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A Fisheries Institution Management-Training Simulation Model
GENERAL USER'S GUIDE
Jerald S. Ault and William W. Fox, Jr.
Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science
University of Miami
4600 Rickenbacker Causeway
Miami, Florida 33149
Project No. E/C-8
Grant No. NA80AA-D-00038
Technical Papers are duplicated in limited quantities for specialized audiences
requiring rapid access to information. They are published with limited editing
and without formal review by the Florida Sea Grant College Program. Content is
the sole responsibility of the author. This paper was developed by the Florida
Sea Grant College Program with support from NOAA Office of Sea Grant, U.S.
Department of Cammerce, grant number NA85AA-D-SG059. It was published by the
Sea Grant Extension Program which functions as a component of the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service, John T. Woeste, Dean, in conducting Cooperative
Extension work in Agriculture, Home Econanics, and marine Sciences, State of
Florida, U.S. Department of Cmmnerce, and Boards of County Canmissioners,
cooperating. Printed and distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of
May 8 and June 14, 1914. The Florida Sea Grant College is an Equal
Employment-Affirmative Action employer authorized to provide research,
educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions
that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national origin.
TECHNICAL PAPER NO. 47
FINMAN (Fishery INstitutional MANagement-Training Simulation Model) is a
microcomputer-based program which simulates decision-making responses at
three levels within the fishery management institution: (1) fishery management
rules, (2) fishery agency general budget allocations, and (3) research budget
allocations. The program also allows for a variety of fishery types, rule
development structures, and levels of authority over the fishery. FINMAN
serves as (1) an analysis program for investigating system responses, and (2) an
educational program for demonstrating system responses under a variety of
situations. The program is written in BASIC with versions available for the
Apple He, Apple Ic and IBM-PC microcomputers.
Program Name: FINMAN Version 1.0*
General User's Guide for the University of Miami Fishery Institution
Management-Training and Research Simulation Project: William W. Fox, Jr.,
Principal Investigator. By Jerald S. Ault and William W. Fox, Jr., CIMAS,
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600
Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, Florida. This work is a result of research
sponsored by NOAA Office of Sea Grant, Department of Commerce, Florida Sea
Grant College Program, under Grant No. E/C-8.
Designed for the Apple He, IIc, and the IBM/PC microcomputer systems.
Program storage requirements are 128K in RAM (64K in ROM) and one disk
drive; output is arranged for an 80-column display. Available versions are
written in Applesoft BASIC (Apple computers) and Microsoft BASIC (IBM/PC's),
and are user-interactive with specialized data base file manipulation features.
*To obtain a copy of the program send one (1) blank two-sided 5 1/4"
diskette or two (2) blank single-sided 5 1/4" diskettes, specifying the
type of microcomputer you have, along with a prepaid return mailer, to
the authors at Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science,
University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149.
1.0 FINMAN Initial Conditions
Section I: Program Startup
1.1 Hardware/Software Operation Specifications and Program Execution
I1.1. Instruction for Apple lie and Ic microcomputers
1. Insert ProDOS Based system disk in Drive #1
2. To "boot" disk:
A) Turn the computer power ON and the monitor screen on, or
B) If the power is already ON and/or if you want to initiate another
System will reboot while the power remains on.
3. The ProDOS User's Disk prompt will appear on the screen:
A) Make sure the Caps Lock key is down.
B) Type B to obtain the Applesoft BASIC programming mode.
4. The prompt ] and a blinking cursor will appear in the lower left-hand
corner of the screen. Now type:
The screen will clear, and the 80-column prompt and a non-blinking
cursor will appear in the upper left-hand corner of the screen.
5. The program FINMAN consists of over 30 discrete modules. To see
the modular contents of the disk type:
6. To begin execution of the program type:
1.1.2 Instruction for the IBM PC
1. Insert the IBM Personal Computer Disk Operating System (DOS) in
2. To boot disk, turn power ON and monitor screen ON.
From this point the machine will take about 30 seconds to a minute
to warm up and load the system disk. You will hear a beep followed
by a whirring of the disk drive.
3. The IBM Personal Computer DOS Version 2.10 prompt will appear
on the screen, followed by the A drive prompt.
A) Make sure the Caps Lock key is down.
B) Type: BASICA, to obtain the Microsoft Advanced version of
BASIC, the prompt READY will appear.
4. Replace the system disk with the IBM version of FINMAN in Drive A.
5. The program FINMAN consists of over 30 discrete modules. To see
the modular contents of the disk type:
6. To begin execution of the program FINMAN type:
The FINMAN simulation program was designed menu driven to assist the
user. The following narratives explain the management structure setup and the
decisions option sequence. For detailed program description and further
questions the reader should refer to the FINMAN Model Description and
*FINMAN Model Description and Operations Manual (127 pages) is available
as Technical Paper 47-A (Appendix), at a cost of $8.00. Checks should
be made payable to the University of Florida. Mail to Florida Sea
Grant Extension Program, G022 McCarty Hall, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611.
Section II: Option Selections for Management Scenario
To initialize the constraints placed on your abilities and management
authority within a particular fishery system, you will be shown a series of options
screens so that an information base can be generated. The information base
guides basic decision processes regarding management measures and institutional
1.2 Management Structure Settings
The program initializes with the FINMAN Version 1.0 title screen. All
subsequent screens are management setting designed with prompts.
First Prompt: Management System Type screen
1.2.1 Management System Type
Option allows you to choose among 3 types of fishery management system
-structures. These management system types are ordered in ascending levels of
difficulty for achieving optimum fishery management policy.
Decisions by management are 100% implemented. Decisions can be
additionally filtered depending upon other budget and policy decisions you make
and their relationship to optimum.
You make recommendations on fishery institution decisions. Your policy
power is limited to having one vote on a board of seven members.
You strictly make recommendations. Implementation of your
recommendations) is based upon the strength of your constituency support.
Second Prompt: Scope of Management Authority Over the Stock screen.
1.2.2 Scope of Management Authority Over Stock
Allows you to set the level of your control over the unit stock of interest.
184.108.40.206. 100% Authority
A unilateral fishery management institution. One policy body for the stock
220.127.116.11. 67% Authority
The case of bilateral policy on a stock with overlapping distributional
boundaries. Unit stock is shared with one other entity; you have complete
control over 67% of the unit stock. The remaining 33% control is computed as a
stochastic variable at each iteration to determine your overall level of control.
18.104.22.168. 33% Authority
Multilateral policy case. Unit stock is shared with two other management
entities; you have total control of only 33% of the unit stock.
Third Prompt: Species Profile screen.
1.2.3 Selection of Species Profiles
A given simulation exercise of FINMAN is characterized by user selection
of one of six species-types available for management strategy simulation. The
user is referred to Section 4.0 of the Model Description and Operations Manual
for complete background information on the species. The following prompt will
SELECT SPECIES-TYPE FOR MANAGEMENT STRATEGY SIMULATION
PLEASE MAKE THE SELECTION (1-6):
For the Apple lie and Apple IIc versions only:
Upon making the species selection the program returns the prompt,
PLEASE PLACE THE SPECIES DISK IN DRIVE #1
Take the FINMAN diskette out of Drive #1 and replace it with the
SPECIES diskette in Drive #1, then press RETURN. The program returns the
prompt Searching Out and Loading Requested Data Files while writing the
necessary simulation variable data to the RAM area of memory. When this
process is completed, the program will return the prompt Data file for species
x completed, Return the finman diskette to drive #1. Take the SPECIES diskette
out of Drive #1 and replace it with the FINMAN diskette in Drive #1, then press
For the IBM PC version, selection of the SPECIES profile will forward you
to the fourth prompt.
Fourth Prompt: Fishery Exploitation Type
1.2.4 Fishery Exploitation Type
The fishery exploitation type to be managed includes an array of choices
22.214.171.124 Commercial (1 Gear Type)
One-gear fishery with constant (i.e., "knife-edged") gear selectivity
properties for all ages past t .
126.96.36.199 Commercial (2 Gear Types)
Sequential competition (i.e., one segment of the fishery operates on a
younger portion of the stock than another).
188.8.131.52 Commercial and Recreational In Sequence
Recreational interests compete with Commercial interests or values.
184.108.40.206 Selection for Targeted Ages by Either Two Fleet Fishery
If one selects either of the two-gear functions (i.e. Fishery Type = 2 or 3),
then one can select the degree of gear selectivity overlap for the targeted ages
exploited by the two gear types. This choice allows for simulation of the
effects of overlapping gear selectivity. Otherwise the default conditions listed
in Sections 15.1-15.6 will be applied. Default conditions cause the effect of
discrete non-overlapping selection of gears. If the user chooses to set ages of
selection then he/she must: (1) enter the maximum age to be fished by Fleet 1,
which cannot be less than 1 (= time of birth), and then has the gear fishing from
ages 1 to this maximum age, and (2) enter the minimum age fished by Fleet 2,
which cannot exceed t which then allows Fleet 2 to fish from this minimum
age to the oldest age in the stock. Ages of overlap receive summed fishing
Fifth Prompt: Current Fishery Status screen
1.2.5. Current Fishery Status
Fishery where the unit stock is in essentially the virgin state.
220.127.116.11 Fully Exploited
Fishery is roughly at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) for the
18.104.22.168 Recruitment Overfished
Fishery is well past MSY; the spawning stock has been severely reduced.
Program generates a prompt which asks the user to enter a integer number
of any size. Upon entry of this integer, the program randomly selects one of the
three fishery cases mentioned above.
Sixth Prompt: Historical Data Availability screen.
1.2.6. Historical Data Availability
Program provides all data and complete analyses.
Program provides catch and effort statistics, economic data, and a
production model estimate.
22.214.171.124 Very Sketchy
Program provides a statement of the fishery status.
No data available.
For the IBM PC version only:
At this point the program requests that you "Please place the SPECIES
diskette in Drive A". Take the FINMAN diskette out of Drive A and replace it
with the SPECIES diskette, then press any key to continue. The program will
then read the necessary variable data from the SPECIES diskette and write it to
the RAM area of memory. When this process is completed, the program will
return the prompt Data file for SPECIES X completed, Return the FINMAN
diskette to Drive A. Take the SPECIES diskette out of Drive A and replace it
with the FINMAN diskette in Drive A, then press any key to continue.
For the Apple lie and Apple IIc:
The program then accesses the RAM area of memory to bring the desired
information into active memory. This process takes about 15 seconds for an
Apple IIe with a Titan Accelerator peripheral board. During this time you will
see the prompt Accessing Data File For Input From Internal Drive. When
this is completed the prompt Data File Input Is Now Completed will appear.
After pressing RETURN the program produces the display prompt HERE
COMES THE CATCH HISTORY, meanwhile the necessary historical data is being
loaded from memory and filtered by an algorithm influenced according to the
user's initial choices.
From this point on in the User's Guide the information presented is
identical for all computer types utilized. Depending upon the option selections
for the management scenario by the user, the program will produce up to two
complete time series of historical data for the selected fishery including: (1) a
fishery catch and effort record, and (2) a fishery economic history. Both of
these time series can be printed if so desired. After this output is completed,
and the necessary RETURN's entered, the prompt --NOW COMPUTING THE
YIELD ISOPLETHS WITH BEST AVAILABLE INFORMATION will appear.
Computation of this feature requires about 1 minute for the IBM PC and Apple
lie mentioned above, and about three minutes for the Apple IIc.
Section III: Decisons Sequence
Program displays a tabular form equilibrium yield per recruit analysis. At
the bottom of the table the management settings for the present year are shown;
i.e., the estimated tc and F for the previous year, and the selected adjustments
(if any) in tc and F for the present year. This table can be printed out if so
1.3.0 Management Measures To Be Implemented
The program displays the scope of your management authority over the
stock, and begins the management measures sequence. Four major groupings of
fishery management measures are available as detailed in the following sections,
(1.3.1) effort limits, (1.3.2) size limits, (1.3.3) season limits, and (1.3.4) catch
limits and allocations.
1.3J Fishing Effort Strategy
Presently the user defines the fishing mortality rate, which is then
modified to units of gear effort by the appropriate operation of the catchability
coefficient(s). All mortality rates are age-specific and constant across ages in
the single gear fishery. You will be shown a prompt which indicates your
management authority over the stock, the last season's estimate of F, and asks:
"Do you want to change the fishing effort strategy for the present year?"
You must decide whether you would like to alter the fishing effort strategy
for the present year of simulation relative to the last season's value. If the
decision is YES, the input constant value represents potential fishing mortality.
If two fleets have been selected for, then the user must decide whether he wants
to regulate the fishing effort strategy in the present year for either of the two
fleets separately. Last season's estimate of F is shown in both cases. Your
choices in the present year (iteration) are: (1) no regulated change in F for both
fleets, (2) change in regulated F for Fleet 1 and no change for Fleet 2, (3) no
change in F for Fleet I and change in regulated F for Fleet 2, and (4) change in
regualted F for both fleets. A NO decision means that the last presumed
regulated F remains in effect. If the decision is YES for either or both Fleet 1
and/or Fleet 2, then a prompt appears asking you to input the value of F
recommended for the respective Fleet(s). The input value of F will then be
applied against the segment of the age distribution selected for in the initial
1.3.2 Size and Age of Capture
The user selects the age at first capture (= age and/or size of 100%
vulnerability) to be used by the particular gear-type operating. The age of
capture is set as a minimum size available to the fleet(s) as a whole. A prompt
appears showing the estimated value for tc in the previous year and asks:
Do you want to regulate the size limit (=age of first capture) strategy for
the present year?
You must decide if regulation of size is what you want, and if so, what will
be the minimum age of capture. Selection is assigned with "knife-edged"
properties such that all fishes less than tc have an availabiltiy of 0.0 to the
fishing process, and all fishes greater than or equal to tc have an availability of
1.0 to the gear. Your decision then sets the minimum age (size) of vulnerability
which then may be altered depending upon the filters operating during the
126.96.36.199 Review of the Yield Per Recruit Table
At this point the program returns the prompt DO YOU WANT TO
REVIEW THE YIELD PER RECRUIT TABLE? If you want to review the table
and /or you intend to alter your management selections for F and/or tc, then
enter YES. If YES is selected your adjustments to tc and F in year t will appear
in the lower right-hand side of the table, along with the original estimates to tc
and F in year t-1 in the lower left-hand side of the table. A print out of the
table is possible if so desired. If you have made further changes to F and/or tc,
the program will then ask if there are any further changes to these parameters
desired. If you answer NO, then you are advanced to the next section. If the
answer is YES, then you are then passed back through the decisions sequence for
fishing mortality and age of capture to enter any further adjustments, and can
continue doing so as long as deemed necessary.
1.3.3 Seasonal Closures
Closed seasons (i.e., specific months of the year) can be selected to
achieve specific mortality rates, and are set for the fleet(s) as a whole. The
following prompt will appear:
Do you want to set season (i.e., months) closures for the present year?
Months are designated by the numerical analogs in the simulation model
(i.e., July = 7), and thus the prompts requires a numerical input, e.g.,
Input the starting month of closure = (integer month), and
Input the ending month of closure = (integer month).
Closures are operable from day one of the starting month to day one of the
ending month. That is, a closure that runs from March (=3) to June (=6) would
run from March 1 to June 1, a total of 3 months. A closure for the entire year
would run from January (=1) to January (=13). A closure from December (=12) to
December (=12) gives no closure. For every management year t, the program
produces a historical time series ordered by effort and has the associated
catches up to management year (t-1). A print-out of this stock production
information is possible is so desired by the user.
1.3.4 Catch Limits and Allocations
Catch quotas, by individual fleets, can be instituted in order to adjust the
age-specific instantaneous fishing mortality rates upwards or downwards to
achieve yields or catch rates within a particular tolerance. The following
prompts appear showing the catch for fleet x last year (t-1) was y units of
weight, and asks:
Do you want to set a catch quota for the present year?
Positive response to this input means that you must then input the
recommended upper limit for catch for the present year t. The tolerance for the
catch quota set by default is 0.5% over the recommended upper limit for catch
in the present year of simulation. The type of catch quota available to the user
is dependent upon the selection of the fishery type.
188.8.131.52. Overall Catch Limit (Fishery Type 1)
Catch quota for the single gear-type fishery. The user sets the catch limit
for the single fleet in weight, which is entered in terms of the units of W. (i.e.,
ultimate weight from the von Bertalanffy formulation).
184.108.40.206. Catch Limit Subdivided by Fleets (Fishery Type 2)
Catch quota sequence for the two commercial gear-types fishery. The
catch limits can be set for either or both fleets in the same year, the program
will solve the exact solution of the catch equation, even when the gears have
overlapping selective properties. Quotas for both fleets are set in weight, in
units of W. (found in Section 13.0 of the Model Description and Operations
Manual) allowable for the respective fleets. A 0.5% tolerance at solution is
220.127.116.11. Boat Quotas and/or Bag Limits (Fishery Type 3)
Sequence of catch restrictions for commercial and recreational fleets
operating jointly. Catch limits for the commercial fleet(s) are set in terms of
weight of the catch, while catch limits for the recreational fleet are set in
terms of maximum number of fish per angler allowable (i.e., bag limit). If the
recommended bag limit is not exceeded on the first iteration, then the program
provides a solution to the catch equation; however, if the bag limit is exceeded
by virtue of the present level of fishing effort, the program minimizes the catch
equation within the specified constraints to achieve the recommended number of
fish per angler for the entire recreational segment.
1.4.0 Overall Budget Allocations Among Enforcement, Research and Influence
You have a total resource management budget of one million dollars for
the first year of management simulation. This budget can increase or decrease
in subsequent years based on the level of constituency satisfaction. Each
simulation year the general budget must be distributed as allocations among the
following three (3) agencies. After the initial year of simulation you will be
asked if you would like to retain your decisions in year t-l, showing the
allocations. If this is the choice, then the decision will be implemented in
present year of simulation.
1.4.1 Assessment and Monitoring
Sets the overall budget available to the five (5) component research and
monitoring groups, descriptions of which can be found in Section 11.4.1 and
11.4.2 of the FINMAN Model Description and Operations Manual.
Generates the dollars for the necessary police action to maintain imposed
regulations within their recommended levels.
Allows the development of the fishery from an economic and effort
prospective, and also feeds into the constituency function.
The dollar amounts allocated to each of the above agencies dictates the
level of accuracy and precision observed in the external output, the degree of
compliance with your recommended management measures, the rate of fishery
development, and the level of constituency satisfaction. -After responding to
the general budget prompts with allocations you will be shown a screen with a
summary of your decisions, which asks "Is this the allocation scheme that you
want?" If not, you will be returned to the top of the sequence to reallocate
these finds. The amount in the "unallocated" cell is considered fiscal surplus and
feeds back in the "Influence with Constituency" function, and proportionalizes
potential budget increases for the next program iteration.
1.5 Research Budget Allocations Among Data Collection and Analysis Projects
From the total dollar amount allocated to Assessment and Monitoring
activities you must allocate funds to the following component research
endeavors. Once again, the dollar amount allocated to each of the following
component data collection and research activities dictates the level of accuracy
and precision you will observe on the external output, tempered by the initial
conditions selections and the internal modifying functions. These areas for
1.5.1 Compilation of Basic Fishery Statistics
1.5.2 Catch Analysis
1.5.3 Resource Surveys
1.5.4 Economic Analysis
1.5.5 Environmental Trends and Effects on Fishing Activities
The specific component variables for these five assessment and monitoring
allocation areas are detailed completely in Sections 11.4.1 and 11.4.2 in the
Model Description and Operations Manual. As before, after the initial year of
simulation you will be asked if you would like to retain your decisions made in
year t-1, for the present year t, showing the allocations. If your choice is YES,
then these allocations will be implemented in year t.
After you have allocated the assessment and monitoring budget, a screen
will appear with a summary of your allocations. The amount in the unallocated
cell is considered misallocatedd" and as such has a negative impact on your
"influence" on the constituency.
1.6 Calculation of a Simulation Sequence
Upon completion of all management, budget, and decisions input and
bypassing the review sequence, FINMAN will then compute the present year's
simulation. The program first passes through a decisions modification loop which
adjusts the input values for decisions according to the present budget decisions;
this influences the precision and/or accuracy of the output. After adjustments
are made, if any, the program then calculates statistics for the present loop.
This entire calculation process takes approximately about 20 seconds on an Apple
lie with an accelerator board and the IBM PC, and about 50 seconds on the Apple
If the user has chosen to implement a catch quota, the above calculations
will undoubtedly take longer. Computation time for the catch quota loop is a
function of: (1) the complexity of the fishing pattern (i.e. two gears more
complex than a single gear), and (2) the segment of the yield curve on which the
desired quota value lies. When the desired quota value is attained, the prompt
"Quota within tolerance" will appear on the screen.
1.7 Destination for FINMAN Output
After completion of the present simulation sequence, a prompt is shown
which asks: (1) Do you want the results sent to the printer?, or (2) Do you want
the results to be displayed on the monitor screen? To print-out, your machine
must be interfaced with a printer. Otherwise, always enter NO when this prompt
appears! If the results are to be sent to the printer, then the output contains all
the present loops' statistics, plus complete time series information for the years
of simulation to date, including the number of years of historical data provided
originally. If the results are displayed on the monitor screen, then the
information presented includes all data available from the present loop, plus
time series data equipment to the last t years in the fishery. After each loop
the program makes an internal decision to boot the manager because of poor
preformance or not. If another iteration is to be allowed, then the user must
decide whether or not to go on. Successive iterations on the program follow the
logic presented in Section III onward. Output for the IBM PC is generated by
pressing the Control and Print Screen keys simultaneously. To discontinue the
output simply repeat the procedure.
1.8 User Instruction for a Typical Exercise of FINMAN
It behooves the user to define goals and objectives with regards to the
use of the resource, and further delineate the decision environment framework.
The user's scope of fishery regulation should be conceived on a broad enough
basis to embrace biological, economic and social factors a priori, on equal terms.
The work sheet (Table 1.8) is provided so that the user may keep track of
decisions and allocations made while working through the FINMAN network
during successive "annual" iterations. Sections 5.0 5.5 of the User's Manual
delineates the standards for program execution, the starting conditions, selection
or a species profile, and options for management scenarios. At each successive
iteration of FINMAN, managerial, research and budget allocation decisions must
be made by the user. The user may want to record the appropriate information
onto the flow sheet to document the initial management framework; and with
each successive iteration record management measures implemented, and the
respective magnitude of those measures. All budgetary enforcement,
development, and research and monitoring decisions are carried on the FINMAN's
output for user convenience. Initial system options and their analogs are listed
below for transcription ease under Section II of the worksheet:
A. Management System
1. A = Autocratic
2. C = Commission
3. L = Legislative
B. Management Authority Scope
1. 100 = 100 Percent
2. 67 = 67 Percent
3. 33 = 33 Percent
C. Species-Type Profiles
1. G = Grouper
2. T = Tuna
3. A= Anchovy
4. SH = Shrimp
5. ST = Seatrout
6. SN = Snapper
D. Fishery Exploitation Type(s)
1. 1-C = One Commercial Gear
2. 2-C = Two Commercial Gear
3. R&C = Recreational and Commercial Gears
E. Current Fishery Status
1. D = Developing
2. FE = Fully Exploited
3. RO = Recruitment Overfished
4. U = Unknown
F. Historical Data Availability
1. C = Complete
2. S = Sketchy
3. VS = Very Sketchy
4. N = None
FINMAN SIMULATION 1
1) MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK SELECTIONS
A. Management System (A,C,L)
B. Management Authority Scope (100,67,33)
C. Species-type Profile (G,T,A,SH,ST,SN)
D. Fishery Exploitation Type(s) (1-C,2-C,R&C)
E. Current Fishery Status (D,FE,RO,U)
F. Historical Data Availability (C,S,VS,N)
II) MANAGEMENT MEASURES IMPLEMENTED (IMPLEMENTED (I): YES 1, NO = 0; ENTER RECOMMENDED VALUE IF 1)
1 1 2
Size of Capture
Table 1.8 count. )
II) MANAGEMENT MEASURES IMPLEMENTED (continued)
1 I 2
Size of Capture
I 1 2
I 1 2
1.9 Graphing the Output for Management Interpretation
The user can construct graphs for various kinds of plots as derived from (1)
information which standard fishery sampling surveys are most likely to have
collected, and (2) information that the particular manager in "real" situations
may not have, but because of the completeness of the FINMAN simulator is able
to view as time dependent variables replete with varying levels of sampling error
depending upon previous budgetary allocations. User selection determines the
amount and quality of historical fishery data available. For the initial
information provided, the user may want to construct graphs for the several
kinds of typical plots mentioned below. With each successive iteration of
FINMAN the user can update these plots by adding the new data points. From
the information supplied by the initial data set, the student can perform several
standard analyses to determine and recommend a combination of time of capture
(t ) and fishing mortality (F) that move the fishery towards an "optimum"
sustainable yield, and thus satisfy the several competing objectives of fishery
management. From this approach the individual is able to develop strategies for
regulations, basing decisions on these evaluations and feedback; in this way job
security is likely to be as good as possible considering the prevailing conditions.
As mentioned previously, the user can update plots with each iteration to
improve one's look at the fishery, and then make minor tunings on management
strategy in accordance with the trends derived from the plots. Rigorous analysis
could be performed every loop, but a more reasonable approach might be every
5-6 years (loops) as the data stream becomes available.
1.9.1 Typical plots
Routinely, some estimates of the total yield in weight of the catch, and the
total number of effort units necessary to procure that catch, are made on an
annual basis in most industrial fisheries. These estimates, like all sampling
statistics, are subject to some amount of sampling error. In artisanal and/or
weakly developed fisheries, information such as average length or weight of fish
in the catch might be available. The following descriptions will indicate how to
set up and scale the ordinate and abscissa (i.e. Y dependent upon X) of the plots
for each species type, and will give some indication of the interpretation of the
plots. Thus, five typical plots utilized for management evaluation are:
18.104.22.168 Total Yield on Time
Yield, from the inception of the fishery plotted against year of the fishery
provides a look at the historical, present and potential trends for yields. In
particular, it demonstrates the correlations between the allowable biological
catch (ABC) and what is going on with the yield. The ABC should reflect the
managerial strategy necessary to reach a maximum sustainable yield, which is in
fact the total allowable catch (TAC). This TAC can be most efficiently
approached by prudent percentage allocations of the ABC.
22.214.171.124 Total Fishing Effort on Time
Establishes the trends in fishing effort over the years in question.
126.96.36.199 Total Yield on Fishing Mortality
Establishes point of inflection from positive to negative changes in yield
with respect to increasing F. If the (AY/AF) ratio is very negative, then the
population is running the chance of being driven to industrial extinction.
188.8.131.52 Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) on Effort
CPUE is considered a proxy for population abundance, and as such gives an
indication of the response of population abundance to increases in fishing effort.
184.108.40.206.1 CPUE on ABC
This plot allows examination of delay time between CPUE (t) and ABC (t +
1), and will also indicate the economic recuperation of a fishery.
220.127.116.11.2 CPUE on Time
Demonstrates time trends in population abundance.
18.104.22.168 Average Length and/or Weight on Time
Time changes in average length in the population demonstrates the severity
of the changes in average length/weight. Further, the ratio between the average
length today and the average length at MSY is important for economic
considerations. Primarily, this plot is important for demonstrating relative
impacts of management policy.
1.9.2 Accessory Plots
Typically, information for these plots does not become available until a
fishery management project has become established, and a sampling survey
system for fishery and resource statistics is initiated. Nonetheless, the FINMAN
simulator makes this information available and the following plots are
22.214.171.124 Rate of Profit on Running Costs
There is a certain fishing intensity that will enable the industry to operate
with the greatest margin of total profit, and it is necessary to examine the
relevance of this to the requirements of optimum fishing.
126.96.36.199 Annual Profit on Fishing Mortality
The fishing intensity giving maximum profit is such that at any higher
intensity the increased cost of fishing would outweigh the additional value of the
catch, while at any lower intensity the reverse would happen. The maximum
total profit offers the simplest objective compromise between maximizing the
value of the yeild and minimizing the cost of fishing. From a vessel's or fleet
operator's standpoint, it is the profit to each unit that is critical rather than the
total profit to the industry as a whole. Only if the number of units remains
constant and each receives a constant fraction of the total profit, will the profit
to each unit reach a maximum when the total profit is maximal.
188.8.131.52 Spawning Biomass on Time
Spawning biomass is one of the most critical plots from a management
standpoint. The decisionmaking process makers are typically looking for the
most reasonable ABC; inexorably the ABC is constrained by the level of the
spawning biomass. The spawning biomass today predicts or indicates the
appropriate ABC next year. This plot is particularly revealing and important for
species subject to recruitment overfishing.
184.108.40.206 Recruitment (t) / Spawning Biomass (t-1) on Time
This plot is instructive to show the correlated trends between the spawning
biomass at time t and the subsequent recruitment at time t + 1. Points out
220.127.116.11 Percent Recruits in Catch on Time
Plotting the fraction of this year's recruitment in the landings can provide
a "red light" to demonstrate a serious condition of growth overfishing in the
Other plots like (1) Population Biomass on time, and (2) Population Biomass
on Fishing Mortality are also convincing factors from a managerial standpoint to
show positive or deleterious casual effects of the present and past trends in