Title Page
 Front Matter

Group Title: Florida Citrus Commission annual report
Title: Annual report
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075981/00021
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Citrus Commission.
Publisher: The Commission,
Publication Date: 1954-1955
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075981
Volume ID: VID00021
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aeg0106 - LTUF
01327786 - OCLC
000863394 - AlephBibNum

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
        Page iii
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Full Text

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a~ V







..- _


~ ~~593 P

Commission Members Serving During
the 1954-55 Fiscal Year

J. J. Parrish, Jr., Chairman
Alfred A. McKethan, Vice Chairman
Frank Chase
J. P. Garber
C. V. Griffin
O. C. Minton (Resigned Jan. 25, 1955)
A. B. Michael (Appointed Jan. 25, 1955)
L. F. Roper
Key Scales
John A. Snively, Jr.
Thomas B. Swann
Harry Tooke
Robert C. Wooten


C. V. Griffin, Chairman
Robert C. Wooten
Thomas B. Swann
O. C. Minton
Frank Roper

Avon Park
Fort Pierce
Winter Garden
Winter Haven
Winter Haven


Frank Chase, Chairman
John A. Snively, Jr.
Harry Tooke
Key Scales, Jr.
J. Paul Garber


0. C. Minton, Chairman
Alfred A. McKethan
C. V. Griffin
Harry Tooke


Robert C. Evans, General Manager
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Paul S. Patterson, Director of Advertising
Frank D. Arn, Director of Merchandising
Ralph M. Henry, Director of Sales Service
Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research
James T. Hopkins, Director of Industry Relations
Ted L. Hodson, Manager, Special Promotions
John E. O'Reilly, Production Manager
Warren E. Savant, Statistician
Clyde P. May, Assistant to Director of Advertising

Florida Citrus Commission

Annual Report

July 1, 1954--June 30, 1955


During the 1954-55 season, the State of Florida held its posi-
tion as the largest producer of citrus fruits in the world. Florida
production of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines and limes totalled
128,980,000 boxes, of,1-3/5 bushels. This represents an increase
of 31,319, 000 boxes of 32 percent over the season's average for the
ten preceding years. The Florida crop represented about 32 per-
cent of the world citrus crop and 72 percent of the U.S. crop, ex-
cluding lemons. The state's 88, 600, 000 boxes of oranges accounted
for 68 percent of the U.S. total while 82 percent of the nation's grape-
fruit supply and 100 percent of the commercial varieties of tangerines
and limes were grown in Florida.

Utilization of the Florida citrus crop during the 1954-55 sea-
son was very similar to that of the 1953-54 season. Processors used
60 percent of the total crop compared with 61 percent the previous sea-
son. Frozen orange concentrate continued to be the major processed
product, accounting for 44. 8 million boxes of oranges. This repre-
sents 51 percent of the total orange production and 57 percent of the
total number of boxes of citrus processed.

Althoughthe 1954-55 production of Florida oranges, grapefruit
and tangerines was 9,690, 000 boxes less than the record 1953-54 pro-
duction, the total on-tree sales value of $145. 9 million exceeded the
previous season by $3. 3 million. This $145.9 on-tree value to growers
ranked fourth behind the $175. 0 million in 1949-50, $167. 8 million in
1945-46 and $147.4 million in 1950-51.

The on-tree price of oranges for all methods of sale during the
1954-55 season of $1.31 per box was considered very satisfactory and
compares with $1.27 for 1953-54, $1. 28 for 1952-53, and $0. 80 for
1951-52. Grapefruit prices, particularly those of the seeded varieties,
even though better than the previous season, were still considered to be
undesirable. An average on-tree price of 66 per box for all varieties
and for all methods of sales compares with 50' for 1953-54, 76# for
1952-53, and 52' for 1951-52. Seedless grapefruit brought an average
on-tree price of 84' while the seeded variety brought only 40. This
compares with 72 and 25r, respectively, during the 1953-54 season.

Tangerine on-tree prices of $1.42 for all methods of sales compares
with $1.58 for 1953-54, $1.37 for 1952-53, and $1.31 for 1951-52.

More detailed information on prices, crop values, utilization
and production may be seen in the statistical tables which appear at
the end of this report.

The Commission's activities are discussed under the following


I. General Activities

II. Consumer Advertising

III. Professional Advertising

IV. Merchandising

V. Consumer Publicity

VI. School Education Program

VII. Research

VIII. Transportation

IX. Statistical Tables


During the 1954-55 season, at the request of the Florida Citrus
Commission and other industry groups, the 1955 Florida Legislature
made several changes in state laws affecting the citrus industry.

Most important of these changes was legislation including an in-
crease in the juice requirements for grapefruit; a four year extension
of the additional two cents per box advertising tax on grapefruit; a
slight increase in the minimum Brix content of frozen concentrated
orange juice; an increase in the amount of surety bond required of cit-
rus dealers handling in excess of 10, 000 boxes of fruit annually; and
the inclusion of Tangelos in the provisions of the Citrus Code.

The legislature also authorized substantial financial assistance
for aid in the fight against the burrowing nematode, commonly referred
to as "Spreading Decline;" an action apparently indicated by the increas-
ing concern of the citrus industry over spread of the disease.

During the season, the Commission investigated and approved 1384
license applications from fresh fruit shippers, canners, truckers, ex-
press shippers, brokers, and others engaged in similar citrus activities.
Of this number, 1253 licenses were renewals, and 131 were new appli-
cants. Also approved were 865 special permits issued under the pro-
visions of Section 50 of the Florida Citrus Code. The Commission also
issued 107 permits for shipment of Florida citrus in experimental con-

The Commission, during the final phase of the 1954-55 season, re-
ceived approval of the Legislature and subsequent endorsement by the
State Industrial Development Commission for construction of a new office
and warehouse building. The building will be erected at a total construc-
tion cost estimated at approximately $375, 000. Current planning sche-
dules occupancy of the building during the early part of 1956.

With the expanding production of Florida Chilled Juice, the Com-
mission was requested by the industry during the 1954-55 season to con-
sider regulations concerning the product. After a series of preliminary
open hearings and discussions among producers of chilled juice, the Com-
mission enacted minimum grade standards effective March 7th, and label-
ing requirements effective on May 16th.


The 1954-55 consumer advertising campaign conducted through
J. Walter Thompson advertising agency of New York was the largest
in the history of the Commission. Whereas $2,423, 352 was spent the
previous year, the 1954-55 appropriation totalled $3,445, 515 for the
fiscal year.

Copy Themes:


The orange campaign unfolded the dramatic "Golden Vitamin"

The Golden Vitamin theme took the familiar and convincing Vita-
min C story one step further. The name "Golden Vitamin" supplies that
something different which a reader remembers among all the many vita-
min products when he steps into the role of purchaser. Fully as precious
to good health as the name implies, the Golden Vitamin is a perfect label
for the Vitamin C found in Florida orange juice.

The hand and big glass which have been used so successfully for
the past 4 years and which have become almost a Florida orange juice
trademark, were retained prominently in each advertisement.

As well as suggesting orange juice first thing in the morning when
it is customarily drunk, some of the copy suggested other times of day
too. This placed orange juice directly in competition with such beverages
as soft drinks, tea and coffee. To sum it up, the copy states "Anytime
you're thirsty.. .Florida Orange Juice."

All advertising on orange juice continued, as in previous years, to
promote the end use of the product -- the juice -- and left it to the cus-
tomer as to which form he preferred -- fresh, frozen or canned. The ex-
ceptions to this have been some of the newspaper ads, such as crop an-
nouncement ads announcing the arrival of the fresh fruit at the beginning
of the season.


Overweight continued to be the major theme for grapefruit products.
The phrase "Have Grapefruit Instead" was used throughout all the adver-
tising to illustrate the fact that grapefruit is low in calories and will help


cut the calorie intake if eaten or drunk instead of rich fattening desserts
and drinks.

Throughout most of the advertising appeared a hand holding a grape-
fruit with the phrase, "Worth its weight in health. This was developed
with the idea of making it a grapefruit symbol counterpart of the hand and
glass used for oranges.

Something new was done in the grapefruit advertising during the
1954-55 year. A small grapefruit knife called "the Shortcutter" was of-
fered to the public at 35. The same knife had been available for some-
time at retail for about 70. The knife was demonstrated on television,
advertised on radio, featured in a magazine advertisement and offered
via coupons in bags of fruit and on price cards at point of sale. The re-
sults to date show over half a million knives ordered as a result of this
advertising. Perhaps this unusual response indicates a strong desire on
the part of the consuming public to find an easy way to prepare grapefruit.


Florida's "tangerine train" came in right on time for the holiday
market and kept going at "full steam" through February. Once again the
fruit bowl was featured in our ads but this time it was used at point of
sale as well. In many cases, the bowl figured in give-aways and drawings.

As a result, there were some novel publicity tie-ups, including tele-
vision appearances and newspaper stories. One of the bowls, suitably
engraved, was presented full of fruit to the President to kick off the Na-
tional Citrus Winter Health promotion. This was well covered by news-
papers and television newsreels. Millions of people were able to view
the President peeling and sampling a Florida tangerine.

As in previous years, the advertising emphasized how easy it is to
peel,, segment and eat tangerines. It was pointed out that tangerines are
fun to eat, perfect for lunch boxes, snacks, etc. and that the season is


The four primary media used were magazines, newspapers, radio
and television. This was the biggest campaign in the Commission's his-
tory. The major difference compared to the previous year was in the in-
creased use of radio and television. Tom Moore's show on Mutual radio
network was the radio vehicle, while the "20 Questions" show on ABC-TV
network was the principal TV used. This was supplemented with spots
on Dave Garroway's "TODAY. "


The Canadian budget was also upped to represent a little more than
4% of the total. This was another step in the plan to make Florida fruit
more important in the Canadian market.


Orange juice advertising switched to 1/2 pages in color for the first
time. This was done to obtain greater frequency. LIFE was dropped
since it does not carry 1/2 pages in full color. The schedule for orange
products consisted of 20 advertisements in SATURDAY EVENING POST and
10 in LOOK.

For grapefruit, the 1/2 page campaign was continued, but this year,
because of the copy approach used, we concentrated on the distaff side by
placing all grapefruit ads in LADIES' HOME JOURNAL and BETTER

Nine half-pages were scheduled in each.

Tangerines received a 1/2 page in LOOK and LADIES' HOME JOUR-


The newspaper promotions stretched from November, 1954, through
the end of June, 1955. For three of the five promotions, full color adver-
tisements in the Sunday supplements were used backed up by black-and-
white insertions in markets not covered by the supplements. The supple-
ments used were AMERICAN WEEKLY, THIS WEEK, 1st 3 Markets
QUIRER) and the locally edited supplement of the ATLANTA JOURNAL

This was the first year that supplements had been used in support
of merchandising promotions. They added appetite appeal to the promo-
tions by showing citrus in full color.

In November, the new crop of fresh oranges and grapefruit was an-
nounced via the daily newspapers in 163 markets. For tangerines, in De-
cember a full color 1/2 page in the supplements was backed up by a large
space black-and-white advertisement in newspapers in the markets not
covered by supplements.

The big promotion of the year was the "Winter Health" promotion
which was carried on in cooperation with the National Citrus Merchandis-
ing Committee. This promotion used a double page spread in color in the
supplements and black-and-white in daily newspapers. The schedule was


staggered over a period of six weeks to allow the merchandising staff
adequate time to cover their territories, thus providing a better chance
of cooperation from the retail trade.

Orders from retailers for tie-in store display material were re-
ported as the best we have ever had for a winter promotion.

In March, Valencias were promoted via black-and-white and in
June, the second promotion in conjunction with National Citrus Merchan-
dising Committee was held. This promotion, "Citrus Coolers for Sum-
mer Health", featured processed citrus and used color in Sunday news-
paper supplements and supporting black-and-white ads. The scheduling
again was staggered to allow maximum time for the merchandising staff.

Again, all records were broken on orders for store display ma-
terial used for retail tie-ins with this summer promotion.

In addition to the five promotions, Temples were advertised during
January and February in newspapers in New York, Chicago, Philadelphia,
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit and Boston.

Once again, during the winter months, fresh and processed grape-
fruit was advertised for its help in preventing and treating flu and colds.
Five 150-line black-and-white ads were timed to hit the local papers when
epidemics were prevalent.

Ads of 42-line size ran in Nancy Sasser Buy-Lines column for both
oranges and grapefruit for 26 weeks in 78 major newspapers. This suc-
cessful editorial-type shopping column rounded out the Commission's
newspaper schedule.


For 52 weeks, from July through June, the Florida Citrus Com-
mission had its own network radio show -- Tom Moore's "Florida Call-
ing" on the full 560-station Mutual Broadcasting System network. This
program, a daytime variety musical show, emanated from Florida and
was on five days a week from 11:00 to 11:25 A.M. It devoted the major
effort to orange promotions with a short commercial on grapefruit at the
close of each program.


Television received the largest single appropriation during the
1954-55 season. For 44 weeks, from July 6 to May 3, Florida grape-
fruit was advertised on the award-winning "Twenty Questions" show.


There were short commercials on oranges at the close of each program.
"Twenty Questions" was the Commission's first wholly owned television
show. It was seen over most stations at 8:30 9:00 P. M. each Tuesday
evening on the ABC network.

Miss America of 1955, lovely Lee Ann Meriwether, appeared on
film each week on "Twenty Questions" to recommend the goodness, the
convenience, and the weight-reducing effectiveness of low calorie Flor-
ida grapefruit in place of rich, fattening desserts and drinks. Commer-
cials were filmed in New York and on location in Florida. This was the
third straight year the reigning Miss America had appeared on television
to promote grapefruit. The slim trim beauty of each title winner is fast
becoming synonymous with Florida grapefruit and what it promises.

In addition to "Twenty Questions" participation were used in Dave
Garroway's "TODAY" on NBC and Jack Parr's "MORNING SHOW" on
CBS during the peak winter months. "TODAY" advertised grapefruit
while "MORNING SHOW" promoted oranges.


Canadian advertising roughly parallelled the U. S. campaign in
printed media. Large circulation magazines in both English and French
were used: -- Promotions were supported by supplements -- two in Eng-
lish and two in French and black-and-white in daily newspapers.

Wherever feasible, Canadian publications carried adaptations of the
U.S. advertisements.


The Florida Citrus Commission's trade advertising kept food stores,
restaurants and hotels informed about its promotions and other activities
and the advertising which helps the trade sell more citrus. The ads pointed
out to the trade that they could benefit from the money being spent by the
Commission to push Florida citrus by featuring their products in their own
store advertising and by displaying citrus prominently in their stores.

In addition, for the third straight year, the Commission ran special
retail trade advertising urging proper care in handling and storing frozen


For the second year, the Commission conducted a limited campaign
in foreign newspapers and trade publications. Black-and-white ads an-
nounced the arrival of fresh fruit and told the Vitamin C story. They ran


in Dutch, Belgian, and West German newspapers to coincide with over-
seas arrivals of Florida oranges.


Again this year, the months of January, February, and March saw
a placement of colorful billboards in Florida as a service to Gift Fruit
Shippers urging visitors on vacation to "send a box of Sunshine back home."


Publicity was secured during the summer of 1954 to promote the
television and radio shows sponsored by the Florida Citrus Commission.
Articles were placed in many newspapers and magazines across the coun-
try featuring "Twenty Questions" and Florida Calling." These, along
with "tune-in" ads placed in newspapers, all helped to draw the public's
attention to the shows.

Consumer Advertising Usage


and Reserve

- $599,754
- 659,772
- 800,302
- 1,020,414
- 150,000
- 45,990
- 10,000
- 7,151
- 6,500
- 145,632

$ 3,445,515



Medical science during the past several years has continued to
emphasize the importance of Vitamin C as a basic diet requirement for
both children and adults. Because citrus fruits and juices are still the
best and most convenient source of Vitamin C, the discoveries and
studies of scientists probing the complexities of vitamin research are
of utmost importance to the citrus industry.

With this in mind, the Florida Citrus Commission utilizes the
services of the Noyes and Sproul Agency of New York as its liaison me-
dium with this important group of scientists. Through the agency, the
Commission develops and places advertisement and publicity in the out-
standing professional journals and trade papers circulated among medi-
cal doctors, dentists, nurses, hospital executives, dietitians, home econ-
omists, and others in similar occupations.

Basically, the work of Noyes and Sproul for the Florida citrus in-
dustry takes the form of five distinct activities: 1. Professional media
advertising; 2. Direct mail; 3. Clinical research; 4. Public relations;
and 5. Literary research.


Journal Space

As in the previous year, 29 different media were utilized on behalf
of the Commission in various professional fields, including:

6 national general medical
1 obstetric
3 pediatric
1 public health
2 osteopathic
4 nursing
4 dental
3 hospital
5 dietetic and home economic journals

Circulation represented by these journals totalled approximately

A total of 162 single-page ads were used, of which 89 were color


Most medical and hospital journals carried a 6-time (or every-other-
month) schedule; the nursing, dental, and home economic and dietetic
journals, a 4 or 5-time schedule. The total number of impressions of these
advertisements was over 7, 000, 000.

Following are headlines for the ads which appeared in medical and
professional journals during the year:

Sniffles are in Season
A Citrus Snack is a welcome "pick up"
Preferred Protection
For every age every day
In Stress Defense with Citrus
Citrus Allergy Rare
Scurvy is more common than many think
Practically all 3. 5 million newborns
Good as Gold (promoting new film)
Vitamin C is so abundant yet so often deficient
Nature's Toothbrush
Orally Speaking
Grapefruit Glamour (promoting new film)
Good eating for good nutrition (In conjunction with Knox)

Direct Mail

A self-mailer entitled "Recent Clinical Research Findings on Vita-
min C" was sent in April of this year to a total of approximately 78, 000
physicians, including all general practitioners, pediatricians, and obstet-
ricians and gynecologists under 65 years of age.

Also created and prepared was a laity informational folder entitled
"Citrus as an Aid to Health and Beauty. With only a small print order
possible under the appropriation, distribution of this was limited to ap-
proximately 1,000, including drug, health, medical, and science writers,
state health departments, the U.S. Children's Bureau, etc.

Another mailing on behalf of Vitamin C and citrus was sent to 17, 000
members of the Academy of General Practice by Dr. George E. Morris,
dermatologist of Boston. This was in the form of a reprint of his article
from A. M. A. Archives of Dermatology and Syphilology entitled "Use of
Vitamin C in Acne Vulgaris. "

Medical Booklet

The magnum opus in the realm of direct mail on which was expended
heavy effort this past year and more is the second edition of the medical in-
formation book. Since developing the copy based on approximately 200 ref-
erences from various medical articles and books in many languages, work


was carried on with the Council on Foods to conform the copy to their con-
cept of allowable claims. Some handicap occurred in this effort by the sud-
den decision of the A. M. A. Board of Trustees in the cancellation of their
entire seal of approval program. With two-thirds of the job O. K. 'd unoffi-
cially by the Secretary of the Council on Foods, effort is being made to
bring the balance into what is confidently believed would be approved form.
This booklet should be ready for distribution to the profession in the fall
of 1955.


No new studies were started in this fiscal year, but three were con-
tinued during this period, namely the following:

Samuel Bluefarb on acne
A. E. Thomas & J. F. Volker on enamel
r emine raliz ation
Frank C. Val Dez on peptic ulcer

Of these, two have now been completed, namely the Bluefarb and
Val Dez studies. The Bluefarb manuscript, entitled "The Management
of Acne Vulgaris in the 12 to 17 Year Age Group," has been accepted for
publication in Postgraduate Medicine and will appear (we have been
promised) by November of this year.

The Val Dez report is expected momentarily, and, if it is satis-
factory, will thereafter be sent to a reputable medical journal for publi-

The Thomas-Volker study is continuing and should be finished (in all
likelihood) in the- reasonably foreseeable future.

In addition, the following publications of previous studies have ap-
peared during this fiscal year, as follows:

Javert, Carl T. : "Pathology of Spontaneous Abortion, Texas
State Journal of Medicine, Sept. 1954.

Mack, Pauline B.: "A Study of the Relation Between Ingestion
of Frozen Orange Juice and Resistance to Fatigue, American
Practitioner and Digest of Treatment, April, 1955.

Morris, George E.: "Avitaminosis C in 1953: A Clinical Study, "
American Practitioner and Digest of Treatment, August, 1954.

Morris, George E.: "Use of Vitamin C in Acne Vulgaris," A.M. A.
Archives of Dermatology & Syphilology, Sept., 1954.

- 10 -

Thomas, A. E. : "Some Observations on the Influence of Orange
Juice Ingestion on the Teeth and Supporting Structures. Oral
Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology, July, 1954.


Seven sets of "Briefs" have been issued during the year just ended,
with an increasing use of this factual material representing new interest-
ing data, culled from recently published findings in the medical litera-
ture. The following columnists have presented health advice based on re-
leases of this type:

Myrtle Meyer Eldred, (Des Moines Register & Tribune), circ. 21,500, 000
Beulah France, (General Features Corporation), circ. 3, 200,000
Glen Shepherd, M. D., (United Features Syndicate), circ. 18,000,000
Herman N. Bundesen, M. D., (King Features Syndicate), circ. 24,000,000
Josephine Lowman, (Des Moines Register & Tribune), circ. 22, 000, 000
Theodore Van Dellen, M. D., (Chicago Tribune, N. Y. News), circ. 21,000,000
John Robert Powers, (National Newspaper Syndicate), circ. 26, 000, 000
Helen Follett, (King Features), circ. 25,000,000

Data on Vitamin C and citrus circularized by Noyes & Sproul, Inc.,
have also appeared in a number of lay journals reaching a total of over six
million readers.

Abstracts of the findings of the Commission's clinical studies have
also been widely circularized among professional journals.

Currently, reprints of Dr. Mack's study of child and teen-age nutri-
tion are being sent to 200 leading cartoonists and radio and TV stars who
have this age group for an audience, along with a personal letter asking
their help in getting the Vitamin C message across to the youngsters. For
their convenience and encouragement, Dr. Mack's findings about the lack
of Vitamin C has been summarized how it interferes with growth and
performance, and how it can be remedied by drinking orange juice regu-

A constant vigil is kept to supply various columnists who make mis-
statements about Vitamin C and citrus with the correct and latest nutri-
tional facts. Cooperation was extended to New York City dentists in con-
nection with the celebration of Children's Dental Health Week in Greater
New York.


Guiding and implementing all professional promotional efforts is a

- 11 -

constant search of the medical and ancillary literature relating to the
nutritional aspects of Vitamin C and citrus.

The professional agency receives about 700 professional journals
on a continuing basis (monthly, bi-monthly, etc. ) and every issue is
checked for the latest information about citrus and Vitamin C. In addi-
tion, U.S. Department of Agriculture material relating to nutritional
studies is surveyed for data on citrus. From time to time, the research
librarian consults various indexes and makes periodic excursions to the
New York Academy of Medicine Library and Columbia University Medical
Library to supplement the searches done by the agency for the Commis-
sion. Photostatic copies of abstracts of important articles are obtained
and the material routed to the team concerned. In the past year, not only
citrus and Vitamin C but also other important citrus nutrients were taken
into account.

- 12 -


One of the activities of the Florida Citrus Commission during
the 1954-55 season has been its increasingly important merchandis-
ing program. Recognizing the benefits of such a program, the Com-
mission at the beginning of this fiscal year authorized the employ-
ment of a field staff composed of 65 men. This represented an in-
crease of ten above the authorization for the previous year. These
men are located in important market areas throughout the United
States and Canada. They carry on an intensive merchandising pro-
gram with all segments of the trade in the areas in which they work.

With a field staff of this proportion, it became apparent that
closer supervision was needed. In order that this supervision might
be provided, two new divisions were formed. Under this plan of ope-
ration, the continental United States is formed into an Eastern Di-
vision, covering the Atlantic Coast area; a Central Division, covering
the central part of the United States; a Western Division, covering the
mid-western area of the United States; and a Southern Division, cov-
ering the southern states.

Two men were promoted from the merchandising staff to be-
come divisional managers in these newly created positions. As in
previous years, the largest concentration of manpower lies in the
states east of the Mississippi River where the majority of Florida
citrus products are sold. However, under the present set-up, the
Commission now has sufficient manpower to give adequate coverage
in all of the larger markets throughout the United States and Canada.

The Commission attempts to obtain as many of its field staff
as possible from Florida. At least 40% of the present staff is com-
posed of graduates from one of the Florida universities. These men
are given special training in Florida at the time of their employment
and are then placed under the supervision of their regional manager
until they have a thorough knowledge of the Commission's operation.
The idea prevails that a well-trained and well-informed representa-
tive becomes a very definite asset to the merchandising program. In-
formation is channeled to these men throughout the year to keep them
informed regarding activities in Florida in order that they will be bet-
ter equipped to give proper representation with trade factors in the
market areas.

A very large percentage of the retail food business today is be-
ing handled through self-service type super markets. In this type of

- 13 -

store, a product must be prominently displayed in order to attract
the customer's attention. One of the principal duties of the merchan-
dising staff of the Florida Citrus Commission is to work with the re-
tail stores, building attractive displays, utilizing the Commission's
point-of-sale material in order that the customer will be attracted to
our product when she enters the store. In addition to display work,
a very comprehensive demonstration program has been conducted in
all major markets. It is the duty of the field staff to keep all segments
of the trade properly informed regarding the Commission's advertis-
ing and merchandising program; that they may take full advantage of
the assistance which is being offered to them by the Florida citrus in-

During the 1954-55 season, the Commission's representatives
made 102, 852 calls. In making these calls, they drove a distance of
1,224, 800 miles. In addition to their regular calls, they conducted
2140 live demonstrations where our products were sampled to the cus-
tomer entering the retail market. In addition to these demonstrations,
3620 events were held in which customers received a give-away prize
or token at the conclusion of the promotional period. This type of pro-
gram proved to be most successful and could be extended to many more
stores without additional cost.

The Commission's field men are fully equipped with automatic
juicing machines, juice bars and dispensers for use in connection with
demonstration programs. Many retail organizations throughout the
country have purchased automatic juicing machines and placed them in
their stores as permanent equipment as a result of the demonstrations
held by the Commission's field staff.

Another important tool is a supply of colorful point-of-sale dis-
play material which is designed to catch the customer's eye and create
a desire for Florida citrus products. During the 1954-55 season, a
total of 9, 149,950 pieces of display material was distributed to retail
organizations throughout the United States and Canada. Much of this
display material was packaged in kits at the Lakeland warehouse for
distribution to individual retail stores in a more economical manner.
Through the use of the merchandising kit, the Commission has been
able to obtain much better distribution and use of its point-of-sale dis-
play material.

During the year, several special events have been conducted,
such as the tangerine promotion in cooperation with the Florida Tan-
gerine Cooperative. The field staff, working closely with the mer-
chandising men of the Tangerine Cooperative, combines efforts of the
two organizations for an intensive hard-hitting campaign at the peak of

- 14 -

the tangerine season. This program has been well accepted by re-
tail organizations in all of the principal markets. Another special
event was a promotion conducted at the request of the Temple Ad-
visory Committee. This program was focused on store demonstra-
tions for Florida Temple oranges. Through a very intensive sam-
pling program in four major markets, many housewives were made
conscious of the advantages of the Florida Temple orange. In addition
to these special promotions, the Commission participated in two na-
tional citrus drives conducted by the National Citrus Merchandising
Committee, made up of representatives from Florida, California, and
Texas citrus industries. Special point-of-sale display material kits
were prepared and distributed in support of these promotions and ex-
cellent cooperation was received from all trade factors.

Cordial relationship with the different trade factors is very es-
sential in order to secure best results from the advertising and mer-
chandising program. Such close relationship has been greatly fos-
tered during the past few years by a series of trade luncheons held in
22 of the principal markets in the United States and Canada. During
the past season, the Commission entertained more than 1500 leading
trade interests during the luncheon series, when an outline of the ad-
vertising and merchandising support for each market was presented.

The Florida Citrus Commission carries its program to many
groups throughout the United States and Canada by participation in
large national conventions. During the past year, the Commission
has participated in a total of 81 conventions; of these, exhibit space
was purchased in 20 national conventions in the following fields: gro-
cery, 10; hotel and restaurant, 3; medical and hospital, 2; dental, 2;
dietetic, 1; home economics, 1; and education, 1. Fifty-eight con-
ventions were held in the state of Florida in which no space was pur-
chased, but a worthwhile public relations job was accomplished by sup-
plying free orange juice for delegates attending these conventions. In
addition to this convention activity, the Commission participated in the
Tampa State Fair, the Leon County Fair, and the Florida Citrus Ex-

The field staff of the Florida Citrus Commission associates
closely with newspapers carrying the Florida citrus advertising sche-
dule. Many of these newspapers maintain merchandising representatives
of their own who spend a portion of their time calling on retail mer-
chants urging them to use the display material offered by the Commis-
sion and assisting them to tie in their own newspaper advertising with
that of the Florida Citrus Commission. This same type of activity is

- 15 -

conducted with the radio and television staffs carrying the Florida
citrus program.

To the retail grocer in the average market, the Florida citrus
representative is "Mr. Florida. They look to him for up-to-the-
minute, authenic information regarding crop conditions, crop quality,
and all details of the Florida citrus industry advertising and mer-
chandising program. He is the eyes and the ears of the industry at
the retail level, keeping a close watch on the factors of supply and
demand. He reports regularly on the movement of our own products,
as well as the relative movement of competing products, and he acts
as a general liaison agent between the trade and the Florida citrus in-
dustry. His reports are mailed to the home office each week where
they are combined and sent out to some 400 or 500 officials of fresh
fruit packing houses, processors, and others in allied fields. The
value of this activity cannot be overestimated.

Many fine comments are received from the industry, from the
retailer, the wholesaler, and distributor in the different markets.
The increased demand for the services of the Florida Citrus Com-
mission's merchandising staff is certainly a good indication of the ac-
ceptance which this work has received. Products attractively dis-
played in the retail stores will sell. The merchandising staff of the
Florida Citrus Commission will continue to do everything within its
limitations to assure that these products are available for Mrs. House-
wife when she enters the retail store.

- 16 -


A noticeable increase in the attention paid to citrus fruits by the
big national women's magazines highlighted the year's publicity picture,
proving the wisdom of the 1954 and 1955 trips through the Florida citrus
area for 20 of the country's leading food editors and writers.

The trips were planned by Dudley, Anderson and Yutzy, the Com-
mission's publicity agency for 18 years, as a background against which
these writers could draw for years to come, when planning their issues
and collecting their material. Whereas the tabulated circulation in na-
tional women's magazines last year amounted to 94 million, and in-store
magazines to 39 million, this past year the count in the two categories
was 102 million and 57 million! The reason for the greater gain in the
store magazines is the fact that the store magazines themselves have
shown a greater circulation increase.

Trips such as these editor tours of the citrus area are a far cry
from the "publicity releases" of past years. The trips have been per-
sonalized -- the results are left up to the food writers themselves. Pub-
licity releases still go on, but to a lesser degree than in the past, and
the whole consumer education and publicity program has been geared to
meet the present-day needs and competition -- in fact, to precede and
beat out competition for that valuable white space.

The personal angle has been stressed more heavily in our publi-
city in the last year than ever before. Whether it is our annual partici-
pation in the Newspaper Food Editors' Conference -- which rolls up fine
totals of circulation in use of our pictures; or attendance at the conven-
tions of the American Home Economics Association which results in use
of our tie-in materials by other companies; or staging a luncheon annu-
ally for the Farm Magazine Editors; or sending out our own emissary to
do local television shows, or providing good color pictures for locally
edited Sunday supplements, it is obvious that the personal angle pays off.
Proof of this is shown in the figures tallied from this year's clippings:

National Women's Magazines ...... 102,471,420

Store-Sold Magazines . .. 57,633,105

Farm and Sectional Magazines .. 37,247,537

Restaurant Magazines ....... 721,342

- 17 -

Store Service Leaflets .. .

House Organs ................ 1,037,455

Color in Sunday Supplements . 55, 361,123

Weekly Newspapers . 17,848,440

Newspaper Syndicates . 219,766,000

Daily Newspapers . 361,729,451


On a basis of printed space alone, this represents 14,272 readers
per dollar invested in the publicity program.

Special projects during the year included the second editor trip to
Florida -- this year the group was made up of farm and specialty maga-
zine editors, such as PARENTS, syndicate writers, and Canadian food
writers. The syndicate writers have already paid off handsomely for
our investment; the magazine writers' pieces will carry over for the
next several years.

Our traveling TV personality -- last year Mary Crum -- now
Betty McCabe, has added to our stature in this field, as well as to our
emphasis on citrus products. Miss McCabe's trips have been planned
to tie into the special promotions of the Commission, and the interest
and good will which we have gained are more valuable than can be com-
puted from a comparison of straight time charges.

In radio, still a vital media in a great many areas, we have had
excellent results not only from our regular scripts but also from a new
service of providing taped interviews. We have two on the subject of
citrus -- one narrated by Dr. MacDowell, and the other by Miss Crum;
and in the case of each, we know exactly where they've been heard, what the
listening audience is. On a cost basis with these taped interviews, we
have had an audience of 10, 000 for every dollar spent.

The movies produced last year are now being widely circulated; we
have had excellent comments on them and they should stand the Commis-
sion and the citrus industry in good stead for the next two or three years.
There are actually three different films -- one, "Good as Gold" for the
hotel and restaurant field, designed to explain that fresh grapefruit is a

- 18 -


good profit item, and to train kitchen help in its preparation; two,
"Grapefruit Glamour, for high school home economics classes, and
another version of the same film, "Eat to Beat the Birthdays, on the
diet theme, and aimed at women's clubs, and both narrated by a well-
known dietitian, Ida Jean Kain.

Our color picture service continues to increase in its usefulness;
pictures made five and six years ago are still being featured to promote
citrus. These are planned many months ahead each year, to push what-
ever product needs the most seasonal help. In the last year, they have
occupied space which would have cost more than $150, 000. This space,
of course, is not for sale. Nonetheless, much of it is more valuable
than advertising space, since the pages carry the authority of the local
food writer.

In fact, summing up the consumer publicity program, the greatest
gains can be and have been made in the avenues of having others -- the
Ida Bailey Allen's, the Edith Barber's, and Clementine Paddleford's,
the Betty Crocker's and all the other company people, help tell our story.
By repetition, by constant and universal understanding of the daily need
for citrus, we can best get to the housewife, and by using other voices
than our own, the message becomes more believable.

- 19 -



Since 1952, the Commission has pursued the great citrus consum-
ing potential of our state and nation's school children through a planned
school program designed to increase the consumption of Florida citrus
products. To accomplish this end, a two-phase program is now in ef-
fect, under the supervision of Mrs. Helen Stewart, Director of the
School Program, with extremely encouraging results.

Through nutrition education, supervisory personnel and educa-
tors are familiarized with the constant need for Vitamin C in the diet
of both children and adults. With this phase completed, the school pro-
gram then offers certain assistance and encouragement to schools to
make orange juice-- the most convenient and best source of Vitamin C--
available to all students at least once each day.


The approximately 40, 000, 000 school children in the nation's
schools represent a vast new and immediate market for the Florida
citrus products; and, if educated to eat citrus regularly while young,
these children may become a great potential market for tomorrow's
fast growing citrus crops.


To get and maintain the approval of the major health and educa-
tion groups for the Commission's school program, it has been placed
under the guidance of an advisory committee consisting of representa-
tives from the State Department of Education, the Florida State Board
of Health, the Florida Congress of Parents and Teachers, the Florida
Dental Association, the Florida Medical Association, the University of
Florida, the Florida State University, the State Home Demonstration
Office, and a school superintendent, a school principal, and a classroom
teacher from their respective departments of the Florida Education As-


1. The Educational Phase:

a. The Supplementary Teaching Materials developed for the
purpose of teaching children the health value of citrus
fruits are:

- 20 -

3 new school posters S-6, S-7, S-8
1 dental health pamphlet
1 16-mm film "Vitamin C in the School"
Quantity School Lunch Recipe Book

b. Personal presentation of the materials by the school pro-
gram director to the leaders in health and education in
each of the 48 states.

c. P. T. A. Study Courses The parent-teacher associations
are required to have two four-hour study courses each
.year to qualify as a blue ribbon association. The school
program director has taught 54 such study course hours at
the county-wide P. T.A. meetings. Her subject was, "Im-
portance of Citrus in the Diet. These studies help make
the parents and teachers aware of the important role citrus
fruits and juices play in good general and dental health.

d. Summer University Workshops Each summer the Home
Economics Departments in cooperation with the State De-
partments of Education of each of the 48 states sponsor
school lunch personnel and teacher nutrition workshops.
Credit is received by the participants for the time spent in
study at these workshops. The Commission's school pro-
gram director has given two-hour citrus presentations to
the entire group in attendance and taught classes in menu
planning at the following universities this summer:

WINTHROP COLLEGE, Rock Hill, South Carolina--all
county and city school lunch supervisors for the state were

TEXAS COLLEGE, Tyler, Texas--14 counties represented.

BOWLING GREEN UNIVERSITY, Bowling Green, Ohio--one
third of State of Ohio school lunch personnel were in atten-

OHIO UNIVERSITY, Athens, Ohio--one third of Ohio school
lunch personnel were in attendance.

MIAMI UNIVERSITY, Oxford, Ohio--one third of State of
Ohio school lunch personnel were in attendance.

--Florida negro school lunch personnel in attendance.

- 21 -

VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY, Nashville, Tennessee--
teachers from entire state invited to attend.

FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY, Tallahassee, Florida--
Statewide Training Program for all white school lunch per-
sonnel. Taught classes and participated on panel in gen-
eral assembly.

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, Gainesville, Florida--Each
summer the Florida Congress of Parents and Teachers
hold a four-day summer institute on the university campus.
All parent-teacher associations in the state send one or
more representatives. Mrs. Stewart taught nutrition
classes each day at this institute. She was assisted by the
State Board of Health's nurses, health educators, nutrition-
ists, and by a local dentist and pediatrician.

e. School Group Conferences and Meetings:

Conferences The Director of the School Program has
spent much time in conferences (49) with the key health,
education, and parental leaders. Advanced planning with
these groups has and will continue to build and maintain
friends for the Florida citrus industry.

Pre-School and Post-School Two Weeks' Planning Sessions-

Teachers remain at the school two weeks after school is
dismissed and also return to the school two weeks early
for planning sessions. Mrs. Stewart has been invited as
a consultant to 28 of these meetings to help them organize
orange juice programs and to plan ways of serving citrus
in the school.

County, State, and National Educational Meetings The
Director has been guest speaker, has given citrus demon-
strations, and shown films at the following meetings:
Florida Education Association Department of Elementary
and Secondary Principals; Broward County Instructional
Leadership Conference for teachers and administrators;
Statewide Homemaking Teachers' Meeting; Area Florida
Education Association Meeting; American School Food
Service Association Convention; Florida State Administra-
tors Meeting; and 20 Florida county-wide meetings of all
the school principals in each of the 20 counties.

- 22 -

f. Health Group Conferences and Meetings:

Florida State Board of Health Orientation Programs--The
Florida State Board of Health sponsors an orientation
program for all of its new employees in all areas of the
state, and for the members of other related health agen-
cies and organizations in the state. The purpose of this
orientation is to introduce all personnel to the various
divisions of the State Board of Health. The Director of
the Commission's School Program has been invited to
participate. It has given her the opportunity to intro-
duce the citrus program on an equal footing with the
various divisions of the State Board of Health.

Health Education Section, Florida Public Health Asso-
ciation-- Mrs. Stewart is a member of this group, rep-
resenting the most important health agencies and organi-
zations in the state. This group meets twice a year-- in
June and in October to plan and coordinate the state health
programs. Staff members from the County and State De-
partments of Education are also present. This close work-
ing relationship with the health educators, nurses, school
supervisors, and nutritionists has opened doors for the
Florida Citrus Commission not ordinarily opened to the

Florida State Dental Association-- The School Program
Director met with the Educational Committee of this
group to inform them fully of the Commission's school
program plans, to introduce new educational materials,
and to coordinate the dental health educational efforts of
the two groups.

2. Public Relations Phase:

a.. TV-Radio Participation--Mrs. Stewart has made guest
appearances on 18 television and 6 radio programs in 10
Florida cities. The average time allotted the Commis-
sion for each of the 24 programs was 20 minutes each.
This time was used to give citrus fruit demonstrations;
for dental health panels using local dentists and pediatri-
cians with Mrs. Stewart acting as moderator; for menu-
planning with citrus fruits and juices; and for introducing
plans for the new orange juice programs in the schools to
the community--using key staff members from the Board
of Public Instruction with Mrs. Stewart acting as the In-

- 23 -

b. Conventions and Exhibits-- The major state and national
health and education conventions afford an excellent op-
portunity to make friends for the program and to stimu-
late and coordinate the activities of key individuals and
organizations interested in the increased use of citrus
information and products. Through one such meeting,
we are able to introduce the program to an entire state
or national representation. They in turn introduce it to
their own states and counties.

Some of the most important of the conventions attended
and participated in were: Florida Public Health Asso-
ciation, Miami Beach; Florida Home Economics Asso-
ciation, St. Petersburg; Florida Congress of Parents
and Teachers, Tampa; American School Food Service
Association, Miami Beach; American Dietetics Associ-
ation, Philadelphia; Alachua County Health Fair; Florida
Dietetic Association, St. Petersburg; Dade County Health
Fair; American Medical Association, Miami; American
Society of Dentistry for Children; Florida Colored Nurses'
Clinical Association Meeting, A & M University, Talla-
hassee; and Florida State Dental Society Meeting.

c. Civic Groups -- Mrs. Stewart has been guest speaker and
shown films at 21 school and parent meetings, and at such
civic meetings as: Jacksonville Advertising Club, Ocala
Rotary Club, Tallahassee Advertising Club, Mulberry Ki-
wannis Club, Lakeland Exchange Club, Bartow Kiwannis
Club, Lily-Tulip Cup South Atlantic Conference, and the
High Springs Woman's Club.

d. Articles Written for Publications -- Miss Cromartie, nu-
tritionist with school program, wrote several newspaper
articles for the Florida newspapers. Mrs. Stewart helped
Mrs. Rosalyn Willett, Paper Cup and Container Institute,
New York City, compile information and pictures about the
Commission's school program that will appear in approxi-
mately 12 educational and trade magazines.

3. Action Phase

Unlike some of the other activities of the Florida Cit-
rus Commission -- the results of the year's school pro-
gram cannot be measured entirely in specific figures or
percentages. For example, who can measure in pounds

- 24 -

or ounces the amount of citrus consumed as the direct
or indirect result of a school lunch or teacher nutrition
workshop, or a classroom nutrition unit with students,
or a menu-planning session with parents-teachers-
school lunch personnel? However, we know that this
type of education is one of the most permanent and suc-
cessful ways of building an immediate and potential mar-
ket for Florida's citrus products. Children and adults
learn in this way to eat citrus for health as well as taste.
They learn a variety of ways in which to prepare and
serve citrus--appetizers, main dishes, salads, desserts,
sauces, garnishes, breads, cakes, pies, snacks, and in
place of water in cooking to add flavor to the dish.

However, the action phase of the Commission's
school program can to a great extent be measured in fi-
gures and ounces--since this is an orange juice program.
Schools have been encouraged by the Commission's school
program director to make orange juice available to all
students each day at a "mid-morning orange juice break. "
The following is a survey of the status of the Orange Juice
Program in Florida:

Number of Schools
Requesting or Using

Orange Juice

Ordered for
Fall, 1955

Hill sbo rough
Indian River

(all schools)

(all schools)

- 25 -


Number of Schools
Requesting or Using

Orange Juice

Ordered for
Fall, 1955

St. Lucie

215 Schools

116 dispen-
sers installed

56 dispensers
to be in-
stalled by
fall, 1955

There are approximately 500 Florida schools in addition to the
schools listed above that are serving citrus daily. These schools are
pouring the orange juice from pitchers into paper cups, and are using
more citrus dishes in the daily school lunch menus.

Approximate number of schools participating in juice and citrus
program -- 715 schools. The average daily consumption of orange juice
per school is 7 gallons per day. There are 56 schools waiting for dispen-
sers to be installed August, 1955.

- 26 -




This research deals with problems of citrus fruit processing, includ-
ing canning and concentrating, and with the treatment of waste materials
to yield useful by-products; with. methods of preventing decay in fresh citrus
fruits; and with fundamental studies of the changes occurring during the
ripening of citrus fruits.

A. Processing and By-Products Research

1. Standardization of Citrus Products

Samples of frozen concentrated orange juice collected semi-
monthly from 23 commercial plants during the 1953-54 season
were analyzed. Flavor evaluation by a taste panel indicated 92. 8%
of the samples were acceptable and 7. 2% were poor in flavor.
Samples were again collected during the 1954-55 season.

Heat treatment reduced the possibility of sugar hydrate forma-
tion in sugar-added frozen grapefruit concentrates.

The Hunter Color Difference Meter was shown to permit the
rapid measurement of small color differences in frozen orange

2. Storage Studies on Concentrated Citrus Juices

Storage studies are continuing on the 24 packs of frozen con-
centrated orange juices reported in 1954. In general, examina-
tions to date indicate that heat treatment and/or low storage
temperatures delay clarification in the product.

3. Clarification and Gelation in Concentrated Citrus Juices

Determinations were made of clarification and gelation in the
221 samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices
collected during the 1953-54 season from 23 processing plants in
Florida. The samples showed no initial gelation but after storage
for 24 hours at 80F, none, slight, semi- or solid gel formation
was found in 86.0, 8.6, 5.0 and 0,4 percent of these samples, re-
spectively. Initially 98,2 percent of the samples showed no clari-
fication on reconstitution, but after 24 hours storage at 800F.,

- 27

19. 5, 7. 2, 14. 5 and 58. 8 percent of the reconstituted juices showed
degrees of clarification corresponding to none, slight, moderate and
extreme, respectively.

Pectin content, pectinesterase activity and pulp content, charac-
teristics related to the problem of clarification and gelation, were
also determined. In general, a high ratio of oxalate-soluble to
water-soluble pectin, a high pectinesterase activity or a high pulp
content in a concentrate resulted in a greater degree of clarification
and gelation.

A study was made of five colorimeters for determination of turbi-
dity or "cloud" values for citrus juices based on percentage light trans-
mittanc e .

4. Relationship of Heat Treatment to Quality of Processed Citrus Pro-
ducts (In Cooperation with the American Can Company)

Time-temperature relationships for heat inactivation of pectines-
terase in Persian lime juice, pH 2. 5 and 6 percent pulp by volume,
were determined. Temperatures ranged from 1250 to 1900F. at re-
tention times of 0. 8, 3, 6, and 12 seconds in a tubular pasteurizer.
Complete inactivation of the enzyme was obtained at 1900F. in 0. 8
seconds, 1850F. in 3 and 6 seconds, and 1750F. in 12 seconds.

No significant changes in flavor were observed by a taste panel
between frozen orange concentrates which had not been heated and
those heated to 1500F. or 1750F. for 6 seconds in a tubular pasteu-
rizer; neither were flavor differences found when the juices were
heated at different folds.

Investigation of the effect of heat treatment on the survival of
known strains of bacteria, mixed cultures, and bacteria found in
association with grove-run fruit was continued.

5. Factors Affecting Quality of Processed Grapefruit Products

Canned grapefruit sections were collected from two commercial
plants every two weeks throughout the 1954-55 packing season. These
samples have been stored at 90F. and are being examined periodi-
cally for changes in firmness, color and flavor.

An investigation of the effect of fertilizer and spray practices
on the quality of canned grapefruit sections was undertaken.

To investigate the effect of extraction pressure on the total gly-
coside and naringin contents (the materials causing bitterness) of

- 28 -

canned grapefruit juice, 12 packs were prepared from seedy
grapefruit during December, February, April and June. Fruit
was extracted on a Citro-Mat extractor, using low, medium and
high extraction pressures. The canned grapefruit juices were
then tested for total glycosides and naringin. Significant in-
creases in the total glycoside and naringin contents of the canned
juices occurred when high extraction pressures were used; no
significant differences were found between juices extracted by
low and medium pressures, except in those packed in December.
It was possible by tasting to distinguish, on the basis of bitter-
ness, the juices extracted using low pressure from those ob-
tained using high pressure.

6. Oxidized Flavors in Citrus Products

Investigations were continued to determine the cause and
methods of prevention in frozen citrus concentrates of off-flavors,
usually described as cardboard, castor oil, or tallowy. All studies
on this problem have been based on the hypothesis that these off-
flavors are produced or intensified to a detectable degree when sub-
stances in citrus concentrates are oxidized during storage at 0OF.
or below. The incorporation of air into orange or grapefruit con-
centrates prior to storage at -80F. resulted in many instances in
the development of these off-flavors during storage; however, such
off-flavors did not usually occur in concentrates with which air was
not intentionally mixed. These results indicate the advisability of
avoiding incorporation of air into commercial concentrates prior
to freezing; also point to oxidation as a cause of these flavor de-
fects. However, what types of oxidation-reduction reactions,
either enzymic or non-enzymic, are involved remains to be es-

7. Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices

The diacetyl test is a rapid colorimetric method for the detec-
tion of microbiological activity that may result in spoilage of cit-
rus juices and concentrates. However, there are indications that
the intensity of the color that develops is dependent upon both the
maturity and variety of the fruit. To investigate this effect fur-
thur, tests were made on fresh juices from Hamlin, Pineapple and
Valencia oranges, Dancy tangerines and Marsh and Duncan grape-
fruit twice monthly. Erratic results were obtained for the Hamlin
orange and the Duncan grapefruit juices, but the Pineapple and Va-
lencia orange juices and the Marsh grapefruit juices showed pro-
nounced increases in the indicated diacetyl content as these fruits

- 29 -

8. Production and Use of Activated Citrus Sludge

An activated sludge pilot plant located at the Fosgate Citrus
Concentrate Cooperative was operated for 45 days with remark-
ably good results. The bio-chemical oxygen demand of the raw
citrus waste was reduced 97% or from 4930 ppm to 128 ppm, and
the effluent was clear, stable and had very little odor. It is felt
that this operation clearly demonstrates the feasibility of this
method of treating citrus wastes.

9. Inositol in Citrus Fruits

Further study of the occurrence of inositol in citrus fruits and
its recovery has been concerned with: (1) improvement of methods
for the extraction of inositol from juice and peel, (2) investigation
of improved procedures for the crystallization of inositol from
crude solutions, (3) development of a quantitative method for es-
timation of inositol in citrus fruits, and (4) identification of un-
known constituents appearing on paper chromatograms of citrus

10. Utilization of Citrus Peel for By-Product Production

A study of procedures for the separation and purification of
some of the major constituents of citrus peel was begun with the
objective of widening the by-product possibilities of citrus cannery
residues. Citric acid, sugars, pectic substances and cellulose
were the constituents selected for study.

11. Miscellaneous

Dietetic citrus products were readily made by substituting
Sucaryl in place of sugar wherever sweetening was required. The
formula used for an acceptable frozen concentrate for limeade
was water, 43 fluid ounces; lime juice, 85 fluid ounces; Sucaryl,
1.2 ounces; and pectin, 1.4 ounces.

A small laboratory vinegar generator has been in operation for
the past year and a half. Excellent table vinegars believed to be
comparable to commercial wine vinegar have been produced from
orange, grapefruit and tangerine juices.

A frozen orange-cranberry relish was satisfactorily prepared.
This relish was still of good quality and the microbiological count
was negligible when it was last examined after storage at -80F. for
6 months.

- 30 -

Packs of Hamlin and Valencia canned orange juices were pre-
pared and stored at 320, 600, 700, 800 and 900F. to determine
rate of flavor changes at these storage temperatures. An effort
is also being made to correlate these flavor changes with the rate
of inversion of sucrose.

B. Citrus Fruit Decay Studies

Based on extensive holding tests throughout the past season,
decay in citrus fruits receiving no fungicidal treatment was
again found to be high. For example, average total decay in
oranges was 3. 5%, 23.5% and 39. 1% after being stored at 700F.
for 1, 2 and 3 weeks respectively. When stored at 600F., it was
1. 1%, 7.1% and 23.7% for these same holding periods. Investi-
gation on the Dowicide A-Hexamine treatment for decay prevention
was continued with the object of increasing the effectiveness of the
method. Other possible treatments were also considered. In this
work, 107 experiments were performed in which 163, 668 fruits
were under test. Besides Dowicide A-Hexamine, 23 other chemi-
cals were used in preliminary tests. Fruit was treated and packed
for 6 overseas shipping tests to The Netherlands. Four cold stor-
age experiments were performed and 20 different procedures in-
vestigated. Technical advice was given to commercial packing
houses and four tests in cooperation with commercial houses were

No outstanding new treatment for the control of stem-end rot
and Penicillium mold was discovered in the course of the investi-
gations. Certain antibiotics like Terramycin and Streptomycin
which have recently found application in the control of bacterial
plant diseases were treated and found to have no effect in reduc-
ing decay in oranges. Likewide, other antibiotics with fungicidal
properties were ineffective. The same was true for so-called
plant growth hormones such as maleic hydrazide and 2, 4-dichloro-
phenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).

C. Chemical Changes in Citrus Fruits During Maturation

Studies of the internal color differences of red and pink
grapefruit due to various factors; e.g. maturity, variety, loca-
tion, rootstock, size of fruit and age of tree, were made by use
of the Hunter Color Difference Meter on samples obtained between
December and March of the past season. Significant decreases in
the red color were observed between December and January, but
the changes were not evident thereafter. Ruby Red variety had
considerably more color than the Pink Seedless especially around
the periphery, but the color differences of the two varieties near

- 31 -

the central core were less pronounced. Fruits from younger
trees and from those grown on sandy soils seemed to have
slightly more color than fruits from older trees and from those
grown on heavier soils, respectively. In both Ruby Red and
Pink Seedless varieties fruits from trees on rough lemon root-
stock had significantly higher color values than those on sour

The glycoside contents of both the peel and the edible por-
tion of Duncan grapefruit showed a continuous decrease as the
season advanced. In the peel, the concentration of the glyco-
side decreased from 1. 2% on fresh weight basis in late Septem-
ber to about 7% in June of the following year. In the edible
portion it changed from 09% to about 06% during the same

In connection with the study of naringin, commercial pec-
tic enzyme was found to contain some glycosidase which will
hydrolyze naringin at 500C. and pH 4 to glucose, rhamnose,
and the aglycone, naringenin. Solutions containing from 02
to .08% naringin were quantitatively hydrolyzed in 5 hours.
These findings were corroborated in a supplement to the Davis
method for the specific determination of naringin in grapefruit.

A rapid colorimetric method for the simultaneous deter-
mination of total reducing sugars and fructose in citrus fruits
was developed.

D. Maturity Survey

The maturity survey on red and pink grapefruit was con-
tinued through the 1954-55 season. Navel orange samples were
also included this past season.

Approximately 186 groves totalling 3500 acres were visited
at two week intervals from September 15th to April 1st. Leaf
samples were also collected from all groves and soil samples
taken on 25.

The data obtained indicate that the solids and acid content
were generally higher in the 1954-55 season than in 1953-54.


A. Vitamin C and Acne

Dr. Samuel A. Bluefarb, Chicago, in the main substantiated

- 32 -

the previous work of Dr. George Morris, that high intakes of
Vitamin C ameliorate the effects of adolescent acne.

B. Effect of Citrus Juices on Tooth Enamel

Dr. Volker's work at the University of Alabama School of
Dentistry was continued.

C. Use of Citrus Juices in the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer

This work, under the direction of Dr. Frank C. Val Dez,
Chicago, has been completed and publication of the manuscript
is expected shortly.


During the past year, 22, 000 copies of the 1955 Better Fruit
Program Spray and Dust Schedule were printed and distributed.

- 33 -


As is the case in any successful industrial endeavor, the compli-
cated procedure of moving products to market has become extremely
important to the Florida citrus industry. As production increases, so
also increase, the problems encountered in the transportation of our
fresh and processed products to markets throughout the world.

New and more complex transportation problems have become al-
most a matter of routine to the Florida citrus shipper and processor;
problems that may spell the difference between seasonal success or
profit losses.

To assist in solving these problems affecting transportation, the
Commission continued to retain the services of the Growers and Ship-
pers League of Florida. The League, as a representative of the citrus
industry at large, has been most effective in carrying citrus transpor-
tation problems before the Interstate Commerce Commission and other
federal and state agencies embodied with the authority to regulate trans-

Through this service to the citrus industry, the League has been in-
strumental in effecting savings amounting to hundreds of thousands of
dollars. Listed below are some of the more important citrus problems
encountered during the 1954-55 season by the Growers and Shippers
League, their disposition or status:

I. C. C. Docket 31342, Proposed Increased Refrigeration Charges:

This case, which resulted from a petition filed by the railroads of
the United States in August, 1953, seeking to increase the section 2 re-
frigeration charges of the Perishable Protective Tariff by 30% and to in-
crease the section 4 icing charges by amounts varying from 4. 35% to
82. 2%, continued to receive active handling by the League during the past
year. Analysis was made of the corrected exhibits put in by the rail car-
riers, exhibits were prepared for use at continued hearings in this case,
and conferences were held with representatives of other parties interested
in this proceeding. An adjourned hearing was held in Washington, D. C.,
from October 12 through October 20, 1954, and a later hearing for re-
buttal evidence by the railroads was held in Highland Park, Illinois, on
January 25, 26, and 27, 1955. A comprehensive brief was filed by our
attorney, Mr. M. W. Wells, on May 3, 1955, and we are now awaiting the
issuance of an Examiner's Proposed Report in this case, which will be

- 34 -

followed by possible filing of exceptions to the Proposed Report and by
oral argument before the Interstate Commerce Commission.

I. & S. Docket 5500, Unloading Charges On Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
at New York and Philadelphia:

Following receipt of the decision of the Supreme Court in June,
1954, sending this case back to the Interstate Commerce Commission for
further hearing, a petition was filed with the Commission requesting that
the unloading charge be immediately canceled pending the decision on fur-
ther hearing. However, this petition was denied by the Commission and
the matter was set for hearing in Washington on February 7 and 8, 1955.
A later hearing was held in Orlando, Florida, on April 12 and 13, when
exhibits and testimony were introduced in opposition to the continued im-
position of this unloading charge. Briefs in this proceeding were filed on
June 14, and we are now awaiting an Examiner's Proposed Report, to be
followed by the filing of Exceptions and oral argument before the Commis-

Increased Freight Rates, 1951 Ex Parte 175:

In April, 1955, the railroads of the country filed a petition with
the Interstate Commerce Commission requesting that the expiration date
of December 31, 1955, now applicable on the increases which the Commis-
sion granted in Ex Parte 175, be eliminated entirely, and that the increases
be made permanent and be applied against the freight rates and not against
the charges as is now the case. These increases are 15%, with a maximum
increase of 12 cents per one hundred pounds on fresh citrus, canned citrus,
and frozen citrus concentrate. Exhibits and testimony filed by the rail car-
riers in support of this petition were distributed on June 6 of this year,
and statements of protestants are to be filed by July 5. We are now in the
process of preparing our exhibits and testimony to be filed in this proceed-
ing in opposition to the continuation of these increases. Hearing for cross
examination of witnesses has been set at Washington, D. C. beginning
September 26 of this year.

Adjustments in Rail Rates on Fresh Citrus Fruit to Western Territories:

After much consideration and many delays, the rail carriers pub-
lished, effective October 7, 1954, reduced rates on fresh citrus fruit to
points in the Southwest and also to Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota,
and to Kansas City, Missouri, and intermediate points. These rates were
based on truck competitive rates to those territories and were made sub-
ject to increased minimum weights of 48, 000 lbs. on oranges and 43, 000
lbs. on grapefruit.

Several railroads in other parts of the country had indicated con-
cern about the continued loss of fresh citrus traffic to the rail lines and

- 35 -

asked what might be done to relieve this situation. The question of an
adjustment in rail rates which would return fresh citrus traffic to the
rail lines was given considerable study and analysis, and a proposal
was prepared suggesting the setting up of origin groups in Florida and
the establishment of a reduced level of rates applicable on all types of
citrus fruit to all destinations east of the Rocky Mountains and to
Canadian points, based on the same relationship between destination
markets which existed in 1942. This proposal was discussed with re-
ceivers at various northern destinations and also with representatives
of the delivering railroads, all of whom expressed an interest in the
proposal. The proposal has been submitted to the origin rail lines for
their consideration, and these lines have made their own surveys at
both origin and destinations and are now giving the matter thorough

Trip Leasing Legislation:

Legislation which would specifically prohibit the Interstate Com-
merce Commission from issuing any rules or regulations governing the
leasing of motor carrier equipment had been proposed by the League
and introduced in the House of Representatives during the last session
of Congress as HR 3203. This Bill passed the House and was sent to
the Senate for action, but the Senate Sub-Committee did not report the
bill out before Congress adjourned, and the bill expired with the end of
that session of Congress. The same bill was introduced in the Senate
in the present session of Congress as Senate Bill 898. Hearings on this
bill were heard in Washington, D. C., beginning June 20, 1955, at which
hearing the League's Attorney testified in support of this legislation,
and a statement in support of the bill was filed by the League's Secretary-

Ex Parte MC43, Lease & Interchange of Motor Carrier Equipment:

The Interstate Commerce Commission has entered an order in
this proceeding, in which it prescribed rules and regulations for the
lease and interchange of motor carrier equipment. However, insofar
as the period of lease and method of compensation is concerned, the
commission has postponed the effective date of these parts of the order
until March 1, 1956. Further hearing in this proceeding was held in
Washington, D. C. beginning June 14, 1954, at which verified state-
ments were filed objecting to the imposition of a 30-day minimum
period for trip leases. Oral argument in this case was heard in Wash-
ington on April 6, 1955, where we were represented by our attorney,
Mr. Maxwell W. Wells. The Commission has not yet issued a decision
in this reopened hearing on the matter of a minimum period for trip

- 36 -

Motor Truck Authorities for Transportation of Frozen Citrus Products:

Beginning in January, 1954, hearings were held on applications
filed by various truck lines for permanent operating authority to trans-
port frozen citrus products from all points in Florida, to various des-
tinations throughout the United States. Briefs in this proceeding were
filed in August, 1954, and although several conferences were held with
members of the Interstate Commerce Commission in an effort to ex-
pedite the release of an Examiner's Proposed Report, it was not until
June 6, 1955, that the Examiner's Report was issued by the Commis-
sion. In this report, the Examiner has recommended that the carriers
serving the Florida frozen citrus industry be granted state-wide origin
authority to transport all frozen citrus products. In this respect, the
examiner concurred with the position taken by the League and the indus-
try that all shippers of frozen citrus products in Florida should have
equal service by any truck line serving the industry, and that all frozen
citrus commodities should be included in the authorities held by the truck
lines. Exceptions may be filed to this report, and oral argument will be
held before the authorities become effective.

During the past season, there have been numerous occasions
when there was an acute shortage of motor trucks to transport frozen
citrus products from Florida. In an effort to relieve this shortage, the
League and the frozen citrus products shippers supported applications
for temporary authority filed by several of the truck lines covering the
same authority for which permanent applications had been filed and
heard in January, 1954. The Commission granted temporary authority
applications of Mead Truck Lines to destinations in New York and Penn-
sylvania; of Coastal Refrigerated Service to specific points in Maine,
New Hampshire and Vermont; and of Alterman Truck Lines to points in
North Dakota.

With the greatly increased production of chilled orange juice this
season, the question was raised as to what authority the truck lines were
required to have in order to transport this new product. The same type
of equipment required to move frozen citrus products is also suitable to
transport chilled orange juice and many of the plants producing frozen
citrus products also produce the chilled juice. This question of inter-
pretation of certificates was handled with members of the Interstate Com-
merce Commission, whose attention was called to a previous case involv-
ing an application filed by Refrigerated Transport Company for authority
to transport the chilled juice and in which the examiner, after hearing,
ruled that authority to transport frozen citrus products or frozen foods
would also include authority to transport chilled juice. This finding of
the examiner became the order of the Commission. In order that truck

- 37 -

service might be made available to transport chilled orange juice, and
to eliminate the necessity for numerous additional hearings, a petition
was filed by one of the truck lines, in which the League concurred, re-
questing that the Commission interpret its authority to transport frozen
citrus products and frozen foods as also including authority to trans-
port chilled orange juice. The Commission now has the matter before
it for further consideration or for such further hearing as it may deem

Supply of Mechanical Refrigerator Cars:

We have continued to urge car lines and rail lines owning re-
frigerator cars to provide an adequate fleet of mechanically refriger-
ated cars to meet the needs of the frozen citrus industry in Florida. In
October, 1954, a conference with officials of the American Refrigerator
Transit Company and the Merchants Despatch Transportation Corp.,
together with officials of Fruit Growers Express Company, was held in
Hollywood Beach, Florida, at which time the need for additional cars
and the advantages to the rail lines of having this type of car available
was discussed thoroughly. Since that time, we have been advised that
the Fruit Growers Express Company has placed an order for additional
cars while more cars have been ordered and are now in service on the
Santa Fe and Pacific Fruit Express lines.

Florida Food Products Tariff:

The proposal to publish a commodity tariff on canned citrus
products and frozen citrus concentrate from Florida to points in the
United States east of the Rocky Mountains and to points in Canada was
approved by the Southern and Eastern Railroads in June and August,
1954. Continuous handling was given of this matter with representa-
tives of the Southwestern and Western Trunk Line rail carriers, and in
December, 1954, a hearing was held before the General Traffic Com-
mittee of the Southwestern Lines in St. Louis. At this hearing, mem-
bers of the Committee expressed their general approval of such a pro-
posted tariff, but first insisted that cancellation of the exception ratings
on canned citrus and frozen citrus concentrate would have to be taken
care of before they could approve publication of a commodity tariff from
Florida. Effective May 10, 1955, the exception rating on frozen citrus
concentrate from Florida to points in the Southwest was cancelled. A
proposal by the Southwestern lines to adjust their rates on canned goods
from, to, and within Southwestern territory has been filed, public hear-
ing has been held, and the matter is now before the carriers for their
consideration. The proposal has been continued on the docket of the
Western Trunk Line carriers and no action taken.

- 38 -

In an effort to secure publication of this tariff as soon as pos-
sible, a committee of railroad rate men and Mr. 0. W. Turner, our
rate analyst, met in Atlanta in March of this year to start checking out
the rates in this tariff. About this same time, however, a decision was
released by the Interstate Commerce Commission in a proceeding cover-
ing canned goods within Official Territory, which resulted in a revision
of most of the rates on canned citrus moving from Florida to most points
in Official Territory. It was necessary to discontinue work on the Flor-
ida Food Products Tariff, pending an analysis of the order of the Com-
mission and the rates which would result from this order. As the re-
sult of these new rates within Official Territory, which became effective
May 24, 1955, the rate structure on our canned citrus to points in Offi-
cial Territory has become so confused that it is even more imperative
that we have a single publication containing rates on our commodities to
points in the United States. A proposal to relieve the complicated rate
situation was suggested to the rail carriers, and while they did not ap-
prove that proposal as suggested by the Florida canned citrus shippers,
they are considering an adjustment which would eliminate much of the
confusion now existing.

Adjustment in Rail Rates on Frozen Citrus Concentrate:

One of the origin rail lines handling frozen citrus concentrate
from Florida became alarmed at the amount of tonnage being lost to the
rail carriers and moving by truck. The industry was asked to suggest
means whereby this tonnage could be returned to the rail lines. After
conferences with members of the frozen citrus concentrate industry, a
meeting was held with officials of rail lines in January, at which there
was stressed need for improvement in various types of service by the
rail carriers and also at which there was submitted to the rail lines a
proposal for an adjustment in rail rates on frozen citrus concentrate
based upon higher minimum weights. Some of the suggestions as to the
improvement of service have been put into effect by the rail lines, but
the carriers were unwilling to approve the proposal on rate adjustments
suggested by the industry. We have asked that the rail carriers submit
to the industry a proposal covering the carriers' views of adjustments
that should be made in rates on this commodity.

Other Matters:

In addition to the foregoing, the League has participated in var-
ious other activities affecting the movement of citrus products from
Florida during the past year. Assistance was requested and given in
setting up shipping tests on citrus fruit moving to Europe during this
last season. A conference was held with officials of the Oklahoma Ser-
vice Commission in an effort to arrange for the movement of Florida

- 39 -

citrus fruit to and through Oklahoma by truck without the imposition
of heavy fines. A rate reduction of ten cents per one hundred pounds
was secured on Westbound movement of frozen citrus products moving
by rail to points in Trans-Continental Territory. An application of
Guy Bostic for authority to transport canned citrus to points in the
middle west was supported at hearings before the Interstate Commerce
Commission. Assistance was given in the making of arrangements to
show a new type of dry ice trailer to interested shippers in the state.
Handling was given to suggested changes in rules and regulations in the
various applicable tariffs governing the shipment of frozen citrus con-
centrate by both rail and truck. Shortening of rail schedules to Pitts-
burgh and Boston were announced by the carriers in July, 1954.

The League has continued to be represented on many important
committees on a National and Southern level in connection with the work
of securing adequate transportation for the commodities represented by
the Florida Citrus Commission.

- 40 -


(000ts Bxs)(000 s xs)(Dollars)

(000's Bxs)


(000's Bxs)



1946-47 (a)
1954-55 Z1

1946-47 (a)
1947-48 (a)
1951-52 (a)
1953-51 (a)
1954-55 L

1914-45 (a)
1916-47 (a)
1947-48 (a)
1950-51 (a)
1951-52 (a)
1953-54 (a)






, 392











- .10
- .08
- .02
- .13
- .10






/l Preliminary

(a) Difference between "Total Production" and actual utilization represented by
Economic Abandonment.
-41 -




1954-55 /1



5 ,kb



- -1,000 Cases,



24/2's- -




(Other than



- -1,000

Gallons- -

1954-55 Z1



1943-44 67,130
1914-45 68,725
1945-46 108,470
1946-47 96,225
1947-48 154,181
1948-49 134,264
1949-50 163,212
1950-51 187,545 2
1951-52 217,588
1952-53 223,000
1953-54 288,000
1954-55 Z1 262,000 2
2 Includes meal, pulp and pellets
x Includes Tangerine Juice and Tangerine Blends
xx Includes Orange Sections

- -Tons- - -


- 42 -



- ,- -









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