• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Growth in Florida's Recreational...
 Total economic activity by sector,...
 Summary and conclusions
 References
 Glossary
 Appendix I: Notes on calculati...
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Group Title: Technical paper / Florida Sea Grant College Program ; no. 50
Title: The economic impact of Florida's recreational boating industry in 1985
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 Material Information
Title: The economic impact of Florida's recreational boating industry in 1985
Series Title: Technical paper Florida Sea Grant College
Physical Description: 16 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Milon, J. W ( J. Walter )
Adams, Charles M
Florida Sea Grant College
Publisher: Florida Sea Grant Extension Program
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1987
 Subjects
Subject: Boats and boating -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 12.
Statement of Responsibility: J. Walter Milon and Charles M. Adams.
General Note: Grant NA85AA-D-SG059 and NA85AA-D-00038.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    List of Tables
        List of Tables
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Growth in Florida's Recreational Boating Industry
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Total economic activity by sector, 1980 and 1985
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 11
    References
        Page 12
    Glossary
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Appendix I: Notes on calculations
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Publications order form
        Page 17
Full Text
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THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FLORIDA'S
RECREATIONAL BOATING INDUSTRY IN 1985




J. Walter Milon and Charles M. Adams




Food and Resource Economics Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida





Grant No. NA85AA-D-00038



Technical Papers are duplicated in limited quantities for specialized audiences
requiring rapid access to information. They are published with limited editing
and without formal review by the Florida Sea Grant College Program. Content is
the sole responsibility of the author. This paper was developed by the Florida
Sea Grant College Program with support from NOAA Office of Sea Grant, U.S.
Department of Commerce, grant number NA85AA-D-SG059. It was published by the
Sea Grant Extension Program which functions as a component of the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, John T. Woeste, Dean, in conducting Cooperative
Extension work in Agriculture, Home Economics, and marine Sciences, State of
Florida, U.S. Department of Comnerce, and Boards of County Commissioners,
cooperating. Printed and distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of
May 8 and June 14, 1914. The Florida Sea Grant College is an Equal
Employment-Affirmative Action employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions
that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.



TECHNICAL PAPER NO. 50
April 1987
Price $1.00









TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

List of Tables --------------------------------------------- iv

Introduction -------------------------------------------------- 1

Growth in Florida's Recreational Boating Industry -------------- 2

Recreational Boat Registrations ----------------------------- 2

Retail Sales ----------------------------------------------- 4

Direct Contribution of Recreational Boating Sectors --------- 6

Total Economic Activity By Sector, 1980 and 1985 ------------ 8

Summary and Conclusions ---------------------------------------- 11

References ---------------------------------------------------- 12

Glossary ------------------------------------------------------ 13

Appendix I: Notes on Calculations ----------------------------- 15









LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1 Recreational boats, total boats, and boat registrations
per one hundred residents in Florida, 1964 to 1985 ------ 3

2 Total Florida retail sales for recreational boating
1980 1985 --------------------------------------------- 5

3 U.S. and Florida retail sales of boats, outboard motors,
boat trailers, and marine accessories, 1980 and 1985
(in thousands) -------------------------------------- 5

4 Comparison of the direct contribution of recreational
boating sectors to the Florida economy for 1980 and
1985 ---------------------------------------------------- 7

5 Alternative estimates of the total economic activity
attributable to the five recreational boating sectors
in the Florida economy using alternative output
multipliers, 1985 --------------------------------------- 9









THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FLORIDA'S
RECREATIONAL BOATING INDUSTRY IN 1985


INTRODUCTION


The recreational boating industry is an important component of

Florida's economy. Previous Florida Sea Grant College supported research

has documented this economic importance to the state's economy in 1980

(see Milon and Riddle, 1983, and Milon et al. 1983). Since that initial

research, the manufacturing, retailing, and service sectors comprising

the industry have continued to grow and prosper as the state's resident

and tourist populations increased. This report is an update on the

economic significance of the recreational boating industry in Florida

since 1980 based on economic indicators of change within the industry.

Analyses such as those undertaken to initially assess the economic

importance of the recreational boating industry in Florida are costly

and time consuming. This results from collecting primary financial,

economic, and structural data which meaningfully describe the various

industry sectors. Utilizing the findings and relationships from these

previous studies, this report presents key descriptive measures of the

1985 economic impact of the recreational boating industry using secondary

data available from industry associations and state and federal agencies.

The use of these secondary data as economic indicators is the only

available method of assessing growth in Florida's recreational boating

industry without resorting to new primary data collection efforts.

This report provides an overview of activity associated with the

five sectors of the recreational boating industry in Florida. The first

section describes trends in recreational boat registrations and estimated

changes in total retail sales, employment, and output by sector. The









second section provides an estimate of the 1985 economic activity for

each sector using alternative estimation techniques. These sections

are followed by concluding remarks. Definitions of terms and concepts

associated with economic impact analysis are provided in a glossary

at the back of this report. The reader is advised to refer to the

previous report by Milon et al. (1983) for a detailed treatment of

these terms and concepts (an order blank for this and other related

publications is found at the end of this paper). Reference to this

previous study will also provide a necessary understanding of the original

analysis, for which this report is only an update.


GROWTH IN FLORIDA'S RECREATIONAL BOATING INDUSTRY


Recreational Boat Registrations

The number of registered pleasure craft in Florida has increased

steadily over the past two decades. From 1964 to 1985, the number of

registered recreational boats increased from 120,854 to 554,675, an

increase of 359 percent (Table 1). During the two decade period, 1964

to 1985, population and nominal per capital personal income increased

by 95 and 509 percent, respectively (Florida Statistical Abstract,

1964-85). According to recent analysis, population and income play

a significant role in determining the number of recreational boat

registrations in Florida (Bell and Leeworthy, 1984).

As an indication of the growing popularity of recreational boating

activities, the number of registered recreational boats per one hundred

residents has also been increasing, with 2.1 registrations per one

hundred residents in 1964, 4.7 in 1980, and 4.9 in 1985. Recreational

boat registrations are projected to reach 583,000 by 1990 and 671,000

by year 2000 (Bell and Leeworthy, 1984).









second section provides an estimate of the 1985 economic activity for

each sector using alternative estimation techniques. These sections

are followed by concluding remarks. Definitions of terms and concepts

associated with economic impact analysis are provided in a glossary

at the back of this report. The reader is advised to refer to the

previous report by Milon et al. (1983) for a detailed treatment of

these terms and concepts (an order blank for this and other related

publications is found at the end of this paper). Reference to this

previous study will also provide a necessary understanding of the original

analysis, for which this report is only an update.


GROWTH IN FLORIDA'S RECREATIONAL BOATING INDUSTRY


Recreational Boat Registrations

The number of registered pleasure craft in Florida has increased

steadily over the past two decades. From 1964 to 1985, the number of

registered recreational boats increased from 120,854 to 554,675, an

increase of 359 percent (Table 1). During the two decade period, 1964

to 1985, population and nominal per capital personal income increased

by 95 and 509 percent, respectively (Florida Statistical Abstract,

1964-85). According to recent analysis, population and income play

a significant role in determining the number of recreational boat

registrations in Florida (Bell and Leeworthy, 1984).

As an indication of the growing popularity of recreational boating

activities, the number of registered recreational boats per one hundred

residents has also been increasing, with 2.1 registrations per one

hundred residents in 1964, 4.7 in 1980, and 4.9 in 1985. Recreational

boat registrations are projected to reach 583,000 by 1990 and 671,000

by year 2000 (Bell and Leeworthy, 1984).










Table 1. Recreational boats, total boats, households per boat, and boat
registrations in per hundred residents in Florida, 1964 to 1985

Number of recreational
Recreational Total boats per Households
boats boatsb hundred residents per boat


1964 120,854 148,884 2.1
1965 128,723 156,349 2.2
1966 136,706 169,633 2.2
1967 149,663 181,521 2.4
1968 164,875 191,634 2.5
1969 177,323 204,445 2.6
1970 192,554 221,619 2.8
1971 208,096 234,093 2.9
1972 229,426 254,388 3.0
1973 249,219 273,032 3.1
1974 254,352 276,134 3.0
1975 347,306 369,872 4.0
1976 390,681 417,465 4.5
1977 403,054 425,722 4.5 8.2
1978 410,174 431,742 4.5 8.4
1979 453,500 473,977 4.8 8.0
1980 460,611 491,727 4.7 8.1
1981 480,864 518,756 4.8 N/A
1982 480,384 N/A 4.6 8.4
1983 499,364 526,495 4.7 8.3
1984 529,436 558,637 4.8 8.1
1985 554,675 585,264 4.9 8.0


aprior to 1975 recreational boats using
not registered. Boats that do not use
etc.) are not included.


less than 10 horsepower were
engines (sailboats, rowboats,


blncludes commercial fishing vessels, charter boats, and rental
boats.

cBased on annual population and household estimates from the Bureau

of Business and Economic Research, University of Florida. Annual household
data not available prior to 1977.

SOURCE: Florida Department of Natural Resources unpublished
recreational boat registration data and Bureau of Business
and Economics Research, University of Florida, Florida
Statistical Abstracts.









Retail Sales

Total Florida retail sales for all marine recreation, including

sales for recreational boating activities, have increased steadily since

1980 (Table 2). Total retail sales in nominal dollars increased from

$796 million in 1980 to $1.32 billion in 1985. This represents an

increase of 65 percent in six years. Except for a slight decrease during

the recession period 1981-1982, total retail sales in real dollars (i.e.

constant 1980 dollars) have also increased steadily.

Retail sales specifically attributed to the sale of boats, outboard

motors, boat trailers, and marine accessories have likewise increased

during the 1980-85 period (Table 3). On a national basis, the retail

sales of these items increased from $3.2 billion in 1980 to $6.0 billion

in 1985, an increase of 89 percent. The percentage increase was larger

in Florida, where total retail sales of these items increased from $334

million in 1980 to $720 million in 1985, an increase of 116 percent.

Sales of outboard motors represented the largest percentage increase

on both a national and state basis. This is due in part to the change

in boat fuel availability and price that reduced outboard motor sales

in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Boat sales demonstrated the second

largest percentage increase at both the national and state level. Sales

of marine accessories were relatively stable. Florida's share of the

U.S. market for boats, motors, trailers, and accessories increased

from 10.5 percent in 1980 to 12 percent in 1985. Among the four

categories, the change in Florida's share of the total U.S. market was

greatest for boat trailers, which increased from 7.1 percent in 1980

to 8.8 percent in 1985. Florida's share of the U.S. market for boats

increased from 12.5 to 14.5 percent.









Table 2. Total Florida retail sales for recreational boating, 1980-85.


Year Total Retail Sales Total Retail Sales
(Current $) (Constant 1980 $)


1980 $ 796,406,772 $ 796,406,772
1981 845,300,878 775,505,393
1982 901,895,006 791,135,970
1983 941,018,457 818,276,919
1984 1,198,650,843 1,015,890,545
1985 1,315,373,795 1,105,356,130


1Includes all new and used boats and watercraft, motors, trailers,
fuel, marine accessories, and equipment' sold by retail boat dealers
and brokers.

SOURCE: Florida Department of Revenue.



Table 3. U.S. and Florida retail sales of boats1, outboard motors, boat
trailers, and marine accessories, 1980 and 1985 (in thousands)

1980 1985 Percent
Change


U.S.
Boats $1,933,780 $3,742,569 93
Outboard motors 544,400 1,293,828 138
Boat trailers 96,448 146,800 53
Marine accessories 591,900 818,265 38

Total $3,166,528 $6,001,462 89


Florida
Boats $ 240,949 $ 543,916 126
Outboard motors 51,228 115,885 127
Boat trailers 6,857 12,919 88
Marine accessories 34,804 47,296 36

Total $ 333,838 $ 720,017 116


lIncludes outboard boats, inboard/cruisers, inboard/outdrives, runabouts,
non-powered sailboats, and auxiliary powered sailboats.

SOURCE: National Marine Manufacturers Association.









Direct Contribution of Recreational Boating Sectors

The five major recreational boating sectors in the Florida economy

are boat and trailer manufacturing, boat equipment manufacturing, marinas

and boatyards, marine trade, and marine services. An extensive discussion

of the basis for this breakdown of the industry is provided in Milon

et al., 1983. Estimates of the direct contribution of these five

recreational boating sectors to the Florida economy were estimated for

1985 and compared to previous estimates for 1980 (Table 4). The direct

contribution or impact of each sector on the Florida economy is given

only in terms of direct employment and total output. Total output of

each sector is defined as the sum of in-state sales and exports, measured

in terms of the dollar value of final retail sales. Direct employment

is defined as the number of employees who produced the total output

of each sector. Estimates of total economic activity for each sector

and the total industry are given in the following section.

The direct employment and total output in 1985 from production

activity in the five sectors were estimated to be 23,225 employees and

$1.36 billion in output, respectively. This represented an increase

of 52 and 81 percent in direct employment and total output from 1980.

The largest share of employment and output resulted from activity in

the boat and trailer manufacturing sector. Direct employment and total

output in boat and trailer manufacturing increased from 6,910 and $389

million, respectively, in 1980, to 11,903 and $798 million, respectively,

in 1985. Marine trade was the second most important sector in Florida's

recreational boating industry. Boat equipment manufacturing, marinas

and boatyards, and marine service sectors also increased in direct

employment and total output from 1980 to 1985.









Table 4. Comparison of the direct contribution of recreational boating
sectors to the Florida economy for 1980 and 1985

1980 1985

Sector Direct Total Direct Total
Employment Output Employment Output


Boat and
trailer
manufacturing 6,910 $389,337,652 11,903 $798,125,496

Boat equipment
manufacturing 1,662 49,416,464 1,916 67,802,209

Marinas and
boatyards 3,100 110,973,911 4,298 153,871,389

Marine trade 3,130 188,522,615 4,340 311,062,314

Marine services 472 13,729,404 768 29,262,927

Total industry 15,274 $751,980,046 23,225 $1,360,124,335


SOURCE: See Appendix 1.









TOTAL ECONOMIC ACTIVITY BY SECTOR, 1980 and 1985


The appropriate measure of the economic impact an industry has

on a state's economy is not just the initial or direct impacts of employ-

ment, income, and output, but also the impacts that occur in other sectors

of the economy. These direct, indirect, and induced impacts provide

a measure of the total economic activity resulting from production and

export sales associated with the various sectors of the recreational

boating industry in Florida. Total economic activity is defined as

the sum of the total output and the output generated in other sectors

of the state's economy due to indirect and induced effects. These

cumulative impacts are captured through the use of multipliers that

measure the additional output created by direct output within a sector.

Three sets of economic impact multipliers were used to provide

estimates of the total economic activity associated with the five indus-

try sectors (Table 5). The multipliers developed in the initial study

by Milon et al. 1983, referred to as the "original survey multipliers"

in Table 5, generated an estimate for total industry economic activity

in 1985 of $2.7 billion. This represents an increase of 83 percent

from the estimate of $1.48 billion for 1980. These original survey

multipliers were derived from the primary data collected as part of

the initial study and used to construct an input-output model of the

marine recreation sectors. These multipliers are the most precise,

but expensive, estimates of economic impacts. The "unadjusted model

multipliers" reported in Table 5 are multipliers from a 57 sector model

of the Florida economy that was not adjusted with primary data specific

to the Florida recreational boating industry (see Gordon, Mulkey, and









Table 5. Alternative estimates of the total economic activity attributable
to the five recreational boating sectors in the Florida economy
using alternative output multipliers, 1985

Original Unadjusted Water Resources
Sector Survey Model Council
Multipliers Multipliers Multipliers


Boat and trailer
manufacturing $1,687,693,584 $1,621,579,792 $1,442,286,815

Boat equipment
manufacturing 121,621,227 147,780,451 124,429,140

Marinas and
boatyards 395,733,344 384,361,602 308,070,166

Marine trade 457,758,681 485,515,704 484,568,520

Marine services 37,769,100 39,854,784 34,818,335

Total industry $2,700,575,936 $2,679,092,333 $2,374,172,975


SOURCE: See Appendix 1.










Goggin, 1980). The "Water Resources Council multipliers" also used

for Table 5 were taken from an input-output model previously estimated

by the Water Resources Council for 56 sectors and 173 regions throughout

the U.S. More details on the basis for these different multipliers

are provided in Milon, Mulkey, and Ellerbrock, 1982.

Note the relative consistency of the estimated total economic activ-

ity for each sector and the industry reported in Table 5. While the

total activity attributed to each sector may be smaller or larger depend-

ing on the set of multipliers used for the analysis, in general the

total picture of the industry is very similar. These results suggest

that detailed survey methods such as those employed in the original

Milon et al. (1983) study of the Florida recreational boating industry

add limited additional information in relation to the extra time and

cost required. Given the difficulty of defining and identifying the

broad array of businesses that make up the recreational boating industry

in Florida, these estimates are the best available measures of economic

growth in the industry from 1980 to 1985.









SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


This report updates a previous study of the economic impact of

Florida's recreational boating industry in 1980 using secondary data

for 1985 from industry trade associations and government agency sources.

Recreational boat registrations in Florida increased to 554,675 in 1985,

with 4.9 registrations per one hundred Florida residents. Total retail

sales of marine recreation products in Florida increased from $796 million

in 1980 to $1.32 billion in 1985. Sales of boats, outboard motors,

boat trailers, and marine accessories increased from $334 million in

1980 to $720 million in 1985. Boat sales represented the largest share

of this market but the largest percentage increase in sales was in the

outboard motor market. Direct employment in the recreational boating

industry increased from 15,274 to 23,225 and total output increased

from $752 million in 1980 to $1.36 billion in 1985. Total economic

activity also increased from 1980 to 1985. Using the multipliers employed

in the original study by Milon et al., 1983, total economic activity

increased by approximately 80 percent during the 1980-85 period. Similar

findings resulted from the use of other multipliers.

The recreational boating industry is an important component of

the overall Florida economy. Given Florida's growing coastal population,

strong tourist industry, and projected increases in recreational boat

registrations, this industry will likely continue to be an important

source of jobs and income for Floridians. In light of this economic

contribution, industry and state officials should consider ways to improve

the collection of employment and sales data that would permit more

detailed evaluation of economic activity and trends in this industry.









REFERENCES


Bell, F.W. and V.R. Leeworthy. Estimation of the Demand and Supply
of Marina Services in the State of Florida. Florida Department
of Natural Resources, Division of State Lands, Tallahassee. December
1984.

Department of Natural Resources, State of Florida. Unpublished
recreational boat registration data, 1964-85. Tallahassee.

Department of Revenue, State of Florida. Monthly Tax Returns, Motor
Boat and Yacht Dealers, 1980-1985. Tallahassee.

Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida, Florida
Statistical Abstract. 1964-85. Gainesville.

Gordon, J., D. Mulkey, and J. Goggin. An Input-Output Analysis of the
Broward County Economy with Emphasis on the Impact and Role of
the Port Sector. Food and Resource Economics Department Economics
Report 96, University of Florida, Gainesville. May 1980.

Milon, J.W., W.D. Mulkey, and M.J. Ellerbrock. "Regional Impact Analysis
and Recreation Multipliers." The Review of Regional Studies,
12(3):11-21(1982).

Milon, J.W., D. Mulkey, P.H. Riddle, and G.H. Wilkowske. Economic Impact
of Marine Recreational Boating on the Florida Economy. Florida
Sea Grant Report Number 54, State University System of Florida.
March 1983.

Milon, J.W. and P.H. Riddle. Employment and Sales Characteristics of
the Recreational Boating Industry in Florida. Florida Sea Grant
Report Number 53, State University System of Florida. March 1983.

National Marine Manufacturers Association. Boating 1985. Chicago,
Illinois. 1986.










GLOSSARY


Direct employment is the number of employees who produce the total output

in each sector.

Direct impacts are the wages, rents and other income in all stages of

production within the industry.

Direct income is the wages and salaries earned by employees within the

sector.

Impact multiplier is a measure of the direct and indirect impacts caused

by purchases of raw materials and labor due to changes in final demand

for a sector's products. Generally, the greater a sector's dependence

on other state industries for raw materials and services, the larger

the impact multiplier.

Imports are a measure of the goods and services purchased by Florida

firms or households from businesses outside Florida.

Indirect impacts are created through the sale of materials and services

to the industry by other state industries.

Induced impacts are due to spending by employees in a primary or support

industry and are distributed throughout the state economy by way of

retail purchases, checking and savings accounts, and other sales of

goods and services.

Total economic activity for a sector is the sum of total output and

the output generated in other sectors of the state economy due to indirect

and induced effects.

Total employment is the sum of direct employment and the employment

generated in other sectors due to indirect and induced effects.









Total income is the sum of direct income earned by each sector's employees

and the income generated in other sectors due to indirect and induced

effects.

Total output for a sector is the sum of in-state sales and exports.

This is measured in terms of the dollar value of each sector's sales

to final demand.

Value added provides a measure of the wages, interest, rent, and profit

earned by employees and owners of firms within each sector.









APPENDIX 1: NOTES ON CALCULATIONS

This appendix gives a brief description of the calculations used

to estimate the 1985 output and employment results reported in Tables

4 and 5. For these calculations it was assumed that: a) the intersectoral

transactions coefficients remained the same as those used in constructing

the 1980 input-output model reported in Milon et al., 1983; and, b)

the distribution of total sales between in-state and export sales in

1985 was the same as the distribution identified from survey data for

1980 and reported in Milon et al., 1983. Specific estimation procedures

were as follows:

Table 4: Instate sales by boat and trailer manufacturers and

boat equipment manufacturers were increased by the 1980-85 Florida

growth rates for these products reported in Table 3. Instate

sales by marinas and boatyards, marine trade, and marine services

were increased by the 1980-85 total Florida sales growth rate

from Table 2. Export sales by boat and trailer manufacturers

and boat equipment manufacturers were increased by the 1980-85

U.S. growth rates for these products reported in Table 3. Export

sales by the remaining sectors were increased by the 1980-85

total Florida sales growth rate from Table 2 since most export

sales are services rendered to tourists and there is no way to

distinguish resident and tourist sales in the Florida sales report-

ing system. Direct employment in each sector was estimated by

dividing the 1985 total output estimate (adjusted for inflation

using the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Producers' Price Index)









by the 1980 output per employee ratio for each sector. This

procedure assumes no change in labor productivity between 1980

and 1985.

Table 5: Estimated 1985 export sales for each sector were

increased by the sectoral multiplier from the three sources cited

in the text. The product of this multiplication was then added

to 1985 instate sales for each sector to determine total economic

activity. The specific multipliers used in the calculations

were:



Original Unadjusted Water Resources
Survey Model Council

Boat manufacturing 2.96 2.82 2.38
Eqpmt. manufacturing 2.31 2.95 2.37
Marinas & boatyards 3.36 3.24 2.39
Marine trade 2.63 2.93 2.92
Marine services 2.90 3.37 2.24










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