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Youth and school service
Economic and market research
r'd 36 I
P 3/14 ANNUAL REPORT 1953-1964
FLORIDA CITRUS COMMISSION
Florida Citrus Commission
33 V/.D' 3
: 63 1,
Commission Members Serving During
the 1963-64 Fiscal Year
Sam A. Banks, Chairman
Herbert S. Massey, Vice Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
George T. Cason
Webb C. Clarke, Jr.
O. D. Huff, Jr.
C. D. Newbern
Key Scales, Jr.
Robert E. Snively
Advertising and Merchandising
Paul Robertson, Chairman
Herbert S. Massey
C. D. Newbern
Key Scales, Jr.
Robert E. Snively
Robert E. Snively, Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
Herbert S. Massey
C. D. Newbern, Chairman
Webb C. Clarke, Jr.
O. D. Huff, Jr.
Economic and Market Research
Henry Cragg, Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
George T. Cason
Herbert S. Massey
Kingswood Sprott, Chairman
F. Elgin Bayless
Herbert S. Massey
Key Scales, Jr.
Herbert S. Massey,
F. Elgin Bayless
George T. Cason
O. D. Huff, Jr.
Robert E. Snively
Key Scales, Jr. ,Chairman
George T. Cason
Webb C. Clarke, Jr.
O. D. Huff, Jr.
Kingswood Sprott, Chairman
C. D. Newbern
Robert E. Snively
Sam A. Banks
Herbert S. Massey
F. Elgin Bayless
George T. Cason
Webb C. Clarke
O. D. Huff, Jr.
C. D. Newbern
Key Scales, Jr.
Robert E Snively
Homer E. Hooks
In the first full harvesting season following the disastrous
freeze of December 1962, the full impact of the tree loss and
damage was felt by Florida citrus in 1963-64. The total orange
crop was 58,300,000 boxes -- the smallest in 15 years. Only
26,800,000 boxes of grapefruitwere harvested, the smallest crop
of this variety in 14 years. These major varieties, together with
3, 600, 000 boxes of tange rines and 1, 170, 000 boxes of tangelos
and murcotts, made up a total Florida citrus crop of 89, 870,000.
This was the shortest total crop since 1949-50, and a drop of 16
per cent from the previous year.
Despite the severe cut-back in the Florida crop, our state con-
tinued to dominate the United States and w o r d production of cit-
rus fruit. We produced 71. 5 per cent of the United States citrus
crop and 27 per cent of the world production. In a further break-
down, we produced 66 per cent of the orange crop and nearly 89
per cent of the grapefruit crop in the United States, and 17. 5 per
cent of the oran g e crop and 66 per cent of the grapefruit crop in
This Report covers in detail the programs and activities of the
Florida Citrus Commission and its departments during 1963-64.
Here are some of the more significant Commission actions dur-
ing the year:
The Commission adopted andregistered the "0. J. symbol
for use in advertising, promotion, and packaging of oranges and
orange products. This is the first time the Commission has pro-
moted the use of an identifying symbol on Florida citrus fruits and
products and in its advertising in order to make the advertising
program more meaningful to consumers.
... A special marketing r e s ear ch study was initiated to de-
termine basic consume r attitudes toward juices, drinks, ades,
Strong opposition was r e gi s tered with the United States
Food and Drug Administration to proposed standards of identity
for frozen concentrated orange juice, on the grounds that Florida
produces more than 95 per cent of the product and that Commis-
sion regulations already require a higher quality product than that
which would be allowed under federal standards. This action
ultimately r e s ul t e d in Florida' s being permitted to maintain its
own quality standards on frozen concentrated orange juice packed in the
state, while other states will be required to meet uniform minimum stand-
ards established by the Food and Drug Administration.
... The Commission and other industry groups presented verbal and
written evidence and argument before the United States Tariff Commis-
sion and the United States Trade Information Committee in firm opposi-
tion to any reduction or elimination in the import duties on citrus and cit-
... After a seven-months' study, Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. a busi-
ness consultant firm retained by the Commission upon the re que st of the
industry to appraise Commissionprograms and offer proposals for more
efficient operations, presented its r epor t to the Commission and the in-
dustry. After consultation with growers, shippers and p r o c e s s or s, the
Commission adopted the basic objectives and organization plan as recom-
mended by Booz, Allen & Hamilton and proceeded to implement the pro-
posals for marketing research studies and the creation of a commercial
S.. Advertising and merchandising staff functions were divided, with
a director named to head each.
... Formal complaint was filed with the Federal Trade Commission on
misleading advertising and labelling of the synthetic product, "Awake."
Objections were also filed with the Food and Drug Administration on the
labelling of this product.
S. Initial plans were laid for promoting the sale and distribution of fro-
zen concentrated orange juice in England, following removal of import quo-
tas on this project by the United Kingdom government.
S... Upon recommendation of industry groups and the Industry Research
Advisory Committee, contracts were let for business evaluation projects
investigating the future prospects of selected citrus by-products, the mar-
ket for dehydrated juice products, the snack bar or fountain market for
citrus juices and drinks, the vending machine market for citrus juices and
drinks, the salad, appetizer and dessert market, and the youth beverage
consumption habits. These projects were assigned, respectively, to Bat-
telle Memorial Research Institute, Arthur D. Little, Inc., Stanford Re-
search Institute, Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. and to Market Research
Corporation of America.
.. Approval was given for expansion of the Citrus Experiment Station
at Lake Alfred to handle enlarged research activities.
... New alignment was approved for the field merchandising operation,
with special emphasis on the central and eastern markets. Supervisory
controls and reporting systems were streamlined for more efficient cov-
erage of the markets.
S... A special survey on identifying the nutritional components of citrus,
to be conducted by Cortez F. Enloe, Inc. was approved at a cost of
$56,000. The purpose of this project is to establish the advantages of cit-
rus juices over synthetic products and reinforce advertising and promo-
... A regulation was adopted requiring the registration of citrus fruit
dealers' agents. This was a move designed to provide additional protec-
tion and safeguards for legitimate and honest operations within the state's
important citrus business.
... The new Commercial Development Department was formally created,
with Edward A. Taylor named as the Director.
These are a few of the many Commission actions and programs during
the busy season of 1963-64. These and others are described more fully in
the Report, which I urge you to examine. All these Commission programs
are directed toward the single goal of serving the Florida citrus industry
and establishing its continued prosperity through sound and business-like
programs for progress.
Homer E. Hooks
Homer E. Hooks, General Manager
+Marvin A. McNair, Administrative Assistant
+Frank D. Arn, Director of Advertising and Merchandising
+James T. Hopkins, Assistant Director of Advertising and Merchandising
+Dr. William E. Black, Director of Economic and Marketing Research
+Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research
Walter J. Page, Director of Public Relations
*Robert Stuart, Comptroller
**Ralph M. Henry, Merchandising Consultant
+Harold S. Gardner, Advertising Manager
Ted L. Hodson, Manager of Youth and School Service
John E. O'Reilly, Production Manager
+Milton Maclin, Manager of Special Promotions
Leroy Mobley, Statistician
+Budd T. Pohle, Division Manager
Jack Matthews, Information Specialist
A. Keith Sheldon, Photographer
#Jackson L. Spears, Assistant Comptroller
D. Burke Kibler III, Legal Counsel
*Retired July 31, 1964; **Retired March 30, 1964; #Employed May 6, 1964
(+Assumed new positions July 1, 1964: McNair, Administrative Director;
Arn, Field Merchandising Director; Hopkins, Advertising and Publicity Di-
rector; Dr. Black, Economic Research Director; Dr. MacDowell, Scientific
Research Director; Gardner, Point-of-Sale Materials Manager; Maclin,
Merchandising Personnel Manager; Pohle, Merchandising Promotion Manager).
The Commission initiated a new approach to advertising with
the announcement of objectives for a long-range, three-year pro-
gram, to begin with the 1963-64 season. This plan was bas ed
upon the assumptionthat the three seasons would be similar to the
extent of relatively short fruit supplies, which would provide op-
portunity for significant progress towa rd preparations for a re-
turn to normal crop years.
The purposes in such a program would be to protect the Flor-
ida citrus industry's franchise against the pressure brought to
bear by cheaper competitive products, and to embark upon new
appeals which would involve some changes in consumer attitudes
toward Florida citrus fruit and pro duct s. The task of changing
these attitudes in order to broaden the base of demands expec-
ted to require time as represented by the three-year plan.
The Commission intends to m e r ge advertising and merchan-
dising in much clo s e r relationship than in the past and to work
equally as close with the various industry advertising advisory
The objectives point out that the consumers will not wait three
years for the citrus industry to return to normal production, but
will change consuming habits. For that reason, this three-year
period is critical in setting the pattern for the next decade or
more, and it is imperative that every available resource be uti-
lized in that time on a consistent and continuing b a s i s to assure
the citrus industry a high position in the market place e once high
production levels are resumed.
Withthese objectives as the basis for the entire advertising
program, the Commission staff andits advertising agency, Camp-
bell-Ewald Company, went to work to prepare specific adver-
tisements and media programs tailored to the needs for each in-
dividual fresh and processed product. The consumer advertising
budget for the year was $4, 075,000 .
In order to meet the advertising objectives for oranges, a
whole new concept of Commission advertising was undertaken.
It was recognized that in order to build for the market in years
Wake all the way up!
ani eet them upr Not even by t he time theye ashed breafW a hrst? Of
curse e. e cannt' Itcsoa oon ior pura apbru e f t diice. Gne tach a hlaal-
and po! Thral nappy tart- tLness m- el Ihem head o' Gives them 1 '
pulker) cld-shoer tmrnl from the tips of their cowlick to Ihe toe her c io, ..'i,' t I c.,,, L. n ,"
Sr ip elpersl. Wh 'd goe to bed aler a rser hke d thar? Not e nl mothfrn a r hl r
r -q, Ii t n t s ho'sh menhlllsi ghnushaidandch idren lohe doors inlels herruhodtwn' e. ii ro .ou, nlckman i l ynorrv. r troI dII ur g hl,,ri d d1I r ldsd-
th is, ... ca .. .. r nothe F o i ather'11 do th hu ju l opea At about four crtl Iitn emo s n ,andw. c rsen n I nrll
'' '/ .. n serving. Brapefrulr Juice is slll Ihe least expenive way to get your daily delli ui h r,,' r,|f rhL. ni (i I
i ~,i *n C. be l e some yorseli-and ie a the way up!
Nothmp .la, takes t^ place of oang.. i.e.
i L .P' II IS GREATFRUIT T HER~E THiNG. l FRIO M FLO.RIAI
ahead, it is necessary to expand the consideration for oranges and orange
juice. The concept of orange juice as a breakfast drink and as a health
beverage must continue to be built and maintained, but, in addition, people
must be made to think of orang e juice on the many other occasions it can
be enjoyed, and they must be made to think of drinking orange juice in lar-
ger quantities than the small four-ounce breakfast glass. Only through
this, can the Florida citrus industry hope to market the crops it can an-
ticipate after complete recovery from the 1962 freeze.
One of the major steps taken to expand the market was adoption of the
symbol "O.J." This symbol makes it possible for Florida orange juice to
compete in the marketplace with an aggressiveness far beyond that nor-
mally associated with commodity advertising. Furthermore, and of the
greatest importance, the O.J. symbol provides a means to identify Com-
mission advertising and merchandising with the specific products in the
stores. Heretofore, the advertising would tell the housewife to get Flor-
ida orange juice, but there was no way in the store for the housewife to
identify Florida orange juice.
The symbol was registered with the copyright office and is the exclusive
property of the Commission. No product can carry the O.J. symbol with-
out the expressed permission of the Commission.
This whole O.J. program was a dynamic and aggressive step ahead for
the Florida citrus industry. Reco gni zing that it would take a period of
months before the letters O. J. were on the lips of the Americanpublic and
on the various packages and containers in the stores, the Commission
began this effort at a time when there was less emphasis on short-range ob-
jectives and greater emphasis on long-range objectives.
In the first year of advertising and promoting, O. J. established itself
with fine significance, and a number of Florida citrus shippers andproces-
sors started putting the symbol on containers. There is every reason to
believe that O. J. will prove to be the biggest advertising-merchandising
opportunity the Commission has ever had.
The fresh orange budget for the 1963-64 season was $343, 113. Ap-
proximately two-thirds of this was used in magazine advertising and one-
third in television. The advertising was designed to place greater empha-
sis on the hand-eating qualities of the Florida orange. Most consumers
recognize Florida oranges as fine for juice, but the thought of Florida
oranges as good to eat has not been suggested to the public for many years.
Consequently, advertising placed greater emphasis on this form of con-
sumption, and the whole idea of buying and eating fresh Florida oranges
was promoted as fun, enjoyable and refreshing, as well as healthful.
In the first week of December, fresh oranges were featured in a special
announcement advertisement in the Saturday Evening Post, Life and Ladies'
Home Journal. This was a two-page, full color ad that also told the public
that fresh Florida grapefruit, tangerines, tangelos, temples and murcotts
were back. The ad was heavily merchandised to the chains and produce
trade prior to public appearance.
The announcement ad was followed up with special fresh orange ads in
Saturday Evening Post and Life, and with CBS daytime television on "I
Love Lucy," and "The McCoys. "
In 13 major cities, a special test'program was run to introduce the
squeater, a special plastic device designed under direction of the Commis-
sion to be used to "squeeze-eat" the juice out of an orange. Squeaterswere
advertised on local children's television programs and offered at a self-
liquidating price of four for 25 cents. This device met with immediate suc-
cess--after only two weeks of advertising, more than 1,000,000 squeaters
were sold. A special survey showed that as soon as the squeaters arrived
in the homes, fresh oranges were purchased. Not only did this device re-
mind of the enjoyment of hand-eating a Florida orange, but it specifically
created fresh orange sales.
In addition to the announcement ad, magazine and television advertising
and the squeater promotion, there also was a special two-coloi newspaper
advertisement to announce the Valencia season.
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice
The budget for frozen concentrated orange juice was $2, 116,667. Forty
per cent of this budget went into print media and' 60 per cent into broadcast.
In November, the 0. J. program began and built continuity throughout the
crop year. The advertising, in addition to pointing out the enjoyment of
orange juice at breakfast and the vitamin C benefits, was directed toward
suggesting other occasions for Florida orange juice. All the ads showed
large glasses of orange juice. The basic magazine schedule was run in Sa-
turday Evening Post, Reader's Digest and Life magazines. On television,
both daytime and nighttime programming were used. In the daytime, fro-
zen concentrated orange juice was advertised on ABC in the "Price is Right,"
"Trailmaster, "Father Knows Best," and "Tennessee Ernie Ford Show."
On ABC nighttime television, the product was advertised nationwide on
"Hootenanny" and "Jimmie Dean Show. "
An eight-week schedule of radio commercials was used in the top con-
Chilled Orange Juice
The budget for chilled orange juice was $361,042, with about two-thirds
of this amount used in print and one-third in broadcast. All the advertising
was built around the O. J. theme and highlighted the convenience of chilled
orange juice, and its availability through both the supermarket and the
Television as well as the Saturday Evening Post and Life magazines were
used for broad coverage. To pinpoint the best markets for chilled orange
juice, Sunday newspaper supplements and radio provided a national adver-
tising schedule as well as a local program in cities where chilled orange
juice finds its greatest market opportunity.
Single Strength Orange Juice
The budget of $422, 346 for single strength orange juice was split about
45 per cent in print media and 55 per cent in broadcast media. Daytime
television on CBS carried the single strength orange juice narrative to
housewives throughout the country, and radio in certain strong markets
amplified the story. Life, Reader's Digest and the Saturday Evening Post
carried the message in print. The theme, "The Second Quickest Way to
Quench Your Thirst, was used in conjunction with copy and television com-
mercials to highlight the ease of portability of this form of orange juice.
Approximately one-third of the $333, 680 allocated for fresh grapefruit
was used in television and the rest in print. The magazine advertising for
fresh grapefruit that followed the announcement ad, highlighted the oppor-
tunity to prepare grapefruit for many occasions. It suggested fixing the
fruit the night before by broiling, chilling and a number of other methods.
One ad told the housewife "How to Buy a Grapefruit. These advertise-
ments were run in McCall's and Ladies' Home Journal. The regular day-
time television programming was used with particular emphasis on Jack
Bailey's "Queen for a Day, a show that achieved special interest when it
appeared for one week during the Florida Citrus Exposition at Winter Haven.
Bailey, host on this program, did a fine personal job of selling grapefruit,
as well as other Florida citrus products. His editorial contributions fea-
tured the entire citrus industry and were a great plus for the Commission's
Single Strength Grapefruit Juice
The budget for single strength grapefruit juice was $200,208, with 40 per
cent of this amount earmarked for magazines and 60 per cent for television.
The theme continued to feature the "Wake All the Way Up" aspects of Flor-
ida grapefruit juice. Not only is the juice a fine awakener in the morning,
but it is recommended as a good refreshment anytime of the day. McCall's
and Ladies' Home Journal carried this advertising in -nagazines and it ap-
peared as a commercial on ABC television in thb daytime.
The budget of $66,736 for grapefruit sections _s split about evenly be-
tween magazines and television. The main objective was to show the house-
wife the many wonderful and different ways to utilize Florida grapefruit
sections, as well as to show how quick. and easily the various dishes could
Frozen Concentrated Grapefruit Juice
The budget for frozen concentrated grapefrui uice was $66,736, and it,
too, was split about evenly in magazines and tel ision. The theme for
grapefruit concentrate featured the "Just Like Fi esh" taste of grapefruit as
well as its special type of enjoyment
The budget for tangerines was $74,108, most of this placed in CBS and
ABC daytime television during the month of December to tell the housewife
"they're here now" and to feature the wonderful holiday use of tangerines.
Tangerines also appeared in the announcement ad that ran in the national
magazines the first week of December.
The budget for temples was $69,220. This fruit appeared in the an-
nouncement ad and then there was an advertisement in Life and Saturday
Evening Post, as well as national daytime television during the height of
the temple season. The temple television commercial, incidentally, won
the runner-up award in the product category of the American Television
Commercial Festival's fifth annual competition.
There was a budget of $21, 144 for tangelos; but due to short supply and
the merchandising needs for this fruit, the monies were used for merchan-
dising and no specific advertising program was carried out.
All of the advertising for the Commission during the 1963-64 season was
worked out to carefully create a strong public impression of the entire
Florida citrus industry, as well as to support each individual product in its
own market. All of the advertising and merchandising were planned to-
gether so that each supported the other in the store in a way that has never
before been possible. The O.J. program got off to a fine start andachieved
sound recognition by the public, the trade, and the industry.
All of the advertising in magazines was continually measured by Starch
and in broadcast by Neilsen. The Starch ratings showed a cost efficiency
that significantly exceeded the average for all food advertising in the maga-
zines in which it ran. The Neilsen data showed that the number of tele-
vision commercial home impressions made during the year exceeded those
achieved by many advertisers with far greater budgets than the Commission.
This was more than gratifying, because the success of the entire program
is based upon people seeing and reading the Commission's advertising mes-
sage and also upon the continuity and frequency with which people see these
In print, the efficiency was possible, due to the fact that half-page, four-
color advertisements were achieving Starch ratings in many cases equal to
that which other food advertisers were getting with full page messages. In
television, the cost efficiency and frequency of exposure came about through
use of programs that properly complimented each other, as well as achiev-
ing good compatibility between daytime and nighttime use.
The Commission' s medical advertising program, handled for
the fourth year by Cortez F. Enloe, Inc., New York, continued to
show physicians andmembers of the allied healthprofessions how
citrus products play an important p a r t in medical practice. To
meet the demands of today's highly competitive business condi-
tions, any food product must necessarily command an attitude of
informed good will on the part of the se professional groups that
so strongly influence the nation's nutritional habits.
The professional advertising campaign recommended Florida
citrus fruits and juices as a wholesome and pleasurable part of a
normal, natural food diet, giving a clear picture e of the charac-
teristics that substantiate the value of citrus products in medical
practice. These award-winning ads appeared regularly in na-
tional medical, dental, nursing and osteopathic journals. Speci-
fic medical advertisements, designed to pro vide an answer to
particular problems in pediatrics, dermatology and internal medi-
cine were carried by leading specialty journals in these fields.
The advertisements-were addressed to professional people
whose time is necessarily limited by the many other demands of
practice, indicating the excellence of Florida citrus products,
without overstressing the therapeutic value.
The general medical campaign of three full-color advertise-
ments, included two continued from the previous campaign in or-
der to attain full impact. The first, "Here's Why We Fr e e ze
Orange Trees Deliberately! ," clearly established the parallel
between researchmethods used bythe Commissionand those used
in medicine. The second, "These MenMake a Difference to You,"
pictured Commission members, emphasizing the value of Florida
citrus in medicalpractice and the rigid control exercised by the
Commission to insure that Florida citrus meets the world's high-
est standards for quality. The third ad, "You Can't Get Oranges
from a Cardboard Tree, provided a forceful reminder of the vir-
tues of natural versus synthetic citrus products.
The advertisements carried by specialtymedical journals con-
centrated on specific problems, showing how these problems
might be met by the use of citrus fruits and juices.
The pediatrics advertisement, "Too Big For His Beaker, was
continued from last year and noted the increase in numb e r of
cases of scurvy found among infants in this country, stressing the need for
more vitamin C. The dermatology advertisement, "In A cn e Therapy
It's Easyfor You to Say 'Yes'," stressed the excellence of citrus as a sub-
stitute for sweets which easily can be recommended to the young acne pa-
tient. The third ad, "K .. For Your Patient on Diuretics, stressed the
FI.OIRDA CITRUS t"OMMI's"N i
patients who can benefit from the low sodium country, stressing the need for
The outstanding success of theseology advertisement, as measured bTherapy read-
ship research studies, clears',"ly demonstrated the excellence of citruiveness in con-
veying the Florida citrus industry's message.
The Readex Reader Interest Report listed specialachievement awards
for two ads. In its which easily pearan be recommended to the Freezyoung acne pa-
Trees .h Deliberately" achieved a Readex rating of 29 per cent one of
vthe of highest ever attain potassium replacemenroduct adverapy atisement. On its valusecond
appearance, this ad achieved a rating of 25 persodium cent.
Twelve outstanding successnational medicalof these and specialty journals feared readCom-
ership research studies, clearly demonstrated the effectiveness in con-
mission ads. "Toda citrus indusHealth," the American Medical Association maga-
zine, was also selected to carreport a limited schedule of a specialachievement ad based
on the use of cits juices as infant foods, appeared one again in Dr.ange
TreeSpock's ... Deliberately" achieved a eadeg of 29 per cent one of
A continuing professional relations program wduct advertisement. On its second
appearance, this ad achieved a rating of 25 per cent.
ing medical leading nationalformed of Commission activities and programs perCom-
mission ads. "Today's Health," the American Medical Association maga-
zine, was also selected to carry a limited schedule of a special ad based
on the use of citrus jui c e s as infant foods, appear ed once again in Dr.
Spock' s "Baby and Child Care Book. "
A continuing professional relations program was directed toward keep-
ing medical leaders informed of Commission activities and programs per-
tinent to the medical profession, and to keeping the staff informed of cur-
rent medical opinion in areas of interest to the Commission.
During the 1963-64 season, the Commission's 63-man mer-
chandising field staff arranged 212 incentive promotions with dif-
ferent retail organizations throughout the United States and Can-
ada. In addition, 722 in-store demonstrations were conducted,
and 355 give-away programs set up and completed.
The merchandising staff made more than 110,000 calls on auc-
tion and terminal markets, fresh fruit wholesalers, brokers, re-
ceivers, froz en food distributors, hotel and restaurant organi-
zations, drug and fountain groups, and institutions andmass feed-
ing organizations to relay information regarding advertising ac-
tivities and to distribute display y materials. These same Com-
missionrepresentatives also builtmore than 15,500 in-store dis-
plays and traveled in excess of 1,385,000 miles in making the
many contacts. Three division meetings were conducted in order
to keep field d men informed on Commission activities and on the
newest merchandising methods. Four meetings were staged with
The Commission purchased space and participated in 18 con-
ventions related to the health, food and medical fields. The
breakdown showed that the Florida citrus s t o r y was exhibited at
nine food conventions--two concerned with d i e t e t i c s, two hotel
and restaurant, one school, and four medical. Orange juice was
served as a courtesy at 76 national conventions which held meet-
ings in the state of Florida.
Grapefruit Fun Faces Promotion
This p r o gr am achieved an all-time high in Commission pro-
motional efforts with more than 3,000,000 fun face kits being dis-
tributed to consumers of Florida grapefruit. This brief promo-
tion was declared one of the most successful ever.
Tangerine and Temple Promotions
The merchandising staff, working in cooperation with the
Florida Tangerine Cooperative, planned and initiated a hard-
hitting pr om o t ion that resulted in the utilization of most of the
tangerine crop during the period preceding and including the
Christmas-New Year's holidays. Special merchandising pieces were dis-
tributed in support of Temple oranges, focusing attention at the point-of-
sale in a successful tie-in with advertising media.
Special point-of-sale display material, in-store demonstrations and
prize-and-premium incentive programs were employedin this highly suc-
At the reque st of the Research Department, field representatives
picked up samples of frozen concentrated orange juice at regular intervals
for shipment to Florida to be tested for quality by the United States De-
partment of Agriculture. Sixty frozen concentrated orange juice surveys
were conducted in the course of the year. Much time and effort were de-
voted to discussions on the care, handling, and storage of concentrate at
the retail level, and thermometer tests are made in order to obtain a
cross s e action of handling practices. In addition, 1 leaflets and storage
room posters were distributed to the frozen food trade regarding the bet-
ter care and handling of this product.
The field staff work ed in close cooperation with newspapers, maga-
zines and television stations carrying Commission advertising schedules.
Many of these organizations maintain merchandising staffs that call on the
retail trade, urging tie-in advertising with Commission programs.
At the end of each week, regional managers and merchandising repre-
sentatives submit to the Florida office a market analysis covering the move-
ment and acceptance of Florida citrus products, retail prices for citrus
and competitive products, and a general condition report of activities.
These reports are edited, reproduced and mailed to some 500 packers,
processors and shippers in the Florida citrus industry. Many news media
utilize the reports in commenting on Florida citrus movement.
The response to the Institutional Program was evident in the requests
for the special point-of-sale materials developed for this particular pro-
motional effort. Plans were discussed during the year for further expand-
ing the work of this promotional endeavor.
Each field representative reported daily activities to the Florida office
by the use of tabulation cards on which are outlined each call for that day.
These cards are processed by date, region, type of call, display material
on hand or used, and the type of work done in the individual retail store.
At the end of each month, a record of calls for each man is completed, in-
cluding the number of miles traveled. An itinerary of each day's activi-
ties must be submitted every Monday to facilitate locating a field man at
Ralph Henry, merchandising consultant for the Commission during the
1963-64 season, retired in May 1964 after 22 years of service. Prior to
being named consultant, he had been merchandising manager. Members of
the citrus industry and of the food trade fields in the United States and Can-
ada remember the Commission official best for his untiring devotion to
duty, his vast number of contacts, and for his supervision of merchandising
The 1963-64 season marked the eighth year that the Commission has
conducted an advertising, merchandising and promotional program in West-
ern Europe. The Commission spent approximately $200,000 in consumer
and trade advertising, along with supporting point-of-sale display mate-
rials, which were prepared and made available in the language of the coun-
tries where the programs appeared. To supplement this program, the
USDA made available $250,000 under provisions of Public Law 480.
Following the marketing pattern of citrus products, the major impact of
advertising and merchandising was in France, Germany and Sweden. Prin-
cipal emphasis was placed upon the promotion of fresh grapefruit and
canned grapefruit products. With limited distribution of frozen concentra-
ted orange juice, local promotional programs were conducted in Holland,
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Sweden, Germany and Switzerland. Sampling demonstrations in many retail
stores indicated concentrate was well received. Through coordinated ef-
forts with importers, the Commission's merchandising representative dis-
patched thousands of educational leaflets to European consumers, present-
ing the Florida citrus story of fresh, canned and frozen products.
The merchandising representative conducted many special trade lunch-
eons, where important trade factors and the USDA's Foreign Agricultural
Service attaches were invited for the purpose of dispatching information
about Florida citrus products and to further explore marketing potentials.
These luncheons were held in most of the major cities throughout Western
In cooperation with the Foreign Agricultural Service, the Commission
participated in food and trade fairs in Germany, Holland, Sweden, Switzer-
land, United Kingdom, Italy, Luxembourg and Tokyo.
In the field of research,work was continued on the two previous medical
studies, "Differences in serum levels and duration of saturation effect ob-
served as a result of ingestion of synthetic ascorbic acid and natural vita-
min C" and "Influence of ascorbic acid, bioflavonoids and citrus juices on
blood lipid concentrations." Dr. Cortez F. Enloe, Jr. medical consul-
tant for the Commission, checked on the progress of both research pro-
grams and the findings will be made available early in 1965. The Commis-
sion is continuing to explore the possibilities of establishing facilities for
a scientific laboratory that could disseminate information to the soft drink
and beverage industry on how Florida frozen orange concentrate may be
used in the manufacture of bottled drinks.
Working in cooperation with the Horticultural Crops Branch of the USDA,
the Commission participated in additional research on the proper handling
and care of fresh grapefruit for export. The study contained three phases:
(1) Pretransit and handling treatments; (2) transit temperatures, humidities
and other environmental conditions, and (3) overseas handling and shelf
life. In this research program, comparisons were made of the marketing
qualities between varieties, maturity and ripeness of fruit, different pack-
inghouse treatments, and environmental conditions. All were aimed spe-
cifically at decay control, reduction of pitting and other forms of rind
The major portion of both Commission and supplementary PL-480 funds
was devoted to consumer and trade advertising. These campaigns were
conducted in Belgium by Planning Publicitaire; Denmark and Sweden by
Gumaelius Advertising Agency; France by Liger, Beaumont & Aljanvic;
Germany by Hanns W. Brose; Holland by Bureau van Maanen, and Switzer-
land by Bureau d'Etudes Publicitaires BEP SA.
It is to the advantage of the Florida citrus industry to maintain the image
of Florida citrus products in Western Europe, even though prices continue
at higher levels since the 1962 freeze. With the trend toward greater liber-
alization and more free trading, the Commission's advertising and mer-
chandising program has been helpful in the continuation of greater interest
in marketing citrus fruits and juices throughout all Western Europe coun-
The trade's interest in the use of Commission merchandising materials
continued at a high peak throughout the 1963-64 season, despite compara-
tively light supplies and increased retail prices.
It was apparent that retailers in Canada and the United States found the
materials not only attractive, but essential in moving fresh and processed
citrus into the hands of consumers, as evidenced by the fact that 11, 149,-
168 pieces of point-of-sale material were distributed by this department
during the fiscal year for installation in retail food stores, fountains, lunch
counters and restaurants. A total of 3,292,608 of these pieces were in the
form of the well-known orange, grapefruit and tangerine clusters, which
have become an established trade-mark for Florida citrus products. These
popular pieces, used in ingenious ways by merchandising field men in
combination with new and fresh designs, resulted in thousands of colorful
and powerful selling displays in all marketing areas.
As prescribed by the State Purchasing Commission, and in accord with
the Florida Printing and Purchasing regulations, each purchase of printed
or manufactured point-of-sale materials, as well as educational material
and literature, is offered and advertised for competitive bids. Following
this procedure, 144 individual purchase orders were written, and Florida
producers are employed in all instances, wherever possible.
Demand for promotional material assembled in kit form continued as in
the past, with 115,362 kits of store display material, totaling 1,594, 786
pieces, being prepared in the Commission warehouse. All of this merchan-
dising material was sent out in response to written requests prompted by
the several colorful brochures mailed to the trade periodically, or ordered
directly by the merchandising representatives. In addition to the mass-
produced kits, 135,631 special tailor-made kits were prepared and dis-
patched through various mediums of transportation.
The Railway Express Agency was employed for most shipments, with
Air Freight and truck shipments being utilized to a great extent because of
more competitive rates than formerly and improved delivery service.
Close inventory control is maintained on the material on hand, and twice
a month the merchandising representatives are provided with a sheet show-
ing the balance of each design stored in the warehouse.
Educational literature is becoming an increasingly important phase of
operation, and this department handles production of materials for the
Youth and School Service program, as well as the production of recipe
booklets and information pamphlets offered through consumer advertising
and numerous other sources.
Railway Express, truck lines and airlines transported 686, 200 pounds of
Florida citrus merchandising and educational materials in this season.
Another item that received a great deal of attention from the consumer
was the colorful recipe booklet, "101 Ways to Enjoy Florida Grapefruit. "
More than 16,000 requests were received for this pamphlet and the depart-
ment distributed 114, 603 of the items to individuals and organizations
around the world.
Since 1960, the Commission has been developing a library of motion pic-
ture films designed to educate teen-agers to the health and nutritional val-
ues of citrus and to visually demonstrate how citrus fruits and juices can be
prepared in a variety of appetizing recipes. In 1963, this library of 12 color
films and more than 1,000 prints in 16mm film were shown to an audience
of more than 21,000,000 people.
These films range from "The Sun Goes North," which documents the his-
torical background and growth of the citrus industry, to a series of three-
minute cook books that tell how to select, prepare and serve citrus desserts.
The Commission released a new type of public service film in 1962 which
dramatizes the importance of orange juice in specific physical fitness teen-
age activities. The film, "The Winning Formula," relates how orange juice
is used by leading football coaches and trainers in the conditioning diets of
athletes and features Roman Gabriel, quarterback for the Los Angeles
Rams professional football team. Last year the film was shown to more
than 500, 000 high school students and was viewed by an audience of more
than 6,500,000 on free-sustaining television spots. As an important sup-
plement to this film, approximately 1,000,000 copies of "Tips on Train-
ing," a tie-in folder, were distributed to high school students.
A companion film, "Leading the Parade, was produced in the spring of
1964 for release in September and deals with teen-age girls and the popu-
lar subject of baton twirling.
The Commissiondevoted a share of the foodpublicity program
this season to emphasizing the advantages of Florida citrus fruits
and products over the many drinks and ades that invaded the food
markets. This was accomplished in pa r t by explaining the dif-
ferences between citrus and synthetics.
This activity was directed by the Commission's food publicity
agency, Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy, and consisted of seven r al spe-
cial mailings to home demonstration agents, county agricultural
agents, marketing specialists, utility demonstrators, and com-
mentators on radio and television.
The Commission's publicity program, which forms a constant
backdrop to other advertising and merchandising efforts, pro-
vides visibility for fresh, canned, frozen and chilled products in
many areas where it is either impossible or impractical to ad-
vertise. This is in such realms as sectional magazines, com-
pany publications, utility magazines, cook books, special interest
publications, shopping pap er s, government bulletins and in re-
The Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy test kitchen, the first to be es-
tablished in the consumer publicity field more than 30 years ago,
is the hub of food publicity activities, the beginning s tag e in the
evolution of continuing food use ideas for all citrus products. The
agency's close associations with other leaders in the food com-
munications field over the year s has resulted in a knowledge of
editor preferences, of these editors' plans for the months ahead,
and of other promotions with which citrus can be combined.
Creativity in r e cipe development, in pictorial t e c hni qu e s,
and in copy applications have been responsible in g r eat part for
the high degree of acceptability accorded Commission contribu-
tions to the nation's news media. More than 500 daily and 3,000
weekly newspapers utilize Commission recipe and photo mate-
rials each month, and spot checks have indicated that 15,000
readers were reached for every dollar expended in the food pub-
In addition, the agency was successful in placing special ma-
terial each month with the nationally syndicated editors, such as
Cecily Brownstone of the A s o c i a t e d Press, Gaynor Maddox of
the NEA, and Ida Bailey Allen of King Features.
Close contacts are maintained with food editors of all variety of maga-
zines and Sunday supplements so that periodically citrus receives con-
siderable editorial backing. This generally provides the added advantage
of endorsement in the form of the food editor's by-line.
Four-color photographs of citrus fruit and products distributed by the
agency were reproduced 85 times during the year by newspapers, in space
that could total nearly $200,000 at advertising rates.
Personal contact with national newspaper food editors is maintained
each year during a brunch conducted during the editors' annual Fall con-
ference. The 1963 conference was in Chicago and Commission General
Manager Homer E. Hooks was in attendance to answer any questions in-
volving citrus or the citrus industry. During the same period, the Com-
mission was co-host at a breakfast for 700 home demonstration agents in
annual convention at Salt Lake City.
Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy personnel represented the Commission at the
annual conventions of the American Wom en in Radio and Television, the
American Dietetic Association, the Home Economists in Busines s, the
American Home Economic s Association, the Institutional Food Editors
Conference, and the Canadian Home Economics Association.
Offers by syndicated columnists, radio and television commentators,
extension leaders and clubs resulted in the distribution of thousands of
recipe leaflets, such as "Twenty-five Ways to Use Florida Frozen Orange
Juice Concentrate" and "Holiday Fancies." Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy pro-
duced a set of six four-color quantity recipe cards for use in the institu-
tional and mass feeding fields.
ORANGE DESSERT CONTEST
The Commission's fifth annual All-Florida Orange Dessert Contest at-
tained an all-time high in coverage with radio and television media being
employed for the first time. This, added to the usually excellent news-
paper coverage, ranked the event as one of the most successful in the short
history of the contest.
Orlando television station WFTV taped a portion of the cooking competi-
tion and the Grand Championship Awards Banquet, with Betty Vance, food
editor of the Tampa Times, and Andy Wilson, weather-caster for WFTV,
handling the commentary. The half-hour tape covered the contestants at
work, the judges in the process of making selections, and the banquet with
the presentation of the winners.
Under the sponsorship of the Commission and Publix Super Markets, the
taped program was shown within the next two days over television stations
in Pensacola, Tallahassee, Jacksonville, Orlando, Tampa and Miami.
A Winter Haven area radio station did direct broadcasts three times
during the contest and then taped the Grand Championship Awards Banquet
for broadcast the following day.
Winners and winning recipes were featured in Florida newspaper food
sections during the following weeks.
Mrs. Malcolm Pierson of Tampa was the Grand Champion, winning an
all-electric kitchen, plus a weekend at the Grand Bahamas Hotel in the
Grand Bahamas. First runner-up was Mrs. C. M. Walker of Temple Ter-
race (Tampa), whose award was a color television set and a weekend at the
DeSoto Lake Resort near Bradenton.
1 r &4W
A washer and dryer plus a weekend at the Royal Hawaiian Motel in Day-
tona Beach went to second runner-up, Mrs. Henry J. Hinson of Jensen
Beach. Third runner-up, Mrs. F. M. Hendley of Ocala, won a roll-about
dishwasher and a weekend at the Eden Roc Hotel in Miami Beach.
The other finalists in the Grand Finals were Mrs. A. J. Brumage of
Dunedin, Mrs. Kenneth J. Curtis of LaBelle, Mrs. W. A. Erwin of Pensa-
cola, Mrs. J. K. Kranzlin of North Miami Beach, Mrs. John D. Peoples
of Fort Lauderdale, Mrs. Gerald C. Sauer of Orlando, Mrs. Causby L.
Shirley of Jacksonville, and Mrs. Bruce Willingham of Hialeah.
Judges for the competition were Mrs. Dorothy B. Marsh, food editor for
Good Housekeeping Magazine; Mrs. Jane Nickerson Steinberg, former food
editor for the New York Times, Mrs. Bertha L. Hinshaw, owner of the
Chalet Suzanne at Lake Wales, and Manuel Garcia, Jr., president and gen-
eral manager of the Las Novedades Restaurant in Tampa.
Preliminary and semi-final contests were conducted over the state of
Florida by the Home Service Departments of the privately-financed electric
utilities which cooperated with the Commission in conducting the contest.
The Grand Finals, under the direction of the Commission, again were held
in the Nora Mayo Auditorium of the Florida Citrus Building in Winter Ha-
ven on April 23-24, 1964. Frances Langford of Jensen Beach, former
singing and movie star, was honored guest at the Awards Banquet.
Cooperating with the Commission in staging the contest were Florida
Power and Light Company of Miami; Florida Power Corporation of St.
Petersburg; Tampa Electric Company of Tampa; Gulf Power Company of
Pensacola, and the General Electric Company of Jacksonville.
The entry list reached a record 3,208 contestants, as compared with
2,301 who competed in the first contest in 1959. The event was not held
during 1963 when competition had to be cancelled because funds for the con-
test were depleted by the severity of a record freeze during December 1962.
SELL FLORIDA FIRST
The Commission continued the promotion of citrus fruits and products
within the state through the medium of the "Sell Florida First" program,
which was handled for the second year by the Fry/Hammond/Barr & Rollin-
In an effort to increase the use and popularity of citrus in daily menus,
the Commission made its first annual Golden Orange Award to a restaurant
that had done an outstanding job of promoting citrus. The big trophy was
awarded to the Highlander Restaurant of Lake Wales and to Mrs. Dorothy
W. Hunt, owner, during the annual meeting of the Florida Restaurant Asso-
ciation in St. Petersburg.
The Commission distributed promotional materials such as menu sug-
gestions, cost comparisons, table tent cards, menu tabs and backbar pos-
ters to restaurants and fountains to support citrus promotions. The im-
portance of citrus in menus also was stressed in contacts with schools,
hospitals, business and industrial firms, and state-maintained facilities.
The importance of America' s youth market is at t e s t e d to by
every sales study and by every governmental report. Within 10
years, these surveys estimate that one half the United States
population will be under the age of 25. Today, 40-per cent of all
marriages involve couples under 20 years of age. These figures
point up the importance of reaching these young people as a mar-
ket for any commodity and it is at the s e young people that the
Commission directs its Youth and School Service Program.
Reaching this potential market requires ingenuity in planning
and execution. Thus far it is obvious that the schools are among
the best allies in these efforts and' have offered overwhelming ap-
proval of Commission schoolroom teaching aids.
A study of the map, which gives the origin of requests by states
for Commission material, indicates the general acceptance of and
the demand for teaching aids. The quantity distributed during the
year amounted to more than 1,000,000 pieces of material, or
slightly more than 300 per cent the total pieces distributed in
1960-61, the first year of the Youth and School Service Program.
All Commission materials are submitted to educators before
being printed, to insure acceptance and actual use. In a time when
all segments of the b u s in es s world are competing for the youth
market, it is increasingly important to provide materials which
the teacher will approve and to which the youngster will respond.
A Commission film, "The Beauty Habit," produced under the
direction of the Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy publicity agency, achieved
new levels of acceptance. In addition, an attractive leaflet ac-
companying the film was distributed to teen-age groups to the
amount of 408, 000 copies. This versatile leaflet was in demand
by teachers of physical education, nutrition and charm schools.
The s u c c e s s of this particular film and requests for similar
filmed materials directed toward slightly older groups resulted
in the production of three five-minute movies which are scheduled
for release next Fall. These short subjects deal with girls about
to become bride s, very young mothers (average age is now 19
years), and young career girls.
Nutrition has never proven a popular subject, and the Com-
mission has attempted to assist educators in the adoption of a
more practical and acceptable approach. To this end, the Com-
mission four years ago initiated a series of projects aimed at
improving the tone of health education. Purely public service efforts,
these projects nonetheless have gone far in establishing the Commission
as a public-spirited, progressive body in nutritional and education circles,
with a low-key, softsell approach that has earned added respect.
This year, the proj e ct in Georgia was conducted as a two-day confer-
ence on "Improving the Teaching of Health in Junior High Schools. Held
at the Center of Continuing Study on the campus of the University of Geor-
gia at Athens, the event attracted more than 100 state leaders, affording
the people charged with health instruction with an opportunity to he ar of
new methods, needs for change in emphasis, and the importance of atten-
tiori to this subject.
Maine and Massachusetts were chosen for grants, with the Commission
contributing to the efforts to improve health education in these states. The
grant made possible another r three-week workshop for he alth education
teachers in Massachusetts; the pro duction of television health education
films in Maine, where the grant was matched by a Ford Foundation grant;
and control studies in New Jersey, under Rutgers University direction, on
dietary habits of young teen-agers.
A worthwhile activity again was Commission cooperation with the Flor-
ida School FoodService Association, which acts as sponsor for the Florida
Youthpower Project. Ten girls and boys were selected at a nutrition con-
ference in Tallahassee as delegates to the fifth annual National.Youthpower
Congress in Chicago. The Commission assisted in securing funds for the
Chicago trip and representatives of Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy disseminated
news releases concerning the event. One Florida delegate was national
winner with a project in nutrition.
The Congress is conducted by the National Food Conference, composed
of 66 of the nation's leading food manufacturers and organizations.
During the past year, the Commission continued cooperative
research with the University of Florida's Citrus Experiment Sta-
tion in the fields of proce s sing and by-products, physiology of
fruit and fruit pigments, decay and rind-breakdown control,
mechanization of citrus fruit harvesting, prevention of freeze
damage, and recovery of volatile flavoring mate r i a s; with the
U.S. Department of Agriculture on the foam-mat drying of citrus
juices; and with the Florida Department of Agriculture on the de-
termination of pounds-solids.
Also supported were the industry-wide air pollution study, and
the expansion of the pilot-plant facility at the Citrus Experiment
Station. Total funds expended amounted to $629,787.41.
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH WITH
THE CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION
I. Processing and By-Products
Pectin and Pectic Enzymes in the Fruit
and Processed Products of Citrus
Evaluations were made for jell y grade, jelly units, yield,
purity, and methoxyl content of the pectins extracted from the
component parts of Pineapple oranges and Silver Cluster
grapefruit during the maturation cycle for two seasons. The
membranes of both the orange and grapefruit were found to be
excellent sources of high quality pectin. However, the peel,
membrane, and juice sacs of grapefruit were greater in jelly
units than those found for similar components of orange. Peel,
membrane, juice sacs, and juice of Silver Cluster grapefruit
were examined for polygalacturonase, but only the peel was
found to contain a trace of the enzyme activity.
Volatile Flavor Components in Citrus
Juices and Processed Citrus Products
Research leading to the characterization of the flavor and
aroma of citrus juices was further facilitated by improvements
in the pilot plant volatile component recovery system. Analy-
ses of recovered orange essences using gas-liquid, thin layer
and column chromatographic techniques provided evidence of
12 esters besides ethyl butyrate, previously identified. Positive identifi-
cation was achieved for four additional alcohols and six terpenes, as well
as a juice related sesquiterpene confirmed by mass spectrometry. In ad-
dition to recovered orange essences, juice emulsions and juice oils were
employed in studied s of their enhancement qualities in frozen concentrate
and processed bottled juices. Preliminary studies u s ing gas chromatog-
raphy with electron capture detection have revealed some factors possibly
associated with the f r e sh note in the flavor and a r oma of orange juices.
A Survey of the Characteristics of Commercial
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice
During the 1962-63 season, 165 samples of commercial frozen concen-
trated orange juice were collected semi-monthly from 23 processing plants
and examined for flavor, color, and stability. Taste panel evaluations in-
dicated that 28 per cent of the sample s had "good" flavor; 64 per cent
"fair" flavor and eight per cent "poor" flavor. The flavor quality of these
concentrates was not as good as those packed during seasons when freezes
did not occur. These evaluations confirmed similar results obtained dur-
ing the 1957-58 season when freezes also occurred in Florida.
Effect of Citrus Components on Chemical and Physical
Properties of Frozen Citrus Concentrate
Odor and flavor characteristics of citrus fruits were found to be closely
associated with both the peel and extr acted juices containing var ying
amounts of insoluble solids. Separation of water from the total vapor ob-
tained from juices, extracts of both peel and juic e s, and other mixtures
of citrus juice components was employed to concentrate juice oils and es-
sences. The fresh aroma constituents and some flavor-bearing mate-
rials were not seriously affected by flash-temperatures varying from 80
to 195 degrees Fahrenheit. Removal of the odor and flavoring compo-
nents from juices, containing fruit parts, and subsequent concentration has
resulted in concentrates that were rather bland. Methods for removal of
the desired volatile constituents from water extracts and juices containing
fruit parts are being explored.
Use of Recovered Natural Orange
Flavor Enhancement Materials
Recovered orange juice essences; juice emulsions, juice oils, and cut-
back juices with added coldpressed oils were used in the production of
frozen concentrates for later processing of bottled reconstituted juices.
The reconstituted products prepared from Pineapple and Valencia concen-
trates are being evaluated for quality and flavor relative to the method of
cooling the hot-filled bottled juices, the amount of flavor enhancement ma-
terial used, and the temperature of storage. A method developed to indi-
cate volatile organic content of orange juices and orange essences was
used to calculate essence strength and the amount of essence to add to con-
centrated juice to produce a reconstituted product with the same volatile
content as fresh juice.
Oxidation-Reduction Enzymes in Citrus Fruits
and Effects on Processed Citrus Products
Sixty-four packs of Hamlin orange concentrates were prepared to study the
effect of the following factors on the development of citrus oxidized off-
flavor (COF): Concentration, air, heat treatment, peroxidase and peel oil.
If COF occurred, concentrates containing added partially purified peroxi-
dase prepared from citrus leaves, developed COF much less rapidly than
corresponding concentrates without added peroxidase. This was opposite
to previous findings when a crude peroxidase extract prepared from citrus
seeds was added to concentrates and COF was obtained.
Firming of Canned Grapefruit
Sections with Calcium Salts
Canned grapefruit sections, packed in December 1962 and January 1963,
to which calcium salts had been added were examined after storage for
eight months at 80 degrees Fahrenheit. The greatest percentage of firm
sections was found when syrup and calcium lactate were used, and the next
greater percentage with either juice, calcium cyclamate and lactate, or
only syrup. Juice and calcium cyclamate was slightly better in improving
firmness than was juice alone.
Measurement of the Color of Citrus
Juices and Processed Citrus Products
A low-cost, practical, single-reading instrument for the objective meas-
urement of the color of citrus juices and processed citrus products is be-
ing developed for the Commission by Hunter Associates Laboratory, Inc.
This Hunter Citrus Colorimeter was used to measure the color of many re-
constituted commercial frozen concentrated orange juices. Certain neces-
sary modifications to this instrument have been suggested, and once made,
evaluation of the colorimeter will be continued.
Off-Flavor in Canned Orange Juice
Development of an analytical method for furfural in the aqueous phase of
distillate from canned orange juice was undertaken. After such a pro-
cedure has been finalized, it will be used to determine if the furfural
content of canned orange juice correlates with the deterioration of flavor
in this product during storage.
Utilization of Grapefruit
The development of individually frozen grapefruit sections bulk-packed in
polyethylene bags has been hindered by the development of an off-flavor
during frozen storage. New packs have been put up using inert gas at-
mospheres and antioxident materials in an attempt to eliminate the off-
Chemical Constituents of Citrus
Fruit as Related to Quality
Orange concentrate samples from various processing plants in Florida
were analyzed to determine the concentrations of different organic acids
present. The ratio of citric acid to malic acid of these samples was
calculated. Citric acid averaged about 79 per cent of the total organic
acids in orange concentrate, while malic acid amounted to about 14 per
cent. The remaining seven per cent consisted of 11 other acids, each
occurring in trace amount. These acids were only detected on paper
chromatograms and were not identified except quinic acid. The malic
acid content of the orange concentrate ranged from 1. 8 to 3. 1 milli-
equivalent per 100 milliliters of reconstituted juice, and that of citric
acid varied from 13.0 to 17.7 m. e. per 100 ml. The citric acid to
malic acid ratio for these samples ranged from 4. 4 to 7. 6 with a mean
of 5. 7 and a standard deviation of 0. 8. Over 75 per cent of the samples
examined have this ratio within the range of 4. 9 and 6.0. Titratable
acidity of these samples only comprised about 66 per cent of the total
Physiology of Pigments in Citrus Peel
Calcium carbide and moldy fruit were added to separate vented poly-
ethylene bags containing young green lemons, expecting that either the
ethylene production by Penicillium mold or acetylene produced by cal-
cium carbide would stimulate the degreening of the lemons. The most
important feature of this investigation appeared to be the polyethylene
bag. The fruit in a vented polyethylene bag, without additives, de-
greened as well as fruit in bags with moldy fruit and/or fruit in bags
with calcium carbide. Preliminary work with gas chromatography
failed to indicate any substantial amounts of ethylene present. Early
tangerines were subjected to 100, 200 and 300 KR of radiation in the
cobalt irradiator at the University of Florida campus. The irradiation
proved too harmful for any other analytical work. In one to twoweeks,
large brown necrotic areas developed which eventually covered the
Natural Antioxidant in Citrus Fruit
Antioxidant activity was found in the flavedo of citrus fruit. Of the
different fruits studied, orange had the highest activity while lime
and lemon had nearly no active principle. Very little, if any, of the
activity was located in other component parts of citrus fruit, with the
exception of the juice vesicles of Valencia orange. The active ma-
terial was extracted from the flavedo of 15 boxes of Valencia oranges,
and its infrared spectrum was found to be identical with that of an au-
thentic sample of d-oc-tocopherol.
Citrus Fruit Mitochondria
Mitochondria, metabolically active cytoplasmic particles, were iso-
lated from orange fruits for the first time. This accomplishment
makes possible the laboratory study of the Krebs cycle in citrus fruits,
and should greatly advance efforts to understand citric acid accumula-
tion in certain of these fruits.
Peroxidase, a catalytic enzyme, was extracted from young orange
leaves, and was found to be present in both orange and grapefruit sec-
tions. Purification attempts indicated at least two peroxidase com-
plexes that could be separated by molecular weight and/or size.
III. Decay Control
The average decay in all untreated experimental lots of oranges for
the 1963-64 season was 18. 8 per cent. Degreened Hamlin and Valen-
cia oranges had an average decay loss of 33. 1 per cent and 21. 2 per
cent, respectively, compared with 26. 9 per cent for natural color
Hamlin oranges and 11.4 per cent for natural color Valencia oranges.
A comparison, replicated four times, was made between degreened
and natural color Valencia oranges from a commercial source and
from the Citrus Experiment Station groves. Degreened and natural
color commercial oranges had a decay loss of 9. 5 per cent and 6. 3 per
cent, respectively. The same figures for oranges from the Citrus Ex-
periment Station groves were 19. 5 per cent and 7. 7 per cent. The
higher decay loss in degreened Citrus Experiment Station grown fruit
may be due to the spray program. The commercial fruit received a
full spray schedule, while the Citrus Experiment Station trees had
not been sprayed since the freeze of December 1962.
The combination of 2-aminobutane, an experimental fungicide, and
Dowicide A-hexamine gave excellent decay control. This combination
resulted in better decay control for a longer holding period than either
component material, and was more effective in reducing decay in
mold-inoculated Valencia oranges than either component material.
Dowicide A-hexamine was more effective than 2-aminobutane in reduc-
ing mold decay under these conditions. Diphenyl pads combined with
Dowicide A-hexamine treated fruit resulted in excellent decay control.
The average total per cent decay for 14 experiments was: Check 22. 7
per cent, Dowicide A-hexamine 6. 5 per cent, Diphenyl 6. 8 per cent and
Dowicide A-hexamine treated fruit packed with two diphenyl pads 1.4
per cent. All decay figures are for a two weeks holding period at 70 de-
grees Fahrenheit with the fruit packed in ventilated, telescope-type
"Blossom-end clearing," a water-soaked area on the blossom end of
thin-skinned grapefruit, was shown to be due to bruising caused by
grapefruit falling on the blossom end. Dropping of thin-skinned grape-
fruit increases decay. Grapefruit which lands on a side may be split
or bruised internally. Thick-skinned grapefruit do not develop blos-
som end clearing after dropping but may show internal bruising.
IV.Mechanization of Citrus Fruit Harvesting
(In cooperation with Agricultural Engineering
Research Division, USDA)
The "shake-and-catch" concept of harvesting citrus fruit was investi-
gated, including the design and evaluation of a mechanical tree shaker
and an air-blast harvester, along with associated fruit-collecting
equipment. Fruit removal by both the mechanical tree shaker and the
air-blast harvester ranged over the season from 77 to 91 per cent, 81
to 87 per cent, and 89 to 95 per cent, respectively, for Pineapple
oranges, Valencia oranges and Marsh grapefruit. It appears at this
time, that the "shake-and-catch" concept of harvesting may be limited
to grapefruit, early and mid-season oranges, and early Valencia
oranges destined for processing. Fruit removal by these methods ap-
pears too low to economically justify use under present conditions.
Abscission of Mature Orange Fruits
for Mechanical Harvesting
Twenty-seven chemicals were applied to single Pineapple orange trees
during December 1963. Of these chemicals, iodoacetic acid (Na salt)
appeared to have a direct influence on the promotion of fruit abscis-
sion. This is based on the fact that the pounds force required to re-
move the treated fruit was less and, using mechanical harvestifig
equipment, the fruit was removed more quickly and had less fruit
with stems and buttons attached. From the group of chemicals ap-
plied, it appears that compounds which are inhibitors of sulphydryl
enzymes were more effective in inducing abscission layer formation
than those which inhibit dehydrogenase systems or act as uncoupling
agents. The use of iodoacetic acid on Valencia orange trees has shown
that Valencias are more resistant to the chemical, requiring approxi-
mately four times the concentration to induce the same effect on fruit
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH WITH THE CITRUS EXPERIMENT
STATION AND THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Determination of Pounds-Solids
Sampling methods were exhaustively studied and it was determined that
sampling by multiples was the most practical method of obtaining a
representative sample. Field tests conducted on five single-head
Brown Model 2701 extractors determined that they were satisfactory
for fresh fruit maturity use. Brown and Food Machinery continue de-
velopment work on extractors to meet processing plant test house re-
quirements and two of the Brown Model 2900 extractors will be field
tested next season.
Work was continued to find out whether there is a significant relation-
ship between specific gravity of oranges and their internal quality.
Considerable data was obtained on the Valencia variety and is being
subjected to analysis. Methods to measure Brix and acid automati-
cally are still being explored.
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH WITH THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTS LABORATORY
Foam-Mat Drying of Citrus Juices
Investigations have continued on the application of the foam-mat pro-
cess to orange and grapefruit juice concentrates. The Agricultural
Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, has worked in
cooperation with the Florida Citrus Commission in the utilization of
this process for the production of citrus powders. Improvement has
been made in the ease and degree of moisture removal, and powders
of good initial quality have been produced with both orange and grape-
fruit juice. Storage stability has been improved as well. Prospects
appear favorable for elimination of in-package dessicant. Grape-
fruit powders have shown higher stability than orange powders. More
extensive storage tests have been started on orange and grapefruit
powders with very low moisture contents. These tests include evalu-
ation of packaging materials, and storage atmosphere, as well as a
wide storage temperature range.
Further investigation has been carried out concerning the relation-
ship of physical/chemical characteristics of the concentrate to its
drying behavior. Increase of acidity had little effect on the drying of
orange juice. Increase in pulp or oil content has been shown to re-
tard moisture release.
Improved supplemental methods for the evaluation of foam character-
istics have been developed. Methods have been developed by which
foams with characteristics more favorable for drying may be pro-
duced. The physical characteristics which define the suitability of a
foam for drying have been more completely established.
UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Studies on reducing acidity in grapefruit were continued through a
grant-in-aid to Dr. Erston V. Miller at this University. Of themany
compounds tested in vitro one, malonic acid, appears promising enough
to warrant field testing.
SPRAY AND DUST SCHEDULE
Twenty-two thousand copies of the "1964 Better Fruit Program Spray
and Dust Schedule" were printed and distributed.
INDUSTRY-WIDE AIR POLLUTION STUDY
Financial assistance to the extent of one-third of the funds required
was rendered to this effort.
During 1963-64, the Commission expended $313,837. 10 on
citrus economic and market research aimed at strengthening and
improving the marketing of citrus by the industry and improving
the efficiency of operations by the Commission.
The functions of this department cover three major areas: (1)
The dissemination of crop and processing information; (2) the de-
velopment and issuance of consumer purchase data; and (3) the
origination of re search to aid the industry in solving various
problems encountered in the marketing of fresh and processed
The departmental staff consists of a director, a statistician,
a statistical clerk and a s e cr e t a r y in the Lakeland office and a
Senior economist, three graduate students and a secretary lo-
cated at the University of Florida in Gainesville.
During the year the department comply e t e d 14 research pro-
jects, was working on 17 at the end of the year, and had five re-
search projects pending. Most of the field work was done by pro-
fessional research organizations, while the analysis and report-
ing was by the department.
DISSEMINATION OF CROP AND PROCESSING INFORMATION
The Commission, from October through July, issued monthly
reports of estimated citrus crop production in Florida and com-
peting states, as pre s ented by the United States Department of
Agriculture Crop Reporting Board.
Weekly reports were issued covering the operations of the
Florida citrus processors, as compiled by the Florida Canners
Association. The object of the Commission-issued report was to
make the summary of processors' operations available to a lar-
ger number of people than would otherwise receive the informa-
ISSUANCE OF CONSUMER PURCHASE INFORMATION
For the 14th consecutive year, the Commission supplied the
industry with essential information in estimated consumer pur-
chases of major citrus and competitive non-citrus products.
These data, purchased from the Market Research Corporation of America,
represent projections to national totals of reported purchases from a rep-
resentative national sample of approximately 7,500 household consumers.
Available to the industry are: (1) Weekly reports showing consumer
purchases and prices of frozen concentrated orange juice, chilled orange
juice, canned orange juice, and canned grapefruit juice, with one-year-ago
comparisons; (2) weekly reports showing consumer purchases and prices
of fresh orang es and fresh grapefruit; (3) monthly reports showing con-
sumer purchases, average retail price, and per cent of families buying
frozen concentrated orange juice, chilled orange juice, canned orange
juice, canned grapefruit juice, and canned grapefruit sections; (4) monthly
reports showing consumer purchases, per cent of families buying, num-
ber of purchases, size of purchase and price of chilled citrus sections and
salads; (5) monthly report showing changes for the fruit juice and drink
retail market from one year ago in consumer purchases, per cent of fami-
lies buying and prices. The USDA also is sued monthly reports on citrus
juices as well as competitive jui ces and fruit flavored drinks, which are
mailed upon r e qu e s t by the Commission to Florida shippers and proces-
sors; and, an annual report covering a selected six-month period of con-
sumer purchases of canned, c h killed and frozen juices, ades, drinks and
sections as related to geographic region, city size, age of children, occu-
pation and education of family head, and age and work status of housewife.
Substitution Relationships Between Fresh Oranges
and Related Citrus and Noncitrus Products
The cost of obtaining consumer purchase data in the 1963-64 season
was defrayed by the Commission, with some contributions from the Cali-
fornia Prune Advisory Board. The data, purchased by the Commission
from MRCA and published by the USDA, is helpful to marketers of Florida
fresh and processed citrus and provide a basis for evaluating and guiding
the Commission's advertising and merchandising programs.
Consumer Purchase Patterns and Trends for Five Citrus Products
Based on six-month data (April-September), this study compared 1962
with similar six-month data of 1957 and 1950. Consumer purchases of five
citrus products -- frozen concentrated orange juice, chilled orange juice,
canned single strength orange juice, canned single strength grapefruit juice
and canned grapefruit sections -- were analyzed for volume per cent of
families buying and quantity purchased per buying family by various demo-
The comparison showed that most of the gains in consumption of frozen
concentrated orange juice occurred prior to 1957. These gains were due
primarily to increases in quantity purchased per buying family and second-
arily to increases in the number of families buying. Since 1957, the modest
gains in per cent of families buying were offset by reductions in the quan-
tity purchased per buying family.
The analysis showed a continued decline in the market for canned single
strength orange juice, canned single strength grapefruit juice, and chilled
orange juice, with the market for canned grapefruit sections holding steady
Information Related to the Export of Fresh and Processed Citrus
This report is issued annually by the Commission from data released by
the United States Department of Commerce, covering the exports of all
processed citrus products produced in the United States. Products are
broken down by country of destination and volume received annually for a
five-year period, plus a five-year average. Exports of fresh oranges, tan-
gerines and grapefruit are also shown by country of destination. The trend
in exports of frozen concentrated orange juice, frozen concentrated grape-
fruit juice and fresh grapefruit has been upward, in contrast with the down-
ward trend for fresh oranges and grapefruit sections.
Analysis of Fresh Fruit Unloads
This annual report by the Commission shows the volume and source of
fresh oranges, grapefruit and tangerines received each month in 41 United
States cities and five Canadian cities. The information, including year-
ago quarterly comparisons, is primarily for use by fresh fruit shippers,
with the Commission using the data as a basis for allocating domestic ad-
vertising funds between major markets.
Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice Consumer Purchase Data
About one-half of all United States families purchased frozen concen-
trated orange juice one or more times during the six-month period of Janu-
ary through June 1960 and about one-fifth of the total families purchased
approximately four-fifths of the entire volume, according to this study.
The heavy buyers of frozen concentrated orange juice served it 3. 2
times a week, with this product accounting for two-thirds of the servings
of juices and drinks.
The buyers were chiefly among the upper socio-economic group, and
usually were families under 45 years of age, and with children.
The study brought out that tomato and other non-citrus juices were the
chief competitive threat to frozen concentrated orange juice.
Canned Single Strength Orange and Grapefruit Juice Data
The analysis showed that canned orange juice was purchased by 23 per
cent and canned grapefruit by 17 per cent of the total United States fami-
lies one or more times over the six-month period of January through June
1960. About one-third of the canned orange juice and canned grapefruit
juice buyers purchased over 75 per cent of the total retail volume. The
purchasers of these two products were good buyers of canned non-citrus
juices, but below average buyers of frozen concentrated orange juice and
chilled orange juice.
Chilled Orange Juice Consumer Purchase Data
This analysis brought out that heavy buyers of chilled orange juice
(January through June 1960) were above average consumers of canned non-
citrus and single strength juices and drinks, but relatively poor consumers
of canned orange and grapefruit juice, and powdered and canned drinks.
Only 11 per cent of the United States families bought chilled orange juice
during this six-month period.
The study revealed the fact that heavy buyers of chilled orange juice,
which represented about one-third of the total buyers, accounted for 86 per
cent of the total volume. In addition, a need was indicated for further study
of consumer attitudes towards chilled orange juice, because of some un-
usual socio-economic patterns among medium and heavy buyers.
Fresh Oranges and Grapefruit Consumer Purchase Data
A relatively large number of United States families purchased fresh
oranges and grapefruit in the six-month period from January through June
1960--two of three families purchased fresh oranges and one of two fami-
lies purchased fresh grapefruit. Also, the heavy buyers of fresh oranges
were good buyers of fresh grapefruit, and vice versa. Light buyers of
fresh oranges served the fruit only 2. 5 times during the six months, while
heavy buyers served the fruit one or two times per week. In the category
of grapefruit, light buyers served once every two months and heavy buyers
1. 6 times per week.
In summation, fresh orange and grapefruit buyers were above-average
buyers of fruit juices and drinks, but relatively poor buyers of canned orange
juice and powdered orange juice.
Redemption Cost and Purchase Analysis of Coupons
The purpose of this study was to determine which of six denominations
of direct mail coupons produced consumer sales most efficiently. The
coupons were distributed to a population of known income characteristics
in three selected markets and the rates of redemption tabulated.
The analysis revealed that if the objectives of coupon distribution were
to obtain the least cost per unit and the greatest additional movement, then
the offer should be 10 cents on six six-ounce or three 12-ounce cans. Since
the two highest income groups made the most effective use of coupons in
meeting both these objectives, emphasis should be. placed on inducing new
users in the lower income groups.
Substitution Relationships Study
Because an understanding of the degree of substitution between citrus
products is an important element of information needed to allocate mar-
ket expansion effort among products with maximum effectiveness, this
study was conducted. The results obtained did not reveal any close sub-
stitutional relationships between fresh oranges and the selected citrus and
non-citrus products that were examined. However, only a limited number
of fresh fruit items and canned and processed fruits and juices available
in retail stores were included, making further investigation advisable.
Family Buying Practices for Citrus and Non-Citrus Products
The study was designed to provide an overall view of the consumption
patterns of families in the Atlanta market area for citrus products and a
number of other processed fruit, juice and beverage items. Consumer in-
come had a pronounced effect on the use levels for frozen concentrated
orange juice. The high income consumers generally bought about twice as
much as middle income consumers, who purchased twice as much as low
income consumers. Little difference existed in the level of use of fresh
oranges and grapefruit among the three income groups.
Retail Freezer Space Allocated to Frozen Citrus
The Commission's staff conducted this study approximately one year
after the December 1962 freeze, to ascertain the effect on retail freezer
space allocation. This space allocated to frozen citrus juices declined
17. 3 per cent, while frozen concentrated orange juice space declined 17. 1
per cent. Other frozen concentrated fruit juices increased their allocation
in frozen food cabinets by 4. 5 per cent and frozen drinks by 13. 3 per cent.
However, the total for all frozen fruit juices and drinks declined 4. 5 per
cent. All other frozen products increased 12. 5 per cent.
Also, during the year there was an increase in the average square foot-
age of freezer cabinet space per store, with this new space devoted to
items other than juices.
Business Evaluation of the Vending Market
Because of the refreshment market, particularly outside the home, ap-
peared to offer major opportunities to expand the total consumption of citrus,
the management consulting firm of Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. recom-
mended that a business evaluation be made of the market to determine the
potential for present proposed citrus products, marketing prospects, and
programs required to gain maximum sales results.
The evaluation, conducted by Booz, Allen & Hamilton during April and
May 1964, revealed that presently there are practically no citrus products
sold through vending machines. In 1962, some natural orange juices were
used (approximately 500,000 boxes), but in 1963 and 1964, rising prices
of oranges caused vendors to switch almost entirely to lower priced syn-
The future for citrus through vending appears to be through cold-cup
dispensing machines, which are usually found in industrial and school lo-
cations. The report also brought out that in order for citrus concentrates
or syrup to be sold at 10 cents per eight-ounce serving in vending ma-
chines, the product cost delivered to the vendor should be in the range of
1.50 to 1. 75 cents per eight-ounce serving.
Effect of Squeaters on Use and Consumption of Fresh Oranges
The purpose of this study in Philadelphia was to provide measurements
of the effect of squeater juicers on purchasing and consumption of fresh
oranges. Four weeks after the squeater had been received, someone in 83
per cent of the families was still using the squeater. The squeaters were
used primarily by children six to 12 years of age and secondarily by child-
ren under six; 80 per cent of the homemakers claimed that the squeater
was liked very much by those in the family who used it -- only four per
cent claimed they didn't like it, and almost one-half of those receiving the
squeater mentioned some problem in using it. The most frequently men-
tioned problems: (1) Children could not squeeze hard enough, (2) oranges
split, (3) very little juice came out.
Demand and Substitution Relationships for Fresh Oranges
This study examined the competitive relationship between Valencia
oranges produced in California, the Indian River section of Florida, and
the interior section of Florida. The two Florida fruits substituted quite
readily for each other, even with price changes, while no significant sub-
stitution was found between either Florida fruit and the California fruit.
The effect of price changes was not significantly different among the three
types of oranges and was elastic in nature (i. e. a one per cent change in
price resulted in approximately three per cent change in consumer pur-
Changes in the supply of Florida fruit had no appreciable effect on Cali-
fornia orange prices and, conversely, changes in California supplies had
no appreciable effect on Florida orange prices. There was, however, a
significant effect from supply changes in one Florida orange on the price
of the other Florida orange.
This study was made as a doctorate thesis using data obtained by the
Commission. A printed report will be issued by the University of Florida.
Projects in Progress
Analysis of Fresh Fruit Unloads
This report is issued annually as an aid to fresh fruit shippers, and to
the Commission as a basis for allocating domestic advertising funds be-
German Preferences for Canned Citrus Juices
This study was undertaken jointly with the USDA to better understand
taste preferences for citrus juices, and the buying and consumption habits
of citrus and competitive products among foreign consumers. The data
are being analyzed.
Further Demand and Substitution Relationships
The Commission is cooperating with the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station and the USDA in this study in which the prices of frozen con-
centrated orange juice will be varied willfully to determine the effect of
price changes on volume of consumer purchases. The data required for
the demand and substitution relationship were generated in 18 retail super-
markets, with daily sales figures recorded in conjunction with a pre-
determined set of varying price situations. This information, which in-
cluded sales of frozen concentrated orange juice and shelf disappearance
of all other frozen concentrates and chilled juices in each store, is cur-
rently being prepared for computer analysis.
Business Evaluation of the Snack or Fountain Market
Stanford Research Institute is conducting this evaluation for the Com-
mission to find what opportunities exist for selling citrus in the snack or
fountain market. This comprehensive study should point out the potential
for citrus sales in this market, types of outlets where there are opportuni-
ties for increasing sales, the best forms of selling citrus in this market,
and the technical and marketing research and development required to
realize the potential.
Analysis of Dehydrated Juice Products Market
This analysis is being conducted by Arthur D. Little, Inc. to determine
if a market (either retail or institutional -- or both) can be developed for
dehydrated orange and/or dehydrated grapefruit juice that can now be pro-
duced by private or public agencies. If a market can be developed, then
the study will point out the potential size of the market, characteristics of
competing products, price, type of package needed, distribution system
for product, etc. as well as whether the new product will create a new
market for citrus, or merely replace existing citrus products.
Salad, Appetizer and Dessert Market Evaluation
Market Research Corporation of America is conducting this study to de-
termine the potential for expanding the usage of citrus sections as appe-
tizers, desserts and salad ingredients in both the institutional area and the
Such factors as' expanding population, an increasing number of house-
holds, apparently increasing consciousness of diet, health and weight, as
well as a continuing upward trend in "eating out," suggest increased po-
tential. The evaluation will cover the use patterns, acceptance, as well as
attitudes and opinions toward the use of citrus as sections (canned, chilled
Business Evaluation of Citrus By-Products Market
This study is being conducted by Battelle Memorial Institute aimed at
uncovering new market and profit opportunities for the Florida citrus by-
products by evaluating the market potential for seed oil, glucosides, peel
oil including D-limonene, and dehydrated peel and pulp.
An Analysis of Youth Beverage Consumption Habits
This analysis is being conducted by Market Research Corporation of
America to provide information on this vital segment of the beverage mar-
ket, which will permit the formulation of product development, marketing
and merchandising programs designed to expand the consumption of citrus
in the youth market.
Evaluation of the Market for "Awake"
During the early part of the year, a new frozen synthetic orange drink
was introduced by a large food manufacturer who also is a processor of
orange juice. Because of the industry's concern about synthetic inroads --
due to the freeze -- into the frozen concentrated orange juice market, the
Commission initiated research to measure the effects of this synthetic
drink on the frozen juice and drink market.
The research was designed to give the Commission answers whichwould
aid in understanding the total impact of the synthetic, "Awake," before in-
troduction, during introduction and after introduction (at retail and con-
sumer levels). The measurements were made in one midwestern market
where "Awake" had been marketed for several months and in two Eastern
markets in which "Awake" was being introduced. The data collection and
treatment were exactly the same in the two Eastern markets, except that
one carried the Commission's special advertising campaign designed to
boost the sales of frozen concentrated orange juice against "Awake. The
advertising campaign also was run in the midwestern market.
Preliminary data suggests that "Awake" has been making a steady pene-
tration into the frozen juice and drink market, and that synthetic food items
are achieving an increasing consumer acceptance.
Alternative Methods of Levying the Citrus Excise Tax
The difficult tax rates (by the box, pounds solids and juice content) were
computed, using the latest available data. The Commission, currently, is
awaiting receipt of the 1963-64 data to bring the tax rates up to date.
Consumer Image Survey on Orange Beverages
At the request of the Florida Canners Association, research was initiated
to gather information pertaining to consumer understanding and attitudes
toward certain aspects of labelling the composition of fruit drinks --
beverages which contain fruit juice in amounts less than 100 per cent.
This request resulted from a previous study made by the Commission
which showed that confusion existed among consumers as to the identity
of various fruit beverages.
The study is being conducted by Interview Research Institute, and will
include a sample of 2,000 respondents spread over 40 well-scattered met-
ropolitan areas. The sample will be confined to housewives who have one
or more children under 18 years of age.
Beverage Consumption and Attitude Study
The Commission, recognizing the need to continually revise short and
long-range advertising and marketing objectives, and to measure the pro-
gress toward achieving these objectives, decided in 1963 to begin a con-
tinuing study that would provide more information on how consumers view
and use citrus products and competing products. The benchmark phase of
this continuing study is divided into two parts: (1) A survey of consumer
knowledge and feelings about citrus products, and (2) a beverage diary in
which respondents record all the beverages, except water, consumed in
The data for this study were collected in the fall of 1963, and are now
being tabulated and analyzed. Preliminary analysis showed that of the total
orange juice consumption, 85 per cent was consumed at breakfast, four
per cent at other meals, and 11 per cent at times other than meals.
Evaluation of the Fresh Market for Specialty Fruits
Increased plantings and production of specialty citrus varieties (Tan-
gelos, Temples and Murcotts) emphasize the need for an evaluation of
current status in the market and an assessment of demand projections in
the total fresh citrus fruit market. Success in developing widespreadmar-
kets for specialty fruits will depend largely on trade acceptance of the
fruits and on consumer preferences for the characteristics which distin-
guish these fruits from other available fresh citrus.
Evaluation of Foreign Markets for Florida Citrus
This study is being conducted in Europe by Agri-Research, Inc. to de-
termine the potential for Florida citrus in foreign markets. Results of
the study will be used in assessing the value of spending research and mar-
ketings funds for the development of these markets.
Fresh Bagged and Bulk Grapefruit Purchase Comparisons
Since about one-half of the total grapefruit production and practically all
of the production in some areas of Florida are marketed in fresh form, and
since there has been research that indicates that selected other fruits are
sold in greater quantity when offered pre-packaged to the consumer, the
Commission, at the request of the Florida Citrus Exchange, initiated re-
search to determine if advantages exist in pre-packaging grapefruit. This
study is being conducted by the Marketing Economic Division of the USDA' s
Economic Research Services.
Evaluation of Special Coupon Campaign
Evaluation of the special couponing campaign of the fall of 1962 has been
completed, but the research report has not been issued.
Seasonal Variation of Consumer Purchases
This study examines the extent to which the consumer demand for citrus
and some competitive products vary from month-to-month.
Export of Fresh and Processed Citrus from the United States
This report is issued annually to cover the season's exports.
Consumer Purchases of Fresh and Processed Citrus
In February 1964, the Commission issued four reports covering six cit-
rus items using six-month data (January-June 1960) and showing consumer
buying patterns among fresh and processed citrus buyers and non-buyers
of citrus and their purchases of related products. The January-June 1964
data will be analyzed in the 1964-65 season covering the same citrus items,
and will show changes that have occurred in consumer purchase patterns
Measurement of Changes in the Demand for Citrus
This study is designed to identify and measure the aggregate effects of
relevant economic forces on changing citrus consumption patterns during
periods of short supplies of Florida citrus, and to determine the manner
in which consumption patterns readjust when citrus supplies return to nor-
Production and Consumption for the Next Five Years
This forecast is made annually by the Commission staff to aid the Com-
mission and the citrus industry in planning research, financial and pro-
Alternative Methods for Achieving Price Stability
Because orderly and expanded marketing are difficult to achieve when
prices fluctuate greatly, the Commission will study several methods which
offer opportunities for maximizing the marketing of Florida citrus. These
are: (1) Improve methods for securing on-tree or FOB crop price infor-
mation; (2) develop a system for establishing an industry granary of con-
centrate; (3) establish a futures market for frozen concentrated orange
juice; (4) develop a system of regulating production to demand growth, and
(5) develop a system of utilization which minimizes price variations.
(Copies of research reports prepared by the Commission are avail-
able upon request to director, Economic Research Department.)
Increases and proposals for increases in transportation rates
and charges continued to attr a c t the attention of the Commission
and its agency in this field of endeavor, the Growers and Shippers
League of Florida. One of the results of League activities was the
decision by the Southern lines to reduce rail rates by 10 per cent,
effective July 10, 1964, for destinations in Southern Territory. In
addition, the League will review new tariff publishing rates which
have been simplified and from which obsolete sections have been
Rail Rates On Fresh Citrus Fruits
Competition for the fresh citrus fruit traffic has been of seri-
ous concern to Florida railroads for several years. Rate reduc-
tions to some areas have been published in an attempt to recover
some of this traffic, but this has not resulted in any appreciable
increase in rail movement. In a further effort tomeet the compe-
titive situation, the Florida line s suggested a 10 per cent reduc-
tion in rates to all territories, but this proposal was not approved
by other rate jurisdictions. However, the Southern line s did ap-
prove a 10 per cent reduction which was published to destinations
in Southern Territory effective July 10, 1964.
Subsequently, a proposal was submitted and approved in Janu-
ary 1964, to publish per-car charges on fresh citrus fruit to points
in Western Trunk Line Territory, with related rate s to points in
Western Canada, on the ba s i s of 110 per cent of the present per-
car charges on vegetables. Publication has not been made, since
a division of- revenues has not been a g r e ed upon by the va r i ous
TOFC Service and Rates
This is the so-called "Piggyback" service, and when the rates
were fir st published the railroad publishedweight restrictions in
order to stay within state gross truck weight limitations. Several
states where these rates apply have increased truck maximum
gross weights, and the railroads, effective September 6, 1963, in-
creased the maximum load allowed under Plan II Piggyback ship-
ments of fresh citrus fruits to 41,000 pounds per trailer. The
League for some time had urged rail lines topermit heavier load-
ing in states which had higher maximum gross weight provisions.
Revision of Rail Citrus Fruit Tariff
The tariff publishing rates on fresh citrus fruit contain many obsolete
rates, rules and regulations, in the opinion of officials of the citrus indus-
try, the railroads, and the Southern Freight Association. After several
conferences, an agreement has been reached as to revisions that can and
should be made in this tariff which will b r ing about simplification and
elimination of obsolete sections. The new tariff setup will be submitted
to the League for review prior to publication.
Railroad Refrigerator Car Supply
The number of refrigerator cars in s e rvice for the transportation of
perishable commodities has been declining for the past 16 years, particu-
larly those owned or controlled by the Fruit Growers Expre s s Company.
The League has been told that unless a g create r volume of fresh citrus
fruits and vegetables is shipped by rail, the railroads and carlines can not
afford to invest in new cars or in the maintenance of those now in service.
Complaint Against Higher Rail Rates on
Fresh Citrus Fruit to New York
I.C.C. Docket 33105 was a complaint filed against the higher level of
rail rates on fresh fruits and vegetables to points in Manhattan as com-
pared with rate s to points in New Jersey. In November 1962, Division 1
of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) approved the higher rate s
to New York. Petitions for reconsideration were filed and in February
1964, the ICC reversed its decision and ruled that the increased rates to
the Manhattan points were unlawful and ordered the increase removed. The
Pennsylvania Railroad filed a suit in the Federal Court in Philadelphia
against the ICC ruling and secured an injunction against the order going in-
to effect. Opening briefs in this case have been filed, with additional briefs
to be filed in June and July 1964, and a hearing to be held at a later date.
The League is participating in this suit in the Federal Court.
Proposed Rule Changes Covering Rail Test Shipments
In August 1963, the rail lines in Southern Territory proposed to amend
the rule covering rail test shipments of fresh fruits and vegetables from
points in Southern Territory to restrict carrier liability on damage claims
on such shipments. Similar provisions had been proposed and approved on
shipments from and to Southwestern Territory, but the effective date was
postponed. After determining that the rule was to be published in South-
western Territory, the Southern lines proceeded with the publication of the
same rule, effective October 23, 1963, but only on piggyback shipments
from points in the South. After further handling with the origin rail lines
by the League, the new rule was withdrawn shortly after the Southwest rule
Rail Increases For Exports Through North Atlantic Ports
Eastern railroads announced late in 1963 an additional charge of 50 cents
per 100 pounds on rail shipments of fresh fruits and vegetables requiring
lighterage, when exported through North Atlantic Ports. The League inves-
tigated and found there was little export movement by rail through these
ports. As a result, the League took no action in this proceeding. The rates
later were suspended by the ICC then withdrawn and cancelled.
Rail Rates On Frozen And Chilled Citrus Products
A 10 per cent reduction in rail rates on frozen and chilled citrus pro-
ducts, carload minimum weight 36, 000 pounds, had been proposed and ap-
proved by the Southern lines. Hearing on this proposed reduction was held
before the General Traffic Committee of the Southwestern lines in June 1963,
at which League and industry representatives appeared in support of the
proposal. The Southwestern lines denied the proposal. The Freight Traf-
fic Managers Committee of the Western Trunk Line railroads heard the
proposal in August 1963, at which League and industry representatives again
appeared. After the hearing the Western Trunk Line carriers disapproved
the proposal, with the exception of an adjustment in rates to certainpoints
in North Dakota. Because of the non-concurrence of the railroads in other
rate jurisdictions, the proposed 10 per cent reduction has been withdrawn,
except to points in Southern Territory.
The rail lines proposed that Plan II piggyback rates on frozen and chilled
citrus products to numerous destinations, subject to minimum weight of
31,000 pounds, be cancelled. After checking with shippers, the League ad-
vised there was little prospect of any future movement on these rates and,
accordingly, the rates were cancelled, except to Birmingham, Alabama.
Since 1960, there has been pending before the ICC an investigation into rail
and boat rates on frozen citrus products minimum weight 70, 000 pounds -
to destinations in the East. In September 1963, the ICC ordered that exist-
ing rail rates be cancelled effective October 15, 1963, but provided that
rail rates, considering refrigeration charge at 70, 000 pounds loading,-
could be published no lower than boat rates.
The rail lines filed a supplement, but because of a technical error, the
ICC rejected the supplement and the rates were re-filed. Sea-Land Ser-
vice, Inc., filed a petition for reconsideration of the ICC decision, but the
petition was denied and the revised rail rates became effective November
29, 1963. In order to meet the competition of the railroads, Sea-Land Ser-
vice published the same rates on minimum weight of 70,000 pounds.
As directed by the Florida Canners Association, the League filed a pro-
posal with the rail lines to publish blanket origin rail rates on frozen and
chilled citrus products from all producing points in Florida except from
Fort Lauderdale and south thereof using Leesburg as the base point. A
hearing was held before the General Freight Committee of the Southern
Freight Association in June 1964, and the Committee recommended dis-
approval of the proposal. The disapproval has been appealed to the Execu-
tive Committee of the Southern Freight Association and is set for hearing
in September 1964.
Express Charges On Fresh Citrus Fruit
In April 1964, a conference was held between officials of REA Express,
the League, and the Florida Gift Fruit Shippers Association to discuss
service and charges on express shipments of citrus fruit from Florida. REA
officials advised that it might be necessary to increase express charges on
citrus fruit during the coming year. As the result of this conference, and
the prospects that there would be an increase in express shipments, REA
agreed to keep the present charges in effect next season.
According to an estimate by W. A. Stubbs, secretary of the Florida
Gift Fruit Shippers Association, the increase REA was considering would
have resulted in additional charges of approximately $200,000 per season.
REA also agreed to reduce the number of packages required on volume
rate shipments from 25 to 15, on a year-round basis rather than a partial-
year basis. In problems of service failures, REA is working with the
U.S. Department of Agriculture to improve the handling of citrus fruit ship-
ments during cold weather in order to reduce the amount of damage result-
ing from freezing.
Frozen And Chilled Citrus Products Truck Rates
In September 1963, the truck lines proposed to increase the LTL rates
on frozen and chilled citrus products by amounts varying from approxi-
mately six to 14 per cent on the various minimum weights. Objections were
filed, and following a conference between the truck lines and shippers, the
truck lines announced the proposal would be withdrawn, subject to filing at
a later date.
A provision in the truck tariffs requires that on shipments weighing less
than 6,000 pounds, each case in a shipment must be marked with the
consignee's and consignor's name and address. Because of the problems
this would cause on shipments of citrus products from Florida, particu-
larly on stop-off shipments, a proposal was filed with the Southern Motor
Carriers Rate Conference (SMCRC) to provide an exception to the provi-
sion. This proposal was supported by the League, and effective September
25, 1963, the exception became effective, whereby under certain condi-
tions it is not necessary to mark each case with the consignee's name and
During the past year, proposals have been filed with the truck lines for
the establishment of rates from one or a limited number of origin points
on frozen and chilled citrus products. The League has handled with the
truck line committees for the inclusion of all origin points in the publication
of new or reduced rates, in some cases, filing a separate shippers' pro-
posal to include all of the origin points.
The Florida Canners Association instructed the League to file a proposal
with the truck lines to publish blanket origin truck rates on frozen and
chilled citrus products from producing points in Florida, using Ocala as the
base point. Proposals were filed with the truck Conferences and a hearing
before the Standing Rate Committees was held in April 1964. The Commit-
tees recommended disapproval and the League appealed this action to the
General Rate Committee of the SMCRC for hearing in August 1964.
Rail Rates On Canned Citrus Products
A proposal had been filed and approved by the Southern rail lines to
publish a Plan II piggyback charge of $625 per flat car, maximum weight
80, 000 pounds per car, on canned goods from Florida points to the East-
ern destinations of New York City and intermediate points. Following in-
dependent announcement by the Pennsylvania Railroad, the charge was pub-
lished to become effective December 13, 1963. To meet this action, Sea-
Land Service published a rate of 75 cents per 100 pounds on canned goods to
New York, minimum weight 80, 000 pounds, to become effective December
19, 1963, and at the same time asked for suspension of the rail charge. The
ICC suspended both the rail per-car charge and the Sea-Land rate, and sub-
sequently both were withdrawn and cancelled. In March 1964, the rail lines
re-filed a similar proposal, and Sea-Land Service again filed a rate and re-
quested suspension of the rail line rate. The ICC once more suspended
both rates, and set the matter for modified procedure, with the initial veri-
fied statements to be filed by June 15, 1964.
Canned Citrus Products Truck Rates
In September 1963, the truck lines proposed an increase of 10 per cent in
rates on canned goods from points in Florida to points in the South and East.
Objections were filed and at a conference of truck line officials and shippers
it was announced that the proposal had been withdrawn. However, in May
1964, another proposal to increase rates by 15 per cent was filed by a truck
line. Objections were filed, and the proposal has been disapproved.
For some time there had been considerable difference of opinion between
truck lines and shippers as to the proper classification of citrus juice packed
in glass containers, whether such juice should be considered chilled or
canned. A carrier proposal was filed and approved to include citrus juice
in glass in the commodity description of the truck canned goods tariff, and
the tariff publication was made effective March 27, 1964.
Stop-Off Charges On Truck Shipments
For some time, the truck charge for stopping in transit to completeload-
ing in Florida on shipments of canned citrus products moving to the South-
west had been 13 cents per 100 pounds, or a minimum $11 per stop. Inter-
ested truck lines filed proposals to establish a charge of $11. 13 for this
service, the same charge generally applicable on shipments stopped to com-
plete loading or to partially unload at points in the South and East. The
League and interested shippers supported these proposals, but as filed, the
proposals were not recommended by the truck line committees. However,
the committees did approve a charge of $15 per stop on such shipments, the
same level as the charge for stopping to partially unload at points in the
Southwest. This revision was published and became effective January 8,
The tariff publishing truck rules, regulations, and charges on shipments
stopped off to complete loading or to partially unload has become very con-
fusing, and the Committees of the SMCRC, at the insistence of the ICC,
had approved proposals to establish uniform rules and charges. These pro-
posals would establish a maximum of three stops in transit to complete
loading or to partially unload (but not both) on the same- shipments and
would set the charges for stopping intransit at 15 cents per 100 pounds, sub-
ject to a minimum charge of $15 per stop. Many of the truck lines parties
to the tariff filed exceptions to the proposal, with the result that the SMCRC
asked the ICC to investigate the present confused situation and to prescribe
just and reasonable rules and charges. The League is participating in this
Truck Poster Advertising
The League has been assisting the Florida Citrus Commission's citrus
truck poster advertising program by contacting truck and railroad offi-
cials. Most truck lines transporting citrus products from the statehave
been cooperative in permitting use of the posters on sides of trailers.
While many rail line officials have been interested, the subject has not
been considered by the Board of Directors of the Fruit Growers Express
In May 1963, the Florida Public Utilities Commission issued an order
proposing to prohibit the placement of signs of shippers on truck lines'
equipment. After the League asked for clarification of this proposed rule,
the order was released in June 1964, permitting industry advertising on
trucks, but not individual shipper advertising.
Rail Demurrage Charges
In August 1963, the rail lines proposed to drastically change the demur-
rage rules and charges by reducing free time to 24 hours; excluding holidays,
Saturday and Sundays from free time; cancelling the average agreement;
and increasing the charges for demurrage. The League and other associa-
tions filed joint opposition to the proposed changes, and as a result, only
some increases in demurrage charges were approved. The charges, sche-
duled to become effective July 1, 1964, will be $5 per day for the first four
chargeable days; $10 per day for the next four days and $15 per day there-
Detention On Mechanical Refrigerator Cars
Filed with the National Perishable Freight Committee were Subjects 6711
and 6815, similar proposals to allow 48 hours free time on shipments of
frozen commodities held at origin, storage point, or at destination, when
weight of lading was 50, 000 pounds or over; and Subject 6817, a proposal to
provide 36 hours free time, instead of the existing 24 hours at origin, stop-
off point, or destination. These proposals were disapproved.
Investigation Into Charges And Practices Of Piggyback Services
In August 1963, the Examiner's proposed report in this proceeding was
released, recommending that certain rules be established by the ICC in
the regulation of piggyback services. While the report was generally in
line with the position taken by the League, exceptions were filed to certain
portions. In April 1964, the ICC released its decision incorporating most
of the League views, but some parties have filed petitions for reconsidera-
tion and the matter is still pending.
Guaranteed Cut-Off Time On Rail Schedules
In April 1964, the Eastern railroads announced that effective June 1,
1964, placement of cars at destinations by a specified time no longer
would be guaranteed. This action affected primarily guaranteed schedules
which have been in effect for many years from Western origins to destina-
tions in the East and will make it more difficult in the filing of market de-
cline claims on shipments which have been delayed. Conferences have
failed to persuade the Eastern railroads to change action on these schedules.
The question of railroad common law liability in claims involving the de-
terioration of fresh fruits and vegetables in transit was decided by the U.S.
Supreme Court in a recent decision in Elmore & Stahl vs. the Missouri
Pacific Railroad Company, involving shipments of honey-dew melons mov-
ing from Texas to Chicago. In its decision, the Supreme Court held that
under Federal Law the shipper establishes his prima facie case when he
shows delivery (to the carrier) in good condition, arrival in damaged con-
dition, and the amount of damages. Thereupon the burden of proof is upon
the carrier to show freedom from negligence and that damage to the cargo
was due to one of the excepted causes which relieve the carrier from lia-
bility. Because of the importance of this case in determining the liability
of the carriers in claims, the League joined with other associations in fil-
ing a brief as amicus curiae in support of the shipper.
The rail lines have consistently refused to admit any liability in claims
involving delayed arrival of piggyback shipments or on refrigeration fail-
ures on Plan III piggyback shipments, and have also been reluctant to ad-
mit liability on refrigeration failure on Plan II piggyback shipments. Be-
cause of the importance to the citrus and vegetable industries of the estab-
lishment of railroad liability on failures in piggyback shipments, several
meetings have been held with rail lines officials in an attempt to clarify the
railroad position on claims. A conference of officials of the origin rail
lines and shippers was held in Orlando in January 1964, to discuss these
various questions and to attempt to arrive at some solution. So far, how-
ever, the rail lines have been adamant in refusal to admit liability for de-
lay or for refrigeration failure under Plan III piggyback service. It may
be necessary to file court suits in order to establish liability on such
claims, and the League has been authorized to file such a suit on behalf of
During the past year, the League has continued to watch for and analyze
legislation introduced into the Congress which would affect the transporta-
tion of our industry. In July 1963, because of the prospects of a nation-
wide rail strike, House Joint Resolution 565 and Senate Joint Resolution
102 were introduced in the respective houses as a means of settling the dis-
pute between railroad management and labor. After considering the need
for such legislation, the League handled with the Chairman of the respec-
tive Senate and House Committees and with the Florida Congressional dele-
gation in support of such legislation. These resolutions were approved and
provided for compulsory arbitration of certain issues, principally the ques-
tions of re-moval of firemen from certain diesel train operations and the
consist of train crews. Other matters in issue were to be settled between
the parties involved.
The House Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee continued to
hold hearings on HR 4700, proposing minimum rate deregulation, and on
HR 4701, proposing to implement the President's recommendations on
transportation. Because of the many divergent views on this proposed
legislation, the House Committee in January 1964, introduced HR 9903,
which combined many features of HR 4700 and HR 4701. Although the
League had supported in principle much of the proposed legislation under
HR 4700 and 4701, there were many objectionable features which had been
incorporated in HR 9903, and these objections were registered with the
Florida Congressional delegation, and efforts made to have the House Rules
Committee not grant a rule on this bill. After considering the bill on sev-
eral occasions, the House Rules Committee did not send the bill to the
House, and to all intents and purposes the bill is killed, at least for this
session of the Congress.
In an effort to pass some kind of transportation legislation in this Con-
gress, Senate Bill 2796 was introduced in May 1964, containing some of
the less controversial features of HR 4700 and HR 4701. This bill does
contain several objectionable features insofar as fruit and vegetable in-
dustries are concerned, and the League is watching for future action.
Although there were no freezes or other crop disaster situa-
tions to contend with during the 1963-64 season, the Commis-
sion found it nece ssar y to enact 24 amendments to its regula-
tions and to promulgate one other in o r d e r to keep pace with the
ever- changing conditions which exist within the citrus indu s t r y
Several modifications inthe regulations were required as a re-
sult of changes enacted in the Florida Citrus Code by the 1963
Legislature. Among these were an increase in minimum Brix-
acid ratio requirements for canned grapefruit juice, a require-
ment that copies of seller's invoices of citric acid shipments be
filed with the Florida Commissioner of Agriculture, and an ex-
pansion of the grapefruit advertising rebate program to include
processors. The grapefruit advertising rebate program for fresh
fruit has been successfully operated for several seasons and it is
anticipated that the advertising and merchandising effort for pro-
cessed grapefruit will be increased to a substantial degree by this
The Commission continued its program of requiring that all
fruit sold at roadside stands and shipped as gift fruit meet mini-
mum grade and size requirements similar to those established
for out-of-state shipments. While there is still much to be de-
sired in the policing of this program, considerable progress has
Regulation 105-1. 38 was amend e d in its entiretyto establish
definitions and p r o c e du r e s relative to conducting special cam-
paigns to adv e r tise and promote citrus fruit or to do market or
product development research. Under this regulation, handlers
of a specific variety or product of citrus fruit may assess them-
selves for the purpose of providingfunds to conduct special ad-
vertising, promotion or research campaigns for that particular
variety or product. The collection of funds and the management
of the campaign would be under the di r e action and control of the
Among new containers approved for use in shipping citrus fruit
were 4-pound bags and two containers of 1-3/5 bushel capacity to
be used in making bulk shipments. Action was also taken to es-
tablish minimum b o a r d weight requirements for 4/5 bushel cor-
Maturity regulations were amended to prevent unnecessary destruction
of good, mature fruit by permitting the grading out of immature fruit in
certain lots under the dir e ct supervision of Florida Department of Agri-
culture inspectors. Changes also were made relative to the destruction
of immature fruit which failed to meetminimum maturity requirements by
more than 1/2 point, making the application of this provision uniform for
both fresh and cannery fruit.
To provide further opportunities for broadening the overall market for
Florida oranges, permit requirements were established toprovide for ex-
perimental packs and shipments in retail size containers of concen-
trated orange juice which does not fall within the definition of either "fro-
zen" or "canned. Permits were is sued to two companies for experi-
mental shipments of 72-degree Brix concentrate.
To implement a new law enacted by the 1963 legislature, an amend-
ment was adopted which established guide lines as to specific areas of
responsibility of citrus fruit dealers regarding the registration of all
agents authorized to represent them in negotiating the consignment, pur-
chase or sale of citrus fruit. This amendment also established procedures
for p r o c e s ing by the Florida Commissioner of Agriculture of applica-
tions for the registration of agents and included provisions under which
such applications may be disapproved.
An additional restriction was placed on the blending of imported citrus
with Florida citrus products. The regulations were amended to provide
that a product which contained any imported citrus could not be labeled or
represented in any way as being a Florida product.
OFFICIAL ADOPTION OF 0 6J1
On October 16, 1963, the Commission adopted a new regulation which
for the first time established a standard identification symbol for Florida
oranges and orange juice. Officially registered with the United States
copyright office, "O. J. was prominently featured in orange advertising
and merchandising programs. By regulation, safeguards were established
to protect the integrity of the symbol and to promote its use within the in-
dustry in an orderly manner. Now used on labels of fresh and processed
products, the symbol should greatly increase the impact and effectiveness
of consumer advertising and merchandising programs.
LICENSES AND BONDS
During the 1963-64 season, 1,644 applications for citrus fruitdealer's
licenses were received and processed. Of these, 1,635 were approved and
recommended to the Florida Commissioner of Agriculture for issuance of
license, and 13 were disapproved. Later, four of these disapproved appli-
cations were reconsidered and approved. A policy was established to re-
quire that bond sufficiently large to cover the volume of fruit handled the
previous season be posted prior to approval of a renewal license applica-
tion. This served to set a standardized basis for determining the minimum
size of bonds.
A total of 1, 998 special permits were issued, with 1, 825 of these for
truck shipments of gift fruit. New forms and handling procedures for these
permits resulted in much tighter control over the shipments. Issued were
139 permits for interstate movement of fruit for processing, seven for
charitable shipments, and two for experimental packs of concentrated orange
juice. Only 25 experimental container permits were issued as result of
action the previous year tightening restrictions on use of other than ap-
proved containers. Special authorization was granted 23 shippers to per-
mit use of inventories of discontinued containers.
Mail totalled 362, 000 packages and letters in addition to merchandis-
ing display pieces sent directly to food stores and Commission field men.
More efficient handling procedures and a bulk mailing permit resulted in
postage savings of about $4, 800. Total postage dropped $8,000 below the
1962-63 figures, despite a 30 per cent increase in rates. The assembling,
packaging and mailing of school material increased by over a half million
pieces to 1,065,000. Total reproductions made and assembled, including
regulations, bulletins, notices of meetings, etc., were 2,792,270 copies.
RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES
FOR FISCAL PERIOD
JULY 1, 1963 TO JUNE 30, 1964
Cash Balance July 1, 1963
RECEIPTS: From All Sources
$ 10,099,191. 59
Furniture and Equipment
General Revenue Fund
Merchandising and Promotions:
Salaries and Expenses of Adver-
tising and Merchandising
Force, In-Store Promotions, etc.
Point of-Sale Materials
Public Relations and Publicity
New York World's Fair
Newspapers, Magazines, Tele-
vision, Radio, Outdoor and
CASH BALANCE JUNE 30, 1964
ORANGE EMERGENCY RESERVE FUND
JUNE 30, 1964
20% of Orange Tax collected in 1963-64 Season
$ 861,132. 18
PACK OF FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTS
Single Strength Juices, Sections and Salads
(1,000 cases, 24/s's)
Grft. Grft. Orange Blended Tang. Citrus Total
Sections Juice Juice Juice Juice Salad Pack
1953-54 4,332 14,882 17,790 6,402 801x 875xx 45,082
1954-55 5,244 10,784 16,518 4,994 429x 810xx 38,779
1955-56 4,759 12,805 15,500 5,265 556x 719xx 39,604
1956-57 4,518 ,12,464 16,828 5,188 715x 591xx 40,304
1957-58 4,179 9,484 17,846 4,885 303x 476xx 37,173
1958-59 4,572 10,093 13,259 4,217 766x 590xx 33,497
1959-60 4,004 9,323 15,128 4,382 229x 523xx 33,589
1960-61 4,325 9,130 10,797 3,100 553x 355xx 28,260
1961-62 4,664 8,907 15,423 3,248 215x 468xx 32,925
1962-63 2,613 8,864 11,212 3,117 317x 88xx 26,211
1963-64 1i 3,062 5,143 7,682 2,416 221x 456xx 18,980
Frozen Processed Frozen Frozen Frozen Processed Processed Total
Orange Orange Grft. Tang. Blend Grft. Bid. & Tang Pack
1953-54 65,531 1,339 1,656 443 965 55 69,989
1954-55 64,686 1,531 1,155 877 561 32 68,842
1955-56 70,224 1,086 2,512 619 954 31 25 75,426
1956-57 72,012 1,801 2,949 793 597 59 32 78,211
1957-58 57,151 1,149 3,330 147 507 108 62,392
1958-59 79,911 547 4,952 1,152 690 165 188 87,417
1959-60 78,149 378 1,613 320 284 27 80,771
1960-61 84,298 154 3,841 1,406 255 20 21 89,995
1961-62 116,082 278 3,163 1,370 267 116 h 121,280
1962-63 51,648 54 2,323 204 53 36 21 54,339
1963-64 1/ 53,674 41 2,573 1,145 130 21 57,584
Citrus Feed 2/ Citrus Molasses
Season (tons) (tons)
1953-54 287,832 52,690
1954-55 262,474 48,934
1955-56 297,254 41,621
1956-57 296,575 59,850
1957-58 291,537 36,161
1958-59 320,588 43,823
1959-60 284,105 29,454
1960-61 320,481 33,082
1961-62 419,745 54,751
1962-63 311,104 30,833
1963-64 1/ 195,168 25,535
/ Includes meal, pulp and pellets
Source: Florida Canners' Association
x Includes tangerine juice and blends
xx Includes orange sections
UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA CITRUS CROP
000 bxs. 000 bxs. dollars 000 bxs. dollars 000 bxs. mil. dollars
1953-54 91,300 27,846 1.39 62,904 1.20 550 114.2
1954-55 88,400 27,157 1.42 60,693 1.35 550 120.4
1955-56 91,000 25,566 1.86 64,884 1.85 550 167.4
1956-57 93,000 24,116 1.69 68,234 1.31 650 129.5
1957-58 82,500 18,107 2.00 63,843 2.18 550 175.7
1958-59 86,000 16,837 2.78 68,513 2.89 650 244.8
1959-60 91,500 20,765 2.02 70,070 1.94 665 178.1
1960-61 86,700 16,770 3.15 69,240 2.89 690 256.0
1961-62 113,400 20,915 2.05 91,710 1.84 775 211.6
1962-63 74,500 11,680 3.41 62,245 2.58 575 200.4
1963-64 (b) 58,300 12,825 4.61 44,835 4.51 640 261.0
1953-54 (a) 42,000 20,451 .86 20,089 .11 160 19.8
1954-55 34,800 18,996 .95 15,644 .24 160 21.8
1955-56 38,300 19,182 .92 18,648 .20 160 21.6
1956-57 37,400 18,187 1.36 19,053 .44 160 33.1
1957-58 31,100 14,544 1.37 16,396 .63 160 30.3
1958-59 35,200 16,479 1.36 18,561 .75 160 36.4
1959-60 30,500 16,032 1.31 14,308 .76 160 31.9
1960-61 31,600 15,726 1.24 15,714 .66 160 30.0
1961-62 (a) 35,000 17,811 1.06 16,809 .26 180 23.2
1962-63 30,000 13,913 2W02 15,962 .55 125 36.9
1963-64 (b) 26,300 14,539 2.66 11,581 1.81 180 59.6
1953-54 (a) 5,000 3,392 2.10 1,038 .05 70 7.1
1954-55 (a) 5,100 3,725 1.78 1,105 .06 70 6.7
1955-56 (a) 4,700 3,449 2.23 981 .15 70 7.8
1956-57 4,800 3,271 2.31 1,259 .22 70 7.8
1957-58 2,100 1,729 2.86 351 .10 20 5.0
1958-59 (a) 4,500 2,635 2.42 1,595 .30 70 6.9
1959-60 (a) 2,800 2,089 3.26 541 .00 70 6.8
1960-61 (a) 4,900 3,242 2.18 1,588 .15 70 7.3
1961-62 4,000 2,695 2.72 1,235 .55 70 8.0
1962-63 2,000 1,580 3.63 400 .61 20 6.0
1963-64 (b) 3,600 2,397 4.20 1,133 1.85 70 12.2
(a) Difference between "total production" and actual utilization represented by economic
Source: Statistical Reporting Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture
CITr RUS COMMISSION N