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Group Title: Technical paper -- Florida Sea Grant College Program ; no. 45
Title: Program and abstracts for the 11th Annual TSFT Conference, Tampa, Florida, 1986
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 Material Information
Title: Program and abstracts for the 11th Annual TSFT Conference, Tampa, Florida, 1986
Series Title: Technical paper Florida Sea Grant College
Physical Description: 19 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Sea Grant College
Conference: Tropical and Subtropical Fisheries Technological Conference of the Americas, 1986
Publisher: Florida Sea Grant Extension Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Fisheries -- Congresses -- America   ( lcsh )
Fishery products -- Congresses -- America   ( lcsh )
Fishery processing industries -- Congresses -- America   ( lcsh )
Fishery processing -- Congresses -- America   ( lcsh )
Seafood industries -- Congresses -- America   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: edited by W. Steven Otwell and John A. Koburger.
General Note: Grant NA85AA-D-SG059.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075995
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: oclc - 17022837

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Agenda
        Unnumbered ( 3 )
        Unnumbered ( 4 )
        Unnumbered ( 5 )
        Unnumbered ( 6 )
        Unnumbered ( 7 )
    Abstracts
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
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        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
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Full Text


\ TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL FISHERIES TECHNOLOGICAL CONFERENCE OF THE AMERICAS
\ L a professional and educational association offishery technologists


PROGRAM AND ABSTRACTS
FOR THE
11TH ANNUAL TSFT CONFERENCE
TAMPA, FLORIDA
1986


CYPRESS ROOM

DATE


8:30-12:00 AM


1:30-5:00 PM


8:30-12:00 AM


1:30-4:30 PM


4:30 PM

6:30 PM

8:30-12:00 AM


RESEARCH IN SEAFOOD TECHNOLOGY


TECHNICAL SESSION
Sulfites, Economics, Crawfish

TECHNICAL SESSION
Nontraditional Species and Products,
and Handling Shrimp

TECHNICAL SESSION
Chemistry, Microbiology and Depuration

TSFT Business Meeting

Social

SEAFOOD TECHNOLOGY UPDATE '86


FLORIDA SEA GRANT TECHNICAL PAPER 45


*Ii r'.


TIME


SESSION


Tuesday
Jan. 14


Wednesday
Jan. 15


Thursday
Jan. 16


SESSION


__


r
' tV._


j"














ELEVENTH ANNUAL
TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL FISHERIES
TECHNOLOGICAL CONFERENCE OF THE AMERICAS


January 13-16, 1986
Holiday Inn, International Airport
Tampa, Florida


Edited By

W. Steven Otwell and John A. Koburger
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida



The Tropical and Subtropical Fisheries Technological Society of the Americas
is a professional, educational association of fishery technologists interested
in the application of science to the unique problems of production, process-
ing, packaging, distribution, and utilization of tropical and subtropical
fishery species.

Individual abstracts edited by the authors of the abstracts. Some abstracts
have been excluded by author request.

Technical Papers are duplicated in limited quantities for specialized audi-
ences requiring rapid access of information. They are published with limited
editing and without formal review by the Florida Sea Grant College Program.
Content is the sole responsibility of the author. This paper was developed by
the Florida Sea Grant College Program with support from NOAA Office of Sea
Grant, U.S. Department of Commerce, grant number NA85AA-D-SG059. It was pub-
lished by the Sea Grant Extension Program which functions as a component of
the Florida Cooperative Extension Service, John T. Woeste, Dean, in conducting
Cooperative Extension work in Agriculture, Home Economics, and Marine
Sciences, State of Florida, U.S. Department of Commerce, and Boards of County
Commissioners, cooperating. Printed and distributed in furtherance of the
Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 14, 1914. The Florida Sea Grant College is
an Equal Employment-Affirmative Action employer authorized to provide re-
search, educational information and other services only to individuals and
institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, or national
origin.



TECHNICAL PAPER NO. 45
January 1986









TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL FISHERIES TECHNOLOGICAL CONFERENCE OF THE AMERICAS
a professional and educational association offishery technologists

Jan. 13-16, 1986
Tampa, FL
(Holiday Inn--Intern'l Airport)


Tuesday Morning, Jan. 14 Cypress Cove Room

RESEARCH IN SEAFOOD TECHNOLOGY

8:30 am OPENING COMMENTS

Steve Otwell, Session Chrm., Univ. Florida


8:40 am FEDERAL SK PROJECTS: Completed and New '85-86

NATIONAL REVIEW
Phyllis Bentz, NMFS--Washington, DC


9:10 am U. S. FOOD and DRUG ADMINISTRATION: 5 Year Plan

Tony Guarino, FDA Lab--Dauphin Island, AL.


9:40 am NATIONAL SEA GRANT PROGRAM: Current and Future

David Attaway, Sea Grant--Washington, DC


10:10 am BREAK

10:30 am REGIONAL FISHERY DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATIONS

MID-ATLANTIC
Kerry Muse, Exec. Dir.--Annapolis, MD

GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC
Tom Murray, Exec. Dir.--Tampa, FL


11:10 am TRADE ASSOCIATIONS

NATIONAL FISHERIES INSTITUTE
Roy Martin, Washington, DC

SOUTHEASTERN FISHERIES ASSOCIATION
Robert Jones, Tallahassee, FL

ADJOURN











llth ANNUAL TSFT CONFERENCE


Tuesday Afternoon, Jan. 14 Cypress Cove Room
Session Chrm. John A. Koburger


(1) 1:30 pm SCREENING OF SODIUM BISULFITE ON SHRIMP: A MODIFIED
MONIER-WILLIAMS APPROACH
Martha Hudak-Roos, Jack Wood and Joseph Carey


(2) 1:50 pm BIOCHEMICAL BASIS FOR ACCELERATED MELANOSIS IN FLORIDA
SPINY LOBSTER (PANULIRUS ARGUS)
0. B. Ferrer, Marty R. Marshall and John A. Koburger


(3) 2:10 pm INFLUENCE OF WASHING AND COOKING ON SULFITE
RESIDUALS ON TREATED SHRIMP
Marty R. Marshall and Steve Otwell


(4) 2:30 pm EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES TO SULFITING AGENTS AS
MELANOSIS INHIBITORS IN RAW SHRIMP
Tom Wagner and Gunnar Finne


(5) 2:50 pm SCREENING ALTERNATIVES TO SULFITING AGENTS TO CONTROL
SHRIMP MELANOSIS
Steve Otwell and Marty R. Marshall


3:10 pm BREAK


(6) 3:30 pm FLUCTUATIONS IN CALICO SCALLOP PRODUCTION (ARGOPECTEN GIBBUS)
Michael A. Moyer and Norman J. Blake


(7) 3:50 pm CRAWFISH PRODUCTION ECONOMICS AND MARKETS
Kenneth J. Roberts and Perry Pawlyk


(8) 4:10 pm FACTORS INFLUENCING CRAWFISH MARKET DEVELOPMENT
Lynn E. Dellenbarger and Steve S. Kelly


(9) 4:30 pm SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF AT-HOME SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION
Fred J. Prochaska and Walter R. Keithly, Jr.


ADJOURN


6:30 pm Executive Committee Meeting (Cottonwood Room)











llth ANNUAL TSFT CONFERENCE


Wednesday Morning, Jan. 15 Cypress Cove Room
Session Chrm. Marty R. Marshall


(10) 8:30 am EDIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF 40 SOUTHEASTERN FINFISH SPECIES
Janet A. Gooch and Malcolm B. Hale


(11) 8:50 am ALTERNATE SPECIES--FACT OR FICTION
Warren F. Rathjen


(12") 9:10 am DEVELOPMENT OF A SALTED DRIED PRODUCT FROM SELECTED
UNDERUTILIZED FISH FOR INTERNATIONAL MARKETS
Yaowen Huang, Samuel L. Stephens, Lloyd W. Regier,
Melvin E. Waters, Robert Ernst, and John W. Brown


(13) 9:30 am PROCESSING OF CANNONBALL JELLYFISH (STOMOLOPHUS MELEAGRIS)
AND ITS UTILIZATION
Yaowen Huang


(14) 9:50 am RECENT PROGRESS IN THE PRODUCTION OF THE SOFT SHELL BLUE CRAB,
CALLINECTES SAPIDUS
John A. Freeman and Harriet M. Perry


10:10 am


BREAK


(15) 10:30 am




(16) 10:50 am




(17) 11:10 am




(18) 11:30 am


AN UPDATE OF RESEARCH ON VESSEL-LEVEL STANDARDS FOR GREEN
HEADLESS SHRIMP
Debra Ellis, Ranzell Nickelson and Larry Watt


EFFECTS OF POST-HARVEST HANDLING ON THE QUALITY OF
MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII
Linda S. Papadopoulos and Gunnar Finne


A PROCEDURE TO MAINTAIN QUALITY OF STONE CRAB
(MENIPPE MERCENARIA) CLAWS ICED PRIOR TO COOKING
Jenny L. Simonson


NEW ZEALAND AND AUSTRALIAN AQUACULTURE METHODS
Thomas L. Herrington


ADJOURN











llth ANNUAL TSFT CONFERENCE


Wednesday Afternoon, Jan. 15 Cypress Cove Room
Session Chrm. Norman Blake


(19) 1:30 pm USE OF FOOD GRADE PHOSPHATES TO BENEFIT THE SOUTHERN
SHRIMP PROCESSING INDUSTRY
Allison Perry


(20) 1:50 pm HYDROLYTIC AND ENZYMATIC DEGRADATION OF ADDED CONDENSED
PHOSPHATES IN SHRIMP HOMOGENATES HELD AT DIFFERENT
TEMPERATURES
Bokka R. Reddy and Gunnar Finne


(21) 2:10 pm MICROBIOLOGY OF MULLET HARVESTED FROM A BRACKISH-WATER SITE
John A. Koburger and Mary Miller


(22) 2:30 pm LOW DOSE GAMA IRRADIATION OF VIBRO CHOLERA IN CRABS
(CALLINECTES SAPIDUS)
Robert M. Grodner and Arthur Hinton, Jr.


(23) 2:50 pm USE OF A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE FOR DETECTING
AND MONITORING THE ACCUMULATION OF CIGUATOXIN AND
CIQUATOXIN-LIKE TOXINS
Lowell V. Sick, Doug C. Hansen and John A. Babinchak


3:10 pm


BREAK


(24) 3:30 pm DEPURATION AND RELAYING OF CLAMS IN FLORIDA
John Schneider


(25) 3:50 pm FACTOR AFFECTING THE DEPURATION OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS
BY MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH
Thomas C. Siewicki, Frances M. Van Dolah, and
Jane S. Sydlowski


(26) 4:10 pm



4:30 pm


UPDATE ON ISSC ACTIVITIES
Richard Thompson


FORMAL TSFT SOCIETY BUSINESS MEETING
Open to all Registrants


ADJOURN


6:30 pm SOCIAL











llth ANNUAL TSFT CONFERENCE


Thursday Morning, Jan. 16 Cypress Cove Room
Session Chrm. Steve Otwell

SEAFOOD TECHNOLOGY UPDATE '86

(27) 8:30 am USE OF SULFITING AGENTS

Controlled Challenges of Sulfite-Sensitive Asthmatics
with Sulfited Shrimp and Other Foods.
Steve L. Taylor, et. al., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison.

(28) 9:00 am OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS
(29)
(30) Why All The Sudden Attention?
Chris Anderson, Univ. Florida, Gainesville..

NMFS Fish Oil Research Aids Fishing Industry and Consumers
Gloria T. Seaborn, Jeanne D. Joseph and Paul E. Bauersfeld,
NMFS--Charleston, SC

Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fish Oils: Is All The News Good?
Tony Guarino, FDA--Dauphin Island, AL.

(31) 10:00 am PARASITES

Concerns for Parasites in Edible Seafoods.
Thomas Deardorff, FDA--Dauphin Island, AL.

(32) 10:20 am IRRADIATION

Projected Use of Irradiation with Seafoods in Light
of Recent Developments.
George Giddings, Isomedix, Inc., Whippany, NJ.

(33) 10:40 am SURIMI

Processing of Menhaden for Conventional Food Products,
Minced Intermediates and Surimi
Malcolm B. Hale and Robert C. Ernst, Jr.

(34) 11:00 am REGULATIONS
(35)
Use of the Lacy Act to Enforce Product Quality and
Safety.
Spencer Garrett, NMFS--Pascagoula, MS.

Mandatory Inspection?
Roy Martin, NFI--Washington, DC.

ADJOURN










(1) SCREENING OF SODIUM BISULFITE ON SHRIMP:
A MODIFIED MONIER-MILLIANS APPROACH

Martha Hudak-Roos, Jack Wood and Joseph Carey
National Marine Fisheries Service
3209 Frederick Street
P.O. Drawer 1207
Pascagoula, Mississippi 39568-1207

Initial screening tests for bisulfite on shrimp have recently become of
paramount importance to the shrimping industry. Investigations have been made
into quick test strip methods, disposable titration cells and other color
change methodology. The National Seafood Inspection Laboratory has developed
a screening test which employs a color change endpoint by using a modified
Monier-Williams analysis reducing analysis time from 2 hours to 45 minutes.










(2) BIOCHEMICAL BASIS FOR ACCELERATED MELANOSIS FOR
THE FLORIDA SPINY LOBSTER (PANULIRUS ARGUS)

O.B. Ferrer, Marty Marshall and Jack Koburger
Food Science and Human Nutrition Department
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

A comparison of Florida spiny lobster and South African lobster revealed
that melanosis was more predominant in the Florida species. Levels of tyro-
sine had been shown to be higher in the Florida species when compared to the
South African Species and thus was thought to be responsible for controlling
melanosis formation. Melanosis could be controlled in the Florida lobster by
dipping in a 1.25% sodium metabisulfite solution for 5 minutes; whereas, South
African lobsters dipped in a saturated tyrosine solution did not become mela-
notic, indicating substrate limitation was not controlling pigment formation.

Preliminary isolation and characterization of phenoloxidase (PO) showed a
10-fold increase in PO levels from the Florida versus the South African spec-
ies. When trypsin was added to Florida lobster extract, a 10-fold increase
occurred. Trypsin added to both lobster extracts resulted in a 100-fold in-
crease in PO levels between the two species. Further characterization reveal-
ed an enzyme MW greater than 300,000, which upon trypsin addition was cleaved
into two smaller zymogen melanosis production in the two species, appears to
be due to the extremely high levels of PO in Florida lobsters.











(3) INFLUENCE OF WASHING AND COOKING ON SULFITE RESIDUALS
ON TREATED SHRIMP

Marty Marshall and Steve Otwell
Food Science and Human Nutrition
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Processors' concern that shrimp products meet the FDA sulfite residual
standard of 100 ppm as S02 has prompted interest in research dealing with the
effects of reclamation and cooking on residual sulfite levels. Sulfite levels
above the standard 100 ppm level on shrimp could be reduced from 10-40% when
exposed to various thawing, washing and/or soaking methods. These levels were
confirmed with standard Monier-Williams, AOAC procedure. Examining these same
shrimp using the Conway Diffusion method consistently gave lower values for
residual sulfite levels on shrimp.

Additional treatments indicated washing with hydrogen peroxide (3%) could
reduce sulfite residuals, but washing with ozonated water had minimal effect.

Cooking studies utilizing common techniques for boiling (shell-on, shell-
off), broiling and frying indicate minimal reduction in sulfite residuals.
Short term high intensity cooking (saute) did result in substantial reductions
(30-50%).










(4) EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES TO SULFITING AGENTS
AS MELANOSIS INHIBITORS IN RAW SHRIMP

Tom Wagner and Gunnar Finne
Seafood Technology
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas 77843

Three groups of food additives which have proven useful against melanosis
formation in other foods were tested in raw shrimp. Shrimp were treated with
acidic compounds (citric acid), completing agents (EDTA, boric acid), and re-
ducing agents (erythrobates, ascorbates, reducing sugar). Following treat-
ment, shrimp were placed on ice and evaluated daily for black spot formation,
pH, and aerobic plate count. Untreated shrimp and shrimp treated with 1.25%
NaHS03 were used as controls throughout the study. Treatments which proved
successful in reducing melanosis will be combined and further tested in an
attempt to find a safe but effective alternative to sulfiting agents.










(5) SCREENING ALTERNATIVES TO SULFITING AGENTS
TO CONTROL SHRIMP MELANOSIS

W. Steven Otwell and Marty R. Marshall
Food Science and Human Nutrition
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Attempts to demonstrate effective alternatives to sulfiting agents in
controlling shrimp melanosis (black-spot) have been initiated utilizing fresh,
non-frozen pink (Penaeus duorarum) and white (P. setiferus) shrimp. To date
50 alternative dip treatments have been employed using a variety of single
compounds and/or mixtures prepared in varying concentrations. Dips have been
prepared using both distilled water and saltwater (3.5%) to account for the
possible influence of ionic strength and buffering capacity. Treatments have
been selected to replace sulfites and/or reduce the necessary amount of sul-
fites. All applications were conducted on-board, immediately post-harvest or
on the same day of harvest to exemplify actual, practical harvest conditions.
All treated shrimp were stored in ice and periodically scored and photographed
relative to untreated and sulfited controls.








(6) FLUCTUATIONS IN CALICO SCALLOP PRODUCTION (ARGOPECTEN GIBBUS)

Michael A. Moyer and Norman J. Blake
Department of Marine Science
University of South Florida
St. Petersburg, Florida 33701

During the past year there has been an unexpected and drastic drop in the
numbers of scallops located in the calico scallop fishing grounds. This has
forced a reduction in production by the calico scallop industry.

Production data and monthly data on the reproductive state of the calico
scallop has been collected since October 1983 from the area north and south of
Cape Canaveral, Florida. The data clearly indicates the minimum size for max-
imizing productivity based upon a constant fishing effort. The relationship
between the size of the scallop and the season is examined as well as the sea-
sonal fluctuation in the meat count.

*The reproductive state of the calico scallops has been determined using
wet and dry weight indices of the major components (gonads, digestive gland,
adductor muscle and the remaining mantle and gills). Histological examination
was performed. These parameters have been correlated with shell morphology.










(7) CRAWFISH PRODUCT ECONOMICS AND MARKETS
Kenneth J. Roberts and Perry Pawlyk
Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service
Center for Wetland Resources
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-1900

Crawfish farming is expanding within Louisiana and other states in the
region. Increased supply availability necessitates additional sales in mar-
kets outside of Louisiana. The role of processing in producing products suit-
ed to existing and expanding markets is gaining increased importance. The
paper includes the results of research on the processing economics and distri-
bution of crawfish products. A survey of 38 processing plants in 1985 provid-
ed the baseline data. Processing plant size, allocation of footage by func-
tion, products produced, techniques, and costs are among the management in-
formation items developed by the authors. Variation in results between plants
is identified by area with comparisons to state averages. In this way the
material will be useful to entities endeavoring to plan crawfish processing
operations within existing food plants and construction of specialized facili-
ties.

Firms also provided distribution of sales to various national markets.
The results of the survey indicate variation in export volumes by product
type. Overall, approximately 80 percent of the crawfish are consumed within
Louisiana.







(8) FACTORS INFLUENCING
CRAWFISH MARKET DEVELOPMENT

Lynn E. Dellenbarger and Steve S. Kelly
Department of Agriculture Economics
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-1900

Farmers in an effort to improve their cash flow situation and financial
stability are looking to aquaculture as a possible solution. Crawfish farming
represents a possible solution. Yet with growth in the yields per acre and
total acreage devoted to production of crawfish new markets need to be identi-
fied. This paper looks at factors influencing the development of new markets
for crawfish.

A mail survey of over 550 wholesale and retail food outlets nation-wide
was conducted during the fall of 1985. Characteristics such as size and price
or product desired, promotional material needed to help market the product,
type of payment and other factors influencing the growth in market development
of crawfish were obtained and will be presented. These characteristics will
be presented both on a national and regional basis.











(9) SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS
OF AT-HOME SEAFOOD CONSUMPTION

Fred J. Prochaska
Food and Resource Economics
1170 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Walter R. Keithly, Jr.
Center for Wetlands Resources
Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803

Weekly household at-home seafood consumption in the United States was
analyzed using Nationwide Food Consumption Survey data. The cross-sectional
consumption study related expenditure and quantities consumed of total seafood
and five specific products (fresh, frozen, canned, finfish, and shellfish) to
a set of socioeconomic and demographic factors which influence at-home seafood
consumption patterns.

Region, urbanization, race, household size, the stage of household growth
and maturity, number of guest meals, money value of meals consumed away from
home, the household having caught fish, and income were all contributing fact-
ors which helped to explain at-home seafood consumption patterns. The esti-
mated income elasticities associated with all seafood categories were positive
and inelastic.

The consumption effects were partitioned into those for existing seafood
consumers and those for potential consumers. Second, consumption effects were
separated into quantity and quality components. These distinctions allow for
a separate study of current consumers and potential seafood consumers and for
separation of consumer expenditures into those for additional volume and those
for different qualities and associated marketing services.

The seafood industry and its support groups may wish to consider the
study when designing and implementing a long term promotion/marketing program.
Changes in factors which determine seafood consumption must be considered in
seafood marketing.











(10) EDIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF 40 SOUTHEASTERN FINFISH SPECIES

Janet A. Gooch and Malcolm B. Hale
National Marine Fisheries Service
P.O. Box 12607
Charleston, South Carolina 29412

A trained sensory panel at the NMFS Charleston Laboratory began evaluat-
ing the edibility characteristics (9 flavor attributes and 7 texture attri-
butes) of regional finfish species in 1983 using a standard protocol developed
by Natick Laboratories under a NMFS contract. The major data collection phase
has been completed and 40 southeastern finfish species have been evaluated by
the sensory panel the required minimum of three or more times each. In gener-
al, species which occupy the same habitat or harvest area such as estuarine,
reef, ocean benthic, and pelagic exhibited similar edibility characteristics.
The sharks were put into a completely separated group because their sourness
and textures were found to be dependent upon the maturity of the specimen.

Instrumental texture and color was performed on cooked samples in accord-
ance with the standard protocol. Correlations between instrumental and sen-
sory textural attributes have not been as clear and definitive as was hoped
for.

Cluster analysis and multi-dimensional scaling statistical programs will
be applied to the data for the purpose of grouping species according to sen-
sory ratings of edibility characteristics. These results will be combined
with other regional data developed by sensory panels at the Seattle and Glou-
cester Laboratories of NMFS, forming the foundation for a potential marketing
system based on edibility characteristics.



(11) ALTERNATE SPECIES FACT OR FICTION?

Warren F. Rathjen
Center for Fisheries Engineering Studies
Florida Institute of Technology
Melbourne, Florida 32901


As traditional marine resources become less available due to fishing
pressure, management practice or other factors the producing segment of the
industry is challenged to identify alternate resources to maintain access to
market opportunities. Varieties which were ignored a decade ago are being
harvested or examined to fill voids in the supply of product.

Worldwide these include a wide variety including squids, krill, lantern-
fish, deepwater crustacea, sea mount resources and a variety of pelagic fish-
es. In the southeast and adjacent area significant increases are notable from
aquaculture production; molluscs (scallops and clams) specialty products for
export (such as mullet roe); sharks and a variety of other products which have
increased their market share.

Examination of other resources .is underway. These include deepwater
crabs and other crustacea, small tunas, butterfish, squids and octopus and
other products. Additional opportunities await identification--some of these
are suggested along with a discussion of known impediments.










(12) DEVELOPMENT OF A SALTED DRIED PRODUCT FROM SELECTED UNDERUTILIZED
FISH FOR INTERNATIONAL MARKETS

Yaowen Huang
University of Georgia
Marine Extension Service
Brunswick, Georgia 31523

Samuel L. Stephens
DeKalb Cooperative Extension Service
Decatur, Georgia 30033

Lloyd W. Regier, Melvin E. Waters1 and Robert Ernst
National Marine Fisheries Service
Southeast Fisheries Center
Charleston, South Carolina 29412

and

John W. Brown
North Carolina State University
Department of Agricultural Economics
Raleigh, North Carolina 27650

Mullet, black drum, herring, and menhaden caught from the Southeastern
Atlantic coast and the Gulf of Mexico were processed into a salted dried form
for exporting. Preparations of the product including cutting, salting and
drying were studied and developed, and estimates of cost were conducted. In
order to fit into international markets, we collected and analyzed existing
market products from Singapore, Hong Kong and Jamaica. Results show that pro-
totype products made from mullet and black drum are favored by buyers at sev-
eral international food shows.

Deceased.







(13) PROCESSING OF CANNONBALL JELLYFISH (Stomolophus meleagris)
AND ITS UTILIZATION-

Yaowen Huang
University of Georgia
Marine Extension Service
Brunswick, Georgia 31523

The cannonball jellyfish (Stomolophus meleagris) is a nuisance to commer-
cial shrimpers of the Southeastern Atlantic coast and the Gulf of Mexico.
However, it can be processed into a food product which has a high value in
Oriental markets. Different processing methods were investigated to produce
an acceptable dehydrated product. Preliminary results show that cannonball
jellyfish have potential for exporting.











(14) RECENT PROGRESS IN THE PRODUCTION OF THE SOFT SHELL BLUE CRAB,
Callinectes sapidus

John A. Freeman
Department of Biology
University of South Alabama
Mobile, Alabama 36688

and

Harriot Perry
Gulf Coast Research Laboratory
East Beach
Ocean Springs, Mississippi 39564

The soft shell blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, forms a small but growing
part of the blue crab fishery in the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Com-
mercial shedding capabilities have recently been made more efficient and eco-
nomical by the development of closed recirculating seawater systems. One
factor holding back increased growth of the soft shell industry is the lack of
a continuous supply of premolt crabs acceptable for holding in a recirculating
seawater system. To alleviate this problem we are tests these concern the use
of molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone) in accelerating the onset of premolt.
The first phase of the study of the molt cycle for proper hormone'treatment.
Until now, only the premolt stages (stage D) could be determined by using pad-
dle signs (white, pink, red line). We have defined the intermolt stages and
measured their durations. The postmolt stages A and B occur during the first
24-48 hours after ecdysis and are complete by the time the late paper shell,
or hard crab condition has been reached. Stage C is divided into C1, C2 and
C3 based on the appearance of the cuticular lamellae in the lateral edges of
the paddle. These changes can be seen in small crabs under low power magnifi-
cation. Stage Cl is defined as the condition where the thickness of the exo-
cuticle is greater than the thickness of the endocuticle while stage C2 is
defined as the condition where the endocuticle is thicker than the exocuticle.
Each of these stages lasts approximately 3-5 days. Stage C3 is characterized
by the presence of the membranous layer which appears as a dark line between
the epidermis and the cuticle. The appearance of the cuticle in the paddle
will not change again until premolt when a separation of the cuticle from the
epidermis occurs. The duration of stage C3 is 14-21 ays. We are continuing
to search for characteristics that can be employed to subdivide stage C3 into
smaller increments. We also have found that the beginning of premolt can be
observed microscopically before the white line condition is observed. Prelim-
inary tests on hormone treatment of intermolt crabs show that low doses (100
ng/crab) decrease the time until the onset of premolt without deleterious
effects. In a related study, we have found that the use of seawater with low
calcium levels slows the hardening process in soft shell crabs. The future
application of these findings to commercial crab shedding operations will be
discussed.











(15) AN UPDATE OF RESEARCH ON VESSEL-LEVEL STANDARDS FOR
GREEN HEADLESS SHRIMP

Debra Ellis, Ranzell Nickelson II and Larry Wyatt
Applied Microbiological Services, Inc.
201 East Holleman
College Station, Texas 77840

Although the per capital consumption of shrimp has steadily increased over
the past three decades, growing markets in raw headless, raw peeled, and cook-
ed peeled shrimp have created concern over the quality of the domestic shrimp
supply. An increasing supply of high quality imported shrimp has captured
much of the U.S. market, sometimes at higher prices, which the domestic supply
could obtain if their quality were competitive.

A program has been outlined to evaluate shrimp quality at the vessel
level. This would provide an immediate means to produce an incentive to
shrimpers to bring in high quality shrimp. Catches evaluated as poor could be
bought at a lower than average price discouraging such practices and, it is
hoped, resulting in an improved domestic quality trend.

This research project is evaluating domestic shrimp quality in coopera-
tion with members of the shrimp industry (Gulf Shrimp Roundtable) to establish
the validity of a proposed evaluation program and to determine where the para-
meters for quality classification would be most appropriately set. Both phys-
ical and freshness quality are taken into consideration and are measured by
sorting the percent unusables and pH, respectively. Industry cooperators,
(three in Florida, one in Alabama and four in Texas) are or will be providing
quality control technicians trained in the evaluation procedures.

More than 1500 unit samples from the Texas cooperators have been obtain-
ed. Analysis of data will be presented to ascertain the appropriateness of
the evaluation program and to obtain opinions from the industry members.





(16) EFFECTS OF POST-HARVEST HANDLING ON THE
QUALITY OF MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII

Linda S. Papadopoulos and Gunnar Finne
Seafood Technology Section
Animal Science Department
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas 77843

Prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, harvested from freshwater ponds were
quick-killed in an ice-slurry. The prawns were subdivided in two lots one of
which was placed in ice while,the other was put in frozen storage as either
"tails" or whole prawns. At regular intervals during the storage period
prawns were evaluated for texture by a trained sensory panel using an Instron
Universal Testing Machine equipped with a Kramer shear compression cell. Sec-
tions were also collected from prawn samples for electron microscope analysis
to determine tissue deterioration at the ultracellular level.










(17) A PROCEDURE TO MAINTAIN QUALITY
OF STONE CRAB (IENIPPE MERCENARIA) CLAWS ICED PRIOR TO COOKING
Jenny L. Simonson
Florida Department of Natural Resources
St. Petersburg, Florida 33701

Only claws are harvested in the Florida stone crab (Menippe mercenaria)
fishery; declawed crabs are released alive to regenerate claws and reproduce.
Icing raw claws prior to cooking causes meat to stick to shells, reducing
product value, so crabs are frequently maintained whole onboard vessels and
declawed at day's end to eliminate the need for icing. This procedure in-
creases crab mortality and minimizes potential benefits of a renewable re-
source. Results of this study indicate that if iced raw claws are frozen for
at least 10 h after cooking, product quality comparable to that of non-iced
claws is maintained.






(18) FDA SHELLFISH SANITATION MISSION, AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND

Thomas L. Herrington
Food and Drug Administration
1182 W. Peachtree Street, N.W.
Atlanta, Georgia 30309

J. David Clem
Shellfish Sanitation Branch HFF-344
Food and Drug Administration
200 'C' Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20204

The Mission to Australia, November 16 to December 18, 1984, was performed
at the request of the Commonwealth Department of Primary Industry for the pur-
pose of developing a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) concerning the sanitary
control of shellfish. A draft MOU was reviewed and revised to conform with
format and content of existing shellfish MOU's. The Mission found that sani-
tary control in the State of Tasmania was satisfactory, but no other Austral-
ian State had developed adequate controls. The Mission discussed shellfish
controls with Commonwealth and State officials and members of the shellfish
industry. Travel in Tasmania and New South Wales observed shellfish controls
and mariculture of oysters. It is anticipated that an MOU with Australia will
be finalized as a result of the Mission's findings.

The Mission evaluated the New Zealand Shellfish Sanitary Control Program
in accordance with the 1980 MOU signed with the Ministry of Agriculture and
Fisheries (MAF). Discussions were held with numerous federal officials repre-
senting regulatory control over processing plants, shellfish farms, growing
areas and shipping practices. Observations were made at representative oys-
ter, mussel and clam growing areas, mariculture farms and plant facilities.
The New Zealand program was found to be in general compliance with the exist-
ing MOU. The Mission provided MAF with recommendations for improving its
control program.










(19) USE OF FOOD GRADE PHOSPHATES
TO BENEFIT THE SOUTHERN SHRIMP PROCESSING INDUSTRY
Allison Perry
Gulf Coast Research Lab.
1650 East Beach Blvd.
Biloxi, Mississippi 39530

Experiments were conducted to access the action of phosphate compounds on
weight gain in fresh-dipped shrimp and weight retention in frozen/thawed
shrimp. Experiments were designed using short duration dip periods and city
water supplies such as would be used in commercial operation of a shrimp pack-
ing plant. The objective of the study was to determine optimum mixtures of
phosphate solutions for treatment of peeled shrimp to prevent excessive over-
packing of boxed shrimp for freezing caused by drip loss. The basic benefit
of the project for the southern shrimp industry would be to decrease the a-
mount of product used in over-packing in order to meet net weight declara-
tions.









(20) HYDROLYTIC AND ENZYMATIC DEGRADATION OF ADDED
CONDENSED PHOSPHATES IN SHRIMP HOMOGENATES
HELD AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

Bokka R. Reddy and Gunnar Finne
Seafood Technology Section
Animal Science Department
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas 77843

The stability of linear condensed phosphates in shrimp was determined by
measuring the rates of hydrolysis of these phosphates under both enzymatic and
non-enzymatic conditions. Fresh white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), homogenized
and treated with 1% (w/w) each of the pyro and triphosphates, were held at 35,
25, 10 and 5C. Non-enzymatic hydrolysis data were obtained by heat inactiva-
tion of the enzyme prior to treatment. By using the thin-layer chromatograph-
ic technique developed for this study, the extent of hydrolysis of tri- and
pyrophosphates was studied at regular time intervals. This method permits an
accurate determination of each phosphate component quantitatively at any stage
of the reaction. The hydrolysis data obtained for pyro- and triphosphates is
presently used to establish rate constants and the order of the reactions.










(21) MICROBIOLOGY OF MULLET HARVESTED
FROM A BRACKISH-MATER SITE

John A. Koburger and Mary L. Miller
Food Science and Human Nutrition
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Mullet is the number one quantity finfish harvested in Florida; however,
nothing is.known about its normal flora. In order to obtain these date, mul-
let were harvested from a brackish-water site in Suwanee, Florida at three
different sampling times and analyzed for total and fecal coliforms, Salmon-
ella, and aerobic plate counts with identification of the isolates. The four
most common genera found were Corynebacterium (22%), Bacillus (17%), Staphylo-
coccus and Pseudomonas (8%) witii Corynebacterium being the only genus isolated
at all three sampling times. Coliform counts and aerobic plate counts were
generally low, but Salmonella was isolated from one sample during December.











(22) LOW DOSE GAMMA IRRADIATION OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE
IN CRABS (CALLINECTES SAPIDUS)

Robert M. Grodner and Arthur Hinton, Jr.
Department of Food Science
Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station
Louisiana State University Agricultural Center
Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803

The effect of low dose gamma irradiation on Vibrio cholerae in sterile
and nonsterile fresh crabmeat homogenates stored for 21 days at OC, 4C and 8C
was studied. In sterile and nonsterile fresh crabmeat homogenates at OC, 4C,
and -8C there was a 5 log cycle reduction and a 3 log cycle reduction respect-
ively in the number of Vibrio cholerae immediately after irradiation at 25
Krad on day 0. No Vibrio choerae were recovered immediately after irradia-
tion at 50 or 100 Krad on day 0.











(23) USE OF A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE FOR
DETECTING AND MONITORING THE ACCUMULATION OF
CIGUATOXIN-LIKE TOXINS IN FISH TISSUE

Lowell V. Sick, Doug.C. Hansen and John A. Babinchak
National Marine Fisheries Service
P.O. Box 12607
Charleston, South Carolina 29412

Seafood toxins, such as ciguatoxin, compromise human health through ex-
posure of consumers to contaminated finfish. Due largely to the increased
distribution of valuable reef fishes, ciguatera may currently be the leading
cause of non-bacterial food poisoning in the United States. In addition to
consideration of human health, the threat of exposure to ciguatoxic fish re-
sults in economic losses in the commercial and recreational exploitation of
seafood. Aspects of developing a safety program for preventing toxic fish
from entering commerce include developing improved techniques for monitoring
ciguatoxin as well as having a better understanding of how fish become cigua-
toxic.

A-high pressure liquid chromatographic technique was developed to detect
ciguatoxin and related toxi.n(s). The method features in-line, post-column
derivatization and fluorescence detection and is the first chemical method
capable of quantitatively measuring ciguatoxin or ciguatoxin-like toxins in
concentrations <1 mouse unit of toxicity.

Using this procedure, uptake of algal-produced toxin by the black sea
bass, Centropristis striata was studied in an attempt to demonstrate the food
chain hypothesis for ciguatoxin accumulation in fish. Higher concentrations
of toxin were detected in fish tissue when fish were exposed to whole algal
cells, either gavaged or injected interperitoneally, rather than when toxin
was presented as algal extract. Regardless of the route of exposure to toxic
material, visceral tissue had the greatest toxicity.
Chromatographic separations of algal and fish extracts using the chromat-
ographic technique indicated the presence of only a single toxin, presumable
the algal toxin. This result suggests that ciguatoxin is not produced within
infected fish, but must be ingested from an algal source.











(24) DEPURATION OF CLAMS IN FLORIDA

John W. Schneider
Bureau of Marine Resource Regulation and Development
Division of Marine Resources
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee, Florida 32303

The Florida Department of Natural Resources has enacted policies which
support and encourage the controlled purification of shellfish. These man-
agement policies are directed toward increasing hard clam (Mercenaria spp.)
production through the responsible utilization of a resource which would
otherwise be lost. Policies supporting depuration activity have also impacted
public harvesting areas by reducing fishing pressure in open areas.

It was estimated that approximately 165 million hard clams were harvested
in 1984 for a total dockside value of $7.26 million. During 1984, approxi-
mately four million hard clams were processed at five depuration facilities
located in Brevard County. More than 12 million clams were depurated during
the first quarter of 1985.

It is important for the shellfish control agency to work closely with the
shellfish industry with regard to the need for adequate regulation of depura-
tion. Since few shellfish regulatory agencies are staffed and funded to ef-
fectively monitor depuration, the industry must be willing to support regula-
tory and enforcement activities.











(25) FACTORS AFFECTING THE DEPURATION OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS BY
NOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH

Thomas C. Siewicki, Frances M. Van Dolah and Jane S. Sydlowski
National Marine Fisheries Service
P.O. Box 12607
Charleston, South Carolina 29412

Degradation of the quality of the estuarine habitats has resulted in clo-
sures of shellfish growing waters because of chemical burdens in the biota.
Concentrations of cadmium, zinc, arsenic, tin and other inorganic as well as
organic contaminants in shellfish occasionally approach recommended maximal
dietary intakes. These renewable marine resources may be recaptured into com-
merce if institutional factors (i.e., laws and regulations, establishment of
chemical acceptance criteria) are overcome and if suitable processes for re-
moval of these contaminants are developed. Early studies evaluated the ef-
fects of relaying to poorly characterized environments. Results of these
studies led to the generally held belief that depuration or relaying for re-
moval of chemical contaminants is impractical.

Controlled evaluations of the rates of elimination of cadmium, zinc,
copper, iron, and magnesium by juvenile eastern oysters have been conducted in
our Charleston Laboratory. Results thus far suggest important environmental
factors affecting the elimination of chemical contaminants by oysters include:
salinity; temperature; and organic chelator concentrations. Approximately 20
percent of environmentally-acquired cadmium was eliminated by 28 days when
only one environmental factor was optimized. A large scale study is currently
underway to evaluate the combined effects of the "best" environmental condi-
tions on the elimination of cadmium, zinc, copper, arsenic, selenium, and tin
by adult and juvenile: eastern-oysters; Pacific oysters; softshell clams; and
hardshell clams.







16


(27) CONTROLLED CHALLENGES OF SULFITE-SENSITIVE ASTHMATICS
WITH SULFITED SHRIMP AND OTHER FOODS

Steve L. Taylor, Robert K. Bush, William W. Busse,
Karen Holden, and Julie A. Nordlee
Food Research Institute
Department of Food Microbiology and Toxicology Department
Department of Medicine
Clinical Sciences Center
University of Wisconsin
Madison and William S. Middleton Veterans Hospital
Madison, Wisconsin 53706

Ingestion of sulfites can provoke bronchospasm in sulfite-sensitive asth-
matics (SSA), but the role of sulfited foods in eliciting episodes of asthma
in SSA has not been clearly defined. Clinical challenge procedures usually
involve challenges with sulfite in capsules or acidic beverages such as lemon-
ade or citric acid. Sulfited food challenges would be quite different because
sulfites are very reactive chemicals. No evidence exists that SSA react to
the bound forms of sulfite that predominate in most foods.

A total of 243 asthmatics have been screened for sulfite sensitivity by a
single-blind challenge with capsules and beverages containing sulfites. A
positive response was a 20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second
(FEV1), a common measure of lung function that can be readily measured by
spirometry. Single-blind positive reactions were confirmed by double-blind
trials using sucrose as the placebo and the regular sulfite challenge proced-
ure on separate days. Six confirmed SSA were identified in this manner.

The six SSa were subjected to challenges with 5 sulfited foods: lettuce,
dried apricots, white grape juice,- dehydrated potatoes, and shrimp. Lettuce
challenges were performed double-blind, while open-challenges were conducted
with the other foods. Four patients failed to react to any of the sulfited
foods indicating that they may have been false positive responders in the
original single-blind and double-blind trials. The other two subjects reacted
to challenges with lettuce, dried apricots, and white grape juice. Shrimp and
dehydrated potatoes did not elicit reactions in these two patients. The
shrimp were sulfited after peeling our laboratory to contain approximately 100
ppm total S02 as determined by the Monier-Williams method after cooking. Pa-
tients consumed 50, 100 and 200 g of the cooked shrimp at 30 min intervals
followed by monitoring of their lung function just before the next dose. The
200 g dose was selected as an upper limit for human consumption of shrimp in a
single meal. The 100 ppm residue level was selected because it is the legally
allowed upper limit in raw shrimp to meet federal guidelines for good manufac-
turing practices.

We conclude that sulfited foods can provoke bronchospasm in SSA, but not
all sulfited foods elicit these reactions. Foods having less than 100 ppm
total S02 as consumed did not elicit reactions in our two patients, while
foods having more than 200 ppm total S02 did provoke reactions.










(28) ONEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS: WHY ALL THE SUDDEN ATTENTION?
Chris R. Anderson
Food Science and Human Nutrition
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids characterized by the
fact that the first carbon-carbon double bond begins at the third carbon from
the methyl-terminal end of the carbon chain. Eicosapentanoic (EPA) and doca-
hexanoic (DHA) are two omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish oil. EPA has
.been shown to decrease triglycerides in the serum of normal and hypertrigly-
ceridemic humans. EPA, through its role in prostaglandinmetabolism, is also
capable of causing delayed blood-clotting time. Both actions are thought to
have an effect on ischemic heart disease but scope and nature of these effects
are far from elucidated.







(29) NMFS FISH OIL RESEARCH AIDS FISHING INDUSTRY AND CONSUMERS

Gloria T. Seaborn, Jeanne D. Joseph, and Paul E. Bauersfield
National Marine Fisheries Service
P.O. Box 12607
Charleston, South Carolina 29412

Numerous studies in the last decade have focused particular attention on
two fatty acids found in all seafoods, the polyunsaturated fatty acids, eico-
sapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and their relative ef-
fects on the human cardiovascular system. More recent studies have shown that
these two fatty acids, know as n-3 fatty acids because of their chemical
structure, may also effect the immune system. Large amounts of DHA have been
detected in brain, retina and human milk, suggesting that n-3 fatty acids may
be essential components of the diet. With current concern for good health and
nutrition, it is reasonable to expect an increase in the amount of seafood in
the American diet, with a resulting increase in the economic value of seafood
an seafood products, if sufficient information were available on the nutri-
tional value and wholesomeness of these products. A general overview of cur-
rent and projected projects at the Charleston Laboratory of the National Mar-
ine Fisheries Service (NMFS) designed to assist the industry in realizing this
potential will be presented. Some of these activities have been devoted to
the determination and collation of information on the composition, safety, and
uses of fish oils, including those of latent species. The data bases in which
this information is stored will be described. In support of the National In-
stitutes of Health (NIH)/NMFS initiative to demonstrate that fish oils, or
their component'fatty acids,,EPA and DHA, are valuable therapeutic agents in
treatment of cardiovascular and other diseases, preparations are being made to
provide refined menhaden oi.ls and concentration of n-3 fatty acids to NIH ap-
proved investigators-for use in human clinical trials, animal feeding studies
and basic biochemical investigations.










(30) OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND FISH OILS: IS ALL THE NEWS GOOD?
A. M. Guarino
Fishery Research Branch
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Dauphin Island, Alabama 36528

It is inevitable that consumption of fish and various fish oils will in-
crease as a result of the recent reports on the beneficial effects of the o-
mega-3 fatty acids in these products. FDA has at least two areas of concern.
First, will our general risk assessments based on per capital consumption of 13
lbs. of fish per year have to be revised? Second, what contaminants are like-
ly to appear in fish oil products marketed in health food stores and supermar-
kets? The actual health claims of such products will not be addressed during
this presentation. The focus of this paper will be on lipid soluble pesti-
cides and industrial chemicals likely to appear in fish oil concentrates.
These substances are readily absorbed by aquatic species and are accumulated
in some parts of the fish body. Most of these compounds are distributed in
fatty tissues that are not usually consumed and thus would not be a human
hazard. On the other hand, these tissues are one source of fish oil supple-
ments. These oils are likely to require special clean-up procedures to assure
they do not contain harmful levels of chemicals which may be toxic.










(31) PARASITES AND PUBLIC HEALTH: IS SEAFOOD SAFE?

Thomas L. Deardorff
Fishery Research Branch
U.S. Food and-Drug Administration
Dauphin Island, Alabama 36528
Serious human disease may result from ingesting seafood products infected
with certain parasites. Over fifty species of helminthic parasites have been
implicated as producing zoonotic infections, resulting from eating raw sea-
foods. While the majority of these parasitic infections occur outside of the
United States, some human cases have been reported within our borders. One of
the most carefully studied diseases induced a larval nematode is anisakiasis.
Humans are infected when they ingest a larval anisakid nematode along with
some raw or other inadequately cooked seafoods. The larva may then penetrate
into or through the stomach or intestinal wall. In recent years, the number
of new cases of anisakiasis in the U.S. has increased. This increase is pro-
bably associated with our society's changing dietary habits. Raw seafoods,
such as served at sushi bars, are increasing our chances of encountering this
disease. The current state of knowledge concerning this disease and preventa-
tive measures will be discussed.








(33) PROCESSING OF MENHADEN FOR CONVENTIONAL FOOD
PRODUCTS, MINCED INTERMEDIATES AND SURIMI

Malcolm B. Hale and Robert C. Ernst, Jr.
National Marine Fisheries Service
P.O. Box 12607
Charleston, South Carolina 29412

Both Gulf and Atlantic menhaden have good potential for human food prod-
ucts if appropriate harvesting, holding, processing and preservation proced-
ures are carried out. Processing studies at the Charleston Laboratory of the
Southeast Fisheries Center and some of the resulting demonstration products
are described in this paper. Smoked and canned menhaden fillets are a very
acceptable product. Menhaden also have potential uses in fish sausages and as
an ingredient in hot dogs. Recent emphasis has been on minced intermediate
products and/or surimi. Processing requirements for these products are des-
cribed. A typical yield of strained, washing menhaden mince is 18%. This can
be separated during straining into approximately 11% light fraction and 7%
dark fraction.




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