Historic note

Group Title: Watermelon field day.
Title: Watermelon field day. 1971.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076045/00010
 Material Information
Title: Watermelon field day. 1971.
Series Title: Watermelon field day.
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1971
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076045
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 144617905

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Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

C1^L 'June 16, 1971
1:30 PM

Discussions of Current Research, Jackson Haddox, Lake County
Extension Director, presiding, and Tour of Field Plots, Royce C.
Williams, Associate Extension Agent in Horticulture, presiding.

Welcome to the Watermelon Field Day. J. M. Crall, Director,
Agricultural Research Center, Leesburg

Introduction of visitors. James Montelaro, Vegetable Crops
Specialist, Agricultural Extension Service, IFAS, Gainesville

Bunch grape studies at the Agricultural Research Center, Leesburg.
J. M. Mortensen, Associate Geneticist

Muscadine grape and peach studies at the Agricultural Research
Center, Leesburg. C. Balerdi, Assistant Horticulturist

Watermelon rindworm control.
Watermelon mosaic survey and epidemiology.
W. C. Adlerz, Associate Entomologist

Watermelon disease survey in 1970 and 1971.
Fungicidal control of watermelon diseases and effect of adjuvants
at 2 spray intervals.
D. L. Hopkins, Assistant Plant Pathologist

Review of watermelon fertility studies.
S. J. Locascio, Horticulturist, Vegetable Crops Department,
University of Florida, Gainesville

Chemical weed control in watermelons.
Current fertilizer studies at Leesburg.
Watermelon root development study. HU;. LIB RAR P
Watermelon and cantaloupe variety trials. RR
Cantaloupe breeding.
G. W. Elmstrom, Assistant Horticulturist Ai' .

Watermelon breeding.
M. Crall .F.A.S. Univ. of Florida

Demonstration of an advanced foam generator R--bet-Kett Td
Coleman Brown, Research Institute, Tampa

Tour of plots. Members of staff

1 This program is a cooperative effort of the Agricultural Experiment
Stations and the Agricultural Extension Service of the Institute
of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida.

Mimeo Report 71-4
Agricultural Research Center, Leesburg
200 copies


1. Watermelon Breeding Plots (Crall)

A program was initiated in 1961 to combine the high type resist-
ance to fusarium wilt found in Texas W5, Summit, and several
other lines with anthracnose (Race 1) resistance in a high quality
shipping-type watermelon. Smokylee is a new variety of the
Leesburg type developed from this program. It was selected from
a Texas W-5 X Charleston Gray cross. Other lines in advanced
generations from similar crosses are being evaluated for poten-
tial release. Most promising is a Watson-type line, very simi-
lar to Smokylee in wilt resistance, anthracnose resistance, and
fruit qualities.

More recently an intense red flesh color from certain Peacock
lines was incorporated into a number of lines with various fruit

In 1969 we began a series of crosses between our better lines
and various small-fruited varieties. The aim of this part of
the breeding program is to develop small fruited varieties with
combined resistance to fusarium wilt and anthracnose, deep red
flesh color, and other desirable fruit qualities. We are seek-
ing to develop varieties that might be adapted to shipping in
cartons, mostly round shapes, in a range of sizes from 4 to 20
pounds. At the present time these lines are still several
years away from possible release.

2. Watermelon Variety Trial (Elmstrom)

Purpose: To compare promising breeding lines and new varieties
with standard commercial varieties.

Procedure: Two-row plots in randomized blocks with 4 replications
were planted March 3 and 4.


Replicated trial.

1. Charleston Gray 9. Congo
2. Jubilee 10. Petite Sweet
3. Crimson Sweet 11. Supersweet
4. Sweet Princess 12. Tri X-313 (seedless)
5. Garrisonian 13. Mardella
6. Charleston Sweet 14. Summerfield
7. Charleston Gray 133 15. L92-2 (Louisiana Queen)
8. Smokylee 16. Sweetmeat


1. Too Yield 6. W 890
2. Super Sweet Seedless 7. W 959-78
3. Goshen Gem Seedless 8. Okl 12
4. W 111 9. Hyb 20
5. W 883-1-1

Varietal Recommendations: Charleston Gray, Jubilee, and Crimson
Sweet are all recommended for commercial watermelon production
in Florida. Sweet Princess, Charleston Sweet, and Smokylee are
recommended for trial. Petite Sweet is a good quality small
melon and is quite early but vines lack vigor.

3. Growth Regulator Trial (Elmstrom)

Purpose: To evaluate growth regulating compounds for increasing
early and total yields of watermelon.

Procedure: Charleston Gray seed was sown March 10. Growth
regulators were applied April 6 when the plants were at the 3 to
4 true-leaf stage. Sixteen treatments were replicated 4 times.
The dates of anthesis of every female flower in one replicate
were recorded. The rates used in this trial were those found
most promising in an unreplicated trial during the fall of 1970.
Materials were applied to watermelon at concentrations of 12.5
to 5,000 ppm in that trial.

Number Growth Regulator Concentration ppm

1 Control Unsprayed
2 Maleic Hydrazide 40
3 Maleic Hydrazide 80
4 Maleic Hydrazide 160
5 Maleic Hydrazide 320
6 NIA 10637 15
7 HIA 10637 30
8 NIA 10637 60
9 NIA 10637 120
10 Alar 50
11 Alar 100
12 Alar 500
13 Cycocel 50
14 Cycocel 100
15 Cycocel 200
16 Control Unsprayed

Results: Incomplete.

4. Watermelon Date-of-Planting Trial (Elmstrom)

Purpose: To determine the effect of planting date on early yield,
total yield, and average fruit weight.

Procedure: Charleston Gray seed was sown at ten-day intervals
beginning January 28. Two rows were sown in each replicate on
each planting date.



1970: Early and total yield was greatest from plots sown Febru-
ary 10 and 20 and March 2. There was a decrease in mean fruit
weight in plots sown after March 2.

1971: Data is incomplete but the best planting dates anpear to
be February 19 and March 2.

5. Cantaloupe Variety Trial (Elmstrom)

Purpose: To compare promising breeding lines and new varieties
with standard commercial varieties.

Procedure: Single row plots in randomized blocks with 4 repli-
cations were planted March 12.


Replicated trial.

VBL 67-1 (Planters Jumbo)
VBL 67-2
VBL 67-7
VBL C880
Del 24-5954
AC 67-14 (Gulfcoast)
AC 67-17
AC 67-59


AC 68-55
Edisto 47
Samson Hybrid
Saticoy Hybrid
Harper Hybrid
Samson x Saticcy
Southland (AC 63-11)

Observational trial.

AC 68-51
AC 68-52
Fla 64-17-1-2

Fla 129 BK
Classic Hybrid
188-13-6 Hybrid


1970: VBL 67-2, Samson Hybrid, and VBL
composite ratings.

67-7 had the highest

6. Herbicide Trial (Elmstrom)

Purpose: To evaluate various materials for pre-emergence control
of weeds in watermelon plots.

A. Replicated Herbicide Trial.

Procedure: Charleston Gray seed was sown March 1.
were applied March 8 and 9 to the 3 1/2 foot beds.
application of Prefar at 6 pounds active ingredient

A lay-by
(a.i.) per


acre was made April 20. The lay-by herbicide was immediately
incorporated with a rake and irrigated the following day. Each
treatment was replicated 3 times.
Rate Incor- herbicide
Number Treatment (lb. a.i./acre) portion application

1 Control, hoed
2 Prefar 6 + -
3 Prefar 6 + +
4 Alanan 4 -
5 Alanap 4 +
6 Prefar + Alanap 6 + 4 +
7 Prefar + Alanap 6 + 4 + +
8 Paraquat I -
9 Paraquat 1 +
10 Planavin 1.5 -
11 Planavin 1.5 +
12 NIA 20439 4 -
13 NIA 20439 4 +
14 Amiben + Diphenamid 2 + 4 -
15 Amiben + Diphenamid 2 + 4 +
16 Treflan + Kerb 1 + 1 +
17 Treflan + Kerb 1 + 1 + +
18 TOK + Dinitro 3 + 1 1/2 -
19 TOK + Dinitro 3 + 1 1/2 +
20 Sinbar 1 -
21 Check, not hoed -


1970: Except for Jerusalem oak, best control of both broadleaf
and grass species was with Sinbar at 1 and 2 lb. a.i. per acre.
Early season control of broadleaves was good with Dacthal at
12 lb., Treflan at 1 and 2 lb., and Planavin at 1 and 2 lb.
Early season control of grasses was -ood with Vegadex at 8 lb.
Prefar at 12 lb., TOK at 6 lb. and Kerb at 1.5 lb. Symptoms of
phytotoxicity to watermelon seedlings were observed in plots
treated with Sinbar at 1 and 2 lb., TOK at 6 lb., and Prefar at
12 lb.

1971: Severe phytotoxicity was observed for Sinbar at 1 lb. a.i.
per acre. Slight phytotoxicity occurred with TOK plus Dinitro,
Amiben plus Diphenamid, Treflan plus Kerb, and NIA 20439. Weed
control and yield data incomplete.

B. Activated charcoal/Sinbar Trial.

Procedure: Charleston Gray seed was sown March 1. Prior to
planting charcoal was surface applied to each hill in a 6-inch
square at 300 lb. per acre or incorporated 3 inches deep in a
six-inch square at 900 lb. per acre. Sinbar was applied to the
3 1/2 foot wide bed March 2 and 3 at rates of 1, 2 and 4 lb.
a.i./acre. Each treatment was replicated 3 times.


(lb. a.i./acre)

Control, hoed

Check, not hoed


lb./acre Placement







Results: There was no Sinbar injury using 1 lb. a.i./acre when
charcoal was incorporated at 900 lb./acre. Some Drotection was
observed using this rate of charcoal with 2 and 4 lb./acre
Sinbar. Weed control and yield data incomplete.

7. Insecticide Trial (Adlerz)

Purpose: To evaluate various materials for control of rindworm
on watermelon.

1970 Trial

Date of planting: February 9, 1970

Variety: Texas W-5

Treatments: Seven anplications on a weekly schedule be-
beginning (April 28) before fruit set.



Amdal 6000 WP + Triton B
Phosvel 3EC
Thuricide 90TS
Thuricide 90TS + Nu Film
Amdal 6000 WP + Triton B
Monitor 6S
Thuricide 90TS
Biotrol BTB 183
Biotrol BTB 183
Thuricide 90TS



1.0 + 6 oz.
2.0 ai/a2

3.0 qts
1.0 qt.
0.5 + 6
2.0 ai/
2.0 qts
1.0 at.

+ 1 pint





Phosvel 3EC
Methomyl L4
Methomyl 90WD


1.0 ai/a
0.5 ai/a
0.5 ai/a

1 Pounds unless specified.
2 ai/a = active ingredient per acre.

Results: Treatments are listed in order of effectiveness in
reducing rind injury: Monitor, Phosvel, and the Bacillus treat-
ments (Thuricide, Amdal, Biotrol) all performed well especially
at higher rates. Methomyl may have been applied at too low a
rate or too infrequently to be effective. The cabbage looper
was the only rindworm in this test.

1971 Trial

Date of planting: March 9, 1971

Variety: Smokylee

Treatments: Seven applications on a weekly schedule be-
ginning (May 4) before fruit set.


Biotrol XK
Biotrol XK
Methomvl 90WD
Methomyl 90WD 2/week
Methomyl 90WD + Dipel
Methomyl 90WD
Orthene 75 SP
Orthene 75 SP
Monitor 6S
Phosvel 3EC


1.0 qt.
2.0 qts.
0.5 ai/a
0.5 ai/a
0.5 ai/a +
1.0 ai/a
0.5 ai/a
1.0 ai/a
1.0 ai/a
2.0 ai/a
1.0 ai/a

Rank to

0. 25

1 Pounds unless specified.
2 ai/a = active ingredient

per acre.

Results: Treatments are listed in order of effectiveness in
reducing leaf-feeding injury. Evaluations were made May 19
and 26, and June 4. This test has not been completed and the
ranking of effectiveness is not final. Dipel was called Amdal
6000 in 1970.


8. Fungicide Trial (Hopkins)

Purpose: To compare fungicides for control of fungus foliar
diseases on watermelon.

Date of Planting: February 22

Variety: Charleston Gray

Procedures: Treatments (green stakes) were applied at weekly
intervals beginning on May 6. They were applied at a pressure
of 150 psi using a boom-sprayer with TeeJet nozzles at 1-foot

Treatments Rate per 100 gal. per acre

A. Tn- z7"te 200 1.5 lb.
B. Dithane M-45 1.5 lb.
C. Difolatan 4F 2.5 pt.
D. Daconil 2787 (Bravo) 1.5 lb.
E. Benlate + `-nz:te 200 0.5 lb. + 1.0 lb.
F. Benlate + Manzate 200 1.0 lb. + 1.0 lb.
G. Colloidox 3.5 lb.
H. Unsprayed

Results: 1970. Gummy stem blight was the predominant disease.
Difolatan, Dithane M-45, Daconil 2787, and Benlate + Manzate D
gave effective disease control; Manzate D and Colloidox were
slightly less effective.

1971: Downy mildew has been the predominant disease. Results
are not available for program.

Recommendations: Difolatan 4 flowable (2.5 pts.); Dithane 7-45
80% (1.5 lbs.); Manzate 200 80% (1.5 lbs.); Maneb 80% (1.5 Ibs.),
Maneb 80% (1 lb.) plus Zineb 75% (1 lb.).

9. Spray Interval Trial (Hopkins)

Purpose: To compare three fungicidal treatments with and without
spray adjuvants applied at 7 and 14 days intervals for control
of fungus foliar diseases on watermelon.

Date of Planting: February 22.

Variety: Smokylee

Procedures: Treatments (white stakes) were applied at a
pressure of 150 psi using a boom-sprayer with TeeJet nozzles
at 1-foot interval. First application was made on May 5.



Difolatan 4F
Dithane M-45
Benlate + Manzate 200
Difolatan 4F + Nu-Film 17
Dithane M-45 + Nu-Film 17
Benlate + Manzate 200 +
Nu-Film 17
Difolatan 4F
Dithane M-45
Benlate + Manzate 200
Difolatan 4F + Nu-Film 17
Dithane M-45 + Nu-Film 17
Benlate + Manzate 200 +
Nu-Film 17
Dithane M-45 + Triton B 1956
Dithane M-45 + DuPont
Nu-Film 17





Rate per
100 gal.

2.5 pt
1.5 Ib
0.5 lb +
2.5 pt +
1.5 lb +
0.5 Ib +
1.0 nt
2.5 ot
1.5 Ib
0.5 Ib +
2.5 pt +
1.5 Ib +
0.5 lb +
1.0 nt.
1.5 Ib +

1.0 Ib
1.0 pt
1.0 pt
1.0 lb

1.0 lb
1.0 pt
1.0 ot
1.0 ot

4 oz

1.5 lb + 4 oz
1 ot

Results: 1970. The use of spreader-sticker adjuvants appeared
to improve the effectiveness of a weekly Dithane M-45 spray for
the control of gummy stem blight. Nu-Film 17 appeared to be
slightly more effective than DuPont Spreader-Sticker or Triton
B-1956. On 14-day or 21-day spray schedules none of the
adjuvant-Dithane M-45 combinations provided adequate disease

1971. Results not available for program.

10. Watermelon Rooting Habit (Elmstrom)

Purpose: To study the effect of direct seeding and transplanting
on rooting habit and the influence of altered rooting habit on

Procedure: Transplanted watermelon nlants tend to have a shallow,
branched root system while direct-seeded plants have a rather
definite tap root. In 1970 the yield from transplants was higher
than from direct-seeded plants. This trial was to separate the
effects of transplanting from those of rooting habit. Originally,
some transplants were produced in shallow pots which induces root
branching and others were produced in tall containers which yields
transplants having a root system more like that of direct-seeded
plants. Branching was induced in direct-seeded hills by placing
a styrofoam disk directly below the seed. However all the trans-
plants were killed by late frost and cold winds. All the hills
were then direct seeded with and without styrofoam disks.
Nutrient levels were varied in one trial and one trial was not

Results: None of the plants in the unirrigated plots have done
exceptionally well but the direct seeded plants without the
styrofoam disk are larger. Yield data is incomplete.

11. Fertilizer Trial (Elmstrom)

Purpose: To evaluate the rate and placement of fertilizer
application for optimum growth and yield of watermelon.

A. NPK Banding/Broadcasting Trial.

Procedure: Fertilizer was applied to disked land prior to
bedding. Sources of N, P, and K were sewage sludge (1/3 of N
in bed fertilizer), nitrate of potash (13.75-0-44.5), nitrate
of soda (16-0-0), urea (455 N), and regular superphosphate.
FTE-503 was applied at 30 lb./acre. Half of the fertilizer
was applied prior to seeding with the remainder aoplied at lay-by.
Charleston Gray and Smokylee seeds were planted in alternate rows
March 10. Treatments were replicated 4 times.


N & K1 P

Rate (lb./acre)
N P,20 KO
----- --- 2

1 band band 120 120 120
2 band band 240 120 240
3 band band 120 210 120
4 band band 240 240 240
5 broadcast broadcast 120 120 120
6 broadcast broadcast 240 120 240
7 broadcast broadcast 120 240 120
8 broadcast broadcast 240 240 240
9 broadcast band 120 120 120
10 broadcast band 240 120 240
11 broadcast band 120 240 120
12 broadcast band 240 240 240


1969-70: Application of 50% of the fertilizer prior to seeding
and 50% supplementally was superior to application on a 75%-25%
schedule. Greatest yield was from plots receiving 240 pounds
per acre of N, P205, and K20. Broadcasting resulted in higher
yields at both high and low rates of all three elements and at
low rates of N and K with a high rate of P. Only at the high
rates of N and K with the low rate of P was yield greater from
plots with fertilizer anolied in a 10-inch band. No difference
was observed in the response of the two varieties, Charleston
Gray and Smokylee, to level or method of fertilizer application.
Soluble solids content was unaffected by fertilizer treatment
but averaged 0.9 per cent higher in Smokylee.

1971: Incomplete

B. Influence of N:K on Watermelon Fruit Shape.


Procedure: Half of the fertilizer was applied February 10 with
the remainder applied at lay-by. Charleston Gray and Smokylee-seed
was sown March 9 and 10. Sources of N and K were nitrate of not-
ash, nitrate of soda, and muriate of notash. FTE-503 was applied
at 30 lb./acre. Treatments were replicated 3 times.


Rate (lb./acre)

1 75 80 75
2 75 80 150
3 75 80 300
4 150 80 75
5 150 80 150
6 150 80 300
7 300 80 75
8 300 80 150
9 300 80 300

Results: Incomplete.

12. Cantaloupe Breeding (Elmstrom and Crall)

A limited program to develop parental lines with genetic proper-
ties suitable for Fl hybrid seed production is underway. The
main emphasis is on the incorporation of the gynoecious flowering
habit, which has been useful in the development of Fl hybrid
cucumbers, into lines with a high degree of disease resistance
(such as Planters Jumbo and Gulfcoast) and rood combining ability.
Breeding lines and available varieties are being tested for
combining ability.

13. Peach and Muscadine Studies (Balerdi)

Purpose: Evaluation of peach and muscadine cultivars for
adaptation to central Florida conditions.

Procedure: Peaches Named varieties and outstanding selections
of peaches and nectarines developed by Ralph Sharpe at Gainesville
are planted here and their tree and fruit characters are recorded.
At present 74 cultivars are planted in the orchard. From these,
only the most outstanding ones will be selected for further evalu-
ation. Shipping and marketing tests in cooperation with commercial
growers follow. If favorable results are obtained the cultivar
is then recommended for release. The following characters are
used in the evaluation: proper chilling for area (200-350 hours
of temperature below 450F), cold, frost and disease resistance,
earliness, fruit size and firmness, quality, and shipping ability.

Muscadines: Cultivars from the USDA, Georgia and North Carolina
breeding programs, and seedlings from this Center's program are
being evaluated. Fruit and vine characters are recorded. Many
seedlings and 62 cultivars are planted in the vineyard for evalu-
ation. Outstanding cultivars are planted at different locations
for further evaluation. If favorable results are obtained the
cultivar is recommended for release. High yield: vine vigor;
berry size; quality of fresh berries, juice, and wine; disease
resistance, and adaptability to mechanical harvesting are the
characters used in the evaluation.

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