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Group Title: Florida Citrus Commission annual report
Title: Annual report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075981/00020
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Florida Citrus Commission.
Publisher: The Commission,
Publication Date: 1945-1946
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075981
Volume ID: VID00020
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: aeg0106 - LTUF
01327786 - OCLC
000863394 - AlephBibNum

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
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        Page 5
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Full Text
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f5 .1


LI BRA RT
CURRENT X*A &

MAY 1- 1947-

U.S. DEPAITMeNT OF AmI#TURWE


Flori Citrus Coruiassion

Fi a1i Year ended June 30, 1946


September 1946


3w. Is


I













Commission members serving during the
1945-46 Fiscal Year


A. P. Herlong, Sr. (Chairman), Leesburg
Rollie Tillman (Vice-Chairman), Lake kiales
L. S. indrews, Jr., Cocoa
C. C. Commander, Tampa
Jer-ff Flake, Wauchule.
Latt ilal.cy, Frostproof
'A. 11. ilcNutt, Orlando
Jomn J. Schumann, Vero Beach
Chas. A. Stewart, Auburndal.e
J. J. Taylor, Ocala
v*. ,. Tildoen, Orlando

'i. L. btory, winter Garden, &ppointea Deccmber 19, 19/45 to replace
WI. L. Tilden, re.iAned.


Commit tees


ADVERTIbING COiMITTEE:


RESEARCH COMMITTEE:





BUDGET COMMITTEE:



,EGlWLATIVE & REQU-
LATIOBL COM1ITTEL:


M. H. IMcNutt, Chairman
Latt laxcy
John J. Schumann
Chias. A. Stewart W. L. Story appointed Jan. 15, 1946
W. L. Tilden to replace W. L. Tilden, resigned.


Chas. A. Stewart, Chairman
L. S. Andrews, Jr.
LLatt IVIaxcy
IM. H. McNutt
Rollie Tillman

Jeff Flake, Chairman
J. J. Taylor
Rollie Tillman


W. L. Tilaen, Chiairman
SC. C. Commander
Latt iMaxcy


Rtobt. C. Lvanns,
becretary-Mianaer


Dr. L. &. iE.acDowell,
Research Director











Florida bitruE Commission


Annual Report
July 1, 1945 June 30, 1946.


INTRODUCTION

The highlight of the, 1945-46 season was the large volume of citrus
fruit marketed at record or near-record prices. It is estimated that the
income to citrus growers in this season amounted to ,160,000,000.00, an all-
time record. At the beginning of the season when production estimates ex-
ceeded any previous crop and the government issued an announcement to the
effect that its purchases of canned citrus juices would be reduced by approxi-
mately 19 million cases, it was generally believed that a difficult marketing
situation might be encountered, but it did not materialize.

There were a number of factors which contributed to the favorable out-
come in this season. The Commission continued to conduct an aggressive adver-
tising and merchandising program, reconversion was slow tnd consumer goods did
not reach the markets in the volume that had been expected, several of the
fresh fruit crops were short in supply and there was a general shortage of
most canned foods. In many stores canned citrus was the only canned goods
item in plentiful supply ana the sales service representatives of the Commis-
sion constantly urged retailers to feature citrus through mass di splays and
other means, with the result that a tremendous volume ~.s merchandised.

Some of the results of the Commission's research work became : .-ppcarent
during this season when a fairly substantial volume of fro.cn orange concen-
trate was produced by one or two concerns and others were making plans to get
into production on this itsm.

The canning industry smung back into production of gr,.pefruit sections
on a fairly substantial scale and case t. with a neo., product canned tan-
gerine juice. More than 500,000 bo;xe.s of t.n6erinCe were converted into
juice and segments and there is promUise of much heavier production in the
1946-47 season.

There was a phenomenal increase in the volume of fruit utilized by
processors. The total quantity utilized amounted to 41,824,000 boxes which
compares with a previous high of 31,341,000 bo-es in 1943-44.

The citrus industry continued to operate under price ceilings with the
exception of one short period during the season.

The activities of the Commission are discussed in this report under
three general headings: (1) Advertising and L.erchandising, (2) Research,
and (3) Regulatory and General Activities. The report is concluded with
some statistical information on the production and utilization of the crops.










1. ADVERTISING LAD M ~ERG2'iDlLhuLG ACTIVITIES


The advertising, merchandising .nd publicity activities of the

Commission continued during this year witn their basic objectives unchanged.

Briefly, these objectives are tne attainment of maximum distribution and

consumption in both the retail marketing and food service fields for Florida

fresh and processed citrus products.


ADVEaTIbING

Copy Policies. The termination of the war brought new problems

of merchandising to Florida citrus. Both in appearance and in their sell-

ing messages the 1945-46 citrus advertisements were designed to take full

advantage of post war conditions and sales opportunities. 8iith the govern-

ment practically terminating its purch4-ses and with production increasing,

the problem was to find customers for Florida's entire citrus output. In

addition to increasing per capital consumption, the advertising was designed

to find new customers.

7ith millions of service men returninG to establish homes, .nd

with the impetus provided by the importance the government placed on citrus

fruits in a viell-balanced diet, a wonderful opportunity was presented to

start many families on a lifelong habit of depending on citrus fruits for

those elements so essential for health ana well being. The 1945-46 ad-

vertising program was designed to accomplish this. Pittorally, the ad-

vertisements had eye appeal, and the copy told the story of I.lorida fruit

directly and forcibly. The family resemblance was maintained so that each

individual campaign supported the others, and a maximum consumer impres-

sion of Florida citrus was created. This provided a year round continuity








-3-

which has definite trade and consumer advantages.

Florida oranges were advertised as having DOUBLE FEATURE appeal

because they not only have extra juice but because of their extra juice

they give extra Vitamin C. DOUBLE FEATURE is a term that through the

movies has come to mean more value for money.

On Florida grapefruit the health angle was again stressed, for

with its wealth of Vitamin C it can be said to be a BODY-GUARD against

col.s, infections, and fatigue.

Tangerines were feature as the bright, gay fruit that is easy

to peel and fun to eat. The health anble was also stressed, pointing

out the abundance of vitamins anc minerals so essential to buoyant health.

Advertising of canned citrus products continued to tell the

health story and, in addition, the convenience of canned citrus in supply-

ing the vitamin C needed for health and sell-being was featured.

Media and Circulation. The type of media for fresh citrus that

best served the twofold purpose of providing full color advertisements and

flexibility that would permit advertising only in areas where distribution

of citrus warranted, was found in the Sunday supplements of the newspapers

wherein Eastern editions only could be purchased, thus eliminating the

wasteful Western circulations. The Commission's selection from this class-

ification included the American Weekly, Parade, the Mietro Group and the

New York Times magazine section. In the case of canned citrus products

where nation wide coverage is desired, such publications as Life, Ladies

Home Journal, Womans Home Companion, ucCalls and the Farm Journal were

used. In certain areas where the basic coverage was found not to have

sufficient merchanaising strength, black and white copy of local news-

paperb were used to correct the situation.











Concentrate Advertising. At the request of the processors, the

Commission this year scheduled for the first time a campaitin featuring con-

centrated citrus juices. Three advertisements were prepared and released

during the months of June, July ana j-uguut in publications serving the fol-

loviing fields: Hotel and Ctestaurant, LospJtal publications, Medical 'i.o-

ciation journals; InstitutioCnal as-,ines; Drug Store, Variety Store and

soda Fountain trade journall;.

Trade Pager Advertising.Leading trade papers were used this season

to keep the distributive channels advisedd of the Commission's advertising

and promotional activities and to suggest tested methods for gaining addi-

tional profits from Florida citrus fruits, both fresh and canned.


MEiCHANDISING


Advertising in itself is not sufficient for the successful mer-

chandising of Florida citrus fruits. There must be a concerted action some-

where in the promotional structure aimed at the three basic objectives which

will permit the advertising to function at its greatest dedrec of efficiency.

These objectives are: first, to secure adequate distribution for Florida

,citru.; products in wholesale acnd retail channels to meet the consumer demand

which the advertising is expected to create; cocond, to secure for Florida

citrus products prominent display C-t tae point oif purchase twiith special em-

phasis on the use of the Commiusion's display material, and t-ird, to se-

cure dealer support for these products through regular and prominent list-

ing in his own retail advertising and through active promotion by store

personnel.


Organization. To accomplish the foregoing objectives, the








-5-

Commission maintains a Sales Service staff of 11 thoroughly trained pro-

motional field men. It is their job to personally contact the trade in

11 geographical divisions extending from the Atlantic Coast to Omaha and

from central CGxiada to the Gulf of fie.ico.

Method of Opuration. Due to the limited personnel and the size

of the territories, it is not possible for the Sales Service representatives

to contact each retail food outlet ana fooc service outlet in the Florida

distribution area. Therefore, the most effective coverage is obtained by

contacting the headquarters of corporate chains, voluntary groups, whole-

salers, and super markets. Under this Alan one man m ay in a single contact

set up a promotion in as many as 5,000 retail stores. This method of oper-

ation has also applied to the food service field including hotels, restaur-

ants, soda fountains, dining cars, hospitals, and other similar outlets

where Florida citrus products are sold for consumption on the premises.

In the 1945-46 season a total of 9,299 individual contacts were made with

3,169 accounts affecting a total of approximately 300,000 outlets.

The Sales service representatives constantly remind the dealers

of the high quality maintaLinea through rigid inspection, the proved volume

turnover possibilities and tae consistent profit to be derived. They are

assisted in this work by a 6bles portfolio prepared in advance of the

season's campaign, showing copieA of the various advertisements, the dates

and publications in ..hich they will appear, as well as other sales material.

Display. Sales service representatives at all times endeavored

to procure for Florida citrus products tae n:ost desirable locations within

the stores. Various types of displays known to be sure-fire volume build-

ers were demonstrated and recommended. Tieing-in directly witn this act-

ivity was the use of attractive and colorful store display materials.











During the season 22 such pieces were produced and distributed. In all a

total of 1,031,546 individual pieces of display material were used.

Dealer Support. To encourage dealers to feature Florida citrus

in their own local advertising end to obtain the cooperation of the store

personnel in promoting Florida fruit, the Commission maintains and actively

promotes an "Ad-iaker" service. Tlhi. consist, of mats of various sizes with

varying copy appeals w~. ch the advertising dealer may use to dress up his

advertising and at the samxe time benefit by a copy anjle 'which will tie-in

with the Commibsion' s over-all adverti-ing. During the season 320 organ-

izations used this service end the free advertising the florida citrus in-

dustry received reached staggering proportions.

Special Promotions. One of the prime requisites of any service ,

organization is flexibility or the ability to cope with situations as they

arise. A good example of this was the need for quick anc concerted action

in behalf of fresh grapefruit shortly after the start of thi-e 194.5-46 season.

Prompt advertising backed by intensive promotional work in five important

east coast markets changed the situation in a period of about two weeks.

Advertising and promotional work in Canadian c.nd Pacific North-

west markets, originally developed to take over for Florid' tangerines a

volume movement formerly enjoyed by Jap Iuandarin oranges, ws continued

this season. The effort wao keyed directly to distribution and aimed at

both pre-holiday and post holiday buiineio:i.

The policy of entertainin coopr.'ative promotions was continued.

These promotions enabic the Comuinision to _.vai. J it;.elf o'_l the rnac.npow,,er and

distribution facilities of other proaucer;-, or manufacturers whose products

tie-in naturally with citrus products.









-7-


Market Research. The Commission this year purchased the Nielsen

Food Index service. This service presents to tie industry at 60 day in-

tervals factual information with respect to stocks on hand and movement

trends at the retail level of citrus juices and competitive products.

Daily reports covering each contact by each bales service rep-

resentative were submitted to Lakel&nd where they were carefully read,

noted for any additional follow-up, and filed by divisions under the name

of the account. Information in these reports pertaining to any particular

shipper was relayed to him and the value of this service is attested to by

numerous letters of appreciation. In addition, weekly reports covering

market conditions were submitted by each ran. These reports were mimeo-

graphed and naade available to those in the inaustri who had requested them.


PUBLICITY

The publicity activities oi the Comianiiiion Aili into three class-

ifications, each with a i, tinct .ana iLport.-nt function. Taese classifica-

tions are: Consumer, Pictorial, ani intr-state.

Consumer Publicity. This year's consumer publicity pushed cir-

culation almost to the billion mark. as conducted by Penuleton Dudley &

Associates, located in New York City, the circulation stems from direct

contacts witn food editors of national magazines, national newspaper syn-

dicates and other food writers and radio commentators. The basis of this

firm's public relations program is the continuing publicity afforded Flo-

rida citrus through its established channels vith food editors, writers

and commentators, including the "Cook's Nook", "Kitchen Air", Foto Features,

and Dorothy Aaes Carter stories. Theso services are now more than 14 years











old and carry special prestige and command a following unmatched by any

others in the food field.

Built around activities in the test kitchen, under the super-

vision of a highly qualified home economist, Florida citrus news, recipes

and features are written by a staff with wide experience in newspaper,

radio and magazine work, press and photo syndicates, backed with extensive

knowledge in the food field.

During the 1945-46 season circulation figures approached one

billion, as shown by the following tabulations:

National Press syndicates 61,500,000
National and Trade iiagazines 29,717,176
Dorothy Ames Carter story and Foto-Feature releases 620,218,012
Cook's Nook 84,000,000
Kitchen Air radio scripts 120,000,000
915,435,188

There were several particularly successful publicity features

during the year. One of these was the cancellation of a press luncheon in

New York because of the serious world famine threat. This brought forth

more warm approval than any publicity venture of the year in the food field.

Editors and food commentators on the guest list hailed the Commission's de-

cision to donate the luncheon funds to the purchase of citrus juices for

UNNRA. Another special event was the activities of Miss Tangerine II in

visiting some of the principal markets at the opening of the tangerine sea-

son. Her pictures were released through Associated Press, International

Picture Service and United Features, to papers all over the country, and

stories about her appeared in many daily papers as well as in all the

trade journals.

A week-long cooking demonstration ias conducted in Macy's Home

Centre (New York) at the height of the iTesh fruit season. More than 5,000




i ... -. ,,


-9-


shoppers daily attended this event in the world's largest store, and took.

home recipe leaflets specially made up for the demonstration.

The test kitchen is the backbone of our operation. There a

home economist is regularly busy testing new recipes and devising new uses

for citrus products, arranging for food photography (an art in itself) and

discussing food with visiting home economists and food writers who find the

kitchen one of the best equipped and most proficient of its kind.

Pictorial Publicity. The Pictorial publicity program for the

Commission was conducted by Richard D. Pope of Winter Haven. This service

was begun in January 1946, and the activities are summarized as follows:

1. A total of 1,612 black and white negatives on citrus and
citrus by-products were filmed and used.

2. Twenty-four releases, with proper caption, were made to the
major national syndicates Acme, Wide World, International
and Associated Press.

3. Over 1,200 glossy 8 x 10 prints of citrus and the citrus
industry were made and used in supplying numerous requests
from feature writers, trade journals, etc.

4. Approximately 90 4 x 5 and 233 22x34 natural color photo-
graphs of citrus and the citrus industry were produced and
released to national magazines. Sunday supplements, calen-
dar manufacturers, etc., for national reproduction.

5. Approximately 100 35 mm natural color kodachrome slides
were produced for lecturers to be used in their travel talks
throughout the nation or for publications which can use them
in featuring various phases of the citrus industry.

6. Three movie sequences in technicolor were produced. One of
them was entitled "Land of Sunshine" and the other two are
in the Fox Movietone technicolor short "Girls and Gags" show-
ing how the State of Florida is built of oranges and grape-
fruit. It is estimated that each reel will be seen by
approximately 55,000,000 people. There was also produced a
reel of 200 feet called "The Glamour of the Orange".

7. Sets of pictures on canning and citrus products have been









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sent to many writers, and a set of 12 pictures together with
factual material on this subject wab sent to hide World, one
of the better news-photo services.

8. Each month a mat service was sent to 80 newspapers in the
State of Florida.

Intrastate Publicity. The Commission has maintained an in-state

publicity service to keep the industry informed at all times concerning

Commission activities as well as to disseminate outside news of interest

to the industry.



11. RESEARCiH ACTIVITIES


During the 1945-46 wCnon the Commission continued its coopera-

tive agreements with tWe U. G. Department of Agriculture, winter Haven,

the University of Florida, Gainebviile, anad tie Citrus Experiment Station,

Lake Alfred. As was the c.se in the 1944-45 fiscal year, it v:as not pos-

sible to operate the research prograaj to tne full extent permitted by the

budget on account o..the scarcity of materials, equipment and competent

personnel. However, these conditions are changing and it is likely that

it will be possible to expand the program in the ].946-47 season.

WINTER ILAVEN LA ORATOrY

There are several Commission employees in the winter Haven

laboratory and they" hav been dealing primarily witn the general problem

of citrus by-products and processing with particular attention to frozen

orange concentrate and cannin, methouds. Lome of tLe projects are as

follows:

Full-Flavored frozen Citru, Juice Concentrates. Considerable

time was devoted to .evelopino a frozen concentrate tuat a'ill retain full









-11-


natural flavor. It is believed that success in merchandising frozen con-

centrates will depend largely on the extent to which the full flavor is re-

tained. A step in this direction has been achieved by diluting high-

solids-content concentrate made by vacuum evaporation with fresh citrus

juice and freezing the resulting mixture. Application has been made for

a public service patent covering this process. Comparisons of concen-

trates made from various varieties of fruit have been mado and particular

attention was given to blends of tangerine juice and juices of early or-

anges.

Lried Citrus Juices. Extensive work was done on the drying of

citrus juices and application has been made for a public service patent

covering a process developed for drying orange juice with and without a

small amount of additive.

Orange Jui ceand Tangerine Juice Canning. Considerable work

and study was devoted to developing a process for the simultaneous pas-

teurization, deaeration and dooiling of tangerine juice or orange juice.

Excellent canned products were obtained and especially tangerine juice.

One processor packed approximately 500,000 cases of tangerine juice this

season and it is expected that several more processors will got into pro-

duction on this product in the 1946-47 season.

Other Projects. Other projects undertaken in cooperation with

the U. S. Department of Agriculture include a continuation of the study of

preparing feed yoast from canning plant waste, factors affecting the de-

terioration of concentrated orange juice made by vacuum evaporation,

changes occurring in bottled and canned citrus juices during storage, re-

covery of orange oil by use of activated carbon, the preparation of a








-12-


bland syrup from press liquor and the preparation of jellied citrus pro-

ducts. These latter products consist of odr.nge and other citrus juices

converted into jelly (without adding sugar) by the use of low-methoxyl

pectin.

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESV1LLE

Two full time employees were stationed at Gainesville and some

part-time employees were used from time to time. The primary work at this

station was on concentration of citrus juices by freezing, and the develop-

ment of suitable containers for frozen concentrates.

Frozen Concentrates. The pilot plant for concentrating citrus

juices by freezing was completed and experimental work on these products

continued. Results were obtained which indicated that tihe blending of the

juice of early oranges with either tangerine juice or late Valencia juice

will produce a concentrate which is an improvement over the concentrate

produced from the early oranges alone. In addition to better color, an

improved ratio and a better solids content results'. Over 1,000 samples of

the different concentrates were demonstrated to interested parties, and

cooperation was extended to commercial plants in operation Znd in the blue-

print stage.

Containers for Frozen Concentrates. Considerable vork was done

on the problem of determining the most suitable container for frozen con-

centrates. It was developed that a container which may be hermetically

sealed, such as a can, appears'to be the best tor the preservation of the

vitamin C content of frozen citrus concentrates. It was also deter-

mined that the loss of vitamin C in irozen concentrated citrus juices is

reduced as the storage temperature is reduced. In other words, the colder

the storage, the less is thie lobs of vitamin C.








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LAKE ALFRED EXk livkENT STATION

Decay Control. Most of the work on docay control this year was

on the use of thiourea for the control of stem-end rot. One of the prin-

cipal problems was the development of a practical method of applying the

thiourea to citrus fruits in such a manner as to obtain good control of de-

cay with a minimum of the compound in the juice of the fruit. The use of

thiourea as a means of controlling stem-end rot gives promise of largely

eliminating decay in citrus fruits before it reaches the consumer. One of

the obstacles to the use of this material is to obtain full approval

of the U. S. Food and Drug Administration. Some studies have been con-

ducted with the view of developing evidence thi.t may be presented to the

Food and Drug Administration to show that the material is not lh.rmful to

persons consuming fruit that has been treated with it. It now appears that

additional studies and experiments will be required before approval can be

obtained.

A great maniy new methods and chemic.lj, other than thiourea,

were used in various tests to control stem-end rot nnd some slowed some

promise.

Spry and Dust schedule. Fifteen thousand copies of the revised

1946 Spray and Dust Schedule were printed and distributed to the industry

during the year.



III. REGULATORY AND GENERAL ACTIVITIES


REGULATORY

License Applications and special ?ermaits. The Commission in-

vestigated and considered 1,184 applications for licenses as shippers,








-14-


canners, truckers, brokers, wholesalers, and express dealers during the

past fiscal year. This exceeded the record number of 931 applications con-

sidered in the preceding year. A total of 1,100 applicants were licensed,

the remainder failing because of the inability to comply with the terms

under which applications are approved, change in the applicant's intentions,

or for other reasons. In 1938-39 only 586 licenses were issued, and the

number had increased to 642 by 1942-43.

a total of 114 Special Permits covering 46,000 boxes of fruit

were issued for interstate shipments of fruit for processing. Hauling per-

mits were issued to 761 applicants and supplemental truck forms were issued

for the operation of 3,439 trucks.

Price Control. Price ceilings Lor canneu citrus fruits were

suspended on December 24, 1945, and were not reinstated after that time.

Consideration was given to reinstating ceiling prices on canned citrus in

the Spring of 1946, but after a thorough .investigation no action vas taken.

Representatives of the Commission actively assisted the Florida citrus can-

ners in their efforts to obtain suspension of the ceilings.

In the case of fresh citrus fruits, price ceilings were in effect

during most of the season. They oere suspended on November 19, 1945, but

due to advances in prices they were reinstated on January 4, 1946, and re-

mained in effect until July 1 when thc Prica Control Act expired.

Early in 1946 the Commission joined with repreRentatjiv:s of the

Texas and California industry in requesting an increase in the ceiling pri-

ces of oranges and tV.ngerines to reflect the increase in the parity index.

This was granted on april 17 and amounted to 15 cents per box for Florida








-15-


oranges and 14 cents for tangerines. The Commission conducted a survey of

tree-to-car costs of handling freuh citrus fruit and on the basis of the sur-

vey requested the OPA to increase ceiling prices 10 cents per bo, for oranges,

15 cents for grapefruit and 6 cents for tangerines. These increases were

granted and became effective on May 27, 1946. The results of the survey of

costs are shown at the end of this report.

A careful check of shipments and prices shows that the foregoing

amendments resulted in an actual increase of almost $2,000,000.00 in re-

turns to growers.

Service Packing Order. This order governs the charges a shipper

may make for packing fresh citrus fruits for others. Representatives of the

Commission, in cooperation %-iith other industry groups, were successful in

obtaining6 an amendment to this order ct the beginning of the 1945-46 season

to reflect increased costs of materials and labor used in packing fruit.


TRAdbPORTcTION

The Commnission continued the employment of the GroWers and Ship-

pers League to handle transportation problems for the industry. In the past

the League has handled only the problems relating to fresh citrus fruits,

but in 1945-46 the League also handled transportation matters relating to

the canned citrus fruit industry. As in the past, the League handled the

various problems which arose in a very able manner. Some of the more im-

portant activities are as follows:

1. Prevailed upon carriers to extend the water-competitive rates to
the North Atlantic ports to December 31, 1946; also succeeded in
obtaining an extension of the suspension of a 3 percent charge on
freight rates proposed by the carriers, until six months after
the legal termination of the war.









-16-


2. Assisted in successful negotiations with carriers for the payment
of 50 percent on all "war delwy claims" without the necessity for
filing legal suits.

3. Actively opposed a petition by tne liar Shipping Administration and
U. S. feiritiwie Commission -iwhici1h .-ould compel the railroads to in-
crease the rail rates approximately 20 cents per box or s100.00 per
car.

4. Successfully opposed a proposal by the carriers for authority to
increase the cost of ice for regrigerator cars 75 cents to 4,1.00
per ton.

5. In connection with the recent proposal of the carriers for a 25
percent increase in canned citrus rates and 15 percent for fresh
citrus, to become effective May 15th, the League was successful
in holding this increase to 6 percent for canned fruit and 3 per-
cent for fresh fruit as an interim adjustment effective July 1,
1946, until after the 6enercl hearings before the 1CC and a final
decision by the Commission.


GEEERAL ACTIVITIES

The Commission continued to enrage Iin ; vw'ie range of activities

of interest and concern to the citrus i-:austry. It has continued the policy

of rendering every possible service to the industry consistent with the auth-

ority vested under the citrus lawvs. The Commission meetings have served as

a forum where growers, shippers or ccanners may discuss industry problems

and other matters of interest to the industry.

In thie 1945-/46 season the Commission received inquiries from all

over the world concerning Florida citrus juices. Most of these concerns

noticed the Commission advertisements in such publications as Life, Ladies

Home Journal, Woman's Home Companion, i;cCalls, and others, and were anxious

to buy Florida juices outright or to represent canners on an agency basis.

A summary of each of those inquiries wa sent to each licensed citrus can-

-, "hen it again becomes possible to engage in export trade, the in-

quiries .icy form the basis for establishing important export outlets for

canned citrus fruits and juices.
\









-17-


The Japanese were very successful in canning Satsuma or Mandarin

sections before the war. Some canners expressed an interest in the process

used as a possible means of canning tangerine sections. The Commission pre-

vailed upon the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, U. -. Department

of Agriculture, to obtain the details of the process from the Japanese and

the information was mailed to all licensed Florida citrus canners.



IV. STTIvTlICAL INFORMATION


The 1945-46 season was one in which many ne, records were est-

ablished, particularly witli reference to production and the utilization of

the crops. Preliminary estimates indicate a total production in Florida of

86,150,000 boxes of oranges, &rapofruit and tangerines in 1945-46. This

compares with the record production of 80,800,000 boxes in the 1943-44 sea-

son. In the absence of any disaster, the production trend is expected to

continue upward for several years.

Along with the increased production in 1945-46 came a phenomenal

increase in the volume of fruit utilized by processors. On the basis of

preliminary estimates, processors used 19,1l4,000 boxes of oranges,

22,124,000 boxes of grapefruit and 516,000 boxes of tangerines, for a total

of 41,824,000 boxes (See Tables I and 11). This total compares twith the pre-

vious record of 31,341,000 boxes utilized in 1943-44. Percentagewise,

about 38.5 percent of the 1945-46 oranbc production, 69.2 percent of the

grapefruit production and 11.9 percent of the timngerine production w.as

utilized by canners. To look at it another way, processors utilized 40.5

percent of the combined production of oranges and grapefruit t in 1943-44,












45 percent in 1944-45 and 50.5 percent in 1945-46. The trend in the volume

of fruit utilized by processors follows the trend of increased production.

It is generally believed that most of the increase in production in the

future will be utilized by processors.

The increase in tihe volume of fruit processednaturally resulted

in a big increase in the volume of each of the various citrus products

packed. For example, the pack of orange, grapefruit and blended juice in

1945-46 attained a volume of 45,777,000 cases basis 24 No. 2 cans. This

may be compared with the previous record pack of 33,704,985 cases in 1944-

45 (See Table IV). One interesting feature is the big increase in the

packs of orange and blended juices in the past fei( years, as shown in

Table IV. The ability of the industry to market the increasingly larger

packs of these juices is no doubt largely due to improved processing meth-

ods which have greatly improved the flavor of the products. Ho-wtever, the

industry wias materially assistedd in marketing the larger volume by the

fact that other fruits rind juices were scarce during th.e i..r years with the

result that the public bought heavily of citrus juices Cwhich were in plen-

tiful supply. The scarcity of soit drink wias c.-so helpful.

Tangerine juice and sections '.ere produced for the first time on

a commercial .cale diu 1945-46, ith IapproJilately 516,000 bo.-es of fruit

being utilized. Appro:-imately 567,337 boxes of oranges were utilized in

the production of concentrated orange juice, most all of whichh was pro-

duced for the domestic market. A large proportion of the concentrated

orange juice produced in the past was sold to the government on orders for

military and lend-lease requirements.








-19-


The total pack of .lmost 49,000,000 cases of ilorida. citrus pro-

ducts in 1945-46 (Table il) may be com ..red vdth mn eestji.ated production

of 64,000,000 caec;. for Jall citruL producing a~eas of the United States,

an(d an estimated production of 11.5,000,000 cases of all fruit and vegetable

juices in the United States. Florida, by the increased production of cit-

rue juices, has, in a relatively fe0i years, advanced to second place among

all the States in the canning of fruits and vegetables.







TABLE I


PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA GRAPEFRUIT AND ORANGES
1935-36 to 1945-46


Processed/I
Year Commercial
1


Purehaded
By And
Processed
Pct. For Govt.
= -3


Commercial
Fresh
Shipments
4


- - ,000


Purchased
By Govt.
For Fresh
Pot, Shipment

boxes -


Other
Disposition
7


Total
Production
8


GRAPEFRUIT


7,762
9,654
7,750
10,661
6,416
8,902
7,h477
8,779
9,599
6,316
8,900


67.5
53.3
53.1
45.7
40.3
36.2
38.9
32.1
31.0
28.3
27.8


0 RANGES
14,085/2 88.6
16,722 87.5
19,920 83.3
26,599 89.0
19,158 74.8
23,145 80.9
21,403 78.7
28,988 77.9
335,75 72.5
26,857 62.8
28,750 57.6


/I Column (1) includes grapefruit canned for commercial use and later purchased by
government from canners' stocks for relief or other purposes, but does not in-
clude grapefruit processed for account of government shown in Column (3) or fruit
shipped to other states under special permit for processing.
/2 Intrastate commercial shipments included in Column (7),
3 Includes oranges used for production of concentrated orange juice as follows:
1940-41 112,000 boxes; 1942-43 2,800,000 boxes; 1943-4 2,362,000 boxes;
19+4-45 403,018 boxes; 1945-46 567,337 boxes.
/ Includes 14,329 boxes used for production of concentrated grapefruit juice.
5 Production prior to hurricane of October 1944 was estimated by B.A.E. to be
36,000,000 boxes of grapefruit and 52,000,000 boxes oranges.
/6 Preliminary.

SOURCE: Compiled from reports of Florida Citrus Commission, Growers Administrative
Committee, and "Annual Statistics Relating to Bearing Acreage, Production and Dis-
position of United States Oranges and Grapefruit", issued May 191- by U, S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.


F.C.C. 9-1-6-46


36
105
740
602
396


1935-56
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-I4
1944-45
194-5-15
1945-466


1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-4
194-45
1945-46/6


3,646
6,687
6,052
8,493
8,804
13,274
9,751
17,567
20,429
15,134Z4
22,124


213
622
1,253
1,187
4,200
3,949/L
4,022
6,285 3
10,912/
14,22472
19,1861


31.7
36.9
41.4
36.4
55.4
53.9
50.8
64.3
65.9
67.8
69.2


1.3
3.3
5.2
4.0
16.4
13.8
14.8
16.9
23.7
33.2
38.5


10
925

908

971
761


825
209
859


82
798
695
2,498
680
851
815
954
972
850
976


1,602
1,756
1,902
1,905
1,383
1,506
1,775
1,927
1,813
1,719
1,866


11,500
18,100
14,600
23,500
15,900
24,600
19,200
27,300
31,000
22,300/5
32,000


15,900
19,100
23,900
29,900
25,600
28,600
27,200
37,200
46,200
42,8o00
49,800




Million Boxes Production and Utilization of Florida Grapefruitf 1930-31 to 1945-46
32.
31-
30 1. Commercial Fresh fruit shipments
29- 2. Processed Commercial .
S3 Other Disposition, including fruit purchased / '
by the Government for shipment in fresh form .
27- for relief, and for processing by Florida : ::::\
26- Canners on contract basis. .:.:.:.\. ;
25- ** ***** ** ****

21 .......
24 ... .o........ ..




1.....

1 6 ,0 0. 0 0 0.
.................................
-. g o ... ............ .......
i6 ............ .....0.Nw. .


1 0 ... ................. .. .......... ........ .... ..
9-. .**x*x-* .......... ............ ..XXXXXX 0. ..
** **. ..... .. .......... 00........

11 ,- O ,xxxx. x xx3Rx.. ..'.. ...... .. .x. .. ......... x

xx XXx XXxxxxxxx XXxxxxxxXXXX XxXXY x x xxxxx exxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx

x x xxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxti



oD 00 c ,- _

X ,- X o= 1x XX-x xx'.0 r-- Xo o, 0 -K R
3- xxxxx'%xxxxxxx XXXXXX XxxxxxXxx xxx x xxx xxxxx4-






Million Production and Utilization of Florida Oranges: 1930-31 to 1945-46
BoxeU
50.0 -

47 1. Commercial Fresh fruit shipments / /
45-0 2, Processed Commercial, including fruit used / {
for concentrated orange juice. / *!
42.5 3. Other Disposition, including fruit purchased /* ** *
for the government for shipment in fresh / '.. .
40.0 form for relief, .......
/ *****************
37.5 .:::: 2 :::::::::
35/ -*0***-- **0*******
35.0 / :::::::: ::: : "

32.5 :........ .


27.5 ....
25.0 /: xxxxyx-xxxxxxxx xxx
22.5 // ..:.... xxx.x xxx.xx ........
/2 ......... x xxxxxxxxxxxxx.
xx/ /* \ *"* *,**- .^*x xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx


225O / *xxxxx \. :.... ,xx***** *xxxxxxxxxzxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
25.0 7. 'xx.xx, xxx.XXXXXXXXXXXXXXxx
.xXXm XXXXXXXXX)IYXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
15.05 *xxxx \ : x :.. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
200-. / .xxxx .X ..xxxxxxxxx.c.-. .xxx cxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Sxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
/ 'xxxxxxxxmxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxx
XX X X.",,, >'XXXXXXXXXXXXX).YXXOXXXXXVXX"XXX v"l2aC-Cs iXXXXXXXX.XX ,XXXXXXXXX
17 5 -: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx .. ,, 'xxxxxxxi xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
1 '5 .-- --- -xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx. xxxxxxx; xxxx
10 X x ,X. ..... xxxxxxxxxxxxxx --'.xxx xxxxxxx Exxxxxxyxxxxxxxx. xxxxxxxxxxxx- xx
_XXXX_ D -C XgXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXX XXXXXX XXXXXX"XXXXX XXOXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX x
12*5 ..: x., xx .................... ........ _.;..x. ....... x --xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxx xx ., xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
10.0-xxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxaxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxPxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx-----xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx


x5. xxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxcxxxxxxxxxxxxxyxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxiY xxixxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxx
xx--KX.XxYxxxxXXXXXXXXXXXxXXXXXXXxxI xxxxxox-xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxE.XXX l ... -'>xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
755 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxyxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxXXXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxXXXXxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
5.0 xxxxxxx xx- xxxx xx x xx xx xx == xx x 1 Lxxx xxxxxxtxxx x. xxx.x xx x xxx x l

.2*5 xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx "--"xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
XX -XXX:X' XXXXXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX-- XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXxXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX7XXXXXXXXXX
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxyxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
t f I i i I I i I I 1 I

f a <11 ^ i< us r r JIo o1 ON a










TABLE II

PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA TANGERINES
1935-36 to 1945-46


s Shipped Fresh : t : Total
Season ta Processed a Disposition a Produo-
: Commercial Govt. Total : : : tion
3 3 I I
12 3 4 5 6
- -- -1,000 boxes - -


1935-36 1,796 0 1,796 0* 3O 2,100
1936-37 2,720 0 2,720 280 3,000

1937-38 1,979 0 1,979 321 2,300

1938-39 2,852 0 2,852 548 3,00

1939-40 2,100 0 2,100 1 299 2,400
1940-41 2,357 0 2,357 343 2,700

1941-42 1,809 0 1,809 291 2,100

1942-43 3,507 342 3,849 351 4,200

1943-44 3,288 0 3,288 312 3,600

1914-45 3,556 0 3,556 3 341 3,900

1945-)6 .! 3,430 o 3,430 516 410 4,350

*Data unavailable, Quantities believed to be negligible.

/I Preliminary,

/2 Production prior to hurricane of October 19%4, was estimated by B.A.E. to
be 4,700,000 boxes.

SOURCE: Growers Administrative Committee.


F.C.C.
7-15-46





TABLE III

PACKS OF FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTS
1935-36 to 1945-46


Year


1935-36

1936-37

1937-38

1938-39

1939-40

1940-41

1941-42

1942-43

1943-44

1944-45

1945-46 /I


Canned
Grapefruit
Sections


2,251,775

4,058,ooo

3,419,000

4,106,ooo

4,134,ooo

3,140,000

4,611,ooo

888,000

943,247

411,145

2,406,524


Canned
Citrus
Salad


65,000

8e, 000

85, 000

131,000

85,000

330,ooo

274,.000

None

None

None

None


Canned
Grape fruit
Juice
- Cases

1,758,497

3,918,000

3,370,000

6,190,000

4,682, 000

10,647,0oo00

6,180, 000

15,193,000
16,778,124

12,025,099

15,089,O56


Canned
Orange
Juice
(Basis 24 No.

162,000

498,000

806,0ooo

926,000

2,851, 000

3,078,000

3,466,000

2,429,000

7,075,467

13,935,381

18,420,825


Canned
Blended
Juice
2 cans) -

85,o000

272,000

547,000

699,000

1,403,000

2,537,000

2,305,000

3,676,000
6,176,168

7,744,505
12,267,484


Canned
Tangerine
Juice


Total
Cases


- - -

- 4,322,272

- 8.,834,000

- 8,227,000

- 12,052,000

- 13,155,oo000

- 19,732,000

- 16,836,000

- 22,186,000

- 30,973,006

- 34,116,130


525,000


48, 708,869


/I Preliminary.

SOURCE: Florida Canners' Association.

F.C.C. ;-16-46




TABLE IV

PACKS OF ORANGE, GRAPEFRUIT AND BLENDED JUICES
Cases (Basis 24 No. 2 cans)
1935-36 to 1945-46


Year

1935-36

1936-37

1937-38

1938-39

1939-40

1940-41

1941-42

1942-43

1943-44

1944-45

1945-46 /1


Orange Juice

162,000

498,000

o06,0ooo

926,000

2,851,000

3,078,000

3,466,000

2,429,000

7,075,467

13,935,381
18, 2, 82 5


Percent
Total

8.1

10.6

17.0

11.8

31.9

18.9

29.0

11.4

23.6

41.3

40.3


Grapefruit Juice

1,758,497

3,918,o000

3,370,000
6,190,000

4,682,000

10,647, 000

6,180,ooo

15,193,000
16,778,124

12,025, 099

15,c09,056


Percent
Total

87.7
83.6

71.3

79.2
52.4

65.5

51.7

71.3

55.9

35.7

32.


Blended Juice

85,000

272,000

547,ooo

699,000

1,403,000

2,537,000

2,305,000

3,676,000
6,176,168

7,744,505
12,26?,484_


Percent
Total

4.2

5.8

11.7

9.0

15.7
15.6

19.3

17.3

20.5

23.0

26.8


Total Pack

2,005,497

4,688,ooo

4,723,000

7,815,ooo

8,936,000
16,262,000

11,951,00ooo0
21,298,000

30,029,759

33,704,985

45,777,3 e5


/1 Preliminary

SOURCE: Florida Canners' Association.

F.C.C. &-16-46


I'--.




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