PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP ON
FLORIDA SPINY LOBSTER
RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT
24 AUGUST 1984
FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
FLORIDA SEA GRANT
Compiled and Edited by A A A ,
WILLIAM F. HERRNKIND
TECHNICAL PAPER NO. 32
PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP ON FLORIDA
RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT
Compiled and Edited
Sponsored by Florida State University
Marine Laboratory and
Florida Sea Grant College Program
Project no, IR-84-17
Technical Papers are duplicated in limited quantities for specialized
audiences requiring rapid.access to information and may receive only
limited editing. This' paper was compiled by the Florida Sea Grant College
with.. support from NOAA Office o.fSea Grant, UUS. Department of Commerce,
grant number NA80AA-D-00Q38. It was published by the Sea Grant Extension
Program.-wh.fich functions as a component of the Florida Cooperative Extension
Service, John.T. Woeste, Dean, in conducting Cooperative Extension work in
Agriculture, Home Economics, and Marine Sciences, State of Florida, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Commerce, and Boards of County
Commissioners, cooperating. Printed and distributed in furtherance of the
Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 14, 1914. The Florida Sea Grant College
is an Equal Employment Opportunity-Affirmative Action employer authorized
to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color,
sex, or national origin.
TECHNICAL PAPER NO..32
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Foreword . . . . .
Acknowledgments . . . . .
Schedule for Spiny Lobster Workshop . . .
Workshop Report Abstracts . . . .
1. Michael D. Calinski . . . .
2. George B. Cline .. . . . ....
3. Richard A. Gleeson . . .
4. Douglas R.,Grdgory, Jr. and Ronald F. Labisky .
5. Douglas R. Gregory, Jr. and Greg.Waugh .. .
6. Charles W. Hardwick and George B. Cline . .
7. John H. Hunt . . . ... .
8. William G. Lyons . . .
9. James M. Marx . . . .
10. James M. Marx . . . .
11. Fred Prochaska and Walter R. Keithly . .. .
12. Gregory K. Vermeer . . .
13. Gregg T. Waugh . . . .
Selected Recent Literature Pertinent to Spiny Lobster
Research and Management . . . . .
Addresses of Attendees ... . . . .
Spiny lobster researchers and resource managers have held workshops every
2-3 years since 1974 to discuss research and information needs pertinent to the
organism and its very important fishery. These meetings have resulted in
sustained cooperation and coordination among the various individuals, and their
respective agencies, and therefore have contributed materially to both the.
improved state of spiny lobster knowledge and high level of interdisciplinary
awareness. The following information emerged from a workshop held on 24 August,
1984 at the Florida State University Marine Laboratory co-sponsored by Florida
Sea Grant, James Cato, Director, and FSUML, William Herrnkind, Director. Thirteen
formal reports were presented to the 20 workshop attendees in addition to a
roundtable discussion involving all participants.
The workshop proceedings include: 1) an agenda; 2) abstract/summaries of
reports;. 3) bibliography of selected recent spiny lobster references; 4)
addresses. of workshop attendees and other contributors.
Discussion of recent and preliminary findings, or promising leads, is a
principal function of the workshop. Users of the proceedings are cautioned not
to use the information in the abstracts beyond this intended purpose.
William F. Herrnkind
I especially thank William Lyons, Florida Department of Natural
Resources, who both prompted, and assisted in planning, this conference.
The financial contributions of Florida Sea Grant and the facilities pro-
vided by Department of Biological Science and the Marine Laboratory of
Florida State University are much appreciated. Efficient and capable
assistance in preparing and operating the conference was provided by Kath
Gauss, Joseph Lusczkovich, Mark Butler, William Greening, Mary Westberg and
the rest of the FSUML staff. Their efforts, as well as those of Linda
Mathews, Alice Jackson and Cindy Dodson in preparing these proceedings, are
SPINY LOBSTER WORKSHOP
FSU MARINE LAB, 24 AUG 1984
Thursday, August 23rd Evening check-in at FSUML
Friday, August 24th
Coffee and rolls in FSUML library
Research for management in the Florida
spiny lobster fishery.
Effects of exposure and confinement
on spiny lobsters used to bait traps
in the Florida fishery.
Effect of air-exposure on spiny lobster
blood chemistry and desiccation rate.
Movement dynamics of spiny lobster in
the Florida Keys
Spiny lobster movements in the lower
Keys and size frequency analysis of
lobsters caught by shrimp trawlers.
Catered lunch at FSUML classroom
Macroalgae as habitat for young
juvenile spiny lobsters.
Growth and survival of post settlement
spiny lobsters in artificial nurseries
and the potential application of
artificial nursery habitats to the
Status of chemo-reception research
on spiny lobster (and other marine
crustaceans) at the C.V. Whitney
Isoenzyme analysis of slipper
lobsters from the Gulf of Mexico
and Caribbean: I.
Friday, August 24th
Saturday, August 25th
Isoenzyme analysis of slipper
lobsters from the Gulf of Mexico: II.
Demand and consumption analysis of
Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic
Fishery Management Plan
Major management issues in the
spiny lobster fishery.
Social hour at FSUML Residence House
followed by dinner at restaurant of
Round table discussion and films.
Coffee and rolls in FSUML library.
Tour of FSUML facilities.
WORKSHOP REPORT ABSTRACTS
1. SETTLEMENT, GROWTH, AND SURVIVAL OF PUERULUS TO JUVENILE STAGE SPINY
LOBSTERS IN ARTIFICIAL NURSERY HABITATS AND POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF SUCH
HABITATS TO FLORIDA'S FISHERY.
Michael D. Calinski
The puerulus stage of the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is extremely
abundant in the nearshore waters of the Florida Keys; an extrapolation based on
the average number of pueruli that settle in Witham collectors, indicates
roughly 4 billion pueruli enter the Keys annually, and that about 1 in 600 sur-
vive to be (legally) harvested.
In-an attempt to increase survival, I.tested a series of prototype floating
habitats. Of 4 designs (Witham collector, Australian collector, plastic 6-pack
rings, "condo") tested, the condo worked best in attracting and supporting
puerulus to 20+ mm CL juveniles; puerulus survival to 20+ mm CL was 20 percent,
and after 5 months the fouling assemblage was lush enough to support 37 deve-
loping lobsters (6 to 21 mm CL). This habitat had 3 tiers, covered 1/4 square
meter of water surface and was 1/8 cubic meter in volume.
To determine if a single large habitat would function in the same manner as
numerous smaller units of the same volume, 3 2.4 cubic meter floating nurseries
of the condo design were pre-fouled in a boat basin, placed at a test site
within 5 meters of the oceanside shore of Stock Island, and sampled with a large
wood-frame net 1 week after each new moon from May to November, 1983. Animals
were tagged with a right or left uropod clip, or a telson notch; each new-moon
"set" received a'different tag.
A total of 1,167 measurements were made from 866 pueruli that settled in
the habitats during the 7-month period. Settled pueruli molted 3 to 4 times and
averaged 10.7 mm CL (range = 8.0 13.0) after 1 month. Two month old animals
averaged 16.2 mm CL (range = 14.0 19.0) after molting 2 to 3 times. Three
month old animals averaged 24.2 mm CL (range = 19.5 27.0) after molting 1 to 2
times. Four month old animals averaged 32.4 mm CL (range = 27 34.5) and all
animals but 1 molted at least once. Average growth was 6.5 mm CL/month; average
increment per molt was 16 percent. No evidence was found that juvenile or other
post-puerulus stage animals were entering the habitats from the bottom. With an
average growth of 6.5 mm CL/month for the first 4 months, plus an average growth
of 5 mm CL/month (Eldred et al., 1972) for the next 6 months, and an average
growth of 3.3 mm CL (Lyons et al., 1981) for the next 5 months, lobsters would
first enter harvestable ranks (76 mm CL) 15 months after puerulus recruitment.
Puerulus survival data were obtained from a single habitat sampled con-
secutively for the 7-month period. Of 187 pueruli that settled in this habitat
over 3 new-moon periods, 14.4% (27) survived for 1 month; 5.9% (11) survived
through 2 months; 5.3% (10) survived through 3 months; and 4.3% (8)
survived/stayed in the habitats for 4 months. It is believed they start to
leave in search of benthic "denning" habitat after 3 months (none were observed
to stay in the habitats for more than 4 months).
Mangrove snappers, Lutjanus griseus, were the major predator of lobsters
within the habitats; 7 to 33 percent of snappers captured in the habitats had
lobsters in the gut. Habitat modifications reducing tier spacing to keep snap-
pers out showed an apparent 4X increase in survival; the modification also
appeared to greatly reduce puerulus settlement (based on settlement still
occurring in nearby Witham collectors).
Production of 24 mm CL juveniles averaged just under 2 per cubic meter per
month over a 4-month period; production of 32 mm'CL juveniles averaged just over
1 per cubic meter per month over a 3-month period. The one-eighth cubic meter
prototype probably can produce up to 16 juveniles per month per (total) cubic
meter; this habitat also had about one-half the surface area of the larger
habitats, and comparatively speaking, could be considered of poor design. There
is little doubt that a habitat much smaller than the large ones but larger than
the one-eighth cubic meter ones can be developed that will produce 20 juveniles
per cubic meter per month, 12 months per year; this is my next research goal.
Such a habitat would have to be built of materials, and anchored in such a
manner, as to withstand hurricanes. An anchoring system capable of holding
habitats in such an event has been developed; the only material that could
withstand such an event and last in the marine environment for at least 10 years
is polypropylene. A rough estimate would put the cost of such a system,
including regular maintenance, at $250 to $300 per cubic meter per 10-year
Waugh (1981) estimated 30+ mm CL juvenile survival in the Bahamas to be 40
percent; Olsen and Koblic (1975) estimated juvenile survival in U.S.V.I. to be
60 percent; no estimates have been made for Florida, but for the following con-
siderations it will be expected that 50 percent of nursery produced juveniles
will survive to be harvested; harvested animals having a value of $3.00 each,
ex-vessel. At a theoretical production of 240 juveniles per cubic meter per
year, such a habitat would produce $360 worth of lobster per year, thus paying
for itself within 1.5 years after deployment (allowing for 2 months initial -
fouling, 15 months to first harvestable animals, 12 months for first full year's
If the estimated annual puerulus recruitment figure of 4 billion is close
to what actually occurs, then just under 6 hectares (14.5 acres) of such habitat
deployed in a sufficiently diffuse manner (1 part.habitat to at least 100 parts
open water) would utilize 18 percent of available seed-stock to double Florida's
(legal) recreational and commercial landings at a roughly calculated 10-year
cost of 14.7 to 17.6 million dollars; ex-vessel wide returns (e.g., wholesalers,
retailers, boat builders, restaurants, tourist trade, recreational spinoffs,
etc.), this figure could theoretically reach the half-billion dollar mark.
This artificial nursery habitat 'concept has been tested successfully at the
prototype level on stone crabs, blue crabs, calico scallops, and various fishes,
such habitats can effectively replace natural nursery habitat destroyed by
(Citations: Eldred, B., C.R. Futch, and R.M. Ingle. 1972. Studies of juvenile
spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Fla. Dept. Nat.
Resour. Mar. Rs. Lab., Spec. Sci. Report 35. 15 pp; Lyons, W.G., D.G. Barber,
S.M. Foster, F.S. Kennedy, Jr., and G.R. Milano. 1981. The spiny lobster,
Panulirus argus, in the.middle'and upper Florida Keys: population structure,
seasonal dynamics, and reproduction. Fla. Mar. Rs. Publ. No. 38. 38 pp; Olsen,
D.A., and I.G. Koblic. 1975. Population dynamics, ecology and behavior of
spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, of St. John, U.S.V.I. II. Growth and
Mortality, Pp 17-21 In: S.A. Earle and R.J. Lavenberg, eds. Results of the
TEKTITE program: coral reef invertebrates and plants. L.A.C.M. Nat. Hist., Sci.
Bull. 20; Waugh, G.T. 1981. Management of juvenile spiny lobster (Panulirus
arus) based on estimated biological parameters from Grand Bahama Island,
Ba amas. Proc. Gulf Carrib. Fish Inst. 33: 271-289).
2. PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE AND PHOSPHOHEXOSE ISOMERASE ISOZYMES OF SLIPPER LOBSTERS,
SCYLLARIDES NODIFIER FROM THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SYLLARIDES AEQUINOCTIALIS FROM
THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN SEA.
George B. Cline
S. nodifier is a migratory lobster found principally in the Gulf of Mexico
and waters draining-from it while S. aequinoctialis seems to be a reef dweller
and is found principally in the Caribbean Sea.and its waters that reach the
shores of the Ainericas. The range of the two species thus overlap in the
Florida Keys and Bay. Some aspects of their biology and species' descriptions
have been reported elsewhere (see below). Biochemical data in the form of poly-
morphic isozymes is presented here to give further distinctions between these
two species. In this study, 7 S. aequinoctialis from the American Virgin
Islands are compared with 10 S. nodifer from the northern Gulf of Mexico using
PGM (E.C.126.96.36.199.) and PHI (E.C.188.8.131.52) zymograms as the basis for comparison.
Legs were excised from live animals and the muscles ground with a mechanical
grinder and sonicated to further break open the tissues under ice cold
conditions. The soluble phase was collected by centrifugation, dialyzed against
3 changes of ice cold distilled water, and frozen in 3 to 5 ml aliquots. The
zymograms were prepared by isoelectric focusing in pH 5.0 to 6.5 polyacrylamide
gels (LKB PAG plates) under constant power at 1500 volts maximum. Isozymes were
detected by standard reactions coupled to a tetrazolium indicator.
Results of PGM assays for S. nodifer showed all 10 animals had a single
band at approximately pH 6.1, with either single or double bands (sets) at 5.75,
5.55, 5.3, 5.2, and 5.1. Five animals had a single band at 5.4 while eight ani-
mals had one or more bands centered around pH 4.8. S. aequinoctialis showed
fewer overall bands with 2/7 having a 4.8 band, 4/7 having 5.0 bandss, 5/7
having a 5.2 band, 6/7 having a 5.4 band, 6/7 having a 5.7 band(s), 7/7 having
both 5.8 and 6.0 bands. Occasional bands appeared at higher pHs in some
animals. PGM patterns could not be correlated with sex. The two species have he
4.8 and the 5.2 isozymes in common (and possibly the 5.7 set). Some of the
unshared isozymes are possibly species specific.
The PHI isozymes are quite sensitive to oxidation, thus all samples con-
tained a reducing agent, DTT. One S. nodifer never showed PHI isozymes while of
the remaining nine, 5/9 had isozymes at 5.1, 8/9 had bands at 5.25 to 5.3, 9/9
had 5.4 and 5.55 bands, 8/9 had 5.65 bands, several had weak bands at 5.8 and
7/9 had a strong band at 6.3. The seven S. aequinoctialis showed more isozymes
overall. Six/seven had'bands at 5.1 while 7/7 had bands at 5.2, 5.25, 5.3, 5.4,
5.5, 5.6, 5.7 and 5.8. Occasional bands appeared in some animals at higher pHs.
PHI isozymes at pH 5.1, 5.25, 5.4, 5.5, and 5.7 are common between both groups
and no pattern correlation could be made with respect to sex.
PGM and PHI zymograms of these two species are distinctly different and
help to further define these animals. Further isozymic analysis of animals from
other regions of the Gulf and Caribbean are important for stock assessment.
(Citations: Lyons, W.G. 1970. Memoirs of the Hour Glass Cruises, Vol. 1, Part
IV; Cline, G.B., D. Chilcutt and R. Lindsay. 1978. Histological studies and
rearing of phyllosomes of the Slipper Lobster, Scyllarides nodifer.. J. Ala.
Acad. of Science 49:73; Cline, G.B. and J. Hinton. 1983. A comparison of
'phosphoglucomutase.and phosphohexose isomerase isozymes of muscle extracts of
slipper lobsters S. nodifer and S. aequinoctialis by isoeletric focusing.
Isozyme Bulletin T6:78; Hardwick, C. and G.B. Cline. 1984. Genetic charac-
terization of a population of Scyllarides nodifer using isoelectric focusing
(IEF) of some gene products. J. Ala. Acad. Sci. In press.
3. STATUS OF CHEMORECEPTION RESEARCH ON THE SPINY LOBSTER AT THE C.V. WHITNEY
Richard A. Gleeson
A project is described in which the physiological mechanisms of "mixture
suppression" in the olfactory pathway of the lobster were examined. In this study
a 31 component stimulus mixure, which mimics the composition of a natural food
(the soluble organic of crab muscle tissue), was utilized. Neural responses to
the mixture and its components were assessed at both the receptor cell level and
in high-order interneurons in the olfactory-pathway. Of the 31 components, 12
were identified as stimulatory and 3 were classified as non-stimulatory
suppressants. At both the receptor cell and CNS levels, response intensity to a
mixture of the stimulants and suppressants were significantly less than that to
the stimulants alone. By presenting the stimulants and suppressants to separate
antennular filaments, the central neural contribution to mixture suppression was
assessed. Of the 20 interneurons examined in these latter experiments, half
exhibited suppression when the stimulants and suppressants were simultaneously
presented, but spatially separated by application to different antennular
A second project is discussed in which the objective was to develop a bait
alternative to the use of short lobsters in the lobster pot fishery. Tank tests
were performed in which the lobster catch rate was compared for: (1) pots
"baited" with short lobsters; (2) empty pots; and (3) pots containing experimen-
tal baits. A system for dispensing homogenized slurries of food stimuli (e.g.,
shrimp heads) over several days was developed. In tank tests this approach was
very effective at outfishing pots containing short lobsters. Initial field
trials, however, were equivocal and warrant further study.
4. SPINY LOBSTER MOVEMENTS IN THE LOWER FLORIDA KEYS AND SIZE FREQUENCY ANALYSIS
OF LOBSTERS CAPTURED IN THE SHRIMP FISHERY
Douglas R. Gregory, Jr. and Ronald F. Labisky
Long distance movements of the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, were studied
in two Gulf of Mexico habitats (Shallows, Middepth) and three Atlantic Ocean
habitats (Shallows, Patch Reef, and Deep Reef) in the lower Florida Keys during
the mid-1970s. Thirteen percent (N = 783) of 6,125 spiny lobsters tagged and
released at the five sites between June, 1975 August, 1976 were recovered,
principally by commercial fishermen; 80 percent of the tags were recovered within
the first three months of the eight month commercial fishing season (26 July -
31 March). Males and'females were recovered in the same proportion as they were
captured and tagged. Directions and: rates of movements differed significantly
(P > 0.05) among sites. Movements of spiny lobsters from Gulf sites were
generally oriented to the west and southwest, toward the Atlantic offshore reefs,
at mean rates of 0.57 km/day (Mid-depth) and 0.24 km/day (Shallows). Movements
of spiny lobsters from the Atlantic sites were principally eastward and
westward, parallel to the reef line and island chain, at mean rates of 0.02
km/day (Deep Reef) and 0.05 km/day (Shallows, Patch Reef). The more directed
movements of spiny lobsters.from Gulf sites may reflect a migration from nursery
grounds to the Atlantic reefs, which not only constitute the primary spawning
habitat but also exhibit a more stable winter environment than the shallow Gulf.
Movements of spiny lobsters from Atlanticwaters reflect localized random
onshore-offshore disperal patterns characteristic of reef environments.
Size Frequency Analysis: Carapace lengths of 379 lobsters were taken of
the lobster by catch of an individual shrimp trawler during the period July,
1975 January,-1979.. No overall size differences between sexes (m, f) or
seasons (September February, March August) were observed, however, carapace
lengths generally decreased during the study period. Significant three-way
interaction existed in carapace length between sex, season, and year. During the
reproductive season .(March August) females:were larger than males, but during
the nonreproductive season both sexes were of similar size. Carapace lengths in
the reproductive -seas.n .were larger than those in the nonreproductive season for
the years.1976-1977 but the reverse occurred in 1978 possibly due to the
expansion of the lobster fishery to the FCZ during the.1978 closed season (April
-'July) in Florida's waters. Overall, that segment of the lobster population
peripheral to the shrimp fishery experiences a lower mortality rate than does
the traditionally fished component of the population in the Florida Keys.
5, GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTICSPINY LOBSTER FISHERY MANAGEMENT PLAN
Douglas R. Gregory, Jr. and Greg Waugh .
1 -te management unit is the spiny T.bster, Panuli us argus inhabiting that
Portion of the FCZ within .the areas of authority of the Gulf of Mexico-and South
Atlantic Fishery Management Councils. The fishery occurs principally in the
waters off South Florida, and approximately 50 percent of the.catch is taken from
The objectives of the FMP implemented in July 1982 address a number of
problems. Foremost among these was the need to manage the fishery throughout
its range. Florida had been managing the fishery for years, but its enforcement
efforts were limited to state waters. The objectives were designed to: (a)
increase long-term yield of lobster by weight; (b) protect the stocks by reducing
mortality and illegal harvest of undersized lobsters (including those used as
attractants in traps); (c) reduce conflicts among users of the resource; (d)
increase efficiency in the fishery, and (e) acquire the data necessary for future
management decisions. The FMP projected an estimated increase in yield of 1.5
.million pounds in the first year over the estimated legal catch of 8.0 million
pounds, (includes 1.0-2.6 million pounds or.unrecorded commercial and recreati-
nal catches) and an eventual long-term increase in yield of approximately 4.0
million pounds to the MSY of 12.0 million pounds. Projected increases in annual
revenue to the harvesting sector parallel the projected increases in yield.
Management measures designed to achieve these objectives in the FCZ included a
minimum size limit (3.0 inches carapace length or 5.5 inches tail length), a
closure during the spawning season (April 1 July 25), the use of degradable
escape panels, the prohibition of certain gear (such as spears and hooks) that
could injure or kill sublegal-sized lobsters, a prohibition against molesting or
pulling another's traps, the required return of undersized lobsters to the water
unharmed except for those used as attractants in traps (allowance for three for
each trap aboard or 200 per vessel, whichever is greater), issuance of trap
permits, color coding of trap buoys,.a special two-day recreational non-trap
season, and finally, a prohibition against striping~or possessing egg-bearing
The first Council review of the Spiny Lobster FMP was conducted in Key
West, Florida in July 1984. The-plan review identified three major topics of
concern: (1) a significant fishery-induced'mortality of undersized lobsters
used as attractants. (2) The lack of an adequate statistical reporting system.
(3) The continued overcapitalization of the fishery. Alternative management
measures to address the above problems will be.considered for the spiny lobster
fishery next year by the Councils.
6. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A POPULATION OF SCYLLARIDES NODIFER USING
ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING (IEF) OF SOME GENE PRODUCTS.
Charles W. Hardwick and George B. Cline
Electrophoretic patterns of proteins and of isozymes can be used to measure
genetic relationships among animals and populations. In this progress report,
IEF is used to assess the biochemical characteristics of 15 slipper lobsters
collected from 2 locations 25 miles south of Pensacola, FL. IEF is done in
thin-layer agarose gels containing ampholytes with pH range 4-7,. The focused
gels are assayed for gene products using several methods.
The results for the Commassie Blue R-250 protein staining, PGM isozyme
patterns, PHI isozyme patterns, and MPI isozyme patterns have been previously
reported from this lab. The additional enzyme work done supports the conclusion
previously drawn, that all the animals in this study share a common gene pool.
In addition to the enzyme assays, a newly developed silver stain for proteins
focused on charge balanced agarose shows greater detail using smaller sample
sizes and lower ampholyte concentrations.
A'new technique developed in this lab for zymogram detection of isozyme
patterns was used for these enzymes. This method,using a filter paper overlay
that remains permanently bound to the IEF gel, increases the accuracy of the pi
interpretation and gives increased resolution even on grossly overloaded samples.
Additional data on mannose phosphate isomerase indicate a high degree of
polymorphism, however, this enzyme does not appear to be sex-linked as in some
other lobster species. Major isozyme bands for MPI appear at pIs 5.00, 5.55,
5.85, and 7.15 (2). Esterase isozymes also showed individual differences, with
major bandsat pIs 4.50, 4.60, 4.75, 4.85 (2), 4.95, 5.25, and 5.50 (2). Some
animals showed bands around pi 5.7. Hexokinase activity was tested in separate
experiments using two substrates, glucose and fructose, and common bands appeared
at approximately pls 5.50 and 6.35. These experiments have not been repeated
enough to assign possible loci. None of the enzyme or protein band pattern dif-
ferences between animals appear to be due to the sex or the size of the animal.
7. EFFECTS OF'EXPOSURE AND CONFINEMENT ON SPINY LOBSTERS, PANULIRUS ARGUS, USED
TO BAIT TRAPS IN THE FLORIDA FISHERY
John H. Hunt
Fishermen in the south Florida spiny lobster fishery typically use
sublegal lobsters (shorts) as live attractants inside traps, many shorts
so utilized are exposed for considerable periods aboard vessels before being
placed in traps and returned to the sea. Field tests mimicking this fishing
method were conducted to determine capture rates by variously baited traps and
mortality rates of lobsters used as attractants.
Catch rates of traps containing 1 or 2 lobstes as live attractants were
nearly twice those of empty traps or traps baited with cowhide. Shorts were
relatively more effective as attractants during times of lobster scarcity than
during times when lobsters were plentiful.
Average mortality rate of lobsters exposed 1/2, 1, 2 and 4 hours in
controlled field tests was 27% after 4 weeks; unexposed (control) lobster mor-
tality was 10%. Approximately 42% of observed mortality occurred within 1 week
after exposure, indicating exposure to be a primary cause of death. Neither
air temperature during exposure nor periodic dampening with seawater had signi-
ficant effects on mortality rate. Mortality among confined lobsters increased
markedly in the ocean but not in Florida Bay during the fourth week of con-
finement following exposure, probably because more natural food organisms
entering traps from nearby seagress beds delayed starvation at the latter site.
Another estimate of mortality was made by comparing return rates of tagged
lobsters deliberately released before or after confinement with return rates of
others that "disappeared" from traps while serving as live attractants. The
return rate of each set of deliberately released lobsters was 18%, whereas that
of bait lobsters that disappeared was 10.5%. When added to the number of
lobsters known to have died during confinement, estimated mortality rate of
bait lobsters derived using this method was 47%.
Mortality caused by baiting- traps with shorts may produce economic losses
in dockside landings of 1.5 to 9.3 million dollars annually.
8. RESEARCH FOR MANAGEMENT OF THE FLORIDA SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY
William G. Lyons
Topics on a list of major problems and information needs resulting from
the 1974 Florida spiny lobster workshop are reviewed a decade later. Declining
catch per unit effort: CPUE in the Florida fishery declined from 35-lb/trap/yr
in 1973 to -8 b/trap/yr in 1983. Determination of "maximum sustained yield"
(MSY): The Fishery Management Plan (FMP) inaugurated in 1982 proposed an MSY of
12.7 million Ibs and a possible optimal yield of 12 million lbs; however,
reported commercial landings dropped from 6.5 million lbs in 1982 to 4.5
million lbs during 1983, a 31% decline. Amount of entry into the fishery:
Reliable statistics are not available on the number of spiny lobster fisherman,
but effort increased from 304,000 traps during 1973 to 555,000 traps during
1983, with a maximum 622,000'traps deployed during 1981; the FMP model predicts
that maximum yield can.be achieved with 39% of present effort. Seasonality of
the fishery: A 1984 summary concluded that almost all annual recruitment to the
fishery is removed between August and November of each season, in contrast to a
longer 6-8 month season during earlier years. Size at reproductive maturity:
The present-3" carapace length minimum size resulted from compromise between an
earlier 3 1/8" biological estimate of average size at first reproductive
maturity and industry requests for a smaller minimum at 2 3/4"; recent estima-
tes based upon lengths of pleopodal setae and histological examination of
ovaries indicate 3 1/4" and 3 1/2", respectively, as average sizes for attain-
ment of first reproductive maturity. Recruitment: Transport of larvae from
Caribbean stocks is believed to support much of Florida's recruitment.
Electrophoretic analyses of produced promising but inconclusive indications of
population relationships. Recent studies demonstrated year-round recruitment
of pueruli to Florida and developed techniques to quantitatively monitor that
recruitment. An index of reproductive potential developed during the late
1970's indicated reproductive output had declined 88% in the south Florida
stock. A study of juveniles in Biscayne Bay suggested recruitment may have
declined 67% between the late 1960's and the late 1970's. Research has shown
that injuries to juveniles may retard growth rates as much as 40% below those
of uninjured lobsters and delay recruitment into the legal fishery. The most
recent landings review indicated that fewer legal lobsters are available at the
beginning and fewer remain at the end of each fishing season. Nevertheless, no
strong data exist to conclusively demonstrate actual recruitment decline.
Migration: Studies during the last decade have delineated developmental and
reproductive movement patterns of lobsters in and near the major fishery
population, but have not identified the source of some seasonal movement into
northern Florida Bay. There remains no evidence of adult movement across major
barriers such as the Gulf Stream. Age and growth: Although several studies
described general characteristics of juvenile and adult populations, most
age/growth evidence is still extrapolated from small data bases or from data
developed elsewhere. Contributions of estuaries and bays as lobster nurseries
was solidly demonstrated, and some juvenile sanctuaries were established.
Reproductive sizes and spawning sites were also identified. One recent esti-
mate suggests lobsters attain legal size slightly less than 3 yr after hatching,
but other studies indicate growth of young juveniles may be twice as fast as
values used to obtain this estimate. Very few lobsters survive to yr 4 in the
south Florida fishery. Larval identification: Despite several attempts, no
real progress has been aciEeved in efforts to differentiate Panulirus argus
larvae from those of other western Atlantic Palinuridae. Effects of polution:
The fishing industry in 1984 expressed concern about survival of juvenile
lobsters when mosquito control toxins are released near nursery areas.
Scientific data on effects of these or other pollutants remain unavailable.
Thermal/hydrographic studies: Available data have been scrutinized and related
to larval collections, demonstrating several pathways of larval distribution in
response to oceanic water masses and subject to specific thermal constraints.
Law enforcement: Efforts to curtail vandalism and curb illegal harvest have
-been strengthen by additional State regulations and by enactment of the Federal
Fishery Management Plan; violations of the FMP result in more severe penalties.
than those specified by State of Florida statutes. Federal prosecutions for
illegal possession of sublegal lobsters are ongoing. Statistics of commercial
and sport fisheries: Until 1984, commercial landings statistics were gathered
yy-National Marine Fisheries Service; other data on the fishery were acquired
during periodic contractual:socio-economic surveys. Several lines of evidence
were used to produce estimates of the magnitude of recreational harvest; these
range from 0.5 to 1 million Ibs. During 1984, the Florida Department of
Natural Resources assumed responsibility for collecting fishery statistics;
data from surveys of commercial dockside landings will be supplemented by a
trip ticket reporting system, and a recreational catch survey will be
initiated. Economics of the fishery: Several studies conducted during the late
1970's provided the information base used to prepare the FMP. Workshops on
specific problems: Five workshops on research and management informational needs
have been conducted subsequent to the 1974 meeting; proceedings of four of
these (including the present meeting) have been made available as published
An additional topic addressed but not identified as a problem during the
1974 meeting was then then illegal practice of possessing and transporting
sublegal lobsters to be used as attractants in traps. This practice, which
received legal sanction during the mid-1970's, has since been shown to be deli-
terious to. fishery stocks. Mortality due to exposureand starvation averages
27% after 4 wk, and daily escape rates are low (1-3%).. Exposure, starvation,
predation, and other factors may together result in 47% mortality among bait
lobsters. A model predicts yield per recruit would increase 40% if this prac-
tice were stopped. Illegal harvest of undersized lobesters is also abetted by
this access to the sublegal stock; magnitude of illegal harvest is estimated to
be 20-50% that of the legal fishery. Effectiveness of alternative baits and
escape gaps are being evaluated as measures to reduce these losses.
Although much progress was made in research related to reproductive
biology, migration and other aspects of population dynamics during the past
decade, considerable work remains for such topics as recruitment sources, lar-
val identification, and growth. Meanwhile, management must work to improve
yield per recruit among existing stock by correcting injurious fishery prac-
tices brought about by a severely overcapitalized industry.
8. ECOLOGY AND POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ALGAL DWELLING POST-SETTLEMENT
James M. Marx
Field surveys were conducted in the middle Florida Keys from May through
September 1982 to better document habitat use by newly settled juvenile spiny
lobsters. Early benthic stages, discovered at several bayside locations,
resided in or beneath attached macroalgal masses of Laurencia spp. Macroalgae
provide refuge and support an abundant, diverse fauna preyed upon by young
lobsters, as confirmed by examinations of lobster stomach contents.
Burnt Point on the bayside of Crawl Key was sampled weekly during the sur-
vey period. Puerulus settlement there occurred at monthly intervals, indi-
cating continuous use of the algal microhabitat by successive settlement
classes. Mean density of lobsters between 6 and 19 mm carapace length (CL) was
only one per 36m2, despite luxuriant algal growth which averaged 7 liters per
m2. Low densities may be the norm for this particular life stage, due to a)
asocial behavior, which tends to disperse the recently settled population, b)
variable rates of postlarval recruitment, and c) the dispersed distribution of
algae within used habitats. Despite "low" densities, small pockets of algal
habitat are probably highly productive over a yearly cycle due to year-round
postlarval recruitment and rapid growth of young juveniles.
Patterns of resource use at Burnt Point were well defined ontogenetically.
From settlement (6 mm CL) through approximately 15 mm CL, young lobsters
remained within or beneath algal clumps, thereafter taking residence in various
den structures independent of algae. The transition from algal to den dwelling
was accompanied by a shift from solitary to aggregate habitation. Solitary
spacing probably reduces required foraging area and consequent exposure to
10. MOVEMENT DYNAMICS OF FLORIDA KEYS SPINY LOBSTER
James M. Marx
Between April 1978 and March 1979, the Florida Department.of Natural
Resources conducted a major survey of the lobster populations in the middle and
upper Florida Keys. A total of 19,180 lobsters were collected by trap,
described, tagged, and released from nine sampling locations spanning bay, bridge,
shallow reef (10 m) and deep reef (30 m) habitats. Movement information was
obtained for 2,828 recaptured lobsters.
Overall, only 34% of the returned lobsters moved; lack of movement being
defined as any distance travelled less than one mile. Percent movement
increased slightly to 40% for lobsters at large longer than 60 days. Extended
periods of residency were characteristic of a large segment of the sampled
The effect of lobster size on movement depended on the release location.
At habitats void of reproductive activity (bay, bridge, and middle Keys shallow
reef), population movement tendencies were strongly size dependent, with
increasing percent movement as size increased. Once lobsters reached habitat
supportive of reproductive activity (upper Keys shallow reef and deep reef),
percent movement declined and was independent of size.
Percent movement values obtained for specific populations were generally
closely correlatd with the catch rates observed at particular sampling locations.
At all.locations, increasing catch per unit effort (C.P.U.E., expressed as the
total number of lobsters caught per trap pull) through the-summer was positively
correlated with rising percent movement. This suggests that overall movement
tendencies may be density dependent. In Florida Bay, declining C.P.U.E. through
the fall was accompanied by increasing percent movement, suggesting that movement
tendencies then were influenced more by autumnal migrational cues rather than
The character of movements originating from all shallow water locations
changed dramatically in October, with rates (miles travelled per day) increasing
nearly three-fold. The deep reef population showed a marked rise in speed in
January and February. This heightened activity was primarily by females, and
may have represented the first expressions of mate-searching behavior; females
bearing fresh spermatophores were first observed in January of the 1979 repro-
11. DEMAND AND CONSUMPTION ANALYSIS OF SPINY LOBSTER
Fred J. Prochaska and Walter R. Keithly
World production of spiny lobsters appears to be reaching a maximum.
Production of cold water spiny lobsters reached a peak in 1969 and has since
declined. Reduced landings in South-Africa have accounted for most of the
decline in worldwide cold water spiny lobster landings. Warm water landings of
spiny lobsters have offset the loss in cold water landings.
Imports of spiny lobsters into the U.S. account for at least 90 percent of
the total annual supply available for domestic consumption. The U.S. has tradi-
tionaly imported most of the total world production. However, due to increased
world demand for spiny lobster the share of world production imported by the
U.S. has declined to approximately 80 percent in the 1980s. Relatively stable
Florida and worldwide production along with increased demand for imports
suggests total U.S. supply of spiny-lobster for consumption will be stable or
declining in the near future.
Demand analysis for consumption of all lobsters in the U.S. shows quantity
consumed to be significantly related to income and prices. A 1.0 percent
increase in real disposable per capital income results in an increase in lobster
consumption of 1.37 percent. With respect to price, the demand is inelastic; a
1.0 percent increase (decrease) in price results in only a .69 percent decrease
(increase) in consumption.
At the Florida dockside level exvessel price changes were explained by
import prices and Florida spiny lobster landings. Given the importance of
imports in determining total U.S. consumption of spiny lobster, import prices
were extremely important in determining domestic exvessel prices. A 1.0 percent
change in import prices resulted in a 1.07 percent change in exvessel prices in
the same direction. The quantity of spiny lobster landed by U.S. fishermen had a
statistically significant negative impact on exvessel prices. However, given
the relatively small level of Florida landings as a percentage of the total con-
sumed in the U.S., the impact is economically insignificant with only a -.123
percent change in exvessel prices for a 1.0 percent change on domestic landings.
Participation rates classified by socioeconomic groups showed very few
households consuming lobster at home. Greatest at home consumption occurred in
the Northeast where still only 1.07 percent of the households reported at home
lobster consumption during any one week period. With respect to race only .17
percent of the black households consumed lobsters at home for a given week com-
pared to .47 percent of the white households. Family size and seasonality do
not appear to be related to at home consumption. Income does not appear to
affect quantity consumed per household but does impact the number of households
consuming lobsters. Approximately .30 percent of the households in the less
than $10,000 income group consumed lobsters at home compared to .95 percent for
those households with incomes in excess of $30,000.
12. THE EFFECTS OF AIR-EXPOSURE ON PANULIRUS ARGUS BLOOD CHEMISTRY AND
Gregory K. Vermeer
Desiccation rates and biochemical changes in the hemolymph of air-exposed
spiny lobsters were examined to understand physiological mechanisms associated
with mortality related to exposure. Air exposed lobsters lost approximately 2%
of body weight per hour of exposure. Smaller, sublegal sized animals lost
weight faster (2.35% per hour) than did larger, legal sized animals (1.82% per
hour). Smaller lobsters have a larger surface area to volume ratio which
accounts for their higher rate of .water loss. An increase in blood serum osmo-
larity resulting from water loss was not evident. A severe metabolic acidosis,
induced by the rapid accumulation of lactic acid, occurred in air-exposed
lobsters. Within 30 minutes after emersion, hemoloymph lactic acid con-
centrations increased to almost 7 times normal levels and pH declined from 7.91
to 7.62. After 2 hours, lactic acid levels were more than 11 times normal and
pH dropped to 7.41. Concentrations of ammonia, a toxic waste produce, approxi-
mately doubled during exposure. Hemolymph pH, lactic acid, and ammonia
concentrations among lobsters exposed for 2 hours returned to normal levels
within 24 hours after reimmersion in seawater. Chronic effects of exposure
persisted in the form of reduced responsiveness to threatening stimuli and a
diminished "tail flip" escape response. These behavioral changes are probably
caused by exposure-related neural damage. Lobsters chased to exhaustion (5
minutes) while immersed in seawater had hemolymph pH, lactic acid, and ammonia
concentrations similar to those of air-exposed lobsters.
13. MAJOR MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN THE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY
Gregg T. Waugh
There are four major management issues facing the Councils in the spiny
lobster fishery. The continued harvest of lobsters below the minimum size (3
inch carapace length or 5.5 inches tail length) is preventing the fishery from
harvesting the optimum yield. Increased enforcement is necessary to prevent the
harvest of shorts.
The determination of whether the fishery is dependent on local recruitment
or recruitment from the Caribbean area has yet to be made. Before investing
large quantities of money and effort one should ask whether or not the manage-
ment implications would be different under either situation. If the Florida
fishery is dependent on local recruitment, then the minimum size should be
increased to increase egg production. If Florida recruitment is from the
Caribbean then it would be in our best interest to have them raise their minimum
size. We would also have an incentive to raise our minimum size both as an
example to other countries and to provide maximum egg production for Bermuda
and other countries that may depend on us for recruitment. Thus, under either
alternative it is in the best interest of the countries with lobster fisheries
to manage them together, perhaps through an organization like the Gulf and
Caribean Fisheries Institute.
The Florida lobster fishery is overcapitalized. It has been pointed out
that 100,000 traps could harvest the annual yield but in 1983 there were approxi-
mately 555,000 traps in the fishery. The South Atlantic Council will conduct a
study to evaluate the feasibility of limited entry in the lobster fishery.
Based on this study the issue of overcapitalization will be addressed by the
Finally, the issue of fishery induced mortality through the use of shorts
as attractants has the greatest potential for increasing yield in the Florida
lobster fishery. Recent estimates of the fishery induced mortality range from
27% to 47%. If this mortality is in the range of 40%, losses in yield could be
between 20% and 50%. The Councils are considering the use of live wells and
escape panels as a mechanism to increase yield while at the same time allowing
the fishery to continue using shorts as attractants.
The Spiny Lobster Fishery Management Plan will be reviewed on an annual
basis and anyone wishing to receive further information may contact the Council
at the following address:
South Atlantic Fishery Management Council
Southpark Building, Suite 306
1 Southpark Circle
Charleston, South Carolina 29407-4699
SELECTED RECENT LITERATURE
PERTINENT TO SPINY LOBSTER
RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT
In our collective effort to continuously update the pertinent literature,
several workshop participants contributed the 42 titles below. The citations
given are not listed in the Kanciruk et al (1982) bibliography nor in the 1981
Florida Spiny Lobster Workshop Proceedings (Lyons 1981).
Andree, S.W. 1981. Locomotory activity patterns and food items of benthic
postlarval spiny Lobster, Panuliru argus. Master of Science Thesis, Fla.
State Univ., Tallahassee. T1-0.
Annala, John H. 1981. Movements of rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) tagged near
Gisborne, New Zealand, N.Z. J. Mar. Fr. Water Res. 15:437-443.
Anon. 1982. Movimientos y migraciones de la Langosta. Mar y Pesca, Marzo/Abril.
Baisre, J.A., and M.E.R. de Quevedo. 1982. Two phyllosome larvae of Panulirus
laevicauda (Latreille, 1871) (Decapoda, Palinuridae) from the Caribbean
Sea with a discussion about larval groups within the genus. Crustaceana
Brown, B.S. and N. Caputi. 1983. Factors affecting the recapture of undersize
western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus George returned by fisherman to
the sea. Fisheries Res. 2:103-128.
Calinski, M.D. and W.G. Lyons. 1983. Swimming behavior of the puerulus of the
spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804) (Crustacea: Palinuridae).
Journal of Crustacean Biology 3(3):329-335.
Cruz, R. 1980. Fecundidad y madurez sexual en la langosta commercial Panulirus
argus (Latreille, 1804) (Crustacea: Palinuridae) en Cuba. Rev. Cub.
Fernandes Vieira, R.H.S. and A.M. Soares Cardohna. 1979. Estudos bacteriologicos
da lagostanas diversas fases. de proeessamento. Arq. Cien. Mar. 19:81-85.
G.M.F.M.C. *1982. Fishery Management Plan, environmental impact statement, and
regulatory impact review for spiny lobster in the Gulf of Mexico and
South Atlantic. (Available through Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management
Council, Lincoln Center, Suite 881, 5401 W. Kennedy Blvd., Tampa, Fl 33609)
*Prepared by Centaur Assoc., Inc. Washington, D.C. and Fish.Man. Councils.
Gracia, Adolfo and C.B. Kensler. 1980. Las langustas de Mexico: biologia y
pesquaria An. Centro. Cienc. del Mar y Limnol. Univ. Nal. Autor. Mexico,
Gracia, Adolfo and E. Lozano, 1980. Alimentacion del bagre marino Netuma
platypogon y su importancia como indicador de reclutamiento de po-starvas
de langosta (Decapoda; Palinuidae), Guerrero, Mexico.
Gregory, D.R., Jr., and R.F. Labisky. 1981. Ovigerous setae as an indicator
of reproductive maturity in the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus (Latreille).
Northeast Gulf Science 4(2):109-113.
Gregory, D.R., Jr., R.F. Labisky, and C.L. Combs. 1982. Reproductive dynamics of
the spiny lobster Panulirus argus in South Florida. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.
Herrnkind, W. in press. Evolution and mechanism of mass single-file migrations
in spiny lobster: synopsis. (to appear in a conference proceedings published
by U. Texas-Contributions in Marine Science c. 1985).
Kanciruk, P., W.F. Herrnkind, B.F. Phillips, and P. Arnaud. 1982 An indexed
bibliography of the spiny (rock) lobsters (Decapoda: Palinuidae). CSIRO
Marine Laboratories Reprint No. 1274/0ak Ridge National Laboratory Environ-
mental Sciences Division Publ. No 1733. Report No. 141:1-225. (1927 refs.)
Lipcius, R.N. 1984. Characterization and control of mating and molting in the
spiny lobster Panulirus argus. PhD. Dissert. Fla. State Univ., Tallahassee.
Lipcius, R.N. and W. Herrkind. 1982. Molt cycle alterations in behavior, feeding
and diel rhythms of a decapod crustacean, the spiny lobster Panulirus argus.
Mar. Biol. 68:241-255.
Lipcius, R.N., M.L. Edwards, W.F. Herrnkind, and S. Waterman. 1983. In situ
mating behavior of the spiny Lobster Panulirus argus. J. Crustac. Biol.
Lohmann, K.J. 1983. Magnetic remanence and geomagnetic field detection in the
western Atlantic spiny lobster Panulirus argus. Master of Science Thesis,
Univ. of Florida, Gainesville. 1-55.
Lyons, W. (Ed.) 1981. Proceedings of a workshop on spiny Lobster research and
management. Florida Dept. of Natural Resources (copies available from
Library, FDNR Marine Research Laboratory, 100 8th St. S.E., St. Petersburg,
FL 33701) 1-48 (184 refs).
Marx, J. 1983. Aspects of microhabitat use by young juvenile spiny lobsters,
Panulirus argus. Master of Science Thesis, Fla. State Univ., Tallahassee.
Marx, J. and W. Herrnkind. in press. Macroalgae (Rhodophyta: Laurencia spp.) as
habitat for young juvenile spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus. Bull. Mar. Sci.
McKoy, J.L. 1983. Movements of rock lobsters, Jasus edwardsii (Decepoda:
Palinuridae),'tagged near Stewart Isl., New Zealand, N.Z. J. Mar. Freshw.
McKoy, J.L. and D.U. Esterman. 1981. Growth of rock lobsters (Jasus edvardsii)
in the Gisborne region, New Zealand, N.Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 15:121-136.
McKoy, J.L. and A. Leachmen. 1982. Aggregations of ovigerous female rock
lobsters, Jasus edwardsii (Decapoda: Palinuridae). N.Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res.
Meyer-Rochow, U.B. and K.M. Tiang. 1984. The eye of Jasus edwardsii (Crustacea,
Decapoda,.Palinuridae): electrophysiology, histology, -and behaviors.
Zoologica'134:1-61 @ 24 plates. (Stuttgart).
Miller, D.L. 1982. Construction of a shallow water habitat to increase lobster
production in Mexico. Proc. Gulf and Carib. Fish Inst. 34:168-179.
Miller, David L. in press. Shallow water mariculture of spiny lobster (Panulirus
argus) in the Western Atlantic. 19 ms pp. (D.L. Miller; Dept. Geography;
Moore, R. and J.W. MacFarlane. 1984. Migration of the ornate rock lobster,
Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius), in Papua New Guinea, Aust. J. Mar. Freshw.
Mutaggera, W.B. 1975. A preliminary report on the spiny lobster fishery of
Zanzibar. Afr. J. Trop Hydrobiol. Fisher 4:Special issue 3.
Phillips, B.F. 1983. Migration of pre-adult western rock lobsters, Panulirus
cygnus, in Western Australia. Mar. Biol. 76:311-318.
Phillips, B.F., Joll, L. M. and D.C. Ramm. 1984. An electromagnetic tracking
system for studying the movements of rock (spiny) lobsters. J. Exp. Mar.
Biol. Ecol. 79:9-18.
Pollock, D.E. 1981. Population dynamics of rock lobsters Jasus tristani at the
Tristan de Cunha group of islands. Fish Bull. S. Afr. 15:49-66.
Pollock, D.E. 1982. The fishery for and population dynamics of west coast rock
lobster related to the environment in the Lambert's Bay and Port Nolloth
areas. Invest. Rep. Sea Fish. Inst. S. Afr. 124:1-57.
Quackenbush, L.S. 1981. Regulation of the molt cycle and gonadal development
in the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus. PhD. Dissert. Fla. State Univ.,
Quackenbush, L.S. and W.F. Herrnkind. 1983. Partial characterization of eye-
stalk hormones controlling molt and gonadal development in the spiny
lobster. Panulirus argus. J. Crustac. Biol. 3:34-44.
Quackenbush, L.S. and W.F. Herrnkind. 1983. Regulation of the molt cycle of
the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus: effect of photoperiod. Comp. Biochem.
Rodriguez, H., Coto, A.M., and A. Rodriguez. 1983. Langosta. Centr. Inv. Pesq.,
Bol. Biblio. No. 7. 137 pp.
Rogers, P.A.W. 1982. Vascular and microvascular anatomy of the gill of the
Southern Rock lobster Jasus novaehollandiae Holthuis. Aust. J. Mar. Freshw.
Schone, H., D.M. Neil, F. Scapini, and G. Dreissmann. 1983 Interaction of
substrate, gravity and visual cues in control of compensatory eye responses
in the spiny lobster, Palinurus vulgaris J. Comp. Physiol. 150:23-30.
Stamper, W.J. 1975. On the concept of fish mortality-rates in the exploited
phase and their estimation by sampling the commercial catch, with special
attention to rock lobster fisheries. CSIRO Div. Fish and Oceanog. Rept. 66.
Villegas, L., Jones, A.C. and R. E. Labisky. 1982. Management strategies for
the spiny lobster resources in the Western Central Atlantic: a cooperative
approach 2:216-223. :
ADDRESSES OF ATTENDEES
Dr. W. Herrnkind, Coordinator
Dept. Biol. Sci.
Florida State University
Tallahassee, FL 32306
Mr. Scott Andree
Florida Coop. Extension Service
Marine Advisory Program
P.O. Box 820
Perry, FL 32347
Mr. Mike Calinski
1724 Laurel St. #1
Sarasota, FL 33577
Dr. George Cline
University of Alabama
Birmingham, AL 35294
Mr. R. Curry
Biscayne National Monument
P.O. Box 1369
Homestead, FL 33030
Mr. Dennis Frazel
Biology Laboratory, Oceanographic
Dania, FL 33004
Dr. R. Gl-eeson
Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney
University of Florida
Route 1, Box 121
St. Augustine, FL 32084
Mr. Doug Gregory
Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management
Lincoln Center, Suite 881
5401 West Kennedy Boulevard
Tampa, FL 33609
Mr. Charles Hardwick
University of Alabama in Birmingham
Birmingham, AL 35294
Mr. Walker Keithly
Dept. of Food and Resource Economics
1170 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Dr. Ronald F. Labisky
School of Forest Resources and
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Mr. William Lyons
Florida Dept. of Natural Resources
Marine Research Laboratory
100 Eighth St. S.E.
St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5095
Mr. Jim Marx
Florida Dept. of Natural
11400 Overseas Highway
Marathon, FL 33050
Dr. Fred J. Prochaska
Department of Food and Resource
1170 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
Dr. Anne Rudloe
Director, Panacea Inst. Marine
Mr. Greg Vermeer
Florida Dept. of Natural Resources
Marine Research Laboratory
100 Eighth Ave. S.E.
St. Petersburg, FL 33701-5090
Mr. Gregg T. Waugh
South Atlantic Fishery Management
One Southpark Circle, Suite 306
Charleston, SC 29407
Mr. John H. Hunt
Florida Department of Natural
11400 Overseas Highway
Marathon, FL 33050