Group Title: Bunch grape field day.
Title: Bunch grape field day, Agricultural Research Center, Leesburg
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 Material Information
Title: Bunch grape field day, Agricultural Research Center, Leesburg
Series Title: Bunch grape field day, Agricultural Research Center, Leesburg
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center.
Publication Date: 1990
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076046
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 144618183

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not reflect current scientific knowledge
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Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
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(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
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<7O-- i0--




















July 18 i99 0--



Research and Education Center-Leesburg
Re e c Central Florida


IFAS, University of Florida



















Leesburg CFREC Research Report (LBG90-12)
The Inilluire of Food and Agrictural Sciencas is an Equal Employm. nt Oppolrunly Affirmaive Action Employr eulhoxltd to provide research. educational
Information and other services only lo Indrivduals and nstitutionr that function wlhoul rgrd to race, color. sex, age, handicap or national origin.















GRAPE FIELD DAY

Central Florida Research and Education Center, Leesburg
IFAS, University of Florida

July 18, 1990


Moderator
Dr. Tim Crocker, Extension Horticulturist, Fruit Crops


PROGRAM

9:30 Registration and participation in fresh fruit taste panel of grape
cultivars and selections

10:00 Welcome, Dr. Charles A. Conover, Center Director

10:05 Dr. Susan E. Webb, Entomologist Leesburg

10:15 Dr. Donald L. Hopkins, Plant Pathologist Leesburg

10:25 Dr. John A. Mortensen, Geneticist Leesburg

10:35 Dr. Dennis J. Gray, Developmental Biologist Leesburg

10:45 Dr. Robert P. Bates, Food Scientist Gainesville

10:55 Dr. Charles A. Sims, Enologist Gainesville

11:05 Grand tour of vineyards to observe research and cultivars

Noon End of Field Day; Florida Grape Growers Association meets for a
short meeting in air-conditioned room at farm


Research updates will be given on all grape, wine, and juice research in
progress with both bunch grapes and muscadine grapes. This year the GRAPE
FIELD DAY was scheduled at the time the bunch grapes are ripe. Next year it
is planned at the time the muscadine grapes are ripe. You do not have to be a
grape grower to attend, as all interested persons are invited to the field
day. We will attempt to answer any questions as time permits, so feel free to
speak up.









MANAGING GRAPE ROOT BORER WITH A PHEROMONE (Susan E. Webb, Entomologist)

The grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (GRB), is a serious pest
of grapes in the Southeast. Because they feed in the roots, larvae are
protected from chemical insecticides. Current control practices (one
application of Lorsban per season) are aimed at killing newly-hatched larvae
while they are on or near the soil surface, before they enter roots. A
biological control method that has been used successfully to control peachtree
borer (a clearing moth related to grape root borer) is now being tested in
several locations (North Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Arkansas, Ohio) for
control of grape root borer. Mating disruption makes use of a chemical
calling signal called a pheromone that is specific to each species of moth.

Normally male moths find mates by flying upwind following a plume of
pheromone released by the female. Mating disruption involves using a
synthetic version of the borer's pheromone to saturate the vineyard
atmosphere. Dispensers, which look like twist ties, are attached to trellis
wires. Males become confused because they cannot follow specific plumes to
locate calling females. If mating does not take place, no fertile eggs are
produced and the next generation of borers is eliminated. Behavior of grape
root borer may be different from peachtree borer (for example, females may fly
into the vineyard after mating outside the treated area). Therefore we have
become involved in evaluating this approach for managing grape root borer in
Florida.

A four-acre vineyard (75% muscadine, 25% Florida hybrid bunch grape) near
Kathleen, Florida, with a long history of documented grape root borer
infestation, was chosen as the study site. A portion of the research vineyard
at Leesburg that has also been used in grape root borer research in the past
served as the control. On 2 August 1989 dispensers were attached to the upper
trellis wire, at a rate of 100 per acre, in the Kathleen vineyard. One
hundred vines at each site were flagged and the soil surface cleared of debris
so that pupal cases (the casing that a GRB sheds as it emerges from the soil
as a moth) could be counted more accurately. Three wing-style pheromone traps
were used to monitor male activity in both sites. Additional traps containing
a dispenser instead of the standard lure were used at Leesburg. Every two
weeks we counted pupal cases or caught female grape root borers in each
vineyard, a total of three times for each activity. Females were either held
for a day in order to collect eggs and then dissected to determine mating
status, or were immediately dissected. We also attempted to assess the
disruptive effects of the pheromone by caging virgin females (that had emerged
from potted grapes in a screenhouse at the research center) in sticky traps.

Results. At Kathleen we had been catching male GRB for two weeks before the
dispensers were put in place. Our catches in sticky traps immediately dropped
to zero once the vineyard was saturated with pheromone. Of the 21 females
caught between late September and early October, none had mated (or produced
fertile eggs). In contrast, at Leesburg, 12 of 17 females caught during the
same period had mated. Trap catches at Leesburg followed the usual pattern,
beginning on 9 August and peaking in late September (93-95 males per week).
We did not catch any GRB in traps baited with dispensers rather than lures,
however. Later we discovered that the dispensers contained a slightly
different blend than our standard lures but according to other researchers
this difference seems to increase disruption in mating.

We have some evidence that GRB complete their life cycle in one year in
central Florida. Thus, if this study can be continued, we should see
differences in pupal case counts this coming fall. The dispensers remained
effective over a long period of time (GRB emerges from August until early
December at these locations) and could be the most effective means of
controlling GRB in Florida. For commercial use EPA review and approval will
be needed. Obtaining data showing the usefulness of this approach for
managing GRB is the first step in the process.










Insecticides for Bunch Grapes
(adapted from W. C. Adlerz, 1984, Leesburg CFREC Research Report, LBG 84-2)




When to Spray Insecticide Pest



Bud break to flowering Malathion or Sevin leafhoppers
(or later for beetle) (carbaryl)
if needed Methoxychlor 50WP flea beetle

Pre-bloom and 2-4 weeks same as above leafhoppers
after bloom if needed

Late April through May, Malathion seed chalcid (monitor
weekly if needed for presence with
yellow sticky cards)

Post harvest, if needed as above leafhopper
Malathion aphids

As needed Dipel 2X or WP or leaffolder,
Larvo-Bt skeletonizer
other caterpillars
Methoxychlor or Sevin leafhoppers, fruit
beetles

At or slightly before Lorsban 4E grape root borer
peak emergence of moth






Malathion 1.5 pints 57% emulsifiable concentrate/100 gal.
water/acre

1.5 teaspoons/gallon

days before harvest--3

Carbaryl (Sevin) 2 pounds 50% carbaryl wettable powder/100 gallons
water/acre

2 tablespoons/gallon

days before harvest--0

Methoxychlor 2 pounds 50% methoxychlor wettable powder/100 gallons
water/acre

days before harvest--14

Lorsban 4E see label for directions (under grapes)
days before harvest--35

Dipel 2X or WP, see label for directions

Larvo-Bt days before harvest--0










DISEASE CONTROL IN FLORIDA GRAPES (D. L. Hopkins, Plant Pathologist)

Disease control is an absolute necessity to successful bunch grape production
in Florida. The most severe fungal disease is anthracnose, which affects both
foliage and fruit. There are 3 other fungal fruit rots -- black rot, ripe
rot, and bitter rot -- that must be controlled. A number of leafspot diseases
become serious problems during late summer. These diseases must be controlled
to prevent premature defoliation in the fall, thus assuring a stronger vine in
dormancy and better yields in the following year.

A long growing season, high temperatures, abundant rainfall, and high
humidity make bunch grape disease very difficult to control in Florida.
Therefore, a vigorous spray program must be started in the spring when buds
are 2-3 inches long and continued throughout the season. Fungicides should be
applied every 10-14 days until a week before harvest, and every 3-4 weeks from
harvest through November or until dormancy. Spray intervals should be
shortened during rainy weather, and may be lengthened during dry seasons.

Since muscadines are resistant to anthracnose, the first spray can be
delayed until just prior to bloom. As with bunch grapes, fungicides should be
applied every 2 weeks through harvest. One of 2 postharvest applications are
beneficial. Some of the fungicides recommended for grape disease control in
Florida are listed in the following table. Since the activity of the
fungicides against specific diseases varies, it is advisable to use
combinations of materials in the disease control program. For example,
Benomyl + Captan and Nova + Maneb are two very good combinations. A spreader-
sticker may be included in the spray. Please read the label for application
instructions. Remember, The Label is the Law.



FUNGICIDES FOR WATERMELON DISEASE CONTROL



Disease2

Anthrac- Black Bitter Ripe Isariopsis Downy Angular
Fungicide nose rot rot rot leafspot mildew spot



Bayleton +++ ?

Bentate1 +++ +++ ++ + ++ ++

Captan +++ +++ +++ ++ ++ + ++

Copper Fungicides + + + + + + +

Maneb ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ +++ ++

Maneb + zinc ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ +++ ++

Nova1 +++ ? ? ? ? ?

STrade names are given for these fungicides, others are listed by common name of the chemical.
2 = not effective, + = some effectiveness, +++ = most effective, ? = not tested.










GRAPE BREEDING UPDATE, 1990 (John A. Mortensen, Geneticist)


'Alachua' muscadine grape was released to nurseries in January as a
mechanically harvestable table grape that ripens uniformly and picks with a
dry stem scar. Tested as Fla. CA9-48 since 1977, 'Alachua' has oval, black
berries weighing 7.5 g each. Pulp is more tender and solids higher than those
of 'Cowart', 'Jumbo', or 'Nesbitt'. 'Alachua' is adapted to well-drained
soils of Florida and on bedded soils in flatwood areas. Below are the
characteristics of 5 black muscadine cultivars grown for fresh fruit
4,ti


Berry Soluble Type
Cultivar Flowerz Dry Scar size solids ripen Yield
(%) (g) (%) (t/ha)

Alachua SF 74.0 7.5 18.0 Even 10.3

Albemarle SF 82.9 5.8 19.2 Even 8.5

Cowart SF 15.0 7.2 17.6 Unev. 11.1

Jumbo F 21.7 10.7 16.1 Unev. 11.8

Nesbitt SF 31.6 9.8 17.2 Unev. 11.5
zSF = Self-fertile; F = Female, requiring pollinizer.

A number of elite selections (those judged by the breeder to have promise
for testing as new cultivars) have emerged from the breeding program. Table 1
describes 8 seedless bunch grapes, Table 2 has 5 seeded table grapes, Table 3
has 4 red wine and 5 white wine bunch grapes, for a total of 22 elite bunch
grapes. Table 4 describes 4 muscadines for use as seeded table grapes with
edible pulp, and Tables 5 and 6 describe 4 red wine and 7 white wine or juice
muscadines, for a total of 15 elite selections of muscadine grapes. Hybrids
between bunch and muscadine grapes are covered in Table 7, which describes 6
PD-resistant elite selections and one PD-susceptible, seedless hybrid,
NC74CO39-1. The latter is being used as a vehicle to bring seedless genes
into muscadines, since it can be crossed with either bunch grapes or
muscadines. Tolerant rootstocks for bunch grapes include CD9-81, CD9-44, and
13B-5 as elite selections. Below are summarized the numbers of elite
selections currently being tested for possible future naming and release to
growers:


Bunch Muscadine Hybrid

Seedless table grapes 8 0 0

Seeded table grapes 5 4 2

Red wine or juice grapes 4 4 4

White wine or juice grapes 5 7 0

Tolerant rootstocks 3 0 3

Total 25 15 9







Table 1. Characteristics of seedless table grape cultivars and elite selections (bunch grape).

Years Fruit Cluster Berry Solids Tex- Fla- Resistance Levels
Cultivar Parentage tested color wt (g) wt(g) (%) turez vorz PD Ay FRY

Orlando Seedless D4-176 x F9-68 17 L Gn 139 1.4 22 6 7 m hi lo lo
BN5-101* BD6-47 x A. 1105 7 Red 136 2.4 23 8 9 med med med
DN3-43 08-31 x Lakemont 8 Red 46 1.2 19 9 9 m hi m hi m lo
BD7-122 E18-63 x Lakemont 9 Gold 101 1.5 18 6 5 med m hi m lo
BN8-25 E18-63 x Lakemont 7 L Gn 58 2.1 16 7 8 m hi m hi m hi
CD8-116 E18-63 x Glenora 11 L Gn 187 1.7 19 6 8 m hi m hi med
DN6-68 08-31 x Lakemont 8 L Gn 114 1.2 19 6 7 m hi m hi m hi
DN7-45 08-31 x Lakemont 8 L Gn 140 2.0 18 8 8 hi hi m hi
DN10-46* Stover x A. 1105 7 L Gn 80 2.6 18 9 9 m lo med med
*Not recommended for trial in Florida because too susceptible to PD.
ZTexture and flavor ratings: 1 = poor, 3 = fair, 6 = good, 8 = very good, 10 = excellent.
YA = anthracnose; FR = fruit rot.



Table 2. Characteristics of seeded table grape cultivars and elite selections (bunch grape).

Years Fruit Cluster Berry Solids Tex- Fla- Resistance Levels
Cultivar Parentage tested color wt (g) wt(g) (%) turez vorz PD Ay FRY

Conquistador E12-59 x E11-40 21 Blue 115 2.8 18 3 8 hi hi m hi
Daytona B3-90 x Exotic 25 L Red 201 3.8 18 6 5 hi med m lo
DRX73-26 W1521 x DRX69-99 11 Blue 108 2.3 19 6 8 hi hi m hi
CB12-36 W1521 x Aurelia 14 L Gn 88 4.1 18 6 8 hi m hi m hi
DN21-83 BD7-75 x (O.S. + Himrod) 7 Red 142 3.3 19 6 8 m hi m hi m lo
CA11-17 E18-63 x NY45791 9 L Gn 120 3.6 19 8 8 m hi m hi med
F5-8* C5-50 x Exotic 25 L Red 290 3.5 18 4 6 m hi lo lo
*This cultivar is on trial in Costa Rica, but has done poorly in Florida because of fungus susceptibility.
ZTexture and flavor ratings: 1 = poor, 3 = fair, 6 = good, 8 = very good, 10 = excellent.
YA = anthracnose; FR = fruit rot.








Table 3. Characteristics of seeded juice and wine cultivars and elite selections.

Years Fruit Cluster Berry Solids Tex- Fla- Resistance Levels
Cultivar Parentage tested color wt (g) wt(g) (%) turez vorz PD Ay FRy





Black Spanish
Blue Lake
Conquistador
Fla. CA4-72

Fla. CB9-23
Fla. DN16-59
U.S. 4-19A


V. aestivalis hybrid
43-47 x Caco

E12-59 x Ell-40
W716 x Suwannee
43-47 x Car. Blackrose
BD5-67 x F9-68

(Jaeger 52 x Herb.)
x Rouc.





Blanc Du Bois
Lake Emerald

Matras (Fla. L7-91)
Stover
Suwannee
Fla. CN10-62

Fla. CA6-6
Fla. DN18-47
Fla. L9-10


D6-148 x Cardinal
Pixiola x G. Muscat

W1521 x Aurelia
Mantey x Roucaneuf
C5-50 x F8-35
Blanc Du Bois x Lakemont
D5-166 x Roucaneuf
BD5-67 x F9-68
21C-31 x F5-8


'Texture and flavor ratings: 1 = poor, 3 = fair,
A = anthracnose; FR = fruit rot.


22 L Gn
44 Gn

21 L Gn
33 L Gn
22 Gold
8 L Gn
12 L Gn

7 L Gn
20 L Gn


153
184
181
117
153
136

134
190
220


2.8
1.8

2.4
2.3
3.5
2.3
2.1

1.8
3.0


6 = good, 8 = very good, 10 = excellent.


hi
hi

m hi
m hi
hi
hi

m hi

m hi


lo
m hi
m hi
m lo
m lo
m hi
m hi

med


lo
S1lo
n hi
Shi
i hi
1 hi
n hi

i hi


3 6 hi m hi med


Blue
Blue
Blue
Blue
Blue
Blue
Blue


175
122

115
121
289
168
194


1.1
2.0
2.8
1.9

1.7
1.8
2.0


hi
hi

hi
hi
m hi
hi

hi


m hi
hi
m hi
m hi
med
hi
hi


med
m hi
m hi
hi

med
m hi
m hi








Table 4. Characteristics of muscadine cultivars and elite selections for use as table grapes.

Years Fruit Cluster Berry Solids Tex- Fla- Dry Vine
Cultivar Parentage tested color wt(g) wt(g) (%) turez vorz scar(%) vigor


Dixie Topsail x NC28-193 23 Br 45 4.9 19 2 7 37 hi
Alachua Fry x Southland 13 Bk 53 7.5 18 5 6 74 med
Fla. AA4-62 Fry x Southland 8 Br 54 10.9 20 6 9 100 hi
Fla. AA6-48 Triumph x AD3-42 6 Br 37 6.3 20 6 9 93 med
Fla. AA7-44 Triumph x AD3-42 6 Br 71 11.0 23 8 9 93 med
Fla. AA9-21 Nesbitt x Southland 8 Bk 74 10.8 16 3 8 80 hi
LTexture and flavor ratings: 1 = poor, 3 = fair, 6 = good, 8 = very good, 10 = excellent.






Table 5. Characteristics of muscadine cultivars and elite selections for use in making red wines and
juices.

Years Fruit Cluster Berry Solids Tex- Fla- Dry
Cultivar Parentage tested color wt (g) wt(g) (%) turez vorz scar(%)


Noble (check) Thomas x Tarheel 20 Bk 37 3.0 18 2 4 23
Fla. AA10-9 Southland x Dixie 11 Bk 53 5.3 17 3 8 87
Fla. AA12-64 US4 x AD3-42 10 Bk 60 5.2 19 4 8 70
Fla. DB1-65 Southland x Carlos 14 Bk 45 5.5 16 4 6 90
Fla. DB3-45 Fry x DB3-21 4 Bk 46 4.0 17 2 9 100
'Texture and flavor ratings: 1 = poor, 3 = fair, 6 = good, 8 = very good, 10 = excellent.






Table 6. Characteristics of muscadine cultivars and elite selections for use in making white wines and/or
juices.

Years Fruit Cluster Berry Solids Tex- Fla- Dry
Cultivar Parentage tested color wt (g) wt(g) (%) turez vorz scar(%)

Carlos (check) Howard x NC11-173 23 Br 30 5.3 15 3 7 75
Welder Dearing O.P. 20 Br 28 3.2 17 2 7 10
Doreen Higgins x Dixie 23 Br 35 4.0 18 4 7 51
Golden Isles Fry x Ga. 19-6 6 Br 63 5.0 16 3 7 70
Fla. AD3-1 Carlos x Welder 16 Br 36 4.1 17 3 8 30
Fla. AD3-42 Carlos x Welder 16 Br 39 4.8 17 3 8 37
Fla. CA1-11 Carlos x Welder 15 Br 55 3.8 18 2 7 87
Fla. AA5-31 Ga. 4-10-2 x BD13-36 11 Br 72 4.3 19 2 9 90
Fla. DB1-69 Summit x AD3-42 10 Br 60 5.0 17 2 7 93
Fla. AA4-66 Summit x AD3-42 6 Br 46 4.7 18 3 6 87
Fla. AD13-87 Dixie x AD3-42 9 Br 44 4.5 18 3 7 50
'Texture and flavor ratings: 1 = poor, 3 = fair, 6 = good, 8 = very good, 10 = excellent.




Table 7. Characteristics of elite selections of bunch-muscadine hybrids for various uses.

Years Fruit Cluster Berry Solids Tex- Fla- Dry
Selection Parentage tested color wt (g) wt(g) (%) turez vorz scar(%)

Fla. P9-15 Z67-7-5 selfed 18 Bk 32 3 17 4 4 30
Fla. AA12-3 Summit x P9-15 10 Bk 72 7 18 4 7 67
Fla. DB1-41 Summit x P9-15 8 Bk 53 8 16 5 6 90
Fla. AA8-26 H14-9 x Nesbitt 10 Bk 70 6 18 3 7 35
Fla. AA8-46 CA6-35 x AA8-26 4 Bk 27 4 17 3 9 90
Fla. DB6-4 H13-11 x Z70-5-2 13 Bk 100 3 16 3 7 93
NC74C039-1* Ga. 7-2 x NC645077-7 12 L Gn 168 2 17 6 6 0
*Not recommended for trial in Florida because of susceptibility to PD.


ZTexture and flavor ratings: 1 = poor, 3 = fair, 6 = good, 8 =


very good, 10 = excellent.









GRAPE TISSUE CULTURE MICROPROPAGATION RESEARCH (D. J. Gray, Dev. Biologist)

Over the past six years, we have been developing rapid propagation systems for
Florida grapes. Tissue culture micropropagation is used to produce large
numbers of disease-free plants. Micropropagation is useful when demand for
plants exceeds the supply that can be produced by conventional methods.

We previously documented the use of micropropagation for 25 grape
species, hybrids and cultivars and developed refined protocols for the bunch
grape varieties 'Blanc du Bois', 'Orlando Seedless', and 'Tampa' rootstock.
Recently, we have developed a generally applicable procedure to micropropagate
a number of muscadine cultivars (Table 1).

To micropropagate muscadines, young shoot tips are removed from vineyard
plants during the spring. Shoot tips are taken to the tissue culture
laboratory where the growing point (apical meristem) is surgically removed and
placed on a specialized culture medium. An abundance of shoots form on the
medium within about one month and are then recultured to produce more shoots.
Using this procedure, it is possible to produce over 500,000 new shoots, which
can be subsequently rooted into plants, during a 30-week propagation cycle.

There has been much interest in establishing large plantings of
muscadines in the Southern US for use in juice production. However, there may
not be enough plants to meet this demand. Also, concern has been raised that
existing stocks may be contaminated with the crown gall disease-causing
organism, which can devastate muscadines. Implementation of muscadine
micropropagation would solve both of these problems.


Table 1. Comparison of
grape varieties.


shoot propagation and rooting rates for nine muscadine


Apices tested / Shoots tested /
Variety shoots per apex percent rooted

'Carlos' 60 / 3.7 72 / 33

'Fry' 60 / 3.7 36 / 11
'Welder' 60 / 3.3 72 / 56
AA6-48 60 / 3.0 24 / 13
'Jumbo' 55 / 2.9 48 / 44

'Dixie' 45 / 2.7 72 / 46

AA7-44 35 / 2.7 30 / 27

'Nesbitt' 60 / 2.2 36 / 3
AA5-37 45 / 1.7 48 / 10











































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