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Teenage film communications
Youth and school services
floida itrus commission 1964-1965 anual reoort
the flodia citrus commissliS
MEMBERS FOR FISCAL PERIOD JULY 1, 1964 TO JUNE 30, 1965
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ADVERTISING AND PUBLICITY:
Robert E. Snively, Chairman
Sam A. Banks
O. D. Huff, Jr.
C. D. Newbern
Key Scales, Jr.
George T. Cason, Chairman
Sam A. Banks
Webb C. Clarke
O. D. Huff, Jr.
H. S. Massey
Robert E. Snively
F. Elgin Bayless, Chairman
Sam A. Banks
George T. Cason
C. D. Newbern
Key Scales, Jr.
Paul Robertson, Chairman
Sam A. Banks
George T. Cason
O. D. Huff, Jr.
C. D. Newbern
Robert E. Snively
Webb C. Clarke, Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
H. S. Massey
Robert E. Snively
ADMINISTRATIVE AND BUDGET:
H. S. Massey, Chairman
Sam A. Banks
F. Elgin Bayless
O. D. Huff, Jr.
Key Scales, Jr.
C. D. Newbern, Chairman
George T. Cason
Webb C. Clarke
Key Scales, Jr.
Henry Cragg, Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
Webb C. Clarke
O. D. Huff, Jr.
H. S. Massey
Key Scales, Jr., Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
Webb C. Clarke
O. D. Huff, Jr.
C. D. Newbern
Robert E. Snively
message from the general manage
The Florida citrus industry made long strides during the 1964-65 season toward full
recovery from the disastrous freeze of December 1962. The total orange crop rose to
86,200,000 boxes, 46 per cent more than produced the previous season. Similarly, the
Florida grapefruit crop reached 31,800,000 boxes. These major varieties, together with
3,900,000 boxes of tangerines, and 1,230,000 boxes of tangelos and murcotts, comprised a
total Florida citrus crop of 123,130,000 boxes a gain of 37 per cent over the previous
Florida continued to maintain its position as the predominant producing area of citrus,
producing 74 per cent of the United States crop and 31 per cent of the world total. More
specifically, Florida produced 71 per cent of U.S. oranges and 78 per cent of the grapefruit
crop. With respect to world production, Florida produced 27 per cent of the oranges
and 67 per cent of the grapefruit.
This report delineates in detail the many activities and programs of the Florida Citrus
Commission and its departments, services, and agencies during 1964-65. I would like to
highlight some of the more significant Commission actions:
.. A 32-bill citrus legislative package was passed by the Florida Legislature, including
such far-reaching subjects as the incentive advertising rebate program, consumer testing
of sugar-added frozen concentrate, and broad revisions in bond and license procedures.
The Commission's new Commercial Development Department made significant
strides in market and consumer testing of new citrus products and new
... The Federal Food and Drug Administration issued an order permitting Florida to
continue high standards for the production of frozen concentrated orange juice higher
than those applicable to any other area.
.. A contact was signed with Ceco Marketing Consulting and Research, Inc.,
providing continuous consumer testing which provides the Commission with basic
consumer information for its total promotional effort.
The "Sell Florida First" program was reactivated to promote the sale of citrus
fruit and products in the state.
Surveys of British and European markets for citrus by Agri-Research and
Attwood Statistics, Ltd., reported encouraging potentials, resulting in revision of the
Commission's export promotion program.
... A $3,750,000 special coupon advertising and promotional campaign was
initiated to broaden the total market for frozen concentrated orange juice.
... A nine-man Florida Citrus Research Council was set up to coordinate industry
scientific, market, consumer, and economic research and to advise the Commission
on such matters.
.. The Commission's institutional program was transferred to the Commercial
Development Department and expanded.
... A new wing of offices was constructed at the Commission building, and a
copper capsule containing items of current interest in the industry was placed in the
cornerstone to be opened in the year 2000.
... The State Budget Commission approved the Commission request for a broad
revision of the staff organization.
.The Commission approved the purchase of 40 acres of land in Lake County to be
leased to the Foundation Farm for research in citrus root stocks.
... The Commission agreed to sponsor a free Florida Citrus Water Ski show in
conjunction with the Florida Exhibit at the New York World's Fair.
These are but a few highlights of many Commission programs and activities during
1964-65. All Commission programs are described in detail in this Report, which I hope
you will read. The programs are aimed at the single purpose of selling more Florida
citrus at a profit for our growers and all who deal in Florida citrus fruit.
Very truly yours,
citius industry highlights
FLORIDA CITRUS GROWTH IN BOXES AND VALUE OF SALES
'alue In Sales
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THE REAL THING
Kerpow! Snappy tart-sweet Florida grapefruit
juice sounds a rousing reveille at the very first
taste. In Ihe morning. Afler a snooze, Any lime.
Makes a might lively paly punch, too. erpow!
The Florida Citrus Commission's consumer
advertising program continued to achieve effectiveness
during the 1964-65 season, with another display of
maximum exposure at minimum expense.
During the season, the Commission was able to
achieve more readers and more viewers per dollar of
advertising expenditures than in any previous year.
The general consensus was that the total program of
$3,030,000 very successfully attained the specific
objectives set forth, and provided a fine base for
advertising in the coming seasons when the
total crop will increase.
The Commission, at the request of the Florida
processors of frozen concentrated orange juice, started
a special advertising effort late in the spring, distributing
"cents-off" coupons throughout the country. This
special program, which involved an expenditure of
$3,700,000, was to extend into the following season and
was to be financed by the processors of frozen
concentrated orange juice. No details will be
submitted until the program is completed.
The Commission advertising effort during
1964-65 for oranges and grapefruit:
All orange varieties were announced in the major
markets across the nation by special newspaper
advertisements directed to the consumer, with support
from heavy merchandising to the trade. The highly
successful Squeater promotional device was continued
with special advertisements in Sunday comic sections of
newspapers in the top 16 markets as well as through a
national advertisement in "Jack and Jill" magazine.
This promotion resulted in a sale of 563,508 Squeaters.
National daytime television on such programs as
"Mike Wallace," "The McCoys," and "Andy Griffith"
was used in collaboration with the newspaper approach
to round out the program.
Advertising for frozen concentrated orange juice
was initiated in July with a summer program in
Saturday Evening Post magazine. In the fall, and
through the winter, the national editions of TV Guide
and Reader's Digest carried each concentrate
advertisement to more than 44,000,000 adult readers.
In the same summer period, frozen concentrated
orange juice participated in television programming
featuring the Olympic Games Trials, a series of
Youd think it grew on treeWhy, the price of real fresh-frozen
Florida orange juice is so low now
thai you can hardly afford to drink
For breakfast. For lunch. For supper.
Or any time you're just plain thirsty.
athletic events to select United States teams to com-
pete in the Olympic Games staged in Tokyo. At the
conclusion of this series, commercials for concen-
trate were then included in television daytime pro-
gramming, as well as in such prime night-time
television shows as the "Addams Family," "Shindig,"
"12 O'clock High," "Sunday Night Movie," and
The Commission was successful in obtaining
the "Jimmy Dean" show as feature of the Florida
Citrus Showcase at Winter Haven and the televised
performance was very favorably received.
In addition to magazine advertising and televi-
sion commercials, a special consumer program was
conducted in Canada, with a heavy trade schedule
to support frozen concentrated orange juice at all
levels of distribution throughout the season.
On two separate occasions, dramatic drops oc-
curred in the price of Florida frozen concentrated
orange juice and special advertising was placed in
available media to announce the changes to the
consumers. Advertisements were carried in leading
newspapers in the key markets, while network radio
on 200 NBC stations delivered the message of
The season was a busy one for the frozen con-
centrated orange juice program, despite the fact the
overall consumer advertising budget was down
$1,000,000 from the previous season. With the added
advertising needs of the season, it was necessary to
maintain a consistent, yet flexible program.
Chilled orange juice was advertised in the
Saturday Evening Post magazine and in Sunday
newspaper supplements, in addition to the televi-
sion commercials delivered during the Olympic
Game Trials and on network shows during the
winter and spring months.
Advertisements promoting canned single
strength orange juice appeared in TV Guide, Reader's
Digest, and Family Weekly, featuring the portability
of this product and its convenience on picnics, fish-
ing, camping and other outdoor events.
The first announcement of the season for fresh
grapefruit was in the fall, at the time the fruit reached
the marketplace in abundance.
The two-color announcement advertisement ap-
peared in newspapers located in the nation's top
markets for grapefruit. At the same time, daytime
network television reminded housewives about the
goodness of grapefruit through commercials on the
"I Love Lucy" show.
Half-page, full color advertisements featuring
fresh grapefruit were carried in McCall's and
Ladies' Home Journal, while Family Circle, Women's
Day and Redbook featured a special advertisement
offering the popular Florida grapefruit spoon.
SAnother special television advertising campaign
was conducted late in January in support of a special
in-store promotion of the grapefruit "fun faces" kit,
an item that commanded a great deal of attention
among the younger users of grapefruit.
Canned single strength grapefruit juice ap-
peared on both daytime and nighttime television
spots, as well as in an advertisement that was car-
ried in both Rader's Digest and Saturday Evening
"I likeh!,i Post.
SBasic grapefruit magazine and television mes-
( '.j .* sages were delivered in behalf of grapefruit sections.
I get to split one
with my lda ."
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T HE REAL THING
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Since the inception of the Florida Citrus
Commission, the merchandising department has
played a vital role in the promotion of all Florida
citrus products fresh, canned and frozen. It was
felt the national advertising schedule would be far
more effective if extended down to the store level
through a field merchandising staff. In 1935, the year
the Commission was created, the merchandising
department consisted of two field representatives.
Today, the Commission's merchandising staff is
composed of 62 men, located in major markets
throughout the United States, Canada and Europe.
During the 1964-65 season, the merchandising
team made more than 103,000 calls on auction and
terminal markets, fresh fruit wholesalers, brokers,
receivers, frozen food distributors, hotel and
restaurant organizations, drug and fountain groups,
and institutional mass feeding organizations, and
built more than 15,000 in-store displays, traveling
1,321,000 miles. The staff is assigned to three major
districts, eastern, central and Pacific, with
headquarters, respectively, in New York, Chicago
and Los Angeles.
Through the Lakeland and divisional head-
quarters, the field staff is constantly informed
regarding crop conditions, inventory of processed
products, movement of product, and new and better
merchandising methods in the retail field. Last year,
four divisional meetings were held, at which time
promotional plans and merchandising strategy were
presented. One of the major operational activities was
keeping retail organizations informed regarding
Commission advertising schedules and arranging
appropriate promotional programs to tie in closely
with the advertising.
For each major activity, colorful display
materials were produced in Florida and widely
distributed. During the season, more than 14,500,000
individual pieces were produced and shipped from
the Lakeland warehouse, and four major promotions
were arranged, featuring fresh, canned and frozen
products. A national in-store display contest, "Stop,
Look and Listen," was one of the most successful
events of the season, with more than 3,000 picture
entries submitted by the retail trade.
The field staff arranged for 248 sales incentive
promotional programs with retail organizations. In
coordination with these programs, 893 sampling
demonstrations were conducted.
The Commission participated in 19 national
conventions related directly to food, health and med-
ical fields, using for the first time a diorama depicting
Florida scenes and products.
As a courtesy, the Commission served orange
juice or other orange products at 70 national con-
ventions held in the state of Florida.
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice Sampling
At the request of the Scientific Research De-
partment, the field staff continued to pick up samples
of frozen concentrated orange juice at regular inter-
vals, returning the samples to Florida to be tested
for quality by the United States Department of
Agriculture. During the year, 52 frozen concentrated
orange juice surveys were conducted. To assist in
"better handling and care" of concentrated citrus
products, more than 500,000 special bulletins for
store training purposes were prepared and dis-
Grapefruit Fun Face Promotion
Following up the success of the previous year,
this program was repeated with a new series of fun
face kits. More than 2,000,000 kits were distributed
and reported effective promotional items.
At the height of the holiday season, the field
staff, working in cooperation with the Florida Tan-
gerine Cooperative, conducted an intensive series of
promotional programs. Because of an increased sup-
ply of tangerines, the same type programs were
continued through the month of January. Special
point-of-sale display materials were produced by the
Florida Tangerine Cooperative in cooperation with
the Commission and distributed to the trade factors.
Since this particular commodity is available for
only a short time, intensive merchandising efforts
were conducted in 22 major markets. Sampling dem-
onstrations and incentive programs were used to
create interest on the part of the retail trade and
Each week a record of contact calls is compiled
by every field merchandising specialist, area mana-
ger and district manager. These reports cover mar-
ket analysis, movement of product, and range of
price for each Florida citrus item and competitive
products. The reports are edited, reproduced and
mailed to more than 500 citrus packers, shippers
and processors in Florida. The information in the
reports is considered highly important and bene-
ficial to the industry and is utilized by the news
media in Florida.
Following the recommendations offered in the
management survey by Booz, Allen & Hamilton,
the merchandising department set up a program de-
voting 10 per cent of all field merchandising work
to the institutional program, including the prepara-
tion of special point-of-sale materials for promo-
tional work, particularly at fountain and snack bar
levels. Based on the response, a special institutional
department has been established by the Commis-
sion for greater coverage.
Special Coupon Promotional Program
Another special coupon promotional program
for frozen concentrated orange juice was developed
and launched during the last month of the year. The
merchandising department produced appropriate
point-of-sale display materials and conducted an
average of 225 demonstrations weekly. The depart-
ment also sponsored more than 1,000 in-store incen-
tive sales programs for both consumer and retail
The 1964-65 season marked the ninth year in
which the Commission conducted an advertising-
merchandising-promotion program in Western Eu-
rope. This year there were no supplementary funds
available from the U. S. Department of Agriculture
under the provisions of Public Law 480, pending the
evaluation report by Agri-Research, Inc. The Com-
mission, following the marketing pattern for Florida
grapefruit, continued special fall programs in
France, Germany, Netherlands, Austria, Sweden,
Belgium and Switzerland.
Because of the shipping strike that affected
Gulf and Atlantic ports, it was necessary to discon-
tinue planned programs for the spring of 1965. Start-
ing in the late fall of 1964, the Commission launched
a special frozen concentrated orange juice program
in Great Britain, developed after the Attwood Sta-
tistics (Great Britain) Limited research study was
submitted. A test program was first held in the
Cambridge area. Since the launch of the program
last fall, sales results have been encouraging and
expansion in Great Britain is being planned. In view
of increased supplies of Florida citrus fruits, it is to
the advantage of the industry to maintain the image
of Florida products throughout Western Europe. To
help promote this image, the Commission has par-
ticipated in six major European trade fairs, where
products were both displayed to and sampled by
prospective consumers and trade.
You can't get oranges from a cardboard tree
The only replacement for a glass of
orange juice is a second glass of orange
juice. You can no more get the nutritive
benefits of natural orange juice from an
imitation drink than you can grow
oranges on a cardboard tree.
Take, for instance, the matter of man's
metabolic system. Nature has spent
thousands of years adapting man's
metabolism so that he can get the most
nourishment possible from natural foods.
Does it seem likely that in a decade
or two laboratory technicians can con-
coct a drink equally nutritious to man?
When many of us were born, Vitamin C
hadn't even been discovered, and it's
but one of the valuable ingredients in
Or. take the matter of flavor. You
can't deny that nothing tastes quite as
good as fresh orange juice. Do the essen-
tials that make this difference in taste
also promote the ultimate utilization of
sugars and enzymes by the body?
Certainly, for quality, Florida citrus
fruits and juices are unrivaled. Not a
Flonda Citrus Commirsion, Lakeland, Florida
SPrepared by Corte F. Ealoe, Incorporated
single box of oranges or frozen concen-
trate leaves our state until it meets rigid
standards of quality. The fruit must ma-
ture on the tree, and it must have a
specific ratio of fruit sugars to acid to
assure that prized tart-sweet flavor. Or-
anges are then processed so that 98% of
the natural vitamin C content is'retained
in both the'frozen and canned juice.
Doesn't it make good sense to reach for
some real orange juice from Florida, your
self...and not be content with anything
l~ u or ains
s se for
your patie t
Designed to encourage further support for citrus
products by physicians and members of the allied
health profession, the Florida Citrus Commission's
medical advertising program continued to direct
messages to the professional groups. The program,
conducted by Cortez F. Enloe, Inc., New York, seeks to
establish in the minds of professional people the
superiority of natural citrus products over synthetic
products and imitations, enlists support to claims of the
Commission's consumer advertising programs, and
suggests that the professional groups should enjoy
citrus products as well as recommend these
products to patients.
The medical advertising campaigns during the past
fiscal year concentrated on two themes establishing a
strong and favorable image of Florida citrus products
and of the Commission in the minds of physicians, and
mounting a special effort to stress the need and impor-
tance of citrus products in specific medical conditions.
The advertisements during the year placed
emphasis upon the importance of natural citrus
products, recommending fruits and juices as wholesome
and pleasurable components of a normal, natural food
diet. Each of the advertisements emphasized the nutri-
tional benefits of Florida citrus without placing too much
stress upon the therapeutic values of these products.
As in past years, the medical advertising program
was honored by a special award for advertising
achievement, presented by Modern Medicine, a
national medical publication.
The specialty medical campaign was concentrated
in those areas of medical specialties in which citrus
products can play a significant role internal medicine,
dermatology and pediatrics.
Advertisements directed to internal medicine
specialists exhibited the contribution citrus products
can make in providing the important source of
potassium and the suitability of citrus products in
low-sodium diets. Those advertisements pertaining to
dermatology emphasized the fact that citrus juices,
particularly orange juice, are ideal for young acne
patients. The importance of orange juice as a natural
source of vitamin C in the feeding of infants was stressed
in the advertisements directed to pediatricians.
The Commission's medical advertisements appeared
in the leading national, regional and specialty journals
which cover the medical, osteopathic, dental, hospital
and dietetic professions.
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Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy, the public relations
firm which has conducted food publicity for the Florida
Citrus Commission for nearly 30 years, exerted added
effort this season toward projects designed to reach
consumers firsthand at every level of age
The important food page and recipe development
program continued a strong pattern, with mailings of
pictures and stories to 1,500 daily and 3,000 weekly
newspapers, as well as to nearly every periodical in
the country. Special features were prepared for
leading magazines, and appetite-whetting color photos
for Sunday supplements and weekly food sections,
providing thousands of stories on the availability,
versatility, convenience, nutrition and low cost of
Florida citrus fruits and products. Food service
operators were contacted through articles in
Six home economists work constantly in D-A-Y
test kitchens in New York City, devising new uses for
citrus, creations that are demonstrated and shown to
leading magazine, news syndicate and supplement
editors. Many of these creations are unveiled at the
annual Fall conference of newspaper food editors, a
conclave which attracts about 150 such editors. For
nearly 20 years, the Commission has served as host at
a citrus luncheon on opening day to this important
group of food preparation authorities.
In November, a presentation was made before
more than 1,000 Home Demonstration Agents in
national convention, calling attention to the differences
between Florida citrus and the several "substitutes"
that have invaded the food markets. Mailings on the
subject were made to utility company demonstrators,
women's club presidents, marketing specialists, and
to radio and television commentators.
Food page publicity bearing the endorsement of
local food editors provided strong support for Florida
citrus advertising during the season, occupying space
in color pictures alone which would have cost more
than $500,000 in terms of advertising purchases.
Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy reported worthwhile
gains in the institutional field during the year. The
agency's home economists gave demonstrations, slide
file presentations and lectures on citrus before school
lunch conventions in several states, and before
assembled food service personnel of all Catholic
institutions. In conjunction with Commission
personnel, the agency assisted in exhibiting new uses
and new recipes at the Chicago National Restaurant
Show, at the Quebec and Toronto shows, and at the
New England Hotel and Restaurant Show.
I I I -
a .. p p- I-...- m
teenage film communications
The medium of motion pictures is becoming
increasingly important to the Florida Citrus Com-
mission in the campaign to reach teen-agers with
messages about the health and nutritional values of
Recognizing the power of the moving picture
to capture and hold the attention and interest of
younger audiences, the Commission has produced
and compiled a library of 12 educational movies,
plus five brief three-minute food preparation films.
One of the most popular films in the library is
"The Sun Goes North," a document of the historical '
background and growth of the citrus industry in
Florida. Another movie which is acquiring a screen
following is "The Best Way to Eat," a 15-minute
color presentation that offers and explains scientific
reasons how a correct diet can result in added
health, beauty and charm for the teen-ager.
Also growing in popularity is a series of public
service films directed toward physical conditioning.
The first of these, "The Winning Formula," has been
viewed to date by 12,400,000 persons who saw the
movie in school and organization showings, or on
television shows. An important part of this film is
the conditioning tests conducted in recent years by
North Carolina State University, with a daily diet
of one quart of orange juice for each football player.
The results of these tests in physical conditioning
are presented by Earle Edwards, head football coach
at North Carolina State. The small pamphlet "Tips
on Training," which is distributed with showings of
the movie, is authored by Thomas E. Healion, athletic
trainer for Northwestern University.
The need for a companion movie to be directed
toward physical conditioning for girls resulted in
"Leading the Parade," a film dramatizing the art of
baton twirling. The nutritional value of citrus is
endorsed by leading baton twirlers who appear in
the movie and who offer comments in the pamphlet,
"Tips on Twirling," distributed with the showing ofe l
This series dealing with physical conditioning
is to be expanded with other movies concerning A V
such areas of activity as ballet and water sports.
The short movies on food preparation provide
pointers on the selection of fruit and on the prepa-
ration and serving of citrus desserts.
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SKIN CARE FOR J1
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youth 9 school services
For the past five years, the Florida Citrus Commission has
assisted health educators in the difficult task of disseminating
information to young people on the subject of good nutrition.
When the Commission first embarked upon this program, it was
evident the result would be a long-range project, since, in many instances,
any breakthrough would require giving concrete assistance to the school
curriculum, specifically to the health education teacher. Wide variances
were noted at the time in teaching practices, especially in the emphasis
upon the subject, and in the failure oftentimes of educators to keep
abreast of changes in teaching methods and materials.
With this in mind, the Commission has directed efforts toward
focusing attention of the teaching community upon the
vast importance of good nutrition.
The large volume of school posters and other teaching aids
created by the Commission have been designed in conjunction
with leaders in the education field. The proposed materials are
submitted to educators for approval in order to insure acceptance
and actual use, seeking to obtain only those materials which the
teacher will approve and to which the youngster will respond.
During the fiscal year, 1,491,146 pieces of visual aids
and leaflets were distributed.
Health education projects included the sponsorship of workshops
in Massachusetts; the co-sponsorship with the Ford Foundation of an
educational television series for schools in Maine, and a seminar on
Improving the Teaching of Health. This two-day seminar, conducted in
Athens, Georgia, at the University of Georgia's Center for Continuing
Education, contributed much to public awareness of the importance of
instruction in health and won acclaim for the Commission as sponsor of
an outstanding opinion-molding event.
A film sequel to "The Beauty Habit" was completed and released
during the year. The new film, entitled, "The Road to Beauty," covers the
teen-age life of a young girl, moving progressively through the stages of
the young bride and the mother-to-be. This is one segment of today's
population where information on nutrition and health habits is considered
of utmost importance.
The Commission sponsored personal appearances with showings of
these films at teen-age events, in department stores, in community centers,
and in schools and churches. The personal approach afforded the
opportunity to present the subject more forcibly and to instruct young
girls in the basics of good food habits and preparation.
One of the outstanding activities of the Commission was participation
in the National Youthpower Congress. The Commission cooperated with
the Florida School Food Service Association, which sponsors Youthpower
projects within the state, in the selection of six boys and girls as delegates
to the sixth annual Congress in Chicago. One of the state delegates again
was a national winner with a project in nutrition, and the "Top Teen"
award was presented to a Florida delegate for the third consecutive year.
The Congress is conducted by the National Food Conference,
composed of the nation's leading food manufacturers and organizations.
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One of the primary recommendations emanating
from the 1964 Booz, Allen & Hamilton study for the
Florida Citrus Commission was the establishment of a
Commercial Development Department. Recommended
further was that this department be charged with two
broad responsibilities: (1) the development of totally new
products for the citrus industry, and (2) the development
of new markets for existing products. To achieve these
goals, the department has been assigned the
responsibility of directing all product-oriented market
research projects of the Commission, coordinating
commercial engineering of new and improved products
and packaging, and the investigation of all opportunities
for the development of new markets for
The department was organized August 1, 1964,
with the employment of Edward A. Taylor as Director
of Commercial Development. During the year, the
department was staffed by the director and his secretary,
but the work load has rapidly increased with many
important projects under way. It is planned that
additional employees, including a Market Development
Manager, Market Research Manager, and Commercial
Engineering Manager, together with adequate
secretarial staff, be added as the work load warrants.
While this department has been in existence a
relatively short time, it has been successful in
establishing good rapport with members of the industry
who share the belief of the need for developing new
products and expanding present products into new
markets as a means of meeting the problems created by
increased crops and increased competition. During the
year, a significant number of important steps were
taken by this group, working in cooperation with
members of the industry, to achieve all goals.
To summarize the department's present position
and provide an indication of future projects now
planned, a brief summary is offered.
While a great deal of valuable consumer research
has been carried on in the past by the Commission,
it was nevertheless recognized that a research
tool now known as the COMPASS Survey,
was required to measure on a continuing basis
consumer attitudes towards citrus and competitive
products, as well as how these attitudes are
translated into purchases by consumers.
The COMPASS Surveys consist of bi-monthly
store audits in 20 representative food outlets in
each of two Northeastern cities. In addition, in
these same cities, 1,000 consumers are inter-
viewed quarterly to determine purchase habits
and attitudes towards citrus products as well as
suggestions on specific questions that arise. In
the short time this program has been under way,
it has proven an invaluable tool in quickly deter-
mining answers to problems that have arisen in
the industry. It is planned to expand this program
into additional cities in the next fiscal year so
that regional variations in consumers' attitudes
and purchase patterns can be determined.
B. ORANGE PROJECTS
Quality and Packaging Improvements of FCOJ
A number of individual studies are currently
under way to determine hov greater penetration
can be made in the marketplace with frozen con-
centrated orange juice. Information developed to
date indicates that certain product and package
modifications are desired by consumers.
During the year, more than 20 product variations
were evaluated by consumers in a novel test
program conducted among visitors to the Florida
Pavilion at the New York World's Fair. With
results from this study, composite products with
varying characteristics have been developed and
further testing is being carried on. In-home tests
of three or four concentrates embodying varying
degrees of modified characteristics likely will be
conducted during the coming season, culminating
in positive direction for the industry to market
improved product or products before the 1965-
66 pack is completed.
The package for concentrate has also undergone
extensive study. Via the continuing COMPASS
Surveys, consumer dissatisfaction with the open-
ing of present containers was confirmed. Con-
sumer tests of eight containers have been
undertaken to determine the most satisfactory
container for the new pack. A long-range pro-
gram to develop a totally new package for frozen
concentrated orange juice will also be pursued.
Studies to determine the best combination of
sizes for optimum consumer satisfaction were
inaugurated this year and will continue.
Higher Density Concentrate
At the request of the industry, a program has
been launched to explore in depth the advan-
tages and disadvantages of changing to a higher
fold concentrate. Consumer preference tests are
now under way as a first step in the long-range
A product development project was undertaken
with the DuPont Chemical Laboratories on the
packaging of a Freon-propelled orange concen-
trate which will provide a foamed topping for
desserts, filling for pies, etc.
From past experimental work it was determined
the combination of orange juice and a well-
known lemon-lime carbonated beverage makes
a delightfully refreshing drink. Exploratory work
with consumers via the COMPASS Surveys indi-
cates such a drink may have good promotional
possibilities for increasing the volume of fresh
oranges and/or concentrate sold via in-store
tie-in displays. If this concept can be fully vali-
dated, it is planned to approach the beverage
manufacturers to enlist support in cooperative
advertising and in-store promotional work.
O.J. On The Rocks
As one of the first projects of this department, a
promotional program was developed and tested
in the New England area to increase consump-
tion of orange juice sold through commercial
feeding outlets. "O.J. on the Rocks" is a simple
combination of half cubed or chipped ice and
half orange juice which shows encouraging signs
of becoming a popular between-meal beverage
and accompaniment for lunch time foods. This
project has received strong support from mer-
chandising materials designed for use by the
restaurant and fountain trades.
In-Store Test Fresh Fruit Juicers
Working with Federatdd Machine Company, the
Florida Citrus Exchange, and a cooperative chain
of food stores in the Northeast, a two-month
audit in four of COMPASS Surveys stores is
planned to determine the effect this equipment
has on increasing the overall sales of fresh
Coupon Audit Survey
A special study was conducted in one of the two
COMPASS cities to measure the effect the indus-
try-wide coupon program had on increasing the
incidence and volume of purchase of frozen
concentrated orange juice.
C. GRAPEFRUIT PROJECTS
Grapefruit Product Improvement
A major consumer study to determine consumer
attitudes and opportunities for product modifica-
tion or improvement of grapefruit products has
been gotten under way. From this study, further
direction on the possibility of development of
individual quick frozen grapefruit sections, and
frozen or processed grapefruit halves, as well as
modification of present juice products, is an-
Working with American Machine and Foundry
Company and Florida Citrus Canners Coopera-
tive, test quantities of a deacidified grapefruit
juice have been prepared for in-home placement
tests. The further application of this process to
produce a sweeter orange juice, or a means for
the industry to make greater use of early season
oranges, also is being studied as part of this
Grapefruit Sections for Vending
There appears to be a market for a four- or five-
ounce package of grapefruit sections packaged
in an easy-open container for sale through vend-
ing machines located in in-plant feeding opera-
tions. Plans are being developed to work with
members of the industry in developing such a
pack for commercial exploitation.
In cooperation with the Virginia apple industry,
preliminary studies were conducted to determine
consumer acceptance of a blend of apple and
grapefruit juice. Further studies are contem-
D. DEHYDRATED JUICES
Considerable development work has been car-
ried on by the U. S. Department of Agriculture
with the cooperation of the Commission in the
perfection of a method for dehydrating orange
and grapefruit juices. Work on a grapefruit
product has reached the stage to warrant pre-
liminary consumer evaluation studies. This test
is under way. The Commission also is working
with an outside research company to develop
prototypes of other products that might utilize
dehydrated grapefruit powder.
E. OTHER PROJECTS
Marketing Citrus in Summer Months
This year the opportunity arose to cooperate
with a fresh fruit packer in testing the commer-
cial feasibility of holding grapefruit under con-
trolled storage conditions to determine if a higher
economic yield is possible. Further work in this
area will be continued next year.
Fresh Fruit Decay Control
In cooperation with the Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion, various studies were conducted to deter-
mine the incidence of decay of varying fresh
fruit handling and packaging techniques. Further
work will be continued the coming season.
Synthetic Frozen Concentrated Drink
During the year a number of studies were con-
ducted relative to a synthetic frozen concentrated
breakfast drink. COMPASS was employed to
measure sales preference and advertising recall.
A special study was conducted by MRCA to
develop data on consumer purchase patterns of
this competitive product.
Taking note of the rapid growth of the institu-
tional food and beverage market in the United States
and the predictions for future increased growth, the
Commission assigned responsibility of the institu-
tional merchandising program to the Commercial
During the coming season, emphasis will be con-
tinued on the Commission's previous work with
institutional outlets featuring "O.J." at breakfast
time. In light of the success achieved with the "O. J.
on the Rocks" test program in New England and its
rapid expansion to national food chains this sum-
mer, this program will be the center of the depart-
ment's activities in the coming year. In addition, it
is planned to develop a sales program in support of
citrus sections aiming these products towards new
uses by the institutional food operators, particularly
in the dessert field.
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During the year, the Florida Citrus Commission's
Economic Research Department (formerly the Economic and
Marketing Research Department) completed 13 research
projects and was working on nine at the year's end.
The department also developed, or obtained, data and
prepared weekly, monthly, and annual reports pertaining
to activities of the citrus industry, mailing approximately
150,000 copies of the reports to the industry and
other interested people.
In addition, the department maintained an economic
and marketing library covering state, national and world
citrus economic and marketing research.
Total money expended on economic research during
the year was $353,307.65.
The specific work of the department fell briefly into
four areas of operation:
I. SERVICE FUNCTION:
Of the 150,000 copies of reports prepared and mailed
by the department, approximately 140,000 copies were
the weekly and monthly reports.
Each week's mailing included 700 copies of MRCA
Consumer Purchases of Processed Citrus, 650 copies of
MRCA Consumer Purchases of Fresh Citrus, and 775 copies
of the Canners Report.
Each month's mailing included 1,100 copies of the
USDA Citrus Crop Estimate, 625 copies of the MRCA
Changes in the Retail Juice and Drink Market, and 675
copies of the MRCA Consumer Purchases of Processed
Citrus (monthly summary).
The data for these reports were furnished by the
Florida Canners Association, the United States Department
of Agriculture (USDA), and the Market Research
Corporation of America (MRCA). The data received from
MRCA, costing $110,000 per year, were from the household
panel of 7,500 housewives who report weekly purchases
and the prices paid for each commodity.
The reports allow individual firms and people within
the industry to have an up-to-date record of the amount of
fruit expected for the season (USDA Crop Estimate), of the
pack and movement for individual citrus products during
the year (Florida Canners Association data), and of sales
for fresh and processed citrus (MRCA data).
In addition to the above compilation of data, the
department also tabulated several sets of data at the
request of other departments within the Commission
- which were gathered by the Commission's merchandising
staff or by outside agencies.
II. ANNUAL STUDIES
Most of the 13 research projects completed will
be repeated next year. Much of the data for these
reports were compiled or gathered by the staff and
analyzed, then put into report form for distribution
to the industry.
Information Related to the Export of Fresh and
Processed Citrus Products from the United States
This report, issued annually from data released
by the USDA, revealed that exports of all processed
citrus, except grapefruit (hot pack), declined from
1962-63 to 1963-64. Canned single strength citrus
juices declined 44 per cent, concentrated citrus juices
declined 23 per cent, and grapefruit sections de-
clined 31 per cent.
Exports of fresh oranges and tangerines in-
creased 17 per cent from 1962-63 to 1963-64, with
the greatest increase (31 per cent) being to Canada.
Also, exports of fresh grapefruit increased by 13
per cent, with the largest increases to Western
Europe and Canada.
Retail Freezer Space Allocated to Frozen Citrus
Products in the United States and Canada
Results of the third annual survey showed an
overall loss in space devoted to frozen fruit juices
and drinks from 1963 to 1964, about 10 per cent for
frozen concentrated orange juice and about eight
per cent for concentrated juices.
Fresh Orange Grapefruit Tangerine Unloads in
41 US Cities and Five Canadian Cities
The 1963-64 fresh orange unloads in 41 US cities
were up 17.5 per cent and up 13.3 per cent in the
Canadian cities from the 1962-63 season. However,
Florida's share dropped from 36.9 to 29.8 per cent in
the US cities and from 12.3 to 6.5 per cent in the
Fresh grapefruit unloads also were up in the
US and Canadian cities, but Florida's share dropped
from 85.7 to 77.6 per cent in the US cities, and from
85.7 to 81.2 per cent in the Canadian cities.
Unloads of fresh tangerines from Florida to US
cities increased by 45 per cent from 1962-63 to
1963-64, but declined eight per cent in the Canadian
Estimated Retail and Institutional Sales of Frozen
Concentrated Orange Juice in Top 125 US Markets
During the 1964-65 marketing season, it was
estimated the first 25 markets would account for 49
per cent of the retail and institutional sales of frozen
concentrated orange juice, while the top five mar-
ktes New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Detroit,
and Philadelphia would account for 26 per cent
of the retail sales and 29 per cent of the institutional
Changes in Consumer Purchase Patterns for Five
Citrus Products 1964 Compared with 1962
Because of the December 1962 freeze, there was
a reduced supply of citrus products available in the
April-September 1964 period. This analysis com-
pared the relative losses incurred for each of five
citrus products from the same period in 1962. Con-
sumer purchases of the products frozen con-
centrated orange juice, canned single strength orange
juice, canned single strength grapefruit juice, chilled
orange juice, and canned grapefruit sections were
analyzed for change in per cent of households buy-
ing, ounces purchased per buying household, and
volume by various demographic characteristics.
The comparisons showed that canned single
strength orange juice had the largest percentage loss
in volume and chilled orange juice the least. The
largest loss in per cent of households buying was
recorded by canned single strength grapefruit juice,
while the smallest loss was recorded by chilled
orange juice. Overall, chilled orange juice fared the
best from 1962 to 1964, and canned single strength
orange juice the worst.
Seasonal Variations of Consumer Purchases of
Citrus and Selected Competitive Products
This study examined the extent to which the
consumer demand for citrus and competitive prod-
ucts varied from month to month, and covered two
periods (1950-56 and 1956-62). These two periods
were selected to determine any changes occurring in
the monthly indexes, and if there were any drastic
changes in the seasonal patterns of demand.
Economic Outlook for Florida Citrus For The Next
This outlook pointed out that within five years,
Florida would be producing 80 per cent of the na-
tion's citrus, and would account for 84 per cent of
the nation's increase in production.
On a per capital basis, supply of Florida round
oranges will increase 27 pounds, grapefruit less than
one pound, and specialty fruits almost two pounds
within the next five years. Per capital consumption
of Florida citrus will have to be increased by 53
per cent if the industry is to market the anticipated
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice Buyers
Only 42 per cent of US families purchased
frozen concentrated orange juice during the first six
months of 1964, compared to 49 per cent in 1960.
Also, there was a smaller number of heavy and
medium buyers, and more light buyers in 1964.
Heavy buying families served frozen concentrated
orange juice 2.8 times per week in 1964, compared
to 3.2 times per week in 1960.
Canned Single Strength Orange Juice Buyers
The per cent of families buying canned single
strength orange juice dropped from 23 in 1960 to 13
in 1964, with a reduction in the number of light,
medium and heavy buyers. About three per cent of
all families were classified as fairly regular users,
and about two per cent served the product as fre-
quently as once a week.
Canned Single Strength Grapefruit Buyers
In 1964, the per cent of families buying canned
single strength grapefruit juice was 13, down from
17 in 1960. Five per cent of all US families were
heavy buyers of this product and accounted for 79
per cent of the retail volume in 1964.
Chilled Orange Juice Buyers
Chilled orange juice was the only citrus product
that had a higher percentage of families buying in
1964 than in 1960. This increase, 11 to 14 per cent,
indicated that all gains in families buying were
among the medium and light buyer classifications.
Fresh Orange Buyers
Almost as many families purchased fresh or-
anges in the first six months of 1964 as did in the
same period in 1960 (62 compared to 65 per cent).
More families purchased fresh oranges than any
other citrus item, but purchased only 23 per cent of
the 1959-60 Florida crop of oranges and 22 per cent
of the 1963-64 crop.
In 1964, 21 per cent of all US families classified
as heavy users compared to 24 per cent in 1960
- served fresh oranges two times per week. About
one-fifth of all families purchased about three-
fourths of the total volume of fresh oranges. The
study also pointed out slight change in the percent
distribution of light, heavy and medium buyers, and
the relative share of volume purchased by each
classification from 1960 to 1964. However, since 1960,
fresh orange buyers have reduced purchases of
canned orange juice and canned orange drinks.
Fresh Grapefruit Buyers
There was a small reduction from 1960 to 1964
in the per cent of families buying fresh grapefruit -
48 compared to 44 per cent. Compared to 1960, there
were more light buyers, but less medium and heavy
buyers. Heavy buyers purchased about 12 grape-
fruit per month, while light buyers purchased about
one grapefruit during the six-month period.
III. SPECIAL STUDIES
Several studies conducted through the depart-
ment were either requested by some segment of the
industry or initiated by the Commission. These
studies were conducted to answer specific economic
or marketing questions, or were required in the fu-
ture operations of the Commission or industry. Many
of the studies now are being used by the Commercial
Development Department as a basis for developing
new products and markets.
Business Evaluation of the Dehydrated Juice
This research, conducted by Arthur D. Little,
Inc., revealed that the most easily attainable share
of potential markets for new foam-mat process
crystals would be the institutional market served by
present juice crystals. The study pointed out that
there was limited opportunity for pure juice crystal
product in the consumer field.
The study recommended the planning of a com-
mercial-scale operation, the testing of belt drying
equipment as well as of the crater dryer, the inves-
tigation of juice crystals as flavor ingredients, and
the testing of consumer response to juice crystals.
Market for Selected Citrus By-Products
This Battelle Memorial Institute study focuses
on five by-products: Citrus essential oils, d-limonene,
citrus seed oil, glucosides, and dehydrated pulp and
peel. The research uncovered that, for the Florida
citrus industry as a whole, the production and mar-
keting of citrus by-products had not made any size-
able contribution to the income of the industry.
Battelle recommended, however, that a conscientious
effort be made to improve the quality of by-product
and minimize annual fluctuations in supply and price.
Analysis of Youth Beverage Consumption Habits
This MRCA analysis pointed out two prime tar-
gets or segments of the teenage beverage market
requiring concerted attention: (1) the home market
and (2) expansion of orange juice usage beyond
breakfast. However, the study suggested that the
promotion of orange juice for breakfast should be
continued, since this is an important and accepted
consuming occasion. Expansion beyond breakfast
would require advertising, merchandising, and sales
promotion directed specifically to the teenagers.
Business Evaluation of the Total Salad, Appetizer
and Dessert Market
Increased demand for sections must be achieved
through expanding the number of buyers of proc-
essed grapefruit and/or through increasing frequency
with which buyers use the product, according to this
MRCA report. The largest obstacle to increased con-
sumption appeared to be taste. Seventy-two per cent
of U. S. households reported purchases of fresh
grapefruit during the year, yet only 37 per cent had
ever sectioned the fruit. Opportunities for expand-
ing demand for fresh sections lie in the direction
of increased consumption among existing buyers.
Sales Test of Fresh Indian River Grapefruit
This USDA study, conducted in the Spring of
1964, revealed that grapefruit packaged in consumer-
sized units produced substantially higher sales than
grapefruit displayed loose. Sales were highest from
displays offering grapefruit in polyethylene bags
imprinted with the Indian River label (63 per cent
greater than unpackaged fruit). Although fruit in
unlabeled bags was not as effective as labeled bags,
sales were still 28 per cent greater than from loose
displays. Consumer purchases were increased 38 per
cent when grapefruit was offered both bagged (un-
labeled) and loose (in a combination display), over
loose offering alone. The test also disclosed that
sales of fresh oranges were unaffected by varying
the merchandising techniques for grapefruit.
Evaluation of a Special Promotional Campaign for
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice
This analysis of a nationwide promotional cam-
paign conducted by 22 cooperating producers of Flor-
ida frozen concentrated orange juice from September
through November 1962 was conducted jointly with
the USDA. The study pointed out that the campaign
costing $3,500,000, rather than lowering the price to
achieve the same volume of sales, netted the citrus
industry about $13,300,000 from September 1 through
December 15, 1962. The study revealed that 64 per
cent of coupons redeemed were by medium and
heavy buyers, who apparently applied the coupons
on part of normal purchases.
Evaluation of the Market for "Awake"
Shortly after the introduction of "Awake," a
frozen concentrated synthetic fruit drink, the Com-
mission initiated research designed to find total im-
pact of this product on the fruit juice and drink
market. The study, conducted by Market Strategy,
Inc., Detroit, clearly pointed out that "Awake" had
gained 10 per cent of the frozen concentrated orange
juice market, and indications were that it would
maintain this level of penetration. One of the recom-
mendations was that the citrus industry re-evaluate
the frozen concentrated orange juice product.
Twenty-One Orange Beverages as Mothers Think
The study, conducted by MRCA's interview Re-
search Institute during the summer of 1964, dis-
covered that fresh squeezed orange juice is the best
guide for product development and improvement,
and mothers think orange beverages, including syn-
thetics, contain some orange juice. Home-squeezed
orange juice excelled in all product features, except
cost and ease of preparation. The mothers listed the
most important feature? in judging an orange bev-
erage as good for children, rich in vitamins, flavorful,
appetizing, orange juice content, and cost.
An Evaluation of the Market Promotion Program of
the Florida Citrus Commission in Western Europe
This study was conducted by Agri-Research,
Inc., and disclosed that efforts in Western Europe
by the Commission should be continued and intensi-
fied toward developing markets for selected citrus
fruits and products, plus orientation toward more
trade contacts. In addition, products should be posi-
tively identified, and an effective communication
system should be established between the Commis-
sion and its European office.
IV. CONTINUOUS STUDIES
Continuous research, conducted by the depart-
ment's staff at the University of Florida in Gaines-
ville, includes investigation of such things as demand
analysis, supply management, competition, market
structure, market performance, prices, margins,
costs, labor, foreign trade and long range planning.
Among these studies are:
The Demand and Substitution Relationships for
Florida Orange Juice at Drug Store Fountains
Customer sales data obtained in six drug store
fountains in New York City during a six-week period
in the fall of 1964, revealed that orange juice was
not a significant substitute for other beverages at the
six test prices it was offered to consumers. Results
will be published in late 1965.
Demand and Substitution Relationships for Frozen
Concentrated Orange Juice in Retail Supermarkets
Sales audit data generated in 18 supermarkets
in Dayton and Cincinnati provided measures of con-
sumer reaction to varying prices of orange concen-
trate to determine rates of substitution among the
three basic brand types packer, private and na-
tionally advertised. Publications presenting the re-
sults are being prepared.
Behavioral Characteristics of Customers Shopping
for Fresh Oranges
Personal observations were made of over 4,000
customers shopping orange displays in nine Grand
Rapids supermarkets to determine store traffic pat-
terns, age and sex distribution of orange shoppers,
and to define behavioral patterns of observed cus-
tomers. Results will be published in September 1965.
Cost and Volume Relationships for Picking, Hauling,
Packing, and Selling Fresh Florida Oranges
The objective of this project is to estimate cost-
volume relationships for picking, hauling, packing,
and selling fresh oranges, predicated on actual indus-
try experience. This work will be published in 1966.
Evaluation of the Fresh Market for Florida Specialty
A report on the first phase of this study describ-
ing the structure of the market and the attitudes and
opinions of wholesale distributors and chain store
personnel concerning Temple oranges, Tangelos, and
Murcotts will be issued in 1965. Two other phases
will deal with measures of demand and substitution
relationships, and consumer uses and attitudes.
Economic Implications of a Futures Market for Flor-
ida Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice
This work is being coordinated by an industry
committee to evaluate possible effects of futures
trading on concentrate prices and on-tree orange
prices, and the economic and marketing implications
for the citrus industry. A report will be published
during the fall of 1965.
Cooperative research with the University of
Florida's Citrus Experiment Station the past season
covered such areas as processing of citrus fruits
and citrus by-products, physiology of fruit and fruit
pigments, decay and rind-breakdown control, mech-
anization of fruit harvesting, and recovery and use
of volatile essences. Cooperative research was also
continued with the U. S. Department of Agriculture
on foam-mat drying, and with the Florida Department
of Agriculture on the uniform determination of
The industry-wide air pollution study, the
USDA's research on controlled atmosphere storage,
and the University of Pittsburgh's work on grapefruit
acidity were supported by grants. Funds expended
amounted to $710,000.
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH WITH THE
CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION
I. Processing and By-Products
Pectin and Pectic Enzymes
Fruit from young Hamlin, pineapple and
Valencia orange trees was evaluated during its
maturation cycle for pectin content, color and
Volatile Flavor Components
Recovered volatile flavor essences from
freshly extracted orange and grapefruit juices
were employed in basic and applied investiga-
tions on flavor improvement of frozen concen-
trated juices. The newly installed pilot plant
essence recovery system facilitated efforts to
consistently produce high quality essences of
sufficient concentration for analytical and prod-
uct studies. The juices stripped of essence were
concentrated to 58 degrees Brix, and as high as
73 degrees Brix in one experiment, to be used
in frozen citrus concentrates for flavor evalu-
ation and retention studies.
Use of Recovered Natural Orange
Flavor Enhancement Materials
Studies were continued using frozen orange
concentrates containing either recovered orange
juice essence, juice emulsion, juice oil, or cut-
back and cold-pressed oil previously produced
from pineapple and Valencia orange juices in
the preparation of bottled reconstituted juices.
The 42 degrees Brix concentrates containing
flavor enhancement materials were reconstituted
and bottled after storage at -8 degrees Fahren-
heit for six months. The bottled juices from six-
months stored concentrates and those prepared
initially were compared organoleptically for
flavor evaluation at the two storage tempera-
tures of 32 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit.
Survey of Commercial Frozen
Concentrated Orange Juice
A total of 164 samples of commercial frozen
concentrated orange juice processed during the
1963-64 citrus season was examined for color,
flavor and stability. Taste panel findings indi-
cated that only 18 per cent of the samples had
"good" flavor; 75 per cent, "fair" flavor; and
seven per cent, "poor" flavor. The overall flavor
quality was not as high as concentrates of the
Firming of Canned Grapefruit
Sections with Calcium Salts
Additional packs were made of canned
grapefruit sections with added calcium salts.
Previous indications that syrup plus calcium
lactate yielded the greatest percentage of firm
sections were confirmed.
Measurement of Color
An evaluation was made of a prototype
Hunter Citrus Colorimeter E45, a chromaticity-
sensing ratio colorimeter, to determine the cor-
relation between E45 digital values and visual
color scores obtained from 164 samples of Flor-
ida frozen concentrated orange juice collected
during the 1963-64 season. A correlation of 0.939
was obtained. However, coefficients of 0.802
and 0.797 on midseason and late juices, respec-
tively, were found when the varieties were
calculated separately. Hunter Color and Color
Difference meter measurements were made on
juices to study the effect of sample presentation
on tri-stimulus values. The correlation of the
tri-stimulus "Rd" or "a" color value to visual
grade was found to depend on the thickness of
juice layer presented to the instrument. Visual
color scores of 527 commercial juices collected
during three seasons were analyzed to deter-
mine varietal and seasonal ranges of color.
Off-Flavor in Canned Citrus Juices
A method for the determination of furfural
in canned single strength citrus juices was per-
fected, and a commercial canned Valencia juice
was tested after storage at temperatures varying
from 40 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit, and for times
varying from one to eight months. Correlation
between off-flavor and furfural content was
Utilization of Grapefruit
Efforts were concentrated on the cause and
prevention of an off-flavor associated with freez-
ing and storage of individual grapefruit sections.
An oxidative-type degradation is believed re-
sponsible for the off-flavor development, and
factors being investigated include use of anti-
oxidants and sequestering agents, vacuum pack-
ing, packaging materials, washing of sections
prior to freezing, freezing rates, grapefruit vari-
eties, and fruit harvesting dates. Total freezing
of grapefruit sections by either liquid nitrogen
or dry ice resulted in brittle sections, very prone
to disintegration into individual juice vesicles.
On the other hand, partial freezing of sections
by either method, with freezing completed by
conventional means, resulted in sections possess-
ing excellent texture with a minimum of drip
loss on thawing.
Samples of mid- and late-season molasses
were collected from 12 manufacturers of this
product and a number of physical and chemical
analyses were made. The following ranges of
values were obtained: color, light brown to
black; degrees Brix, 59.4 to 76.7; pH, 4.1 to 7.6;
per cent protein, 3.27 to 4.87; and per cent nitro-
gen, .523 to .779.
Chemical Constituents of Citrus Fruits
Total nitrogen was determined in orange
juice samples obtained from three commercial
plants at regular two or three-day intervals
throughout the season. There was a definite
increase of nitrogen content in the juice as fruit
Physiology of Peel Pigments
The previously developed method for color
development of lemons at 60 degrees Fahrenheit
in fibreboard cartons was adapted for use with
lemons harvested in large pallet boxes (of 10
field box capacity). When single pallet boxes of
fruit (enclosed to simulate the humidity and
diphenyl vapor conditions in fibreboard cartons)
were cool-colored at 60 degrees Fahrenheit,
color development was 'even and as rapid as in
fibreboard cartons. Other factors, such as decay
(during and after cool coloring), water loss,
packout and juice quality did not differ in the
Citrus Fruit Metabolism
Foliar applications of lead arsenate control
the acidity of grapefruit and thus the date of
maturity. Other means of obtaining this same
control of maturity, without the disadvantages
of arsenate, are desirable, but before appreci-
able progress can be made, it is necessary to
determine the site and physiological nature of
action of arsenate.
Citrus Fruit Respiration
The effect of poor handling practices on
citrus fruit may be detected by an increased res-
piration rate before visible symptoms of decay
are apparent. An apparatus was built to meas-
ure the respiration rate of individually treated
fruit, with the most dramatic effect in causing
increased respiration rate due to the introduc-
tion of ethylene. The effect of field practices,
such as sprays, nutrients, irrigation; and pack-
inghouse practices, such as waxes, fungicides,
etc., have been, or will be evaluated.
Relation of Physical Measurements
and Internal Quality
Statistical analysis of data on the relations
between diameter, weight, submersion force (in
water), volume of juice, total soluble solids and
titratable acids of six lots each of Marsh grape-
fruit and Valencia orange showed significant
correlation between specific gravity and pounds-
solids of both oranges and grapefruit. The data
also revealed that in grapefruit, specific gravity
was correlated with the soluble solids of the
juice, but not with the percentage of juice, while
the opposite was true in oranges.
III. Control of Decay and Rind Breakdown
The average decay loss during the 1964-65
season in all untreated experimental lots of
oranges was 18.2 per cent, when held for two
weeks at 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Good decay
control in Bearss lemons was obtained for 12
weeks with two diphenyl pads in closed 4/5-
bushel cartons during the two-to-three weeks
cool coloring period at 60 degrees Fahrenheit.
Fresh diphenyl pads then were placed with the
washed and waxed fruit for the remainder of
the holding period at 70 degrees Fahrenheit.
Nearly all seedless and some seedy grape-
fruit, which have been dropped from a height
of six feet, develop internal bruising, although
external symptoms are not present.
Navel Orange Peel Injury
Peel injury of navel oranges was shown to
be increased by improper degreening, especially
when picked wet or damp. Navel oranges de-
greened at a high relative humidity (above
90 per cent) had a lower percentage of both
peel injury and decay than comparable fruit
degreened at lower humidities.
Cause of Post-Harvest Disease and Blemishes
A project has been initiated to investigate:
(1) Life cycles of post-harvest decay organisms
to determine vulnerable stages where control
measures may be employed; and (2) post-har-
vest physiological peel disorders, particularly as
related to grove practices and climatic condi-
tions. A literature study indicated that infection
by stem-end rot organisms, Phomopsis citri and
Diplodia natalensis, occurs through necrotic
petal tissue attached to the flower after bloom.
These organisms are latent in these tissues
and other portions of the "button" until after
harvest, when they invade the fruit. Currently,
several post-bloom sprays have been applied at
weekly intervals to Parson Brown and Valencia
orange varieties, and the developing fruit will
be checked for various pathogens and post-
Effect of Mechanical Harvesting
on Keeping Quality
Losses in mechanically harvested grape-
fruit approximated those in hand-harvested
Hamlin oranges, and losses in mechanically har-
vested Hamlin and Valencia oranges approxi-
mated those in hand-picked pineapple oranges.
Decay levels in mechanically-harvested pine-
apple oranges averaged 54 per cent at one week
from harvest and were considered excessive.Use
of a blue food dye (Indigotine) made it possible
to separate undamaged grapefruit immediately
after harvesting, but the comparatively low
proportion, combined with the normal grade
lowering factors, made the "packout" level too
low to be commercially acceptable for the fresh
fruit market at current fruit and labor prices. A
single test indicated that canned sections could
be made successfully from Duncan grapefruit
harvested with the mechanical shaker.
IV. Mechanization of Citrus Fruit Harvesting
(In cooperation with Agricultural Engineering
Research Division, USDA)
Time-of-harvest trials using an improved
mechanical tree shaker and catch frame, devel-
oped on this project,were conducted in Hamlin,
pineapple, and Valencia oranges and Marsh
grapefruit. Removal efficiency in these fruits
ranged from 85 to 98 per cent at a harvest rate
of 12 trees per hour. Trials of an improved
oscillating air blast machine developed by Food
Machinery Corporation indicate that a removal
efficiency of from 84 to 99 per cent is possible
in oranges and grapefruit. The removal rate and
efficiency for both the shaker and the air blast
methods are approaching a point of acceptance
economically, although tree and fruit damage
remain a serious problem. The effects of expo-
sure time, air velocity, and oscillation rates on
tree damage and removal efficiency are under
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH WITH THE CITRUS
EXPERIMENT STATION AND THE FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Determination of Pounds-Solids
Experimental tests continued, with particular
interest in a large primary sample from which the
official sample was randomly selected. Exceptional
features include the ability to obtain a predetermined
size sample regardless of the number of boxes of
fruit in the load or the rate of unloading. Statistical
analyses were made of experimental data to deter-
mine the effect of varying size samples on pounds-
solids. So far, only late variety fruit have given
Field tests were run on both the new Brown
and modified FMC test extractors. While these tests
did not produce a satisfactory extractor, valuable
information was obtained and both machines will
be field-tested next season. Considerable data on
specific gravity is being analyzed to determine
whether there is a significant and consistent rela-
tionship to internal quality. Methods to measure Brix
and acid are being considered, and will be explored
when time and sufficient funds are available.
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH WITH THE U. S.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRUIT AND
VEGETABLE PRODUCTS LABORATORY
Foam-Mat Drying of Citrus Juices
Cooperative research with the Agricultural Re-
search Service, USDA, continued on the utilization
of the foam-mat drying process for the production
of citrus powders. A pilot scale, "crater-type" dryer
was used to produce powders with lowered moisture
content and better initial quality. Storage stability
was improved and grapefruit powders were devel-
oped to a point to appear commercially feasible.
The necessity of in-package desiccation was elim-
inated for all powders. Grapefruit powders had
adequate storage stability to meet most commercial
requirements and were prepared for consumer evalu-
ation tests now being planned.
Through the use of densification procedure and
grinding to the proper particle size, reconstitution
was improved greatly.
Freeze-drying was used for the production of
high quality grapefruit and orange powders from
fresh juices, which were used experimentally as addi-
tives to foam-mat powders for flavor enhancement.
UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
The search for new chemicals to reduce acidity
in grapefruit was continued under a grant-in-aid to
Dr. Erston V. Miller.
MARKET QUALITY RESEARCH DIVISION, USDA
A grant of $20,000 to construct experimental
chambers to study the controlled atmosphere storage
of citrus fruits was made to this agency.
INDUSTRY-WIDE AIR POLLUTION STUDY
This effort was supported in the amount of one-
third of the total funds required.
SPRAY AND DUST SCHEDULE
Twenty-four thousand copies of the "1964 Bet-
ter Fruit Program Spray and Dust Schedule" were
printed and distributed.
During the 1964-65 season, there was a great deal of
activity in transportation matters which affected the
shipment of Florida fresh citrus fruits and products. This
was particularly true with respect to the large number of
proposals of various types filed by the transportation
agencies. To review such matters, and to analyze and act in
behalf of the citrus industry, the Florida Citrus Commission
again employed the services of the Growers and Shippers
League of Florida.
The League staff participated in a number of actions
which maintained existing dispensations or obtained
favorable rulings in several other instances. Among the
more important actions was the publishing of per car
charges on fresh citrus to destinations in Western Trunk
Line Territory, which resulted in considerable savings in
transportation costs. Expiration dates on fresh citrus was
extended to Official Territory to January 15, 1966, and a
ruling was obtained that equalized the rail rates on fresh
citrus to New York and New Jersey points. A 10 per cent
reduction in rail rates on frozen and chilled citrus products
was secured in Southern Territory, and a proposal was
disapproved that would have prohibited the shipment of
canned goods in box cars during the winter months.
Objections to proposals by Eastern, Western and
Southern rail lines for increased charges on accessorial
services resulted in the rail lines giving further
consideration to the proposals.
The first session of the United States Congress
concerned itself only with transportation legislation that
would curb illegal operations. Passed were bills which
incorporated enforcement agreements with states on
highway transportation; uniform state registration of motor
carrier certificates; increased civil penalties; service of
processed and civil suits for enforcement of Interstate
Commerce Act, and providing for reparation to shippers to
recover from motor carriers charges that had been paid and
found to have been unjust and unreasonable, or unjustly
discriminatory or unduly preferential or unduly prejudicial.
Many proposals have been advanced for consideration by
the 1966 session of Congress for amendments to the
Interstate Commerce Act which would provide for equality
of treatment of all modes of transportation, and it is
anticipated that prior to the opening of that session, the
administration will send a transportation message to
Congress. These matters are being closely scrutinized
by the League.
In carrying out regulatory responsibilities during the 1964-65
season, the Florida Citrus Commission adopted 19 amendments to
regulations and promulgated an order to implement the special
campaign provisions of the Florida Citrus Code.
A major step to correct abuses in the citrus fruit dealer-agent
relationship was taken by amending Regulation 105-1.05, which
eliminated agents with extensive criminal records. This regulation
was later amended to delete the registration requirement for citrus
fruit dealers' agents who deal only with processed citrus products.
In answer to many requests and to further the widespread
use of the Commission's new marketing tool, the "O.J." symbol,
Regulation 105-1.39 was amended to permit use of the symbol on
corrugated and wirebound boxes in which all varieties of citrus may
be packed. The regulation also provided that the symbol might be
used on letterheads, etc., subject to Commission approval.
To combat the problem of foreign juice being marketed in such
manner as to appear a Florida product, Regulation 105-1.27 was
amended to provide that citrus products packed in Florida and which
contain any imported citrus may not be identified as a Florida product.
Regulation 105-1.03 which deals with fresh fruit containers
and marketing and labeling requirements, was amended five times
during the 1964-65 season to keep pace with industry requirements.
Chilled orange juice standards were modified in line with
Federal standards of identity by amending Regulation 105-1.19.
The adoption of the Federal Standard of Identity and the
subsequent amendment did much to place the Florida chilled juice
industry in a better competitive position with all U. S. chilled juice
packers. Regulation 105-1.19 also was amended to delete the
requirement that all frozen concentrated orange juice be packed with
a minimum Brix of 44 degrees. This requirement had been scheduled
to go into effect on December 1, 1964, but due to changes in inventory
and marketing conditions, was deemed not practical at this time.
Regulation 105-1.35, which deals with grades and sizes of citrus
fruit shipped by express or gift fruit shippers and transported or
sold within the State of Florida, was amended four times. As a result
of these amendments, a minimum grade of U. S. No. 2 was
established for all intrastate shipments and sale of Florida citrus
and a minimum grade of U. S. No. 1 was established for all
interstate gift fruit shipments.
The 1965 legislature enacted a law to authorize the Commission
to permit experimental packs of frozen concentrated orange juice
with sweeteners added. The first of the permits was issued and
the Commission will carefully evaluate test market results and
hold public hearings before authorizing additional test packs.
For the first time since enactment, the special
campaign provision in the Florida Citrus Code was
implemented by order of the Commission. This order
was promulgated in response to a request from the
Florida concentrate industry and provided for an
advertising and couponing campaign for frozen con-
centrated orange juice. The order provides for the
special campaign to be financed by an assessment
estimated at 50 per box on all oranges utilized dur-
ing the 1965-66 season in the production of frozen
concentrated orange juice. The total expenditure for
this campaign was estimated to be $3,750,000, with
$250,000 to come from a direct appropriation by the
Commission from the citrus advertising trust fund.
The order provided for immediate payment by each
concentrator of the estimated tax due on the volume
of oranges expected to be processed in 1965-66.
The estimated tax payment totaled approximately
$1,050,000, with the Commission advancing
$2,100,000 from the Emergency Orange Reserve
Fund, and $350,000 from the Citrus Advertising
Trust Fund. These amounts are to be repaid from
the 50 per-box special campaign assessment.
LICENSES AND BONDS
More license applications than ever before were
processed by the Commission, a total of 1,793. Of
these, 1,778 were approved, and licenses subse-
quently issued by the Commissioner of Agriculture,
the remaining 15 applications being disapproved for
A number of activities within the citrus indus-
try require special handling by the Commission. A
total of 834 special permits were used during the
season, of which 516 were for truck shipments of
gift fruit. As a result of an extensive study of the
overall gift fruit permit problem, a new program
was worked out for handling truck shipments of
gift fruit with the result that considerably less per-
mits were required to handle approximately the same
number of packages moved the previous year.
The interstate movement of fruit for processing
increased, and 291 special permits were required, as
opposed to 139 the previous season. Expansion in
the marketing and out-of-state production of chilled
orange juice and orange drinks was the primary rea-
son for this increase.
Experimental container permits were reduced,
with only nine issued during the season, the result
of tightened regulations. Among other special per-
mits issued were seven for charitable shipments of
citrus fruit, six for authorizations to use up inven-
tory of discontinued containers, and one authorizing
special shipment of gift fruit type containers for
All phases of work in the mailroom increased
over the preceding fiscal year, with the amount of
mail handled increasing from 362,000 to 473,000
pieces. The mailroom processed over 1,900 reproduc-
tion requests for various material and mailings, and
individual requests for school material were up ap-
preciably. The amount of school material dispersed
in answer to requests amounts to 1,491,146 pieces,or
an increase of approximately 400,000. This indicates
an increase of approximately 40 per cent in this area
of Commission activity.
The Commission again took the lead in meeting
with other industry groups to develop the citrus
industry's legislative program. The result was pas-
sage by the 1965 Legislature of 32 bills, reflecting
some of the greatest changes in citrus laws since the
adoption of the Florida Citrus Code in 1949. The
bills, in summary:
Processed Orange Products Advertising Incentive
This law was designed to increase the level of
orange products advertising and promotion by
wholesalers and retailers through sharing by the
citrus industry in the cost of these promotional acti-
vities. Funds derived from a special advertising tax
of approximately 60 per box, levied at the processing
level, will be available foi incentive refunds by the
Commission to qualifying participants on the basis
of one dollar for every two dollars expended for
approved brand advertising of Florida orange prod-
ucts. The act takes effect on August 1, 1965, and
continues for two years. The program, designed to
stimulate trade and consumer interest in Florida
orange products, will be administered by the Com-
mission in cooperation with a special Governor's
committee of processors.
Incentive Advertising Program for Fresh Fruit
An additional excise tax of 20 per box levied on
fresh fruit shipments of oranges, Temples, Murcotts,
tangelos and grapefruit, will make available one-half
of the net proceeds of the tax for incentive payments
to fresh fruit shippers for qualified brand adver-
tising on the basis of one dollar for every two dol-
lars expended. The balance is to be available to the
Commission for special sales promotion campaigns
designed to enlarge distribution and sale of these
particular fruits sold in fresh form. In essence, the
program will substitute for and enlarge the scope
of the refund payments program for brand adver-
tising of grapefruit heretofore successfully employed
by the citrus industry for a number of years under
Amendments to Special Campaigns Act
This law, which revised the special campaigns
act (Section 601.152) to set maximum assessments of
80 per box on fresh fruit, 1.30 per gallon on single-
strength juice, and 1.30 per pound of solids on con-
centrate, is an "enabling act," permitting the industry
to deal with emergency marketing situations by ac-
tivating intensive advertising and merchandising
programs. Such action could be taken only after
public hearing and written approval by a majority
of the handlers affected by the order.
Emergency Orange Reserve Fund
An amount of 20 from the advertising excise
tax of 80 is to be set aside in the Emergency Orange
Reserve Fund, while the basic tax structure on all
other varieties of fruit were unchanged.
Re-establishment of Juice Products Quality
Certain requirements of the Florida Citrus
Code, with respect to canned and concentrated
products, can be raised after public hearing and
after recommendation of the appropriate quality
committee and adoption of appropriate regulation
by the Commission.
Experimental Packs of Concentrate with
The Commission is empowered to issue special
permits on an experimental basis for the processing
and sale of 100,000 cases of frozen concentrated
orange juice, to which optional sweetening ingredi-
ents have been added. Additional permits may be
issued, but only after first results are evaluated, a
public hearing held, and nine members of the Con-
centrate Quality Committee and nine members of
the Commission agree that further experimental
packs will be of substantial benefit to the citrus
industry. This frozen concentrated orange juice, prior
to the addition of any sweetening ingredient, is re-
quired to conform to the present standards, so that
the sweetening ingredient will simply be over and
above the present standardized product, and will not
down-grade the product. Extensive test marketing
and evaluation of consumer acceptance are planned.
Administrative Operations of the Commission
A law relating to the administrative operations
of the Commission places a maximum limitation of
$150,000 per year for total salaries paid employees
in administrative departments. Another law author-
izes the Commission to invest temporarily idle funds.
Other laws enacted have the net effect of limiting to
24 per cent of the excise taxes those funds for re-
search, transportation problems, enforcement, gen-
eneral overhead, and other such expenses not related
to advertising, merchandising, public relations, trade
luncheons, publicity and associated activities. Not
less than 73 per cent of the excise tax revenue will
be available for commodity advertising, merchan-
dising and promotional programs.
Terms of Office for Members of the Commission
In the past, members of the Commission nor-
mally served for a period of two years. Members
now are appointed by the Governor for terms of
three years each, with four members being appointed
Laws Strengthening Bond and License Requirements
Two new laws establish specific liability for
contracts made in a particular season for fruit to be
harvested in the succeeding season, and, as well,
specifically define bond responsibility for citrus
handled under participation plans. Minimum bond
has been reduced from $2,000 to $1,000, and handlers
who purchase fruit from other licensed citrus fruit
dealers must post a bond.
Other laws make mandatory the payment of
proceeds of bonds directly to the Commissioner of
Agriculture for distribution to claimants; strengthen
the record-keeping requirements for citrus fruit
dealers; provide for increased license fees as the
season progresses, and authorizes Commission re-
view of any license in the event of change in owner-
ship, officers, managership or stockholders after the
license is granted.
Law on Fraud Strengthened
Three new acts strengthened the law on fraudu-
lent operations of citrus fruit dealers or agents and
established penalties for such illegal actions.
Registration of Scale Operators as Agents
The definition of "agent" was amended to in-
clude any person who "weighs citrus fruit so that
the weight thereof may be used in computing the
amount to be paid therefore requiring that weigh-
masters or scale operators be registered as agents.
Additional designation and identification re-
quirements were established for motor vehicles
transporting fruit on highways.
Inspection Fees, Road Guard, Tree Census
The Commissioner of Agriculture is permitted
to fix the amount of state inspection fees for citrus
fruit after the release of the citrus crop estimate on
October 10 each year, and based upon the estimated
costs of the services performed by the Inspection
Division during the ensuing shipping season.
A one mill per box levy is provided as the citrus
industry's share of the cost of operation of the Road
Another levy of one mill per box will be in
effect for two shipping seasons to provide funds for
an updated citrus tree census.
Provision for Per Diem for Commission Members
Commission members are to receive the sum of
$25 per day while attending Commission or Commit-
tee meetings, or while transacting business of the
Commission, whether within or without the state.
Amendment of Definitions for Citrus Products
The definitions for canned or concentrated cit-
rus fruit products has been expanded to include
chilled citrus juice or otherwise processed products
of citrus fruit.
Reporting of Purchases of Citric Acid
This law eliminated the requirement from the
Florida Citrus Code on the basis that inclusion in
the Code serves no useful purpose.
RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES
FOR FISCAL PERIOD
JULY 1, 1964 TO JUNE 30, 1965
Cash Balance July 1, 1964 ..................................... $2,208,451.97
RECEIPTS: From All Sources ................................. 7,148,566.59
TOTAL AVAILABLE .................................. $9,357,018.56
General Administrative .............. $ 180,153.53
Furniture and Equipment ............. 26,111.18
Building Improvements .............. 11,171.18
General Revenue Fund .............. 150,405.01
Transportation Problems ............. 61,710.47
Economic Research .................. 343,307.65
Scientific Research .................. 709,872.91
Commercial Development ............ 150,817.69
Roadside Inspection Service .......... 6,883.93
Management Survey ................. 200.91 $1,640,634.46
Merchandising and Promotions:
Salaries and Expens'es .............................. $1,082,792.93
Point-of-Sale Materials .............................. 477,863.75
Institutional ........................................ 78,167.43
Public Relations and Publicity .................. .... 569,632.09
Advertising Media .............. $2,955,235.50
By-Products .................. 73,914.07
European Program .............. 165,573.74 $3,360,489.05
TOTAL EXPENDITURES ....... ... ............ .$7,209,579.71
CASH BALANCE JUNE 30. 1965
(1) Loan to Special Citrus Campaign Fund ($350,000) ........... $2,147,438.85l')
ORANGE EMERGENCY RESERVE FUND
JUNE 30, 1965
200/ of Orange Tax collected in 1964-65 Season
(2) Loan to Special Citrus Campaign Fund ($2,100,000) .......... $2,235,135.50(2)
SPECIAL CITRUS CAMPAIGN FUND
Estimated Payments from Concentrators ................... $1,072,750.00
Loan from Orange Emergency Reserve Fund ................ 2,100,000.00
Appropriation from Citrus Advertising Fund ................ 250,000.00
Loan from Citrus Advertising Fund ........................ 350,000.00
TOTAL AVAILABLE ................................ $3,772,750.00
Coupon Redemptions ................................... $ 4,800.00
M edia ....................................... ........ 69,803.01
Legal and O their ......................................... 2,661.73
M merchandising .......................................... 79,050.95
Broadcast ............................... ... ..... 101,056.44
TOTAL DISBURSEMENTS ............. . .$ 257,372.13
BALANCE JUNE 30, 1965 $3,515,377.87