magnificent Bella-Somibra tree, the huge roots of
which have forced themselves above the ground, while its
branches grow in a perpendicular direction, looking as if they
would soon take root downwards and make a vast tent, like
one of those Indian fig or banyan trees, under which it is said
that an army could encamp.
But it was now growing rapidly
dark; so we had to tear ourselves
reluctantly away and descend to
the hotel, where, after a delicious
evening on the verandah, we were "'
glad to enjoy the luxury of a -
steady bed that does not pitch its '
occupant out unexpectedly, and
the still greater comfort of not
being obliged to wear sea boots, or
to run the risk of stepping into
a gentle wash of six or eight i.....vr xi.:.i ru cNtsA.r
inches of sea water.
Perhaps, before proceeding further with the description of
our stay in Madeira, it may not be out of place to say a few
words as to the history of the island.






HISTORY OF AL4DEIRA.


Mentioned as the Purple or Mauritanian Islands by
Pliny, and supposed to have been colonised by the Phaeni-
cians, nothing really authentic was known of the place until
the time of the famous all-discovering navigator Prince Henry
of Portugal.
An expedition despatched by him in 1418 discovered
Porto Santo, and, a year after, the island which was called
Madeira, from the ilmnense amount of wood and forests
which it contained. Tradition, however, relates that, nearly
a hundred years before, in 1336, an English nobleman,
Rlobert Machimn by name, fell in love with Anna d'Arphlt,
a young lady of higher rank, who returned his affection, but
whose parents would not hear of their marriage. The vyoumi
couple determined to escape from Bristol to France. Thny
chartered a small vessel; encountered rough weather; wen'
driven about by gales; and, after fourteen days' tossing about,
were cast ashore on the Island of Madeira, at a place suble-
quently called Machico, to commemorate the event. The
poor lady succumbed to the hardships of the voyage: hIr
husband died a few days afterwards, and they were both
buried at Machico, where their companions built a smnll
church to the memory of the ill-starred pair. A large ced;lr-
wood cross was also erected a few miles further on at the
place now called Santa Cruz. Some of the crew escaped to
the coast of Africa, only 400 miles distant, where they met a
Portuguese pilot, who subsequently told the story to his royal
master, Prince Henry, and Zargo was in consequence sent on
a voyage of investigation. He unfortunately made use of
his discovery of the Island of Madeira to burn much of the
wood and destroy the splendid forests, some historians assert-
ing that the fires continued to burn for seven years. Zargo
returned to Portugal; and the following year le returned to
take possession of the country, which was entirely unin-
habited. He erected the existing church at Machico, using








FUNCIA L.


as part of his materials the wood of the tree under which
Robert Machim and his wife were originally buried.
Perestrello, one of the first of the explorers who landed at
Porto Santo, had an only daughter, who married Christopher
Columbus, and who appears to have shown her husband
various charts and memoranda relating to her father's
numerous voyages in the Atlantic. These documents first
inspired the great navigator with the idea of searching for a
New World. Columbus lived for many years at Porto Santo,
paying occasional visits to Madeira and Lisbon in the inter-
vals of his long voyages.
In 1508 Funchal was made a city; in 1514 a bishopric;
in 1539 an archbishopric. Then, in 1547, it was reduced to
a bishopric again, and the Archiepiscopal see was removed to
Goa, in India. In 1566 the Island was attacked by a band of
French marauders, who landed from eiglt galleons, doing
much damage, carrying off everything they could lay hands
on, and, for a time, seriously checking the prosperity of the
inhabitants. In 1580, when Portugal became -1P.i..1 to
Spain, Madeira shared the fate of the mother country, until
1640, when Portuguese rule was again restored. In 1768,
Captain Cook, on his way round the world in the 'Endleavour,
battered the fort on the Loo rock, with the assistance of a
British frigate, as a reprisal for some insult to the British
flag. The Government of the day discountenanced the pub-
lication of this not very creditable incident, which is therefore
not recorded in Hawksworth's account of Cook's first voyage.
In 1773, the Marquis de Pombal, the Portuguese minister,
terrified by the number of slaves in Portugal, promulgated a
decree ordering the suppression of slavery, which was pub-
lished at Madeira in 1775. In 1801 the British Government,
as allies of Portugal, sent an army under Colonel Clinton,
to occupy the Island till after the Peace of Amiens, when
Madeira was evacuated by our troops. In 1807 it was
D








FUNCIHAL.


again seized by a British force under General Beresford,
and the inhabitants were made to swear fealty to King George
III. The island was nominally given up in the following
April, but continued to be garrisoned by English troops till
the conclusion of the general peace in 1814. In 1826 Madeira,
like Portugal, was divided against herself by the Miguelite
troubles; but when in 1853 poor Dona MIaria's authority was
definitively established, things in the island assumed a more
peaceable footing. Her untimely death was followed by the
regency of her husband, until the coming of age and acces-
sion to the throne of her son, Dom Pedro ; which event was
celebrated with great rejoicings at Funchal in 1855. Since
then everything has been quiet and peaceful. Long may it
continue so !


THIE I'NIEAVOU '











VA E I Rj

















'V^ '
,^ .. U I:] "] ,

















S' CHAPTER III.

-I D 11\ I .1.
A land of streams Sinome lil a downwarid smoLe,
Slow dropping veils of thinnest lawn, did go ;
SAnld some tliroughl wavering lights, and sliadow biroke,
IlollimiiL a nlitiibrous shect of foam elow.

Thlirsda Octo.br .lih.
W E were to have i-taartld for C;tJio Gilio to Iu inticd
I)';aus'L %;iro anid ls coleompaiionls :v aid to limie
turned back there) at ten o'clock tlis morning; l it thl C
delay in passing ouir saddles tlhroigh the Ciustlomi Iouise
made it much later hcforc we g-t ;i; av mid ouir 1ee(11 i1-








RIBIERO DOS SOCCORRIDOS.


patient steeds were pawing the ground for a long time in front
of the hotel while we waited within. They were all nice little
horses, very fresh after a summer's rest. Such a clatter and
caracoling they made on the hard paved streets, as we at
last set forth on our expedition, each with an attendant bir-
riquicro, or groom! It was not long before we were clear of
the town and got on to a capital soft road, under shady
trees, where we enjoyed a good gallop. Some of the horses
were in the highest spirits, and performed all manner of
antics, kicking and curvetting about at random. The sea
was close on our left; and the views across it were splendid:
especially in the direction of the Gorgulho Fort and Praya
Formosa. Between the two there is a curious hole in the
rock, through which the sea is visible; and in stormy weather
the waves are driven upwards with great violence in a column
of water and spray.
The good road was on far too grand a scale to last long.
It came to an ignominious termination at a bridge over the
Ribiero dos Soccorridos, so called from the fact that two of
Zargo's companions were nearly drowned but were happily
rescued here. The river rises in the mountains of the Grand
Curral; and the view upwards from the bridge is strikingly
fine. Dana says that 'one of the greatest peculiarities of the
mountain scenery of Madeira consists in the jagged outlines
of the ridges, the rude towers and needles of rock that charac-
terise the higher peaks as well as the lower elevations, and
the deep precipitous gorges which intersect the mountains
almost to their bases.' The Ribiero dos Soccorridos was once
a vast stream, on the broad bosom of which the trunks of noble
trees from the pine forests above were floated down to the
coast. The destruction of the forests, unfortunately, involved
the impoverishment of the river; and now nothing remains
but a few comparatively insignificant trees and a rapid moun-
tain torrent.














































I~) ~


JiL


I arulu~looman& c&.







CAMARA DO LOBOS. 37

At this point our 'grand road' having come to an end, by
very precipitous paved mountain-paths, sometimes ascending
and sometimes descending, we reached the little fishing-village
of Camara do Lobos (or 'place of seals'). Here it was that
we had embarked in 1876 after our expedition up the Grand
Curral. To-day we rested in the shady market-place for a
short time to enable men, horses, and dogs to recruit their
strength before making the long steep ascent that lay before
them. It was, indeed, a fearful gradient, and how the eleven
plucky little horses managed to take us all up, puzzles me;
for the weight of some members of the party was considerable.




















There v.-, ;,- -
end for ia LitU _-Lu
their caracoling. As we rose
higher and higher, the cha- P'"IC AT "CArE : ""
racter of the vegetation began
to change entirely and to lose its tropical character. Not far
from a spot where the narrowness of the path compelled us








A MOUNTAIN EXPEDITION.


to dismount, we overtook two men
who were carrying our lunch on their
heads in the picturesque flat-shaped
baskets of the country. It looked a
fearfully heavy load to be conveyed
up these steep hills in such a manner;
but the bearers assured us in answer
to our sympathising inquiries that it
was quite light, and that they were
accustomed to carry 250 or even as
much as 300 pounds weight each
in a similar manner. At the tiny
hamlet where we left our horses the
scenery completely changed, and be-
came quite Scotch in character, but
with little Fijian-looking huts perched
among furze, broom, fir-trees, and
pines. From these primitive dwelling-
places issued a horde of pertinacious
beggars, who greatly interfered with
the pleasure of our long but
delightful walk round one head-
land, through the pine forests,
to the threshing-floor at Cabo
Girao, where we rested and
lunched, with a view on
either side such as
no words could
describe. An odd
place, you will l1
think, for a }'
threshing floor ; '
but corn only
grows on the tops


I.

1'' -








* ..


t '
N,**1


TAIxN II








A iPRECIITO US DESCENT7 39

of the hills in Madeira, and the fields were therefore close at
hand.
A few yards further, and we found ourselves at the verge of
what some have described as the most magnificent headland
in the world,' a straight basaltic wall rising a sheer 2,000
feet from the sea. For most people, the only way really to
enjoy the glorious prospect and to realise its stupendous
character as seen from this dizzy height is to lie down
flat and put their heads over the edge of the cliff, and
there luxuriate to their heart's content in wonder and amaze-
ment. A stone thrown down from the top seems to take
ages, so to speak, to reach the bottom; largo fishing-boats
on the sea beneath look like flies, and everything else is
dwarfed and diminished in similar proportion. On such a
spot Shakespeare's samphire-gatherer recurs naturally to the
mind, and we feel the life-like truthfulness of his description
of Dover cliffs.
At Campanario, about an hour's ride from Cabo GirLo, is
a beautiful chestnut-grove belonging to Count Carvalhal, one
of the trees of which is the giant of the forest, its girth being
more than thirty-five feet. There is a door in the trunk ; and
the hollow within is fitted up as a room, with chairs, tables,
and other furniture. A friend told me he had often played
whist and had even slept in this fine old tree. I am sorry we
had not time to go and see it; but it lay rather out of our
course. By a much more precipitous but less circuitous
route, through more groves of Spanish chestnuts, we reached
the spot where we had left the horses, and quickly remounted.
It had been cool on the heights; but as we rapidly descended
we felt the heat again. The paths, which had seemed steep
enough to ascend, now assumed the aspect of house-walls; so
alarmingly precipitous in fact were they, that several of the
party declined to ride down, trustworthy as the little horses
had hitherto proved themselves to be. Personally, I always







40 A CHILD'S FUNERAL.

prefer being on a horse's back to relying on my own legs
under similar, or, I might almost say, under any circtun-
stances; and in the present instance my confidence was
not misplaced, for I reached the bottom without a single
stumble.
After another brief halt at Camara do Lobos, we paid
a visit to the beach, with its picturesque boats loading and
unloading in the evidently volcanic-made harbour. Then
another scramble up and down the stony paths brought
us once more to the bridge and the good road already
referred to.
As we were leaving the village we met the funeral of a
poor little dead child all shrouded in white lace, with its


CIILD'b IFNERAL


tiny wax-like hands clasped on its breast: the afternoon sun
shining on its golden hair. It was being carried on a little
bier to its last resting-place by four children, probably its


:; r-';
PI~~'
L:i~








GIG ANTIC CAflELLL4- TREES.


playmates of yesterday. In these hot climates delay in the
interment of the dead is obviously inadvisable. Some of these
days, perhaps, we may realise the fact that the health of the
living is imperilled by the length of time during which we,
alone among the nations of Europe, keep above ground the
remains of those whom we love.
A sharp canter in the now cool sea-breeze completed
our excursion, and we re-entered Funchal just before seven
o'clock.
Friday, October 5th.-After a quiet morning, we started
at noon, some riding, some in hammocks, through the steep
streets of the town, mounting fast into the purer cooler air
on our way to the Palheiro, where Mr. Elwes had invited us
to lunch. On and on we went, rising higher and higher,
the views becoming more enchanting at every step, as we
looked back upon the bay below over the picturesque train
of hammock-men marching cheerily up the steep ascent.
Gradually we reached the region of pines and fir-trees, like
those we had seen yesterday. The Palheiro itself boasts the
most splendid grove of stone-pines in the island; besides
Portugal laurels over forty feet high, and camellia-trees of
equally gigantic proportions. A story is told of some one
making an excursion to see these famous camellias and
returning much disappointed .at having failed to discover
them. He was induced to pay a second visit to the spot, and
was much surprised, on being told by his friends to look up-
wards, to find a huge canopy of large scarlet and white
blossoms, between forty and fifty feet over head. It was
here that we had our first sight of the pink Belladonna
lilies, growing in all their glory. These beautiful plants
are a species of Amaryllis, named by some poetical Italian
Belladonna, because the tints of red, pink and white are
so delicately blended in their petals that they are supposed
to resemble the complexion of a lovely woman. They should








A PICNIC AMID STONE-PINES.


not be confounded, as is often the case, with the Atropa
belladonna, or deadly nightshade. Here they grow like weeds,
great masses of
bulbs throwing up
-.--/' many stalks with
A t s clusters of four
or five large pink
flowers on eah.

Sa E p a ed a e from a ou
o th e l d ay i the brown fir-
spines, beneath
Sb a w the shade of a
magnificent roive
of stone-pines, they reminded me somewhat of the datfflils
in an English park, and produced an effect which struck our
unaccustomed eyes as most remarkable. Our picnic table was
decorated with these lilies, displayed in two large dark-bl!ue
china bowls, and with an abundance of many-hued fruits,
which are in plenty here just now, to say nothing of more
substantial fare, which, spread on the white cloth, formed a
highly picturesque and not at all an unpleasant spectacle, alter
our long climb. Mr. Elwes had invited some of our old friends
to meet us ; and we were soon seated in little groups, chatting
away with our backs against the pine-trees, and discussing
the good things provided for us; occasionally pausing in that
interesting occupation to look upwards at the green, needle-
covered branches, interlaced above our heads against the dark
blue sky; or far ahead, where the spaces between the moss-
covered stems afforded glimpses of the sea, with the Desertas
and Porto Santo in one direction and the Bay of Funchal,
with its varied shipping, in another.
From the Palheiro we went across to the Little Curral or
Curral dos Romeiros, a replica, on a somewhat smaller scale,








AMOUNT CHURCH.


of the Grand Curral, or Curral das Freiras. The scenery is
splendid, consisting of abrupt precipices, richly wooded hills
and crags, rushing waters, and a paradise of ferns and mosses.
To-day, owing to the rain, the road was bad; and in spite of
the cleverness and agility of our bearers, we were a long time
getting to the Mount Church. This is usually the first object
of interest that every visitor to the island is taken to see:
its two white towers being visible from every part of the city
of Funchal. It is a church much venerated by the islanders;
and to Nossa Senhora do Monte are attributed many bene-
ficent miracles. Once in particular, when the island was
threatened with famine, a general procession of the inhabitants
repaired to the Mount and prostrated themselves in prayer
before the altar. The next day a ship laden with grain arrived
in the harbour ; while the image of the Virgin in the church
was found to be dripping with moisture. Some people went
so far as to say they had seen the Madonna gracefully swim-
ming ahead of the ship, towing her in with a cable between
her teeth, there being no breeze blowing at the time. As a
rule there is not much to see in the Mount Church; but it
happened this morning that an interesting function' was
being solemnised in one of the side chapels.
Not far from the church is the Monte Quinta, one of the
most delightful in all Madeira, the residence of Mr. Cossart.
Not only are the vegetation by which it is surrounded rare
and beautiful and the grounds tastefully laid out, but a
running stream of water on the very summit of this high
hill has been diverted into ponds and lakes, on which float
quite a flotilla of small craft. The effect of the setting sun
reflected in these miniature pools, and of the view beyond
them over the Pay of Funclal to Cabo Girto and the bound-
less ocean, is nobly impressive. Another open-air entertain-
ment had here been hospitably provided for us. The tea,
fruit, and cakes on the small tables, scattered about under the








44 A CARRO RIDE.

trees and illumined after the sun had gone down by numerous
little lamps, looked quite as picturesque as our mid-day picnic
had done. The house itself is charming, but in this soft
climate one
thinks perhaps
4 ; -,- less about the
interior of one's
Habitation than
So'f the grounds
'attached to it.
SFrom the
Mount we de-
I Isceneided into
Funchal in an-
other variety
of Madeira con-
Seyanee tilhe
-- (rrO, O ru-ll
Sing-sledge. In
these sledges,
A Hlr RlilY 1u made of ias;ct
work, fixed on
runners, and skilfully guided by one or two men, you glide
down the steep paved hill into Funchal in a very short time.
I was anxious that our friends' first experience of this mode of
conveyance should be gained in the dark ; for the sensation
of rushing through the balmy evening air, apparently down a
steep place into the sea, is to me enchanting; though people
afflicted with nerves' might not altogether appreciate the
enebhantnment. You cannot see whithe1 r you are going; and
it seems to be a vast abyss of obscurity into which you are
plunging. Sometimes the road so completely overhangs the
town of Funchal that it quite disappears from view, and you
only see beneath you the bay, with the twinkling lights of the








AN UNPLEASANT POSSIBILITY


ships at anchor. By day, or in fact at any time, a carro ride
is full of enjoyment; but, if possible, by all means let your
first expedition be made in the dark.
On the present occasion the fascinating amusement unfor-
tunately made us rather late for dinner; for we found Miss
Blandy already waiting for us; and her father arrived almost
as soon as we did. Tom, as usual, went off after dinner to
sleep on board the yacht, in case anything should go wrong in
the night. I and the children accompanied him to-night, so
as to be ready for our early start for Rabacal in the morning.
There are no real harbours in Madeinraonly open road-
steads; so that if a gale springs up there is nothing for it but
to up anchor and put to sea. The unpleasant possibility that
the wind might change, and
that the yacht might have to
make a run for it suddenly at
any time, was therefore always
present to our minds during
our stay in the island.
Saturday, October 6.-There ,
seemed to be a general impres-
sion in the minds of those to
whom we spoke on the subject
that our proposed expedition of
to-day to Rabaeal and back
was rather a formidable un- 1
dertaking. The waiter of the
hotel gravely assured me that
it was impossible to accomplish A .
the journey in less than two or
more-probably three-days. ;EA: u TiP OPT
Not knowing much about the
matter ourselves, it was useless to dispute this opinion; and
we accordingly gave way to what appeared to us a somewhat







HAMMOCK-BEARERS.


unreasonable prejudice in favour of a very early start. Forty
hammock-men with twelve hammocks arrived on board at
3 A.M. to a moment, creeping about the deck like mice, for
fear they should disturb us. Their hats were all tied on
firmly with handkerchiefs, as if they expected to encounter
a terrific gale directly they set foot on the yacht. It must
therefore have been with a great sense of relief that, finding
there was absolutely not a breath of wind blowing, they untied
their handkerchiefs again, curled themselves up under the
bulwarks, and went fast asleep. Soon after five, with com-
mendable punctuality, our party of friends from the shore
arrived; and immediately after they had embarked we got up
steam and proceeded along the beautiful coast, past Camara
do Lobos and Cabo Girto, to Calheta.
As soon as we were fairly under way I caused to be served
out from the forecastle to each of the hammock-bearers a
large cup of hot coffee, two or three biscuits, and, last, but
not by any means least in their estimation I think, a small
glass of spirits. This unexpected meal was a pleasant surprise
to them, and one which they much appreciated. Even more
were they delighted by being taken all round the yacht and
shown the various cabins and the objects of interest brought
from all parts of the world. I did my best to explain all
about them in bad Spanish, which I hoped might pass muster
as inferior Portuguese, especially as I managed to introduce
a few words of the latter language. Their gratitude for the
very small amount of trouble which I had taken was un-
bounded: their thanks in some cases being quite touchingly
expressed : That Nossa Senhora may bless the lady and all
belonging to her!' that all the lady's shadow falls on may
prosper and so forth.
We reached the pretty little Bay of Calheta at seven, and
at once embarked in native boats for the shore. The same
system of landing is used here as at Funchal; but the beach








LANDING AT CALHETA.


being steeper, the boulders bigger, and the breakers larger,
more care and caution have to be exercised; and the ope-
ration takes
more time.
A man swam
out with a .
rope in his
teeth; and I IL
got hold of ,.
it, while he
propped him-
self against
the side of the
boat, fastened
the rope, and
after waiting
what appeared
to be a considerable interval for a suitable opportunity,
towed us gently in on the crest of a very big wave, to the
wooden rollers on the beach, just as the beachmen had
done at Funchal. It was very hot on landing; but we at
once got into our hammocks and were carried gaily by the
trotting bearers, upwards always upwards, into a cooler air.
After about half an hour's steady climb the men stopped
and rested, close to a picturesque water-mill, the conduit-
pipe of which was formed by the hollow trunk of a tree.
This was the first water-mill we had been able to observe
closely, though such buildings are numerous all over the
-island. A little way further on the sea began to disappear,
and we got into a region of clouds, which speedily turned
to rain and threatened to drench us completely, in spite
of tle fair promise of the morning. We crossed a large
moor, quite Scotch in appearance, and with watercresses
growing in the little mountain streams: the only unfamiliar








48 A LEVADA.

feature in the landscape being the numerous centipedes that
crawled, and the locusts that jumped, about our feet. Soon
afterwards another change of scene awaited us. The ex-
quisitely fern-fringed mouth of what looked like a dark cavern
in front of us, was really the entrance to the tunnel which
pierces the central mountain range, and through which the
greater part of the water-supply is conveyed in levadas, or
stone water-courses, from the north side of the island, where
it is almost always raining, to the south, where comparatively
little rain falls. Our progress through the tunnel was curiously
interesting. The ferns of course vanished when we were
twenty yards from the entrance; and it became pitch dark,
except for the glaring smoky light of bunches of twigs dipped
in some resinous compound, which made those who carried
these primitive torches
look singularly weird,
as they ran along on
the edge of the levada,
with its swiftly flowing
current of clear water
beneath them. Arrived
at the other end, what
a change met our as-
tonished gaze! The
passage through the
tunnel had been like
the touch of a magi-
cian's wand. From
the barren moor, we
had emerged into a
WAT.ER-MILL sort of semi-tropical
Killarney, rain and all,
with abrupt precipices and tree-clothed crags on all sides,
and ferns and mosses everywhere. I could have spent the








A SEMI-TROPICAL KILLARNEY.


whole day in any one spot examining and collecting the
mosses and ferns with pleasure and profit. The heaths (Erica)











LIABACA LJ .


were twenty or thirty feet high, and seven or eight feet in
circumference, and there were innumerable laurustinus, Por-
tugal laurels, daphnes, lily-of-the-valley trees, and tils, clothed
from head to foot in a fairy-like drapery of hare's-foot fern.
And the walls of the lcradas; what rare studies of nature
they offered One forgot all sense of danger in gazing on
the varied loveliness of the scene; although the heavy rain
marred to some extent our perfect enjoyment of the spectacle.
Without the downpour, however, we should have lost the
grand effects of the mists rolling up the valley, sometimes
completely hiding, oftener only partially enshrouding, the
mountain tops. The path along the Icrada, picturesque though
it otherwise was, was narrow and slippery, having only a width
of one brick for the men to walk on, with often a sheer preci-
pice on one side, hundreds of feet deep, over which the ham-
mock hung perilously when the bearers turned a sharp corner.
Sir Roger was in the highest possible spirits; and having once
tumbled off the narrow one-brick path of duty into the lerada,
where he had a nice swim in the beautiful clear water, he
must needs gambol about to dry himself and tumble over on
the other side, luckily where the precipice was not very
E








50 THE COMMISSIONER'S HOUSE.

steep. In his descent he stuck first in a great heath-tree,
then in a til-tree, then in some creepers, and so on; until,
quite unhurt, though uttering piteous cries for help, he
landed on his feet at the bottom, and managed with many
joyous barks to find his way up by the bank a little
further on.
The rain seemed to fall more and more heavily; and we
were not sorry to find the house of one of the Commissioners
of Works (to whom we had a letter of introduction) come
in sight, on the other side of the steep ravine, up a sharp
ascent. We were hospitably received by our host; our drenched
clothes were taken to be dried, and a room was given to us in
which to spread our lunch. Some cups of Silver's excellent
preserved soups, which carry their own fuel attached to each
tin and require nothing but the:ap-
plication of a match, were much
appreciated; for it was quite cold
up here. Afterwards the bulk of
the party decided to return at once;
but four of our number preferred,
in spite of the deplorable weather,
to go on to see the Vinte-cinco
Fontes, or Twenty-five Fountains.
We accordingly borrowed some
blankets of the good-natured
manager, in which we rolled
ourselves, leaving our still wet
clothes to finish drying, and,
accompanied by our
host, proceeded down
one of the most
beautiful, but at the
same time the very '
worst, roads it has







VINTE/-CINCO FONTES.


ever been my fortune to travel. In places it had been com-
pletely washed away by the rain; and how ever our bearers
managed to carry us along with-
out letting us roll over the side of
L i- the precipice is a mystery to me.
S Sometimes, too, they had to walk

lierada, itself. I never thought of
Sta, nger at the time, there was so
Such to distract my attention,
*,1 4 though I suppose it was really
a somewhat hazardous expedi-
tion; but the beauty of the
scenery atoned for all the peril
j incurred. The Twenty five
Fountains (which quite realise
.. : the idea which we had formed
of them from description) con-
S sist in reality of one high
waterfall, tumbling over a
,7. perpendicular precipice, and
.in places almost hidden by
the luxuriant growth of
tree and other ferns, amid
which little water-spouts
spurt and jet out in every
-'direction. I counted
thirty instead of twenty-
five fountains '; and
there were numberless small ones besides. One could
almost have believed it to be as artificial as the grandes caux
at Versailles; but then came the reassuring consciousness
that it was too beautiful to be anything but Dame Nature's
handiwork. What would it have been, I wondered, on a








DESCENT FROM RABACAL.


warm, bright, sunny day ? As it was, I felt almost as though
the scene were too enchanting to be real-that I was in
a dream, and should presently see fairy elves start from
under every fern and begin their gambols by the bank
of the dark deep silent pool, close to which was a cave that
would have formed a fit resting-place for the Queen of the
Fairies herself:-the entrance fringed and the roof canopied
with hare's-foot fern, polystichunm, and other ferns, rare to
us; the floor a carpet of soft springy hyntenophylliun and
trichomanes of various sorts.
From this spot we went along another lecada to the
great Risco fountain, a straight waterfall, rushing over a
sheer precipice, whence a steep, almost perpendicular climb,
took us again to the house. We packed up the remains
of the lunch; and, still enveloped in the welcome blankets
which the manager insisted on our taking with us-for it
was really cold and we were very wet-we made a start down-
wards by another route and through a different tunnel in the
rock.
Directly we emerged on the south side, the weather and
temperature completely changed; the rain had ceased; the
sun was shining brightly; and we were only too glad to get
rid of all the wraps for which we had been so thankful a short
hour ago.
The extent to which the temperature varies as you mount
or descend a few hundred feet, especially if you get at all
to the northward of the central range of mountains, makes
long excursions in Madeira somewhat dangerous for invalids,
unless provided with plenty of warm coverings. I suppose in
the present instance there must have been twice in the course
of our upward and downward journey a difference of from
20 to 25 degrees. Our bearers descended at a tremendous
pace; and in an hour and twenty-five minutes from the time
of leaving the refuge at Rabagal we were on board the







BIRTHDA Y PRESENTS.


boat on our way to the yacht, and were soon after steaming
away towards Funchal. The hammock-men had served
out to them
the good tea
w which they















THE FAIRIES' CAVE.


thoroughly deserved, and certainly appreciated; and when
they left the ship, directly we arrived at our destination, they
invoked many blessings on our heads, in the most charming
-old-fashioned-sounding phraseology.
Sunday, October 7.-My birthday. Arriving at the hotel, I
-found a table covered with letters and slips of paper bearing
-good wishes, and with a charming little selection of offerings,
principally of native manufacture, and mostly purchased in
the market the same morning. Among them was an orna-
mental and convenient picnic-basket, arranged in three tiers,
from Mufie; two basket-work models of a hammock and a
sledge from Baby, a pretty hat-shaped basket full of scarlet
hibiscus and white datura, a curiously shaped bottle-gourd for
carrying water, a charming little sketch from Mr. Pritchett,
and numberless bouquets.








54 ENGLISH CHURCH.

We went to the English church, where Mr. Addison offici-
ates; a curious building, Ionic in style, and on the whole
not ugly; but rather more like a theatre than a church: a
resemblance no doubt due to the fact that in S8Io, when
the edifice was begun, the Portuguese Government would not
allow any building of ecclesiastical form to be erected in
the king's dominions, except for the purposes of Roman
Catholic worship. The church was built partly by volun-
tary subscriptions, and partly by means of a tax levied by
the English merchants themselves on every pipe of their
wine that left the port. It cost Io,oool., which seems an
almost incredibly large sum for such an edifice, and was not
finished (I suppose in consequence of the enormous expense)
until 1822. The service was well conducted; the organ
good; but the congregation scanty. In the afternoon I am
afraid that it must generally be smaller still; for the clergy-
man announced
that he should
have to give up
the afternoon
services for the
Present, until he
could depend on
S the attendance
S of a sufficient
number to form
a congregation.
I could not help
thinking of the
OLD FroT story, possibly
apocryphal, of
Dean Swift, in a country church in Ireland, where a congre-
gation had wholly failed to put in an appearance, addressing
the clerk beneath him as 'Dearly beloved Peter.' From the







CA Al/ CHO.


church we went to the cemetery. It is somewhat crowded;
but on the whole is well kept. Some of the graves were
simply covered with wreaths and shoots and twining tendrils
of stephanotis, with its bright shining leaves and clusters of
pure white fragrant flowers, or the equally sweet and beau-
tiful clusters of thick pink fleshy blooms of the IIoya carnosa.
Leaving the cemetery, we started for Camacho, to lunch with
the Hintons. Upward and upward we went, along the same
steep road that we had travelled over yesterday; past the
Palheiro, and still excelsior,' till we got among the clouds
and encountered something disagreeably -i.2-. -ftve of a
deluge of rain. Consequently, when we arrived at the house
of our hosts, we were literally dripping and half-drowned,
and only too glad to see a bright blazing fire on the hearth:
a sight that would have been anything but agreeable in
Funchal.
In the afternoon, notwithstanding the still pouring rain, we
paddled out under umbrellas to admire the view, but more
especially to see the glorious clumps of belladonna lilies
which grow in such profusion as to give quite a roseate colour
to the landscape. Beautiful as they are in the distance, they
are still more so when closely examined: their deep chocolate-
hued stems and buds graduating to dark, then pale crimson,
pink, and white, in the most exquisite shades of colour.
Delicate and fragile as they look, they have yet plenty of
'persistent force' and 'determined strength' of their own;
many of them having gently pushed their soft brown buds
and pink flowers through the hard paved road, only to be
trampled down by the feet of the hammock-men and the
hoofs of the horses.
Miss Taylor, an old resident in Madeira, who has kindly
given us much useful information, came in to four o'clock
tea, with several other friends; and soon afterwards we
started on our return journey by a totally different but








56 ENGLISH CHURCH

equally picturesque route, by Aguas Mansas, Pico d' Abobora,
and Pico da Silva, to Caminho do Meio, where we met the
' carros' and had a rapid run down the Rocket road into
Funchal.











Y~t~c`h5Ei[R


( IHA 'TEl: IV.


Monday, October 8th.
I HE weather for the last few days has been unfavorable
for expeditions to the northern side of the island; but
our time being limited, we decided that we must go to-day
or not at all.
At four o'clock this morning the aspect of matters verged
on the hopeless. Heavy black clouds shrouded the hills to
the northward; and the sailors predicted a thorough wet day.
Still, provided with plenty of rugs and mackintoshes, with
which to line and cover the hammocks, we determined to
make a start. There was some delay about the baggage-
mules ; but we managed to get away from the hotel soon
after seven o'clock-the whole party being in hammocks on
this occasion--and were carried up the steep streets till we
F







58 QUINTA DA VIS.

met Dr. Grabham, who had offered to accompany us during
the first part of our journey, in order to show us all the
points of interest by the way.
Our first halt was made at the Quinta Davis, which is
often occupied as a winter residence, and which must be a
charming place to live in. The shrubs, trees, and flowers
of all kinds, especially the camellias, are magnificent. The
grounds also contain some fine cork-trees, besides a quaint
old dragon-tree, and many other interesting objects. But
what caught my eye at once, and was to my mind by far the
most beautiful thing in the garden, was a brilliant red tac-
sonia, that had
climbed up an
evergreen oak
S '. T .' ,! to the height
of about forty
feet, whence its
I ,~ 'F luxuriant green
tendrils and
Sbuds and scar-
let flowershung
Down till they
mingled with
the creamy
_C white feathery
plumes of a
clump of giant
pampas grass,
eighteen feet
high, spread-
ing gracefully,
--- like a foun-
tain, over the
lawn.







POIZO PEAK. 59

Shortly after
leaving the Quinta
we crossed a kind -'--:--
of moorland, and ,.B ,
climbed higher and. :
higher, until as usual .
we got among the '
rain-clouds, where, '
but for our coverings,
we should at once
have been drenched
by the violence of
an almost tropical shower.
As it was, the rain reduced -
our poor bearers, in their thin
clothing, to the similitude of drowned .'
rats, and even partially penetrated the
numerous wraps and coverings with which
we had provided ourselves. When we reached
the Poizo peak, the height of which is vari- cArr-o
ously estimated at from 4,000 to 4,500 feet,
we decided to take advantage of the shelter afforded by
a spacious room, with an enormous fire-place in it, to rest,
dry and refresh ourselves. It was only eleven o'clock; but
we thought that the weather might perhaps show some
signs of improvement during the interval. The room soon
assumed a bright and cheerful aspect, greatly enhanced by
the now blazing fire, which two peasants fed lavishly with
huge faggots of heath and whortleberry. At noon the rain
ceased, the sun burst forth, and we had a delightful ride
down the northern valley. Capitao, a majestic rock, the
Pico d'Assounna, and Pico Ruivo, were dimly visible through
fine driving clouds of mist; while at our feet, and on
every side, the vegetation was in glorious variety. The
F2








60 RIBIERO FRIO.


til-tnltS t .., gra--4l iv
d rapeld in fvrus.
specially com-
manded admiration. At one spot, where a tiny waterfall
found its way into the river be-
neath, the figure of a peasant-
woman wearing a bright-coloured
petticoat and handkerchief, over
a white body,
half hidden







BALCAO. 61

among taro leaves, sugar-canes and ferns of all sorts, and
busily engaged in washing clothes, made quite a pretty little
picture.
A short distance further on we came to the Ribiero Frio,
where we had intended to lunch; but there was no shelter,
and we therefore only rested long enough to observe another
of the picturesque mills of the
country. On the other side of the
bridge crossing the stream, and
comfortably seated on the eight-
inch wide door- step of a cottage
with shut door, was an urchin
of two or three years, uncon-
cernedly munch- ing a banana.
A wretched little speci-
men of hu- vanity fle
was, though not at all de-
formed, and apparently
quite bright and satisfied
with himself. Not another
soul was in sight; and I
could almost have ima-
gined that the brat was
the sole in- habitant of
the tiny vil- large.
From the Ribiero Frio
a short but almost per-
pendicular scramble (the rocks up which General Wolfe's
grenadiers marched at Quebec were, you will remember,
'quite perpendicular') brought us to the Balcio, whence
we had a much nearer and more splendid view of the
mountain peaks already named: Pico Ruivo standing out
boldly through the clouds of driving mist, now disclosing,
now concealing entirely its sharp crenellated summits. Some







62 LEVADA DE .METADE.

of the party in the meantime followed the course of the
Levada de Metade, one of the most beautiful in Madeira,
which winds along the face of the precipices.
As the writer of one of the many books A


I have read about Madeira truly says,
'the walk is one that requires a good
head and strong legs; for the way is
long, the path narrow and slippery,
and the precipices steep.' Some of our
party returned quite wet through from
having slipped into the levada, though
fortunately none had fallen over the
precipices.


AMriHERLESS IuIIIuS


A rapid descent down a good road brought us to Santa
Anna. There was a gentle monotony about the journey that
was highly conducive to
slumber, especially after our

since 3-30), and all the ex-
citement of the morning. To
the feeling thus in-
duced I yielded, until
I was unexpectedly
aroused by a sudden
shock, to find that we
had come into violent
collision with an ob-
durate cow which
blocked the way; that
my hammock over-
NEAR RIBIERO FRIO hung the precipice;
and that the bearers
were clinging desperately to their companions and to what-
ever else they could clutch; while the peasant proprietors of







A STARTLING INCIDENT. 63

the cow tugged at her horns, apparently without much effect.
Ultimately we got out of the dilemma (though I cannot easily
tell how) without the terrible catastrophe occurring which at
one time appeared almost inevitable. As soon as I had re-
covered from the excitement caused by the encounter with
the cow, I began to rub my eyes and to look about me. The
whole character of the vegetation had changed. Fuchsia
and hydrangea hedges, with pink belladonna and blue agap-
anthus lilies abounded; and the evidences of a warmer
temperature than that of the heights we had just crossed
were numerous. In many places, especially near the cot-
tages, we were rather puzzled to see trees bearing what at
first looked like huge crops of tallow candles, but which
proved, on closer inspection, to be
only pods of Indian corn, stripped of
their husks, and hung out to ripen
and dry in the sun. The
effect produced is peculiar, /
especially in the dusk and
from a distance.
Santa Anna, on
the northern
coast, where we
had now ar-
rived, seemed
a nice little vil-
lage; and we
were none of us
sorry to reach
the excellent .
hotel, kept by
Senhor Luiz
Acciaioli, a gentleman of some property in these parts, who
speaks French fluently, and by whom we were cordially








HOTEL AT SANTA ANNA.


received. The rooms, though limited in number, were fairly
clean: nearly all of them commanding extensive views in one
direction or another. From the
large sitting-room one could look out
on three sides, either up or down
the coast, or into a garden literally
crammed with flowers of every sort
and description. The view from one
window of this apartment, and also
from my bedroom, right away to-
wards St. Jorge, including a glimpse
of the arched rock near the fossil-
bed, was specially fine.
Our party being so large, we had
thought it prudent to bring both
tents and beds with us. The former
were not required; but the latter
were highly useful. The dining-
room of the establishment was fairly .HE LOCAL BANANA
well furnished with plate, china,
and glass; but if we had not brought our head-steward,
second-cook, and some stores from the yacht, I fear we
should have been but poorly off for food: the hotel re-
sources, as I ascertained by personal inquiry in the kitchen,
being limited to eggs. The kitchen was a curious old arched
place with a large fireplace and chimney-corner, occupied by
our host and a rather good-looking girl--his daughter-in-law
I imagine-with a very pretty plump baby, whose fat legs
(gigots, as they called them) both grandfather and mother
were never tired of exhibiting. We tried to make our rooms
look homelike, and the dinner-table gay with the flowers
which we had gathered on the road, and then enjoyed a
very cheery dinner, the menu of which-as a specimen of
what may be done under somewhat unfavourable conditions








S'A "iADEIRA MENU.


for the exercise of the culinary art-may perhaps be found
interesting.



SANTA ANNA, MADEIRA.


MENU DU 8 OCTOBRE.

Potage queue de bcunf 4 la Pico Ruivo.
Cdtelettes de veau 4 la Ribeiro Frio.
Bceuf r6ti d la Sunbeam.
Mais d la Santa Anna.
Pommes de terre d la Camacha.
Oignons d la Bella-donna.
Poulet d la Cabo Girdo.
Pouding d l'inconnue.
Comp6te de fraises d la Norham Castle.
Sardines d la cdleste.
Dessert assorti.


After dinner we adjourned to the big sitting-room and
were further regaled with some delightful music, which Mr.
Boissier managed to extract from the most antiquated-looking
of old pianos. Under his skilful manipulation the instru-
ment sounded more like an old-time spinet than a dilapidated
but comparatively modern instrument; and to songs judi-
ciously selected it made a most pleasing and appropriate
accompaniment. There were plenty of books to read and
pictures to look at, so that a few days' wet weather spent
here need not be so very terrible. Our fifty hammock-men
and carriers, made happy by the gift of a shilling each, we
dismissed to find what quarters they could in the village,
there being neither room nor food for them in the inn.








65 SIR ROGER AND THE PEACE

Tuesday, October 9th. The twenty-
third anniversary of our wedding day was
ushered in by the performance of Men-
delssohn's Wedding March' on the spinet-


like instrument before men-
tioned. I was awake long
before daylight and saw the
dawn break and the sun
rise from behind the cliffs
and mountains to the east-
ward. In the bright garden
beyond the verandah were
several peacocks, with one
of which Sir Roger had a
most amusing encounter.
Startled at suddenly meet-
ing a bird the like of
which he had pro-
bably never ,
seen be- Y ,
fore, he
fled, .[ /


nnuch de-
moralised; lbut
a moment's rcflec-
tion convincing him
that his conduct as a
poodle-and a black one
too-had been wanting in
dignity, he returned, and,
attacking the peacock in
the rear, plucked just one
feather from his tail. The
indignant and outraged bird
thereupon hopped up into a
pear-tree close to my win-
dow; and during the whole
time I was dressing, the


7OCK.


r


I
;C

"
L .5 iiLIF)-
r .
-
`*
:~-%

V re



;: ~L~~
'i/
:;r


$1I~In --
i~Z







SPINNING.


*I lho-tih cr.natu rs carried o1n v( hat al'l:,I-ared
to I.,v a mutth i'e c'itro-rsy of c on-iid-rable
acrimony: the peacock safely perched in the
pear-tree, Sir Roger on his hind legs, with
his head resting on the window-sill.
It was intensely hot when we started at nine o'clock; but
we soon got into shady lanes, and the road was so interesting
that it did not seem long. We passed a little cottage where
a woman was spinning at a wheel, and not much further on
a girl spinning in the old-fashioned and graceful way with a
distaff. At Fayal the church is remarkable, not only for its
peculiar style of architecture, but for its situation, imbedded
as it seems to be in vegetation of all kinds:-the village itself
being in a fertile sheltered valley where many sugar-canes
grow; whereas at Santa Anna there are none. The culti-
vation of sugar is an important factor in the prosperity of
Madeira: a fact which seems to have been fully recognized
by the merchants of Funchal, the arms of which city consist








68 HAMMOCK DECORATIONS.

of five sugar-loaves. On our way we had an admirable
prospect of the Penha d'Aguia, 1,900 feet high, standing
out in bold isolation. Our hammock-men had this morning
each brought us a bouquet, made up according to their
several tastes and inclinations; and you may therefore
imagine how gaily our hammocks were decorated. In fact, we
appeared to be reposing on beds of flowers, the space above
our heads and below our feet being filled up with floral
trophies. The bearers had taken special pains to decorate my
hammock, and had suspended from the poles bunches of
grapes, Indian corn, apples, and lilies, collected on the road.
Before reaching
Porto da Cruz we
halted for some time
under the vine-
covered trellis of a
small inn, while our
men rested and ex-
changed gossip with
the peasants return-
ing from the great
annual festival which
was held at Machico
yesterday. It is
supposed to be the
anniversary of the
day when Machim
landed; and on the
present occasion the
c holiday was observed
FAYAL with special solem-
nity, the Bishop
having come down to honour it with
his presence. From the descriptions








A FESTA. 69

which I heard, the procession of figures and images by moon-
light must have been very curious and interesting. We saw
the Bishop on the road yesterday in gorgeous array of scarlet
and lace. Most of the peasants who now passed us were sing-
ing or playing on the native instrument, the machete, which is
something between a hand-violin, a guitar, and a banjo, and
which gives forth somewhat sweet little tones when skilfully
played. The women were mostly dressed in orange and red
petticoats, with white bodices, and some sort of dark jacket
or spencer, and had orange-coloured handkerchiefs bound
round their heads. All, without exception, men, women, and
children, bore strings of small objects round their necks-
most frequently sacred cakes, or curious little images of Nossa
Senhora de Machicos, made in pastry or bread, which they


IIBEflO llIO


were taking home to those who, less fortunate than them-
selves, had not been able to attend the fiesta. Others carried







70 TAKING COALS TO NEIWCASTLE.


/iA


dried fish of anything but pleasant aspect,
calabashes of water, bread, cakes, dried
plums, and figs--all of which last seemed
rather superfluous and like taking coals
to Newcastle; for I should have thought
that nearly every peasant must have had a
fig-tree of his own, and that fruit must be
more plentiful in the country than in the
town, whence they were bringing them.
From Porto da Cruz to Lamaceiros
,' the road was steep, with luxuriant vege-
tation in all the watercourses on either
side, caladiums and ferns growing in the
wildest profusion. When we reached the
summit, and our bearers turned to allow
us to enjoy the view, it was indeed a magnificent panorama







VOLCANO OF LAGOA. 71

that opened before us-the finest in all Madeira, some people
say.














PENHA D'AGUIA

At Lamaceiros we met a messenger from Mr. Blandy,
bringing a note to tell us that he could not possibly meet us,
as he had been trying to emulate a certain distinguished
statesman's skill in felling trees, and had unfortunately
chopped a piece out of his own leg instead. A tolerably
long walk brought us to his house at Santo Antonio da
Serra, 1,500 feet above Santa Cruz, where he and Mrs.
Blandy met us in an avenue of blue hydrangeas, the adjoin-
ing garden being filled with blue agapanthus, pink bella-
donna-lilies and other flowers. The house itself is a very
cosy little place, and the views from the garden are superb.
After a short rest Mr. Alfred Blandy volunteered to show us
the now extinct crater of the volcano of Lagoa, of which not
much remains to be seen. After struggling for about a
quarter of a mile through very wet whortleberry and bilberry
bushes, bearing some of the largest fruit I ever saw, all that
was visible of the promised crater was a deep round depression
in the ground covered with the same whortle and bilberry
bushes, and with a little water at the bottom. Mr. Seymour








72 MA CHICO.

Haden considered it doubtful whether it was a crater at all;
and I shared his doubts.
Our return journey after leaving the Quinta was by a steep
and slippery road, and many and great were the falls thereon.
On the way we met more peasants coming from the festa,
walking in single file, playing the machete, dancing and singing,
and decorated with flowers and strings of edibles, like those
we had previously seen. We passed through the pretty little
town of Machico, of which naturally we could not observe
much in the dark gloaming; and after a little delay and some
difficulty we succeeded in getting a shore boat to take us off
to the yacht, which Tom had brought round from Funchal in
the course of the day, and which was lying some way out,
gently rocking in great desire to pass
the evening the night on board
breeze. Our the Sunbeam;'
little army but we grace-
of hammock- fully declined
men and por- to accept them
ters expressed as guests, and
through their having retained
head man a the services of
four bearers for
the morrow, we
dismissed the re-
mainder.





77-,








CANICAL.


Late in the evening we sent up some rather good rockets
which we happened to have on board, and illuminated the
vessel with blue lights, in honour of our wedding day. I
fancy the exhibition gave great delight on shore, judging from
the shouts and cries which we heard; although we were
afterwards told that the inhabitants were greatly puzzled by
the spectacle, thinking indeed that it might be some sort of
supernatural visitation on the part of the Saint, who had
arrived the day or rather the night after his own festa -in
fact 'the day after the fair,' in more senses than one. The
night was exquisite in this peaceful bay; and one could well
realise the feelings of joy and exultation that must have been
experienced by the first discoverers of this lovely island.
About nine o'clock the next morning we got up steam,
and proceeded along the coast to Canigal (or rather just
beyond that place); where we landed at a sort of natural
pier, formed by large stones jutting out into the sea, just
beneath the white church of Nossa Senhora da Piedade, which
is perched on the little conical hill that had served us as a
landmark. The water was so clear that as we landed in
the cutter, although we had six feet under us, it seemed as
though we were on the point of running aground. The
bearers whom we had retained were waiting for us; and,
some of us on foot, some in hammocks, we quickly traversed
the barren little neck of land and commenced the ascent to the
higher ground. A most fascinating view rewarded us when
we reached the summit of the cliffs:-of brown rocks, steep
headlands, jutting out into the bluest of deep blue seas, very
dark, and yet so clear you could count every stone below,
where it was calm, even from this height; though in places
the waves were breaking on the shore in arches of white
foam and delicate pale green. We could see right away
towards Sao Lourenzo (named after the ship of the first
Portuguese discoverer of the island), and Fora, with its







74 CANICAL.

remarkable lighthouse, in one direction; and in the other, over
the headland of Bode San Antonio, to the green valley of
Porto da Cruz, Fayal and Santa Anna, where the hotel at
which we were yesterday the guests shone conspicuously
white among
its verdant
S- surround-
ings. Fur-
ther on
1m againstt, we
Could see
SSan Jorge
and a long
stretch of
coast,melt-
ing into
that exqui-
site soft
-. haze which
-- seems to
be one of
the cha-
racteristics
of Mladei-
ra scenery.
What we
had really
come to look at, however,
was not the landscape, but
the so-called fossil-beds, a
curious geological formation,
which looks exactly like a
petrified forest, the trunks of
old trees, the interlacing of







FOSSIL-LAND.


branches, and the growth of separate twigs being all equally
well represented. In reality this curious presentment is caused
by the washing away of the very fine particles of basaltic
sand from some curious fantastic-shaped calcareous infiltra-
tion: the result being that the deposit looks exactly like trees





--








FOSSIL-LAND

turned into lime-stone. Darwin, who visited some similar
beds in New Zealand with the late Admiral Fitzroy, has thus
described them:-' One day I accompanied Captain Fitzroy
to Bald Head, the place mentioned by so many navigators,
where some imagine they saw corals, and others that they
saw petrified trees, standing in the position in which they
had grown. According to our view the beds had been formed
by the wind having heaped up fine sand composed of minute
rounded particles of shells and corals, during which process
branches and roots of trees, together with many shells, became
enclosed. The whole then became consolidated by the per-
colation of calcareous matter, and the cylindrical cavities
left by the decaying of the wood were thus also filled up
with a hard pseudo-stalactital stone. The weather is now
wearing away the softer parts, and in consequence the hard
casts of the roots and branches of the trees project above







76 DRAGON-TREES.

the surface, and in a singularly deceptive manner resemble
the stumps of a dead thicket.'
All too soon we were compelled to leave our pleasant seat
among the rocks, and the delights of the pleasant northerly
breeze, to return to the boat. Some of the smaller inhabitants
of Cani9al, in the scantiest of dirty-white garments, had begun
to appear upon the scene, with the dry, bare, sun-burnt,
semi-African character of which their small, brown, impish
figures well harmonised. The distance is short from Machico
to Santa Cruz. At the latter place legend asserts that a large
cedar cross was erected in memory of the first discoverers
of the island, of which cross the inhabitants still profess to
show a piece in the church. The village itself contains little
that is remarkable; but there is a good hotel on the heights
above, kept by Senhor Gonsalvez, where travellers are made
very comfortable and whence many charming excursions may
be made. The whole coast is fine, especially at Cape Garajao
-so called from the number of gulls that frequent it. In the
interstices of the cliffs are numerous dragon-trees, with their
curiously gnarled arms and spiky, artichoke-like heads. They
always seem to me to possess more of the animal than of the
vegetable character; and I half expect them to justify their
formidable name, and suddenly to stretch out their claws and
draw something or somebody into their poisonous embrace.
At Funchal we found H.M.S. 'Frolic,' the gunboat we
had seen in the distance this morning, just arrived from
Plymouth en route for Sierra Leone. Her commander, Cap-
tain Moore, who came to call on us, had been on board the
'Orion' when we were at Alexandria in the spring and had
ridden with us to the Mex Forts.
I had announced that I would be at home to our friends
and any of their friends who might wish to see the yacht, at
four o'clock this afternoon. Everybody came, I think, both
English and Portuguese, including the two Governors, military







A HURRIED SEPARATION. 77

and civil, the Director of Customs and many others. Among our
visitors was the wife of the Spanish Consul, a charming little
woman, who had been on board the Sunbeam' at Algiers some
years ago, when her father was Consul there. In the midst
of our entertainment, somewhat to our consternation, the
homeward-bound steamer 'Grantully Castle' was signalled, be-
tween twelve possible, in
and twenty- order to keep
four hours be- up the repu-
fore her time, station for
having made speed which
the quickest his vessel
Castle Line had already
passage on gained. Mr.
record from ., ..:'' Shaw Lefe -
the Cape-- vre, who was
14 days 22 to return to
hours. All England by
was bustle her, had
on board, therefore to
for Captain make hur-
Young, her ried prepara-
commander, tions for de-
was anxious parture, and
to start again there was no
as soon as time to get
our already written letters from the hotel on shore to send
home by this mail. The Grantully Castle,' like all the
Castle Line of packets, seems to be a most comfortable ship,
beautifully fitted up in every respect. Captain Young, to
whom we paid a brief visit, proved to be an old acquaintance,
having been in command of the Courland,' which lay along-
side us at Spithead for forty-eight hours three winters ago,
when we were detained, on our outward passage to Gibraltar,







A RELIC.


by a thick fog and a heavy snowstorm, in one of the intervals
of which we had gone on board his ship.
Our guests having departed, and there being nothing to
detain us, we decided to sail to-night, instead of waiting till
to-morrow as we had originally intended doing: the first
result of which determination was a general hurry and scurry
of sending for washing, making last purchases, settling bills,
and getting things from the Custom House. We paid our
final visit to the comfortable Santa Clara Hotel, where we
found the party at table d'h6te very much increased by
the arrival for the winter season of the boarders from the
Quinta, where they had been spending the summer months.
I never stayed in a cleaner, more comfortable, or better-
managed hotel than the Santa Clara. The efforts of the
proprietor Mr. Reid, and of the energetic manager Mr.
Cardwell, and his wife, to make their guests comfortable and
to attend to their wants, cannot be too highly praised.
In a little recess under the stairs, at the hotel, stood a
thing which is seldom seen nowadays:-a real old-fashioned
sedan-chair, with two crests-one being that of a knight of
the Tower and Sword, and the other a wolf's head-painted
on the panels, and the initials E.P. just beneath them. On
enquiry we found that this chair had been at one time the
property of Mrs. Elizabeth Page, the wife of a well-known
English merchant, who resided in Madeira in the early part
of this century, and who was decorated by the Portuguese
Government, in recognition of his public services. I wonder
how many beauteous dames and pretty damsels this particular
chair has carried up and down the steep and slippery streets
of Funchal. When the occupant-though perhaps still fair
-happened to be fat and forty, it must have been hard work
for the bearers to carry their burden with becoming steadiness
and speed.
We bade good-bye to Mr. Seymour Haden, who decided to







DEPARTURE. 79

remain here to await the arrival of his son from South Africa:
Mr. Cardwell accompanied us on board, to see us fairly off;
and soon, with sincere regret at having to leave a place in
which we had met so many kind friends, the anchor was
weighed, all the sails were set, and exactly at the witching
hour of midnight, with a fair wind, we were bound for Bar-
badoes and the Caribbean Sea.




























CHAPTER V.
SMADEIRA TO TRINIDAD.
S would sail upon the tropic sea,
Where, fathom long, the blood-red dulses grow.

GOING on deck about four o'clock this morning I found,
as I had expected, that Madeira was still in sight, at no
great distance. As day dawned, the outline of the island,
with its mountainous rocks and ravines, and the. Desertas
and Porto Santo, became more plainly visible, through a soft
haze. If I had not longed (not quite for forty years, like
Charles Kingsley, whose touching book, At Last,' I have
just been reading, but ever since I was a child) to see the
glorious vegetation and beauties of the West Indies, my
regret at leaving this delightful island would have been even
keener than it now is. My dream was very near being
realized in 1872, when we were at Halifax in the Eothen,'


e" 9~







REMINISCENCES.


and Admiral Fanshawe (who then commanded the station)
pressed us to accompany the fleet on their annual cruise
to the West Indies, and also invited us to pay him a visit
in the Bermudas. We had not sufficient confidence, how-
ever, in our somewhat crank and unmanageable craft to
undertake so long a cruise in those troubled waters, and there-
fore reluctantly gave up the idea; contenting ourselves on
that occasion-not but that it was a very pleasant trip, and
one that we heartily enjoyed-with ascending the navigable
rivers on the east coast of North America from the St.
Lawrence and Saguenay to the Potomac and James River,
leaving the yacht at Baltimore and returning home in one




















of the Cunarders, the 'Russia,' a splendid boat, going at
what in those days was considered a tremendous pace, and 'as
dry as a bone,' though we experienced some heavy weather.
In 1876 another dream of my life was fully realized. Never,
in my highest flights of fancy, had I conceived that any-
thing on earth could exist so beautiful, or that mere existence







SW EET PO TATOES.


could become such a pleasure,
as in the fairy-like islands of
the South Pacific. Now I hope
that my second dream is about
to become an actuality-to some
extent at any rate; and I only
trust that it may answer my
expectations as completely as in the previous case. At all
events we shall see niggers,' in whom (their babies espe-
cially) I always delight. I think the latter are something like
kittens-far preferable in their babyhood.
Though not yet absolutely in the tropics, we began our
old at sea in the tropics' habits this morning by helping to
scrub decks, being 'hosed,' and generally dabbling about. It
was very pleasant; for the water was quite warm and the sun
hot. Even at 7 A.M. there was no wind to speak of, and we
had been becalmed nearly all night. The day was for the
most part devoted to a general settling-down, tidying-up,
and planting of ferns, belladonna lilies and sweet-potatoes,
both of which latter we were assured would last two or three
weeks, and thus keep our little floating home gay with floral
decoration till we can again adorn it with the gorgeous flowers
of more tropical regions. The accompanying sketch will con-
vey some idea of what we fondly hope our potatoes will be like
in the earlier stage of their growth.
During the afternoon, Tom spent a good deal of time at
the mast-head, looking for that true wind which does not
come quite so freely or quickly as we could wish at present.
I should dearly like to 'up funnel' and steam at once into
the Trades, so as to be able to linger on shore when we arrive







A TROPICAL SUNSET. 83

on the other side of the Atlantic; but that is not to be thought
of. We must not, however, grumble; for somehow the Sun-
beam slips along wonderfully, apparently with no wind at
all ; and at noon to-day we had made forty-eight knots since
midnight. She looks lovely, with her big light cotton stud-
ding-sails and every possible stitch of canvas set. Towards
dusk the children inveigled us all into playing Puss in the
corner,' Tom Tiddler's ground' and other active games,
because, as they said, You know you and papa always say
exercise is so good for us all; and it is so difficult to get
it on board ship.'
The sunset was too gorgeous for even the children to
resist stopping their play to look at. Anything more splendid
than the piling-up of the fantastically-shaped clouds on a
background of exquisitely blended purple, orange, yellow,
green and blue, it is difficult to imagine, and quite beyond
my powers to describe. But it is not so difficult to say how
much the beauty of these sunrises and sunsets enhances the
pleasure of a voyage in the Trades and Tropics,' always
providing, as infinitely mutable Nature does, something fresh
to look forward to, some new and wondrous effect every night
and every morning. Then the nights themselves. How beau-
tiful they are, whether star-lit or moon-lit! I never know
which I like best; and it would not be possible to exaggerate
the charms of either. We revelled in the placid magnificence
of the scene and the warmth of the atmosphere to-night,
listening to the music which some of our party were kind
(and energetic) enough to perform for our benefit in the
cabin below. Fatigue at last overcame even the sense of
enjoyment; and we retired to bed, after a long and busy day.
Friday, October 12th.-The weather was fine, with a light
wind. At noon we had only run eighty miles. We saw a
barquantine to the N.W., but soon left her, hull down. Later
we saw a steamer, and made our number (N.T.G.F.), which




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