• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Materials and methods
 Results and discussion
 Conclusion
 Summary
 Acknowledgement and Literature...
 Tables






Group Title: Technical paper / Florida Sea Grant College Program ; no. 48
Title: Potential utilization of scallop viscera silage for solid waste management and as a feedstuff for swine
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 Material Information
Title: Potential utilization of scallop viscera silage for solid waste management and as a feedstuff for swine
Series Title: Technical paper Florida Sea Grant College
Physical Description: 25 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Myer, R. O
Florida Sea Grant College
Publisher: Sea Grant Extension Program
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1987
 Subjects
Subject: Fishery processing -- By-products   ( lcsh )
Scallops -- Waste disposal   ( lcsh )
Silage -- Handling   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Feeding and feeds   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 15-16).
Statement of Responsibility: R.O. Myer ... et al..
General Note: Grant NA85AA-D-SG059.
General Note: Cover title varies slightly.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075999
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 17445309

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Materials and methods
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Results and discussion
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 7
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Conclusion
        Page 14
        Page 13
    Summary
        Page 14
    Acknowledgement and Literature cited
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Tables
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
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POTENTIAL UTILIZATION OF SCALLOP VISCERA SILAGE FOR SOLID
WASTE MANAGEMENT AND AS A FEEDSTUFF FOR SWINE









R. 0. Myer
D. D. Johnson
W. Steven Otwell
W. R. Walker







Project No. R/LR-Q-9
Grant No. NA85AA-D-SG059






Technical Papers are duplicated in limited quantities for specialized audiences
requiring rapid access to information. They are published with limited editing
and without formal review by the Florida Sea Grant College Program. Content is
the sole responsibility of the author. This paper was developed by the Florida
Sea Grant College Program with support from NOAA Office of Sea Grant, U.S.
Department of Commerce, grant number NA85AA-D-SG059. It was published by the
Sea Grant Extension Program which functions as a component of the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, John T. Woeste, Dean, in conducting Cooperative
Extension work in Agriculture, Home Economics, and marine Sciences, State of
Florida, U.S. Department of Camnerce, and Boards of County Commissioners,
cooperating. Printed and distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of
May 8 and June 14, 1914. The Florida Sea Grant College is an Equal
Employment-Affirmative Action employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions
that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.



TECHNICAL PAPER NO. 48
January 1987
Price $1.00










Potential Utilization of Scallop Viscera Silage foo Solid
Waste Management and as a Feedstuff for Swine


R. 0. Myer2, D. D. Johnson3, W. S. Otwell4 and W. R. Walker5


INTRODUCTION


Waste management has been identified as a major problem

which will threaten the economic security of Florida's seafood

industry within the next ten years (1). One of the primary

concerns is treatment and disposal of solid wastes resulting from

seafood processing. For example, an adverse consequence of the

rapid increase in scallop processing has been the emergence of a

solid waste disposal problem. Average mechanical scallop

processing yields about 70% shell, 23% viscera and 7% edible meat

(2). The wet viscera portion represents a putrescent disposal

problem.

Utilization of scallop viscera as silage, much like that

developed for waste fish and fish offal (3,4), could represent a

practical solid waste treatment option which offers the

additional benefit of a protein feed supplement for production of

swine. Silage made with fish is a semi-liquid product made from

whole fish and (or) -fish parts liquefied by the action of



1Experiment MA-1986-3, project MAR-02337; supported by funding
from NOAA Office of Sea Grant, Department of Commerce, under
2Grant Number RLR 09.
"Associate Professor of Animal Science, University of Florida,
3Agricultural Research and Education Center, Marianna 32446.
Assistant Professor of Animal Science, Meat Science, Department
of Animal Science, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.
Associate Professor, Extension Seafood Specialist, Department of
Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Florida,
Gainesville 32611.
5Assistant Professor, Extension Swine Specialist, Department of
Animal Science, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611





-2-


naturally occurring indigenous enzymes in the fish aided by the

addition of organic acids or acidifying bacteria. The final

product is preserved by low acidity and does not have

objectionable odors or require refrigerated storage.

The development of swine feed ingredients that have

potential to reduce feed costs that disadvantage the Florida

swine producer is needed. Feed costs represent 40 to 70% of the

cost of swine production (5). Thus it is hypothesized that

viscera from Florida scallop processing will produce a silage

that can be used as a protein feed supplement for swine

production. Specifically, the objectives of this study were 1)

to determine if solid wastes resulting from scallop processing

can be ensiled and 2) to evaluate the feeding value of scallop

viscera silage and its effect on resulting carcass quality when

included in diets for growing-finishing swine.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The viscera was collected as needed after mechanical

shucking of the scallop shellfish at Southern Seafood, Inc., Port

Canaveral, FL. The viscera was refrigerated as soon as possible

after shucking and transported to the Food Science Department of

the University of Florida in insulated containers. A repres-

entative viscera sample was collected, frozen and later analyzed.

For analyses this sample was freeze-dried, ground and sent to a

commercial laboratory to determine the quantity of crude

protein, amino acids, crude fat (ether extract), total mineral

matter (ash), calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, cloride,

magnesium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc.



6Woodson-Tenent Laboratories, Inc., Memphis, TN.





-2-


naturally occurring indigenous enzymes in the fish aided by the

addition of organic acids or acidifying bacteria. The final

product is preserved by low acidity and does not have

objectionable odors or require refrigerated storage.

The development of swine feed ingredients that have

potential to reduce feed costs that disadvantage the Florida

swine producer is needed. Feed costs represent 40 to 70% of the

cost of swine production (5). Thus it is hypothesized that

viscera from Florida scallop processing will produce a silage

that can be used as a protein feed supplement for swine

production. Specifically, the objectives of this study were 1)

to determine if solid wastes resulting from scallop processing

can be ensiled and 2) to evaluate the feeding value of scallop

viscera silage and its effect on resulting carcass quality when

included in diets for growing-finishing swine.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The viscera was collected as needed after mechanical

shucking of the scallop shellfish at Southern Seafood, Inc., Port

Canaveral, FL. The viscera was refrigerated as soon as possible

after shucking and transported to the Food Science Department of

the University of Florida in insulated containers. A repres-

entative viscera sample was collected, frozen and later analyzed.

For analyses this sample was freeze-dried, ground and sent to a

commercial laboratory to determine the quantity of crude

protein, amino acids, crude fat (ether extract), total mineral

matter (ash), calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, cloride,

magnesium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc.



6Woodson-Tenent Laboratories, Inc., Memphis, TN.





-3-


Recommended AOAC (6) procedures were used except for the amino

acid tryptophan in which the procedure described by Spies (7) was

used. In addition, levels of cadmium, arsenic and mercury were

also determined (6).

n..li....g~..l..j.... Three ensiling trials were conducted. The

first involved formic acid addition, the second involved

bacterial fermentation and the third was a repeat of formic acid

addition. Trial 1 was done with one batch of viscera and trials

2 and 3 were done simultaneously with another batch. Before

ensiling, the wet viscera was minced usin9 a pressure belt system

fish debonder7 with a 5 mm head. For the formic acid addition

trials, 3 1/2% (w/w) of formic acid (92%) was mixed with minced

viscera. The bacteria fermentation trial involved the use of a

commercial preparation of lactic acid producing bacteria with an

available carbohydrate source 10% added molasses, mixed with

the minced viscera. Before mixing with the viscera-molasses mix,

the bacteria was prepared as recommended by the manufacturer and

added at a rate of 2.2 ml bacteria preparation per kg of

viscera-molasses mixture.

In each of the three ensiling trials, eight, 8 kg lots of

viscera silage were prepared. After mixing, the silages were

placed in 3 mil plastic bags and sealed. These bags were placed

in plastic containers and stored at room temperature (22 to 270

C). Before sealing, four pooled day 0 samples were collected



Baader model 694, North American Corp., New Bedford, MA.

Stabisil, Triple F Feeds, Inc., Des Moines, IA.





-4-


from all containers within the three trials, and frozen for

future analyses. On each of days 3, 7, 14, and 28 after the

start of ensiling, two containers were opened and two

representative samples were obtained from each container. These

samples were also frozen for future analyses.

For analyses, two of the four samples collected (one from

each container) in each trial on each day were thawed, and dry

matter content and pH were determined using conventional

procedures. For the second formic acid ensiling trial only,

soluble nitrogen was also determined using the procedure as

described by Haard et al. (8). Also for the second formic acid

trial only, the other two samples collected on each day were

freeze-dried and ground. These samples were analyzed for crude

protein, ether extract, ash, and amino acids as described above.

Swine ..fe.edin...tA.rl. For the feeding trial, the formic acid

ensiling procedure was used to ensile the scallop viscera. The

ensiling procedure used was similar to that outlined above except

larger, 16 kg lots were prepared. The silage was used after 7 or

14 days of storage at 22 to 300 C. A total of three different

batches of silage were prepared. Duplicate samples of the

silages were taken before sealing and after opening for each

batch, frozen and saved for future analyses. One sample of each

batch at each collection time was analyzed for dry matter and pH

as described above and the other was freeze-dried and ground.

The freeze-dried samples were analyzed for crude protein, amino

acids, ether extract, and ash as described before.

The swine feeding trial used pigs that were finished to

market size (growing-finishing swine)and was conducted at the






-5-


Marianna AREC Swine Unit. Forty-eight crossbred pigs, with an

average initial weight of 29 kg, were divided among four dietary

treatments. The four treatments consisted of corn-based diets

with three diets each containing a different level of viscera

silage 4, 8, and 12%, and a control diet with no added silage.

The pigs were allotted by sex, litter origin and initial weight

into pens of four pigs each. Each pen was assigned a treatment

at random within each of three replicates (blocks). Pigs were

housed in a semi-enclosed building in 2 x 4.5 m pens with solid

concrete floors. Each pen was equipped with an automatic

watering device.

All diets were formulated following NRC (9) guidelines. The

diets were adjusted (air-dry basis) to contain 0.75% lysine

during the growing phase (29 to 56 kg body weight) and 0.60%

lysine during the finishing phase (56 to 102 kg). The viscera

silage was assumed to contain 6% lysine (dry matter basis) and

75% moisture; NRC (9) lysine and dry matter values were used for

soybean meal and corn. Composition of experimental diets is

given in tables 1 and 2. A 50% propionic acid additive was

added at a rate of 0.5% of diet to prevent spoilage of the mixed

diets, especially those containing silage. Feed was available to

the pigs at all times in self feeders and the amount of feed fed

to each pen was recorded. Samples of diets were taken, frozen

and saved for future analyses. The diets were analyzed for dry

matter, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber and ash as

described before.



HMonoprop, Antitox Corp., Buford, GA.





- 6 -


At pig weights of about 40 to 45 kg and again at 75 to 80

kg, apparent dry matter and crude protein digestibilities of the

experimental diets were determined by using chromic oxide, an

indigestible indicator, added at a rate of 0.2% to the

experimental diets. Pigs were adjusted to the diets containing

the indicator for 5 days after which daily 'grab' fecal samples

were collected from at least three pigs per pen for each of four

consecutive days and frozen for subsequent analyses. This

procedure was done with all three replicates. For analysis, the

fecal samples were dried, ground, pooled by pen and a sample

taken. Both feed and fecal samples were analyzed for chromic

oxide (10), crude protein (6) and dry matter (6), and the

apparent digestibilities were calculated.

When pigs averaged 102 kg, the feeding phase was terminated.

All pigs from each pen were trucked to the University of Florida

Meats Lab in Gainesville, and slaughtered for carcass, fatty acid

and sensory evaluations. After chilling, each carcass was

evaluated for fat firmness, backfat thickness, amount of lean,

and loin eye size, color, marbling and firmness using standard

procedures (11). A section of the loin (7th to 10th rib) was

obtained, frozen and saved for sensory analysis.

For fatty acid analysis, the subcutaneous fat (all layers)

was removed opposite the eighth to tenth rib area, vacuum packed

and frozen. Preparation and analysis was the same as that

described in Myer.et al. (12). Fatty acid analysis was done on

samples from two representative pigs per pen only.

For sensory analysis, the loin section was divided into

chops 2.5 cm thick. The chops were thawed for 18 hr at 2 to 40






-7-


C, broiled to an internal temperature of 750 C and evaluated

using a trained sensory panel following recommended AMSA

procedures (13). The sensory panel evaluated the chops for

juiciness (8 = extremely juicy, 1 = extremely dry), overall

tenderness (8 = extremely tender, 1 = extremely tough) and

off-flavor (6 = none detected, 1 = extremely intense off-flavor).

Loin chops for Warner-Bratzler shear analysis were also thawed

for 18 hr at 2 to 40 C and broiled to an internal temperature of

750 C (13). After chops were cooled to 210 C, as many cores

(1.27 cm diameter) as possible were removed parallel to fiber

orientation from two chops and sheared on a Warner-Bratzler

shearing device10 for tenderness analysis.

Performance (average daily gain, average daily feed intake

and feed-to-gain ratio) and apparent digestibility data were

determined on a per pen basis. Carcass, fatty acid and sensory

evaluation data were determined on a per pig basis. Data were

analyzed by analysis of variance for randomized-complete-block

trial.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

C-o.mro.9i.5o .......Sc.a.9....V.is.a.a.. The nutrient composition of

scallop viscera is given in table 3. On a moisture free basis,

the viscera was found to be quite high in protein. This viscera

was also high in the essential amino acid lysine---usually the

most limiting component in the protein of grain-soybean

meal-based diets for swine. The viscera also had high levels of

the other essential amino acids with the possible exception of

tryptophan. While the level of tryptophan was relatively high in



10G. R. Electric Co., Manhattan, KS.





-8-


the viscera, in relation to the other essential amino acids, it

was fairly low. Corn-based diets for swine are usually second

limiting in tryptophan after lysine (9).

Scallop viscera was found to be relatively low in fat

content. This may be beneficial as a high content of fat (oil)

of marine origin in the diet for swine may give a 'fishy' taint

to the pork (14). This has been reported previously when pigs

were fed diets containing high levels of fish silage having a

high fat (oil) content (3,4).

Levels of the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium and mercury in

the viscera are also presented in table 3. Of the three metals,

cadmium was found to be relatively high. Cadmium toxicity may be

a potential problem for swine if the viscera is used at high

levels in the diet and fed over a long period of time. To

prevent toxicity to the pig and to minimize carryover into the

pork, it is generally recommended that the cadmium content of

swine diets not exceed 0.5 ppm (15). Fortunately, the cadmium

content of cereal grains and soybean meal is very low, often less

than 0.1 ppm (15). Thus, viscera can be included in the diet up

to a level of 4% (dry basis) without exceeding the 0.5 ppm safety

limit. At the 4% level in a typical corn-soybean meal-based

diet, the viscera could contribute about 25 to 40% of the total

dietary lysine.

Ensili.n....trAa_.as.. Of the two ensiling procedures evaluated,

formic acid addition proved to be the most successful. The

formic acid silages reached a safe pH of 3.3 to 3.7 immediately

(table 4) and no objectionable odor was noted on any sampling

day. The formic silages progressively became more liquid much





-9-


like that previously reported for formic acid treated fish

silages (3,4,8). On the other hand, problems were encountered

with the bacteria treated silages. The pH initially dropped

within 7 days to a safe level of 4.2 indicating that the bacteria

were converting the available carbohydrate to lactic acid.

However, excessive gas formation occurred causing the seals to be

broken and subsequently the silages spoiled. The cause of the

gas production is unknown be may be due to the indigenous

bacteria and (or) yeasts on the viscera. Van Wyk et al. (16)

reported problems encountered with gas production by yeasts in

bacteria fermentation ensiling trials with fish processing

wastes. This gas production did not occur with the formic acid

silages in our trials.

Because of the success with formic acid addition, more

detailed nutrient composition was desired and obtained on samples

from the second formic acid ensiling trial (trial 3) and is

presented in table 5. Nutrient analyses of the silages indicated

that on a dry matter basis, the silages were quite high in crude

protein much like that observed in the freeze-dried sample of raw

viscera (table 3). The content of lysine was also quite high.

There was a 7 1/2 fold increase in soluble nitrogen from day 0 to

day 28, indicating some breakdown of amino acids and other

nitrogen containing compounds. This increase in soluble nitrogen

was most apparent in the initial days of the ensiling process. A

similar finding has been observed with fish silages (8).

However, only minimal nutrient deterioration was noted even after

28 days. Of the essential amino acids, tryptophan and histidine

are thought to be the least stable in formic acid treated fish





- 10 -


silages (3). In our trial there was a trend for some degradation

of these two amino acids with time; however, the losses were not

any greater than that observed for the other amino acids.

Because of the slight trend of increased nutrient deterioration

from 14 to 28 days observed in our trials, maximum nutrient

concentration in formic acid-treated viscera silage appeared to

occur between 3 to 14 days after the start of ensiling process at

room temperature.

eSwLn_.Fe_.ed .g...r.... Nutrient composition of the formic

acid silages at the start and after ensiling is presented in

table 6. Nutrient compositions of the other two major dietary

components, corn and soybean meal, are also presented in table 6.

The viscera silages used in the feeding trial were lower in crude

protein and amino acids than the silages in the ensiling trials

(dry matter basis). The reasons for these differences are not

known. However, the viscera used in the ensiling trials and

swine feeding trials were obtained at different times of the

year---fall for ensiling trials vs spring for the feeding trial.

In addition, the viscera used for the ensiling trials was

collected during a period when scallops were relatively plentiful

whereas the viscera for the feeding trial was obtained during a

period when scallops were relatively scarce.

Performance summary of the growing-finishing trial is

presented in table 7. The addition of formic acid scallop

viscera silage at 4, 8 or 12% of the diet did not influence

(P>.10) pig growth rate as measured by average daily gain. This

lack of an effect on average daily gain was noted in both the

grower and finisher phases. However, the addition of viscera






- 11 -


silage to the diet had a linear detrimental effect (P<.05) on

feed-to-gain ratio; slightly more feed was required per unit of

9ain over the entire 9rowing-finishing period as the level of

viscera silage in the diet increased. This detrimental effect on

feed-to-gain was noted in both the grower (P<.05) and finisher

(P<.10) phases. The reason for this detrimental effect may be

due to the decreasing level of analyzed crude protein in the

diets as the content of viscera increased (tables 1 and 2). Thus

at the higher viscera levels, the diets may have been marginally

deficient in amino acids (protein), in particular lysine, which

could result in higher feed-to-gain ratios. The diets were

formulated to be of similar protein content. The reason for the

decrease with increasing viscera level in the diets may be due to

lower than expected protein (amino acid) and higher than expected

moisture content of the viscera silages (table 6). Comparisons

of protein consumed-to-gain ratios, which would correct for these

differences in dietary protein, indicated no difference (P>.10)

due to the addition of viscera silage to the diet (table 7).

This lack of a difference was true for both grower and finisher

phases. This finding would indicate that the protein nutritive

value of the diets containing either 4, 8 or 12% viscera sila9e

were similar to the diet containing no viscera silage.

Apparent digestibilities of dry matter and crude protein of

the grower and finisher diets used in the 9rowing-finishin9 swine

trial are presented in table 8. The addition of 4, 8 or 12%

viscera silage to the diet had no effect (P>.10) on dry matter or

crude protein digestibility of either the grower or finisher






-7-


C, broiled to an internal temperature of 750 C and evaluated

using a trained sensory panel following recommended AMSA

procedures (13). The sensory panel evaluated the chops for

juiciness (8 = extremely juicy, 1 = extremely dry), overall

tenderness (8 = extremely tender, 1 = extremely tough) and

off-flavor (6 = none detected, 1 = extremely intense off-flavor).

Loin chops for Warner-Bratzler shear analysis were also thawed

for 18 hr at 2 to 40 C and broiled to an internal temperature of

750 C (13). After chops were cooled to 210 C, as many cores

(1.27 cm diameter) as possible were removed parallel to fiber

orientation from two chops and sheared on a Warner-Bratzler

shearing device10 for tenderness analysis.

Performance (average daily gain, average daily feed intake

and feed-to-gain ratio) and apparent digestibility data were

determined on a per pen basis. Carcass, fatty acid and sensory

evaluation data were determined on a per pig basis. Data were

analyzed by analysis of variance for randomized-complete-block

trial.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

C-o.mro.9i.5o .......Sc.a.9....V.is.a.a.. The nutrient composition of

scallop viscera is given in table 3. On a moisture free basis,

the viscera was found to be quite high in protein. This viscera

was also high in the essential amino acid lysine---usually the

most limiting component in the protein of grain-soybean

meal-based diets for swine. The viscera also had high levels of

the other essential amino acids with the possible exception of

tryptophan. While the level of tryptophan was relatively high in



10G. R. Electric Co., Manhattan, KS.






- 12 -


diets. This lack of an effect on dry matter or, especially crude

protein digestibility, agrees with the similarity of daily gain

and protein-to-gain ratios observed in the feeding phase. Thus,

it appears that the protein nutritive value of the viscera silage

for swine when fed at levels of up to 12% of the diet is

comparable to the protein nutritive value of a soybean meal-corn

based diet. This finding is in agreement with that usually

observed with fish silages fed to swine (3).

Summary of carcass characteristics is presented in table 9.

The addition of scallop viscera silage to the diet had no effect

on resulting carcass backfat thickness, length, loin eye area or

percentage of the four main lean cuts. Likewise, there were no

differences in backfat fatty acid composition which are

summarized in table 10. This latter finding was expected since

the level of fat (oil) in viscera silage was quite low (table 6).

Meat quality and compositional characteristics of the loin

and sensory characteristics of broiled loin chops is summarized

in table 11. Loin lean color, firmness, texture, and fat and

moisture contents were not affected (P>.10) by dietary treatment.

Marbling score, however, did show a slight but linear increase

(P<.10), indicating increased visible marbling, as the amount of

viscera increased in the diet. The reason for this increase is

not known.

The consumption of viscera silage by the pigs had no effect

(P>.10) on palatability characteristics of broiled loin chops as

determined by a trained sensory panel (table 11). The values

indicated that the chops were acceptable in tenderness and had no






- 13 -


detectable off-flavor. The consumption of the viscera silage

also had no effect on shear force value of the loin chop or on

average cooking losses. The lack of differences in palatability

indicated no problem existed with the pork having a 'fishy'

taint, a problem that has been observed previously with pigs fed

high levels of fish silage (3,4). The 'fishy' taint is due to

the relatively high fat (oil) content of the fish silages. Fish

oil and oil from many other marine animals is high in unique long

chain unsaturated fatty acids and some of these fatty acids can

show up in the pork fat, thus giving the pork a 'fishy' taste

(14). Again the reason for lack of differences is probably due

to the low oil content of the viscera silage. The lack of

differences observed in backfat fatty acid composition further

supports this finding.

CONCLUSION

The ensiling of wet scallop viscera with formic acid and its

utilization as a supplemental protein source for swine diets may

offer a practical means of disposal of the viscera. In our

initial trial, the viscera silage supported 9ood growth when

included at levels of 4, 8 or 12% in corn-soybean meal-based

diets. The pork from these pigs was found by a trained sensory

panel to be acceptable.

It should be reemphasized that the viscera silage was quite

high in moisture content. This high moisture level would limit

its use in most swine feeding systems used in the United States.

In the 12% diet used in our swine trial, the viscera contributed

only 3% of the dietary dry matter and just 14% of the total






- 14 -


dietary protein. The rest of the dietary protein was provided by

the soybean meal and corn. Thus to really be effective, viscera

silage would best be suited in liquid swine feeding systems in

which higher levels could be used.
SUMMARY

A study was conducted to determine if solid wastes resulting

from scallop processing can be ensiled (preserved and stabilized)

and to evaluate the feeding value of this silage and its effect

on resulting carcass quality when included in diets for growing-

finishing swine. The viscera, on a moisture-free basis, was

found to be quite high in protein (80 to 90%) and in all of the

essential amino acids except possibly tryptophan. The viscera

was rather low in fat (oil) content; however, it contained a very

high level of moisture (74 to 82X). The viscera was successfully

ensiled by mixing 3 1/2% (w/w) formic acid with minced wet

viscera and placing the mixture in airtight containers. Only

minimal nutrient deterioration was noted in the silage after 28

days of sealed storage at room temperature. The addition of 4, 8

or 12% silage in diets for growing-finishing swine (29 to 102 kg)

resulted in no detrimental effect on growth, feed intake or

protein utilization. The inclusion of viscera silage in the

diets also had no detrimental effect on resulting carcass

composition, backfat fatty acid composition or on the

palatability of broiled loin chops as determined by a trained

taste panel. Thus the ensiling of wet scallop viscera with

formic acid and its subsequent utilization as a protein feed

supplement for swine diets may offer a practical means of

disposal of the viscera.






- 13 -


detectable off-flavor. The consumption of the viscera silage

also had no effect on shear force value of the loin chop or on

average cooking losses. The lack of differences in palatability

indicated no problem existed with the pork having a 'fishy'

taint, a problem that has been observed previously with pigs fed

high levels of fish silage (3,4). The 'fishy' taint is due to

the relatively high fat (oil) content of the fish silages. Fish

oil and oil from many other marine animals is high in unique long

chain unsaturated fatty acids and some of these fatty acids can

show up in the pork fat, thus giving the pork a 'fishy' taste

(14). Again the reason for lack of differences is probably due

to the low oil content of the viscera silage. The lack of

differences observed in backfat fatty acid composition further

supports this finding.

CONCLUSION

The ensiling of wet scallop viscera with formic acid and its

utilization as a supplemental protein source for swine diets may

offer a practical means of disposal of the viscera. In our

initial trial, the viscera silage supported 9ood growth when

included at levels of 4, 8 or 12% in corn-soybean meal-based

diets. The pork from these pigs was found by a trained sensory

panel to be acceptable.

It should be reemphasized that the viscera silage was quite

high in moisture content. This high moisture level would limit

its use in most swine feeding systems used in the United States.

In the 12% diet used in our swine trial, the viscera contributed

only 3% of the dietary dry matter and just 14% of the total






- 14 -


dietary protein. The rest of the dietary protein was provided by

the soybean meal and corn. Thus to really be effective, viscera

silage would best be suited in liquid swine feeding systems in

which higher levels could be used.
SUMMARY

A study was conducted to determine if solid wastes resulting

from scallop processing can be ensiled (preserved and stabilized)

and to evaluate the feeding value of this silage and its effect

on resulting carcass quality when included in diets for growing-

finishing swine. The viscera, on a moisture-free basis, was

found to be quite high in protein (80 to 90%) and in all of the

essential amino acids except possibly tryptophan. The viscera

was rather low in fat (oil) content; however, it contained a very

high level of moisture (74 to 82X). The viscera was successfully

ensiled by mixing 3 1/2% (w/w) formic acid with minced wet

viscera and placing the mixture in airtight containers. Only

minimal nutrient deterioration was noted in the silage after 28

days of sealed storage at room temperature. The addition of 4, 8

or 12% silage in diets for growing-finishing swine (29 to 102 kg)

resulted in no detrimental effect on growth, feed intake or

protein utilization. The inclusion of viscera silage in the

diets also had no detrimental effect on resulting carcass

composition, backfat fatty acid composition or on the

palatability of broiled loin chops as determined by a trained

taste panel. Thus the ensiling of wet scallop viscera with

formic acid and its subsequent utilization as a protein feed

supplement for swine diets may offer a practical means of

disposal of the viscera.






- 15 -


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The assistance of Southern Seafood Company of Port

Canaveral, Florida is greatly appreciated. The assistance of

Gale Shultz, Larry Eubanks, Frances Mew, Harvey Standland, Mary

Chambliss, John Crawford, Wendell Wilkes, Alvin Boning, Jr., Dr.

J. A. Koburger, Dr. G. E. Combs and Dr. R. L. West is also

appreciated.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Fisheries Commodity Report. 1982. Florida Agriculture in

the 80's. IFAS, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.

2. Carawan, R. E. and F. B. Thomas. 1980. Assisting North

Carolina seafood processors in meeting water pollution

requirements. p. 10-25. In. Seafood Waste Management in the

1980's, Otwell, W. S. (ed.). Florida Sea Grant Rep. No. 40,

Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.

3. Raa, J. and A. Gildberg. 1982. Fish silage: a review. CRC

Critical Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 16:383.

4. Winter, K. A. and L. A. W. Feltham. 1983. Fish Silage: the

protein solution. Contribution 1983-6E. Agriculture

Canada, Res. Branch, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island.

5. Swine Commodity Report. 1982. Florida Agriculture in the

80's. IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville.

6. AOAC. 1984. Official Methods of Analysis (14th ed.).

Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington,

DC.

7. Spies, J. R. 1967. Determination of tryptophan in

proteins. Anal. Chem. 39:1412-1416.






- 16 -


8. Haard, N. F., N. Kariel, G. Herzberg, L. A. W. Feltham and

K. Winter. 1985. Stabilization of protein and oil in fish

silage for use as a ruminant feed supplement. J. Sci. Food

Agric. 36:299.

9. NRC. 1979. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, No.

2, Nutrient Requirements of Swine (8th revised ed.). Nat'l.

Academy of Sci., Washington, DC.

10. Christian, K. R. and M. R. Coup. 1954. Measurement of feed

intake by grazing cattle in New Zealand. New Zealand J.

Sci. Tech. 36:328.

11. NPPC. 1983. Procedures to evaluate market hog performance.

2nd Ed. National Pork Producers Council. Des Moines, IA.

12. Myer, R. 0., R. L. West, D. W. Gorbet and C. L. Brasher.

1985. Performance and carcass characteristics of swine as

affected by the consumption of peanuts remaining in the

field after harvest. J. Anim. Sci. 61:1378.

13. AMSA. 1978. Guidelines for cookery and sensory evaluation

of meat. American Meat Science Association. Chicago, IL.

14. Kifer, R. R., P. Smith, Jr. and E. P. Yound. 1971. Effect

of dietary fish oil on the fatty acid composition and

palatability of pig tissues. Fishery Bul. 69:281.

15. NAS. 1980. Cadmium. p. 93-130. .In Mineral Tolerance of

Domestic Animals. Nat'l. Academy of Sci., Nat'l. Academy

Press, Washington, DC.

16. Van Wyk, H. J. and C. M. S. Heydenrych. 1985. The

production of naturally fermented fish silage using various

lactobocilli and different carbohydrate sources. J. Sci.

Food Agric. 36:1093.






- 17 -


TABLE 1. PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF GROWER DIETS (SWINE TRIAL)



...Amount of viscera sila9e in diet ....
Ingredient 0 4 8 12


Viscera silagea -- 4.00 8.00 12.00
Ground corn 78.55 77.05 75.55 74.05
Soybean meal (48%) 18.00 15.50 13.00 10.50
Constants 3.45 3.45 3.45 3.45
100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Calculated compositionC:
Dry matter 88 85 83 80
Lysine 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69
Lysine (dry matter
basis) 0.85 0.86 0.86 0.86
Calcium 0.72 ? ?
Phosphorus 0.56 ? ? ?

Analyzed composition:
Dry matter 89.8 87.3 85.3 83.0
Crude protein 17.4 16.6 15.6 15.0
Crude protein (dry
matter basis) 19.4 19.0 18.3 18.0
Crude fat 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.7
Crude fiber 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.3
Ash 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.0
-- --------------------------------------------------------------
aFormic acid treated viscera silage.

Provided the following to the diet: dicalcium phosphate, 1.25%;
calcium carbonate, 1.00%; salt, 0.30%; vitamin premix, 0.20%;
trace mineral premix, 0.05%; antibiotic premix, 0.15%; and mold
inhibitor (50% propionic acid), 0.50%. Vitamin premix provided
the following per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 4400 IU; vitamin
D3, 700 IU; vitamin E, 18 IU; vitamin K activity, 2.6 mg;
riboflavin, 3.5 mg; d-pantothenic acid, 14 mg; niacin, 18 mg;
choline chloride, 440 mg; vitamin B12 18 pg; and selenium, 0.09
mg. Trace mineral prexmix provided the following per kilogram
of diet: zinc, 100 mg; iron, 50 mg; manganese, 22 mg; copper,
5 mg; and iodine, 0.8 mg. Antibiotic premix provided 55 mg
nitrofurazone per kilogram of diet.

cCalculated using National Research Council table values (1979)
with viscera silage containing 6.0% lysine (DM basis) and 75%
moisture.


'Average of analysis of two separate samples.






- 18 -


TABLE 2. PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF FINISHER DIETS (SWINE TRIAL)



... .. .. *,*,-** -** .......... ... _.._Z _...
Ingredient 0 4 8 12


Viscera silagea -- 4.00 8.00 12.00
Ground corn 84.00 82.33 80.67 79.00
Soybean meal (48%) 13.00 10.67 8.33 6.00
Constants 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Calculated compositionC:
Dry matter 88 85 83 80
Lysine 0.61 0.59 0.57 0.56
Lysine (dry matter
basis) 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.70
Calcium 0.61 ? ? ?
Phosphorus 0.53 ? ? ?

Analyzed composition:
Dry matter 88.0 86.0 83.9 82.0
Crude protein 14.2 13.7 13.0 12.4
Crude protein (dry
matter basis) 16.1 15.9 15.5 15.2
Crude fat 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.7
Crude fiber 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.2
Ash 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.7


aFormic acid treated viscera silage.

Provided the following to the diet: dicalcium phosphate, 1.20%;
calcium carbonate, 0.80%; salt, 0.30%; vitamin premix, 0.15%;
trace mineral premix, 0.05%; and mold inhibitor (50% propionic
acid), 0.50%. Vitamin premix provided the following per
kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 3300 IU; vitamin D3, 525 IU;
vitamin E, 14 IU; vitamin K activity, 2.0 mg; riboflavin, 2.6
mg; d-pantothenic acid, 10 mg; niacin, 14 mg; choline chloride,
330 mg; vitamin B12, 14 p ; and selenium, 0.07 mg. Trace
mineral prexmix provided the following per kilogram of diet:
zinc, 100 mg; iron, 50 mg; manganese, 22 mg; copper, 5 mg; and
iodine, 0.8 mg.
CCalculated using National Research Council table values (1979)
with viscera silage containing 6.0% lysine (DM basis) and 75%
moisture.


Average of analysis of three separate samples.






- 19 -


TABLE 3. NUTRIENT AND HEAVY METAL COMPOSITION OF SCALLOP
VISCERA DRY MATTER BASISa

------------------------------------------------------------

Item Amount/units
-- ----------------------------------------------------------

Crude protein (N x 6.25) 83.9%
Crude fat 3.5%
Total mineral matter (ash) 9.4%

Calcium 2.5%
Phosphorus 0.80%
Potassium 0.25%
Sodium 0.54%
Chloride 0.66%
Magnesium 0.27%

Copper 6 ppm
Iodine <20 ppm
Iron 190 ppm
Manganese 13 ppm
Selenium 2.4 ppm
Zinc 85 ppm

Essential amino acids:
Lysine 6.34X
Tryptophan 0.48%
Threonine 3.44%
Methionine 2.30%
Isoleucine 3.98%
Leucine 6.07%
Valine 3.19%
Histidine 3.67%
Phenylalanine 3.12%
Arginine 7.97%

Non-essential amino acids:
Cystine 1.17%
Tyrosine 3.95%
Aspartic acid 6.59%
Serine 1.25%
Glutamic acid 12.55%
Proline 4.51%
Alanine 6.77%
Hydroxyproline 1.95%

Heavy metals.
Arsenic 5 ppm
Cadmium 10 ppm
Mercury <0.3 ppm

F -resh scallop viscera contains 75 to 85% water.
a Fresh scallop viscera contains 75 to 85% water.






- 20 -


TABLE 4. MOISTURE CONTENT AND pH OF SCALLOP VISCERA SILAGES
ENSILINGG TRIALS)

----------------------------------------------------------------

Trial 1 Tr.ial 2 Tri... ...a... l ... 3.....
Formic acid Bacteria Formic acid
Item silage silage silage
---------------------------------------------------------------

Daya 0 pH 3.7 6.8 3.3
Moisture, X 84.9 77.8 82.2

Day 3 pH 3.7 4.6 3.4
Moisture, X 83.4 77.0 80.4

Day 7 pH 3.6 4.4 3.4
Moisture, % 83.6 75.8 79.8

Day 14 pH 3.8 4.2 3.5
Moisture, % 85.4 77.0 80.3

Day 28 pH 3.8 4.2 3.6
Moisture, % 84.4 75.0 80.0
---------------------------------------------------------
aDay sample collected after start of ensiling.


TABLE 5. PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF FORMIC ACID TREATED .SCALLOP
VISCERA SILAGE DRY MATTER BASIS ENSILINGG TRIAL 3)



............ j _... A ......................................................
Item 0 3 7 14 28


Crude protein 91.9 92.3 91.7 91.8 89.2
Crude fat 1.2 1.4 1.8 1.8 1.6
Ash 4.6 4.7 4.8 5.0 4.7

Selected
amino acids:
Lysine 5.90 6.24 5.78 5.53 5.42
Tryptophan .49 .50 .55 .60 .48
Threonine 3.69 3.74 3.70 3.48 3.52
Methionine 2.22 2.69 2.77 2.57 2.39
Cystine/2 .83 .82 .82 .75 .69
Histidine 1.51 1.57 1.46 1.41 1.35

Soluble N, m9/9a 4 15 21 27 30


a20% dry matter basis.







- 21 -


TABLE 6. COMPOSITION OF FORMIC ACID TREATED VISCERA SILAGES AND
OTHER DIETARY INGREDIENTS USED IN SWINE FEEDING TRIAL.

-- --------------------------------------------------------------

..................... s.V c 3.s a...s.i.l2 .93 e....................... So y bean
Start When used meal
Item Mear Ranre Mean- Range (48%)c Corn

Dry matter, % 21.0 16.4-23.9 18.5 15.5-21.1 89. -88.4
pH 3.8 3.4-4.2 3.8 3.4-4.1 NA NA
Composition, X
(dry matter basis):
Crude protein 76.2 69.0-82.3 77.7 71.0-83.7 57.1 10.4
Crude fat 1.9 1.8-2.1 2.4 2.2-2.6 1.0 4.0
Ash 14.4 9.6-19.8 14.2 9.8-19.4 8.0 1.5
Lysine 4.78 4.31-5.14 5.16 4.36-5.73 3.26 0.36
Tryptophan 0.49 0.43-0.56 0.54 0.47-0.60 0.72 0.08
Threonine 3.56 3.08-4.11 3.61 3.21-3.92 2.53 0.48
Methionine 2.17 1.82-2.41 2.25 1.89-2.53 0.94 0.17
Cystine 0.83 0.67-0.96 0.88 6.77-0.94 0.82 0.15
Histidine 1.80 1.69-2.00 1.70 1.55-1.91 1.78 0.35


aAverage of three analyses each representing a different batch.

b
'Average of five analyses two separate samples of the first
batch (for grower diets), two separate samples of the second
batch (for finisher diets) and one of the third batch (finisher
diets).

CAverage of analyses of two separate samples (one used for grower
diets and the other for finisher diets).


Not applicable.






- 22 -


TABLE 7. PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING SWINE FED DIETS
CONTAINING SCALLOP VISCERA SILAGEa.

----------------------------------------------------------------
Amount of viscera S...si.l.SC.ge.....i..r....di .et. ....
Itemb 0 4 8 12

-------Grower phase (29 to 56 kg) --


Avg. daily gain, kg
Avg. daily feed
intake, kg d
Feed/unit gain kg/kg
Protein consumed/unit
gain, kg/kg

S - -- -Fi

Avg. daily gain, kg
Avg. daily feed
intake, kg
Feed/unit gained, kg/k9
Protein consumed/unit
gain, kg/kg

- - - -

Avg. daily gain, kg
Avg. daily feed
intake, kg
Feed/unit gain kg/kg
Protein consumed/unit
gain, kg/kg


0.84


2.09
2.49

0.43

nisher

0.91

2.99
3.33

0.47

- Overa

0.89

2.65
3.03

0.46


0.90

2.27
2.53

0.43

phase (56

0.90

2.90
3.27

0.46

11 (29 to

0.90

2.66
2.99

0.45


0.90

2.28
2.52

0.41

to 102 kg)

0.91

3.04
3.40

0.47

102 kg) -

0.91

2.77
3.08

0.45


aThree pens per treatment with four pigs per pen..

bFeed consumption of the diets were adjusted to a constant dry
matter intake that of the 0% diet.

n = 3.

dLinear effect (P<.05).

eLinear effect (P<.10).


0.85

2.26
2.67

0.43



0.86

2.94
3.45

0.46



0.86

2.68
3.16

0.45


.03

.07
.05

.01



.03

.08
.05

.01



.03

.07
.03

.01






- 23 -


TABLE 8. APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY COEFFICIENTS (%) OF SWINE DIETS
CONTAINING SCALLOP VISCERA SILAGEa.

-----------------------------------------------------------------

...Amonunt of viscera silaqe in di.et, X
Item 0 4 8 12 SEb
-----------------------------------------------------------------

Grower diets:
Dry matter 82.9 82.0 82.1 82.7 0.3
Crude protein 76.6 75.7 76.3 75.6 0.5

Finisher diets:
Dry matter 84.9 84.8 84.9 84.8 0.2
Crude protein 77.7 78.0 78.6 77.6 0.5
-- --------------------------------------------------------------

Indicator method; five day adjustment followed by four day
collection period. Three pens per treatment with four pigs
per pen, collections from at least three pigs per pen each
collection day; approximate pig weights, 35 to 45 kg grower
and 70 to 80 kg finisher,.

n = 3.




TABLE 9. CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS FROM GROWING-FINISHING SWINE
FED DIETS CONTAINING SCALLOP VISCERA SILAGEa.



Amount of viscera silaqe i n diet, X.
Item 0 4 8 12 SE


Avg. backfatb, cm 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.2 0.1

Carcass lengthb, cm 82 80 80 79 0.2

Loin eye areab, cm2 29 29 28 30 1.3

Four lean cuts, % 59 60 59 59 0.7
-------------------------------------------------------------------
aEach mean is based on information from 12 animals.

Adjusted to 100 kg.






- 24 -


TABLE 10. BACKFAT FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND CARCASS FAT
FIRMNESS OF SWINE THAT CONSUMED DIETS CONTAINING
SCALLOP VISCERA SILAGEa

----------------------------------------------------------------

Amount of viscer. a sil.ace ...i.n..di-et,....%.
Item 0 4 8 12 SE
----------------------------------------------------------------

Saturated fatty acids, %
C12 3 3 3 3 0.1
C14 5 5 5 4 0.1
C16 24 24 24 24 0.4
C18 13 13 13 13 0.3

Unsaturaded fatty acids, %
C16:1 4 4 4 4 0.1
C18:1 36 37 37 37 0.4
C18:2 10 10 10 10 0.4
C20:1 2 2 2 2 0.1

Unsat'd:sat'd ratiob 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.1

Fat firmness scored 1.3 1.6 1 1. 1.6 0.2
----------------------------------------------------------------
aEach mean is based on the information from six animals.

bRatio of C16:l C20:1 to C12 C18 fatty acids reported here.

cScores: 1 = firm; 2 = slightly firm; 3 = slightly soft; 4
soft, oily.






- 25 -


Table 11. QUALITATIVE COMPOSITIONAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS
AND SHEAR FORCE VALUES OF LOIN CHOPS FROM SWINE THAT
CONSUMED DIETS CONTAINING SCALLOP VISCERA SILAGEa.



Amount of viscera silaqe in diet, 7
Item 0 4 8 12 SE


Marbling scorebi 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.8 0.2
Lean color scored 2.6 2.9 2.9 2.8 0.2
Lean firmness score 3.0 2.5 2.7 2.7 0.2
Lean texture score 2.8 2.5 2.4 2.6 0.2
Fat, % 4.0 4.5 4.2 4.6 0.3
Moisture, % 73.2 72.8 73.4 73.2 0.4
Sensory scores of
broiled chops:
Overall tendernessf 6.7 6.3 6.5 6.7 0.2
Juiciness9 5.4 5.3 5.4 5.6 0.2
Off-flavorh 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.6 0.1
Shear force, kg/1.2 cm 3.6 3.8 3.4 3.4 0.2
Cooking loss, % 34.9 33.9 33.9 34.7 1.1
-----------------------------------------------------------------
aEach mean is based on information from 12 animals.

Scores: 1 to 5; 2 = slight; 3 = small.

cScores: 1 to 5; 2 = gray; 3 = light pink.

dScores: 1 to 5; 2 = firm; 3 = slightly firm.

eScores: 1 to 5; 2 = fine; 3 = slightly fine.

Scores: 1 to 8; 6 = moderately tender; 7 = tender..

SScores: 1 to 8; 5 = slightly juicy; 6 = moderately juicy.

Scores: 1 to 6; 5 = just detectable, threshold; 6 = none
detected.

iLinear effect (P<.10).




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