Front Cover
 Commission members
 Medical Advertising
 Youth and school service
 Economic and market research
 Back Cover

Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075981/00012
 Material Information
Title: Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee?
Creation Date: 1961
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000863394
oclc - 01327786
notis - AEG0106
lccn - 50063588
System ID: UF00075981:00012

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Commission members
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Medical Advertising
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Youth and school service
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Economic and market research
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text


Citrus Commission

Annual Report

C. A-


Commission Members Serving During
the 1961-1962 Fiscal Year

Key Scales, Jr., Chairman
Sam A. Banks, Vice Chairman
J. R. Bynum
Albert Carlton
Frank Chase
Vernon L. Conner
Herbert S. Massey
Cope Newbern
Paul Robertson
Bruce W. Skinner
Robert Snively
Kingswood Sprott

Mount Dora
Dade City
Vero Beach
Winter Haven
Lake Wales



Bruce W. Skinner, Chairman
Sam A. Banks
Vernon L. Conner


Herbert S. Massey, Chairman
J. R. Bynum
Albert Carlton
Paul Robertson
Robert E. Snively


Sam A. Banks, Chairman
Frank Chase
Herbert S. Massey
Bruce W. Skinner

Herbert S. Massey
Cope Newbern
Kingswood Sprott


Frank Chase, Chairman
J. R. Bynum
Cope Newbern
Bruce W. Skinner
Robert E. Snively


Bruce W. Skinner, Chairman
Sam A. Banks
Herbert S. Massey
Kingswood Sprott


J. R. Bynum, Chairman
Sam A. Banks
Frank Chase
Cope Newbern

Herbert S. Massey, Chairman
Vernon L. Conner
Bruce W. Skinner
Robert E. Snively



Key Scales, Jr.

Sam A. Banks
Vice Chairman

Bruce W. Skinner


Kingswood Sprott
Kingswood Sprott

Paul Robertson

J. R. Bynum


C. D. Newbern

Robert E. Snively

Herbert S. Massey

Frank Chase

.\I 6


N A sharp increase in the size of the orange crop
highlighted the 1961-62 Florida citrus season. The
long-anticipated million-box production was finally
realized, the final harvestbeing 113,400,000 boxes.
This compared with 86,700,000 boxes in the previ-
ous season, or a 30 per cent increase.
The 1961-62 grapefruit harvest was 35,000,000
boxes, and the tangerine crop was 4,000,000 boxes.
Homer E. Hooks These combined to make this the largest citrus
General Manager production for any se as on in Florida' s history and
easily maintained our position as the principal cit-
rus producing area in the nation and the world. We
produced83 per cent of the United States citrus
crop in 1961-62, and 33 per cent of the world pro-
Despite this jump in production, consumer de-
mand for citrus fruit and products continued steady,
and growers received about $220,000,000 for their
The r e p o r t which follows describes thoroughly
the many program s of the Commission during the

year. Here are a few of the more significant matters of Commission busi-

The Commission heard presentations by seven consumer agencies,
bidding for the citrus account. Ultimately, the account was divided, with
oranges retained by Benton & Bowles, Inc., and grapefruit and miscellan-
eous varieties going to Campbell-Ewald Company.
A resolution was sent to all shippers and processors urging that
the word "FLORIDA" be put on all fruit and labels in order to identify our
product to the consumer and take full advantage of the Commission's ad-
vertising and merchandising.
S. A regulation was adopted prescribing procedures for registration
of producers and method of conducting referendums under the Florida Cit-
rus Stabilization Act. Producers' names and addresses were compiled
from various sources for use in any referendum under the Act.
A statement of policy and procedure for conducting advertising
and merchandising programs was adopted and issued.'
A research conference on grapefruit product development
recommended,and the Commission approved, a series of market and
feasibility surveys on several new grapefruit products.
Specific market testing was initiated on a new "double-strength"
grapefruit juice drink.
.. A Space Food Technology Center was proposed to be established
in Florida, taking advantage of the State's highly developed food process-
ing technology and its space science industry.
A contract was entered into with the United States Department of
Agriculture for cooperative research with the Florida Citrus Research
Foundation on root-stock research and development.
Again with the United States Department of Agriculture, a con-
sumer taste-test on canned single strength orange and grapefruit juices
was begun in Germany.
The Commission continued to protest strongly to the Federal
Trade Commission the advertising of the synthetic product "Tang," which
consumer surveys and grocery store advertisements demonstrated to be
misleading both to consumers and the trade.
Testimony was made before Congressional Committees on the
Trade Expansion Act of 1962 to provide adequate protection for United
States agricultural export industries in tariff and non-tariff negotiations
with foreign countries.
The Commission called on the concentrate industry to consider
seriously a change to a higher density product, improving the product,
utilizing more fruit, and providing a "new" advertising and merchandis-
ing appeal.
Authority was given to the Chairman and General Manager to
enter into contractual agreements with processors for special promo-
tions to be paid for and approved by processors, and administered by the
New research projects were approved to develop chemical
treatments to help remove fruit from the trees for improved harvesting,

and to screen chemicals that might be useful in reducing acidity in grape-
A comprehensive report was issued on citrus opportunities in
Europe, and especially Great Britain, with particular reference to Com-
mon Market and tariff considerations.
These comprise a few highlights of Commission actions and
programs undertaken in 1961-62. I urge you to read the following report
for a much more detailed description of these operations, all designed
with the single objective of promoting the prosperity and well-being of the
Florida citrus industry.
If you have any questions with respect to this report, or if you
desire information not contained herein, please do not hesitate to contact
us at our Lakeland headquarters.

omer Hokse
General Manager


Homer E. Hooks, General Manager
Robert C. Evans, Director of Administration
Dr. William E. Black, Director of Economic and Market Research
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research
Frank D. Arn, Director of Advertising and Merchandising
Walter J. Page, Director of Public Relations
Ralph M. Henry, Merchandising Manager
Harold S. Gardner, Advertising Manager
Ted L. Hodson, Manager of Youth and School Service
John E. O'Reilly, Production Manager
H. Milton Maclin, Manager of Special Promotions
Clyde P. May, Assistant Director of Public Relations
*Jack Matthews, Information Specialist
**LeRoy Mobley, Statistician
D. B. Kibler III, Legal Counsel, Lakeland

*Employed August 6, 1962
**Employed October 22, 1962

Good News! Fresh Florida's are Back!
C .... ... F orTda
Almost twice the
fresh juice
for your money!

All these oranges are picked
Coollq. rfihinSilhB eulfe and squeezed for every quartof -
&esyonL fie tuiC VImnChilled Orange Juice from F/or.a
especyalb n.-- 55-nS _--- -,b .h. i summer.




WEEK! 'goo

__ W.- .- VITAMINS AND MINERALS... 3. QUICK ... -,---
FLORiDA-:- -


The advertising program for the crop year 1961-
62, prepared and placed by Benton & Bowles, Inc.,
was varied and extensive, covering consumer ad-
vertising in the United States, a specially adapted
consumer campaign in Canada, trade advertising
in the United States and Canada, institutional ad-
vertising, plus a gift fruit shippers campaign.
The program, which was approved by the Com-
mission and the Staff, totaled $3,519,000. It was
budgeted into two distinct campaigns:
(a) A summer campaign, July 1 through Octo-
ber 31, totaled approximately $350,000, and
(b) A major campaign, November 1 through
June 30, which utilized the lar g e r share of
funds, $3,169,000.
The authorized advertising fund was all o c ated
by product on a per centage basis consistent with
each product' s contrib u t i on to the Florida Citrus
Commission total income.

The detailed breakdown is as follows:

Fresh Oranges/Temples
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Chilled Orange Juice
Fresh Grapefruit
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Canned Grapefruit Sections
Frozen Grapefruit Juice

Florida Citrus Commission gross
crop year in consumer media were as

$ 401,154

Per Cent
of Total
46. 1
5. 8
5. 1
5. 6

advertising impressions during the


Sunday Supplements
Daily Newspapers


Network Programs
Local Spot Commercials

Total Impressions

Total Impressions





Marketing Objectives
The primary marketing objectives were to generate greater consumer
demand for all Florida citrus products and increase retail sales at price
levels profitable to the grower and processor.
Considerations in the attainment of the marketing objectives were:
(a) Maintenance of the highest possible level of per capital consump-
tion of all Florida citrus products.
(b) Increasing the consumer awareness and acceptance of all Florida
citrus products.
(c) Broadening the total market for all Florida citrus products.

Basic Advertising Objectives
The basic advertising objective continued to be the presentation of
Florida citrus as a commodity, i. e. selling the basic value of, and
need for, citrus products.
Individual campaigns were created for each product, selling the ad-
vantages of its specific form while at the same time effecting a family
relationship among all product campaigns.
Much of the processed advertising utilized the symbolic fresh pro-
duct in the background, helping to establish the family similarity.

Television commercials emphasized the tropical atmosphere of Florida
as a symbolic emblem of the origin of the product.

Orange Copy Strategy
The advertising of processed orange juice products featured the de-
licious taste and refreshing qualities of the product, specifically quick
energy and Vitamin C. Additional consumption beyond breakfast was en-
couraged through promotion of an orange juice "break" for children.
Fresh orange advertising capitalized on the competitive advantages of
the Florida orange using the theme "Get The Florida Bonus almost twice
the fresh juice for your money. Additionally, the advertising served to
announce the availability of fresh Florida oranges.
In both fresh and processed orange juice advertising, appetite appeal
was achieved through illustration of a delicious glass of orange juice. In
processed juice copy, continued emphasis was placed on the satisfaction
found only with "the real thing genuine orange juice. "

Grapefruit Copy Strategy
Advertising of fresh grapefruit concentrated on establishing the spe-
cial goodness of the available product through the "vintage crop" theme
and "tropical delights for cold days" recipes. Secondary emphasis was
given to the "50 calorie" diet advantages of grapefruit. Additionally, the
grapefruit spoon was featured in some ads.
Canned grapefruit juice was recommended to the consumer on the
basis of its strength as a cold preventative. Grapefruit juice concentrate
advertising featured the taste qualities of this new product form, and
grapefruit sections were promoted as a "best fruit buy" ingredient for de-
licious recipes.

Media Strategy
The objectives of the Florida citrus media plan were predicated upon
(a) the distribution and sales pattern of the products involved, and (b) the
market profile of the products in terms of consumers, i.e. who they
are, where they live, age, income, etc.
The strategy during the 1961-62 crop year called for:
(a) A degree of concentration in a media that provided the greatest im-
pact for both orange and grapefruit advertising.
(b) Presenting the sales message primarily to a dual audience.
(c) Enabling a degree of flexibility to permit maximum exposure of
each product in keeping with its seasonal distribution and budget.

Magazines continued to be the primary medium for telling the Florida
citrus story for a variety of reasons, including:
(a) Compatible Editorial Matter The context of the magazines, in
giving information, entertainment, etc. provides an excellent
background for telling the educational commodity story.
(b) Prestige The degree to which readers regard the magazine
translates into the relative acceptance for the advertiser's pro-

(c) Deep Impact The opportunity for presenting the Florida citrus
sales message in appetite appealing full color provides strong im-
pact and lasting impressions upon the reader.
(d) Audience Selectivity The nature of the magazine's editorial for-
mat attracts a definite and selective type of reader, enabling its
choice to fit the marketing profile of the product being advertised.
(e) Flexibility Most of the magazines break up their circulation into
regional editions, i.e. specific geographic areas, providing the
opportunity to custom build the circulation to fit the marketing
characteristics of each citrus product.
The breakdown of products and magazines during the crop year was as

Issue Date
August 4
September 8
October 6
November 3
November 10
November 11
November 11
November 24
December 1,
December 5
December 5
December 9
January 27
January 27
February 27
February 27
April 14
May 11
May 26
May 26
June 19
June 22


Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Chilled Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice

Daily Newspapers
Florida citrus products were advertised in daily newspapers at the
peak of their seasonal drive periods. Marketing information such as un-
load data provided the means to choose the newspaper markets. The use
of newspapers permitted deep local impact of the advertising message,
enabling the retail trade to tie in with their own advertising.
Two-color ads were used in major markets to enhance the sales mes-
sage, with black and white ads appearing in lesser markets. The size of
the two-color markets varied among products depending upon funds avail-

Three major insertions were scheduled for fresh oranges, with the
list extending as high as 97 papers in 87 markets. Later in the season,
special insertions for Valencias ran only in key markets.
Frozen orange juice advertising had three insertions with the list in-
cluding 51 newspapers in 29 key markets.
Three insertions were scheduled for chilled orange juice with the
list including 11 papers in 11 selected markets.
A tangerine advertisement appeared in a list of 105 newspapers in 94
Three insertions were scheduled for fresh grapefruit with the list ex-
tending as high as 92 newspapers in 79 markets. A special insertion also
appeared in eight newspapers in seven west coast markets.
One insertion appeared for frozen grapefruit juice in seven newspapers
in seven major markets.
Two insertions appeared for grapefruit sections in 42 newspapers in
35 selected markets.
A temple orange advertisement was scheduled in 18 newspapers in 13
selected markets.

Sunday Newspaper Supplements
Florida citrus products were scheduled in Sunday supplements because
their urban circulation fitted marketing profiles of several products. Their
dual readership and higher readership of ad advertising were important
factors, also.
The breakdown of products and Sunday supplements used during the crop
year was as follows:

Is sue Date Publication
July 16 This Week
September 10 Parade
November 12 This Week
November 19 First 3 Markets
December 3 First 3 Markets
December 10 Parade
December 10 American Weekly*
First 3 Markets
*(Eastern including Texas)
January 14 First 3 Markets
February 11 N.Y. Times, Mag. Section
February 25 N.Y. Times, Mag. Section
March 11 N.Y. Times, Mag. Section
March 11 First 3 Markets
March 11 Independent Supplements
March 25 N.Y. Times, Mag. Section
April 8 N.Y. Times, Mag. Section
April 22 N.Y. Times, Mag. Section
April 22 This Week
May 6 N.Y. Times, Mag. Section
May 20 This Week

Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Grapefruit Juice-
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice


Temple Oranges


Grapefruit Juice
Grapefruit Juice
Grapefruit Juice
Orange Juice
Orange Juice
Grapefruit Juice
Grapefruit Juice
Grapefruit Juice

Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Grapefruit Juice
Frozen Orange Juice

Issue Date Publication Product
May 20 N.Y. Times, Mag. Section Frozen Grapefruit Juice
June 3 N.Y. Times, Mag. Section Frozen Grapefruit Juice
June 10 First 3 Markets Chilled Orange Juice
June 10 Independent Supplements Chilled Orange Juice
June 24 First 3 Markets Frozen Orange Juice

The Florida Citrus Commission also used television for selected pro-
ducts. Daytime network was used primarily to reach the housewife audi-
ence, whereas nighttime spots were used for wider audience coverage in
markets east of the Mississippi.
There were five participation a week for 16 weeks on the CBS net-
work, covering approximately 145 markets. Commercials were rotated
in four shows, "Calendar," "I Love Lucy," "Video Village," and "Sur-
prise Package" (replaced by "Clear Horizons" later in the effort).
Five Florida citrus spots a week appeared on television in 37 major
markets east of the Mississippi for 16 weeks. Each market received two
20-second and three one-minute commercials a week, primarily in early
and late evening time spots.

Florida citrus advertising also appeared in Canada, following all of the
basic advertising and marketing concepts practiced in the United States.
Ads used in the United States were slightly revised by the Agency to con-
form to regulations of the Canadian Department of National Health and Wel-
fare. Distribution of many United States publications in Canada added to
the impact in that market.
Two Canadian magazines were used, Chatelaine (English and French
editions) and Maclean' s. Two French language newspaper supplements re-
ceived specially translated citrus ads, La Patrie and La Presse.
Daily newspapers were used for several products, enabling local retail
tie-ins. Nine insertions appeared in newspapers with lists ranging in cir-
culation from 756,500 to 3,264,600.
Two publications were also used to tell the Florida citrus story to the
trade, L'Epicier and Canadian Grocer.

Extensive trade advertising, in total 70 pages, was used to encourage
retailer, broker, and wholesaler support of Florida Citrus Commission
field merchandising efforts and to keep the trade informed regarding the
extensive consumer advertising support being given Florida citrus products.
The availability of merchandising material featuring fresh oranges,
fresh grapefruit, tangerines and temple oranges was advertised primarily
in The Packer, Produce News and Nargus Bulletin.
Frozen orange juice was advertised primarily in Frosted Food Field,
Frozen Food Age, Quick Frozen Foods and Supermarket News.
Other processed products were advertised in Chain Store Age, Pro-
gressive Grocer and Supermarket Merchandising.

Volume Feeding Market
The advantages of frozen orange juice, fresh grapefruit, chilled orange
and chilled grapefruit sections were promoted to restaurants, cafeterias,
hospitals, schools and other volume feeding establishments through pages
of recipe and food idea advertising in the March, April, May and June
issues of Fast Food, Restaurant Management and Volume Feeding Manage-
ment magazines.

Gift Fruit Shippers
Winter tourists to the State were reminded to "remember the folks
back home" by sending a gift basket of citrus fruit supplied by Florida
gift fruit shippers.
Small space ads appeared for approximately 14 weeks in the Miami
Herald twice a week and in This Week in Miami, a publication distributed
free to hotel and motel guests.

Florida Citrus Premium Offers
The Florida grapefruit spoon offer, included in most of the fresh grape-
fruit print advertising, continued to be an extremely popular premium
with consumers. Orders for the year were for more than 400,000 spoons,
swelling the grand total to nearly nine million spoons in the hands of the
The Lazy Susan juicer was offered in fresh orange print ads, with over
67,000 being ordered.

I~wr P sI~at.O APRIL 1962


MAY 1962 (Paco 569-712)

VOLUME 6 / NO. 4 APRIL 1896


PAGES 78~;C74

,JUrrE 196-'

JIVol. 1N6-

Vol. 62. No. 7 / April 1. 1962

March 1962 "
VOL. 62 NO. 5


Vh oomer Swok is important to You
lh Iomners

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April 1962

UAY5- 96 L91PA9ES 35.431

)NI/APRIL 14,/ 1962

PAG S 95-184

e Medical Association Vol. 55, No. 5

MAY 1962 PAGES 439-516

PAGES 375502

PAGES 01j 618

Vol. 62, No. 10 / May 15, 1962

May 1962--
May 1962
-- -- ^, -

Today's little "limey" needs a half barrel of orange juice

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0 The ultimate objective of the Florida Citrus
Commission's professional dve r t i s in g program,
handled for the second year by Cortez F. Enloe,
Inc., New York, is to encourage physicians and
members of the allied health professions to recom-
mend the increased use of Florida citrus products to
their patients, to use citrus products themselves,
and to lend support to claims made in the Commis-
sion's consumer advertising program.
The m e dic al advertising campaigns during the
past fiscal year concentrated on two themes a pri-
mary theme establishing a strong and favorable
image of Florida citrus products in the physician's
mind, and a special theme stressing the use of Flor-
ida cit r u s products in specific medical conditions.
The image building theme used full-color ad-
vertisements with high-styled photography to create
a vividimage of Florida citrus products andthe
Florida Citrus Commission. The advertising mes-
sages emphasized the quality of Florida citrus pro-
ducts, the work of the Commission, and that Florida

citrus fruits and juices are the preferred source for natural Vitamin C.
Human interest themes, such as the "Today's Little Limey" advertise-
ment shown on the title page, alternated with advertisements which fea-
tured quality control and other aspects of the Commission's work.
These general advertisements appeared frequently in the official pub-
lications of the American Medical Association, the American Dental As-
sociation, the American Nurses Association and the American Dietetic As-
sociation; in three outstanding large circulation national medical journals;
and in 54 selected State Medical journals and County Medical publications.
Three special advertisements individually highlighted the part that cit-
rus products can play in certain specific medical conditions. Based on
authoritative scientific opinion, these advertisements showed how citrus
products could be used as a rich source of potassium in potassium defi-
ciency conditions; how citrus products were the preferred way of providing
natural Vitamin C and other valuable nutrients in infant feeding; and how
orange juice could serve as a substitute for rich desserts and drinks in the
diet of young acne patients. These advertisements appeared in leading
medical journals received by specialists in the fields of pediatrics, derma-
tology and internal medicine.
Altogether, during the 1961-62 fiscal year, 450 insertions of the Com-
mission's medical advertisements appeared in 75 professional journals with
a combined circulation of over 1,500,000. This advertising schedule pro-
vided a potential exposure to the Florida citrus advertisements of over
9,500,000 impressions.
As in the previous fiscal year, these medical advertisements achieved
an outstanding measure of success as measured by readership research
studies. One important measure of the quality of medical advertising is the
Readex Reader Interest Survey which is conducted for the large circulation
national medical journal, "Modern Medicine." During the past year, Flor-
ida citrus advertisements, which appeared in eight issues of this journal,
ranked first in the Food and Beverage Category five times, second two
times, and third once. In comparing all advertisements appearing in the
eight issues, the studies showed that the Florida citrus advertisements con-
sistently received a higher average readership rating than the average for
all other advertisements. This demonstrated that the physician is inter-
ested in citrus products and that the campaign has been successful in reach-
ing the physician with information about Florida citrus products.

Professional Relations
As part of a continuing professional relations program, the agency's
Medical Department keeps close watch on medical matters affecting the cit-
rus industry and informs the Commission and its staff on current medical
opinion in areas of interest. The agency also keeps medical leaders informed
of the activities and programs of the Commission which are of interest to
the medical profession.
During the fiscal year the agency worked closely with members of the
Commission staff and with personnel of the Commission's consumer adver-
tising and public relations agencies.

The agency's Medical Department reviewed for medical accuracy
copy for consumer advertisements which included medical or related
health claims. The members of the agency's Medical Advertising Ad-
visory Council provided consultation and advice on a number of matters
affecting the Commission's advertising and research programs. This
group also continued to provide the Commission's staff with a "sounding
board" of medical opinion throughout the country.
The agency's Medical Department consulted with Commission person-
nel concerning the medical exhibit program and the agency's Medical
Director participated in the Commission's exhibit at the annual meeting of
the American Academy of General Practice.
An eight-page booklet, "Skin Care For Teen-Agers," was prepared in
cooperation with an outstanding specialist in the field of dermatology who
is a consultant to the agency. This brochure, designed primarily for dis-
tribution by physicians to patients, is written in a style which is easily
understood by young people. It presents common-sense rules for good
skin care and highlights the benefits which Florida citrus products can
provide for the teen-age skin. The brochure was shown at medical meet-
ings attended by the Commission's exhibit. The Commission received
numerous requests from physicians for quantities of the booklet for office

Medical Research Projects
In cooperation with the Commission's Director of Research, the
agency's Medical Director continued supervision of the special medical
research projects being carried out under Commission sponsorship. Dur-
ing the past fiscal year, three such studies have been underway. The ma-
jor study, "Orange Juice in the Treatment of Acne Conditions," was com-
pleted in January, 1962. Clinical records have been compiled on over 100
patients involved in the study program. Statistical compilation and analysis
of the results are now being completed. Preliminary analyses indicate
that valuable data and information have been obtained which will be meaning-
ful and of great use in providing a basis for consumer advertising in this
Currently two studies are in progress at Michigan State University under
the direction of Professor Van Huss. These studies, which are coordinated
and interrelated, will determine the "Effects of Vitamin C on Physical En-
durance. "
At the completion of each of the research projects, the results will be
included in scientific papers which will be published in professional jour-
nals. Reprints of these scientific articles will be available to the Commis-
sion for use in promotional programs.

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U One of the prime purposes for the organization
of the Florida Citrus Commission in 1935 was to
advertise and merchandise Florida citrus products
in all forms. After the first several national adver-
tising programs had been launched, industry leaders
felt that some plan should be devised forkeeping re-
tail organizations informed of the Commission's ad-
vertising program and an effort be made to have re-
tailers coordinate their advertising with that of the
Commission. To accomplish this purpose, a mer-
chandising department was set up by the Florida
Citrus Commission and hasbeen maintained ever
since. During the years that have intervened, this
department has grown from a two-man staff to a
large and effective merchandising staff of 66 men
operating in allof the principal markets of the
United States and Canada.
The purpose of the program is tomaintain a good
working relationship with the diffe r ent retail or-
ganizations that handle our products, keep them up

to date regarding Commission advertising schedules, and arrange for pro-
motions in their retail stores, and assist in any other way possible to in-
crease the sale of Florida citrus products in any form through these retail
The benefits of this type program have been recognized by all factors
in the citrus industry. It has been determined through contacts with these
retail organizations and through research surveys that the sale and usage
of Florida citrus products have been increased by such a program.
During the early days of the operation of the merchandising program,
heavy concentration of man power was in the eastern part of the United
States; however, during recent years the distribution pattern of our pro-
ducts has changed, and at the present time Commission representatives
cover practically every important retail market in the United States and
In the early days of the operation, all of the supervision of the merchan-
dising staff was handled through the Lakeland office. As the staff grew,
two division managers were employed to supervise the activities of the men
in the field. A year later, a third division manager was added, and during
the 1960-61 season, two more division managers were added to the staff.
In order to properly operate and supervise a staff of 66 men, the country has
been divided into five divisions. A division manager is in charge of each di-
vision, and a regional manager is in charge of the operation in each princi-
pal market. Merchandising representatives work under the supervision of
the regional managers. The Eastern Division consists of the Atlantic Coast
area and eastern Canada. The Central Division covers the central part of
the United States and central Canada. The Western Division consists of the
midwestern area of the'United States and Canada. The Southern Division
covers all the southern states from Oklahoma and Texas eastward, and the
Pacific Division consists of the area west of the Rocky-Mountains. At the
present time, our staff consists of five division managers, 38 regional mana-
gers, and 23 merchandising representatives. The merchandising repre-
sentatives are under the direct supervision of the regional managers, the
regional managers report to the division managers, and the division mana-
gers report directly to the Lakeland office.
It has been the policy of the Florida Citrus Commission, whenever pos-
sible, to employ merchandising men from the State of Florida. Many of
these men are graduates of Florida agricultural schools, with a major in
citrus or marketing. If qualified representatives are not available from
within the State of Florida, an effort is made to find men in the respective
markets who have a good merchandising background and are capable of con-
ducting the program in these respective markets. Each man is thoroughly
trained before being assigned to his market.
During the course of each year much information is channeled to mem-
bers of the merchandising staff in order to keep them informed of the activi-
ties within the citrus industry itself. Constant communications are main-
tained between field representatives and the Lakeland office. Division meet-
ings are conducted from time to time, at which time the men are brought
up to date on all advertising and promotional activities, and a definite plan
of operation is outlined to them. It is felt that this is very necessary in

order to maintain a coordinated program and hold the interest of the repre-
sentatives who are working'in remote areas from the headquarters office.
The duties of the merchandising staff cover a wide scope of operations.
These duties change from year to year in order to keep abreast with the
rapid change in marketing plans of the modern retail organizations. Through
chain store headquarters they arrange for promotions on different citrus
products, work out all phases of the promotion, order point-of-sale display
material to be used in this connection, and then carry this through to the re-
tail level. During the past season, Commission representatives built
28,480 citrus displays in retail stores. It has been determined by surveys
that a large percentage of retail buying is impulse buying. If Florida citrus
products are well displayed and properly priced in the retail stores, Mrs.
Housewife will be attracted to these products and spend a portion of her
food dollars for citrus products.
In addition to the work with the retail stores, Commission representa-
tives contact auction companies in the terminal markets, fresh fruit whole-
salers, brokers, receivers, frozen food distributors, hotel and restaurant
organizations, and drug and fountain groups in order to keep all factors
properly informed regarding our advertising and merchandising schedules.
In addition to the above contacts, efforts have been made, whenever pos-
sible, to contact and work with the institutional trade; however, this is a
specialized field, and our activities, with the present staff, have been
During the 1961-62 season, merchandising representatives of the Flor-
ida Citrus Commission made a total of 106, 577 calls on different types of
organizations. In order to cover their respective territories they traveled
a total of 1, 385, 720 miles. During this same year they conducted 868 live
in-store demonstrations in which different types of citrus products were
sampled to the retail store customers. Some 1,624 give-away promotions
were conducted at the retail level in which the consumer received an award
at the close of a promotional period. Such demonstration and give-away
programs have proved to be most successful and are well accepted by the
retail food organizations throughout the country.
In addition to the demonstration program, 387 prize and premium pro-
motions were conducted. This is an incentive plan through which cash,
bonds, and other prizes and premiums are offered to personnel of the dif-
ferent retail organizations for outstanding jobs of promoting, displaying,
and selling Florida citrus and citrus products. This is the third year that
this type of promotional program has been used, and it has been proven
that it is one of the most successful methods of increasing the sale of Flor-
ida citrus products through retail organizations.
At the beginning of each fiscal year, a program of planned promotions
is arranged by the Florida Citrus Commission. During the 1961-62 season
four major promotional activities were conducted. A brochure outlining
each of these is produced through the Lakeland office and distributed to
some 10,000 top level personnel of retail organizations throughout the
United States and Canada well in advance of the promotional period. The
brochure outlines the details of each promotion, indicating the advertising

and merchandising activities supplied by the Florida Citrus Commission to -
support each event. It also illustrates the type of point-of-sale display ma-
terial to be used in the promotion and pictures of model displays suitable
for retail stores. Support for each one of these promotional activities is
solicited by the field representatives of the Florida Citrus Commission well
in advance of the promotional date and arrangements made to supply them
with point-of-sale display material kits for in-store use. This type of
activity has been well received by the retail trade. The planned promotions
are supplemented from time to time in different markets by special promo-
tions on citrus products that are in plentiful supply. Many of these special
promotions have proved to be most successful and are well accepted by the
trade factors.
During the course of each year's activities, certain special events are
planned and carried through to completion. Each of these programs is
planned well in advance and conducted by the field representatives in the
market to which it applies. The following is a list of those conducted dur-
ing the 1961-62 season.

Tangelo Promotion
Merchandising activities were conducted in 25 major markets to sup-
port the sale of Florida tangelos. Special point-of-sale display material
was produced by the Florida Citrus Commission for this product. In-
store demonstrations and prize and premium incentive programs were
used to create interest at the retail level.

Tangerine Promotion
As in previous years, the Florida Citrus Commission worked in close
cooperation with the staff of the Florida Tangerine Co-operative. Tan-
gerine promotions were conducted in many of the principal markets through-
out the United States and Canada with satisfactory results. Special point-
of-sale display material was produced by the Florida Tangerine Co-opera-
tive to supplement the use of the material supplied by the Florida Citrus
Commission. In addition to this material, the Florida Citrus Commission
purchased 5,000 glass tangerine bowls which were used as a give-away
premium at the retail store level. This type of promotional activity
proved to be most successful. It was hoped that by presenting this bowl to
Mrs. Consumer that she would continue to purchase fresh fruit for her
home and make the fresh fruit bowl a permanent fixture in her home. To
tie in with this promotion, several of the packers in Florida purchased
fruit bowls and supplied them to their handlers in the northern markets.

Temple Orange Promotion
Florida Temple oranges have become a popular fruit in many markets
throughout the United States and Canada. Special promotions were ar-
ranged with many trade factors to promote this product. Advertising
schedules were carried in major markets. Special point-of-sale display
material was supplied, and many attractive displays were built in retail
stores, with results reported to be unusually good.

Special Valencia Promotion
When the Florida Valencia orange crop was at the peak of its goodness,
Florida Citrus Mutual provided the Commission with $25, 000 for special
promotional activities on this product. This special promotion was con-
duced in New York, Philadelphia, Washington, Baltimore, Hartford, and
Boston. The money was spent for prize and premium promotions and an in-
tensive demonstration program. Excellent cooperation was received from
all retail organizations in these markets, and the movement of Valencia
oranges was increased by a large percentage.

Special "Grapefruit Display" Contest
At the peak of the grapefruit season, the Florida Citrus Commission ar-
ranged for a special "Grapefruit Display" contest in which $10,000 worth
of prizes were offered to 153 winners. The first prize was the choice of a
Ford or Chevrolet automobile. Second prize was a Falcon or Corvair, and
third prize was a trip to Florida for two, plus 150 cash prizes. Some 4,250
display pictures were entered in the contest. A team of competent judges
reviewed the pictures and awarded the prizes. Fine cooperation and sup-
port was received from retail organizations throughout the United States and
Canada in connection with this program, and many of the contestants re-
ported that their sales were increased by a large percentage during the pro-
motional period.

The Florida Citrus Commission has for many years participated in
major conventions relating to the food, health, and dietetic fields. Booth
space is purchased and an attractive display is built depicting some phase
of Florida citrus activity. Through participation in this type of convention
we have been able to sample citrus products to many thousands of inter-
ested people in the United States and Canada. During the 1961-62 season
we participated in the following conventions: Food, 8; Dietetic and Home
Economics, 2; Hotel and Restaurant, 4; Medical, 4; School, 2; Florida Cit-
rus Exposition, 1; and Florida Industrial Exposition, 1. In addition to
participation in the above, it has been the policy of the Florida Citrus Com-
mission to serve orange juice to all national conventions which hold their
meetings in the State of Florida. Orange juice was served as a courtesy
to 113 such conventions during the past year. It is felt that participation
in this type of activity builds much good will for Florida citrus products.

European Program
The 1961-62 season started the sixth year of participation in an adver-
tising and promotional program in Western Europe. The Commission's
budget was $193, 000, of which $125, 000 was used for consumer and trade
advertising. In support of the advertising program, specially prepared
display materials were made available in the language of the countries in
which the advertising ran. Again the Commission's program was supple-
mented by the sum of $105,000 by the United States Department of Agri-
culture, under the provisions of Public Law 480. The activities for ad-
vertising and promoting fresh, canned and frozen Florida citrus products

were in the countries of Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Holland,
Sweden, Norway and Switzerland. Germany and Sweden continue to be the
best customers. Therefore allocations of funds were heavier in these two
countries. During the latter part of the harvesting season, we were able
to promote fresh grapefruit in England and fresh oranges in Finland.
Another great potential was shown.in the expansion and marketing of frozen
orange concentrate from Florida. There has been an increase of frozen
cabinets in retail food stores and shops, plus a substantial increase of re-
frigerators in many of the countries, especially Sweden.
The European advertising program was carried out by Benton & Bowles,
Ltd. of London, with affiliates in Stockholm, Sweden; Brussels, Belgium;
Paris, France; Frankfurt, Germany; Geneva, Switzerland; and Oslo, Nor-
way. The affiliates handle all trade and consumer advertising in their
respective countries. The Commission continues to maintain a European
merchandising representative who coordinates all promotional programs
with the agencies and trade factors. Most all of the agencies handle the
preparation of merchandising materials and coordinate them with the ad-
vertising program.
The Commission stepped up its sampling program at the retail level
and conducted more than 500 individual store sampling promotions. The
demonstration program was proven highly successful in increasing the de-
mand for frozen orange concentrate. All demonstration programs are set
up by the Florida Citrus Commission's European merchandising repre-
sentative, along with additional support by the advertising agencies' per-
sonnel. Specially prepared educational leaflets were distributed by
demonstrators where sampling activities were in progress. The Com-
mission has received many thousands of requests for additional leaflets to
be distributed among schools and other institutions.
Throughout the year the Commission conducted special luncheons for
the important trade factors, including importers, wholesalers, distribu-
tors and individual retailers. Approximately 300 trade people have had
the opportunity of getting first-hand knowledge of the Florida citrus in-
dustry's operation, and saw the current advertising and merchandising
Participation in major Food Fairs continues to be an important phase
of the Commission's European activities. In three of the International
Food Fairs, the Citrus Commission participated jointly with other United
States agricultural products. This was done through coordination with
the United States Department of Agriculture. In addition, the Commission
had its own display and sampling of products in seven large local Food
Fairs, including Munich, Germany; Paris, France; The Hague, Holland;
Brussels, Belgium; Copenhagen, Denmark; Hamburg, Germany; and
Stockholm, Sweden. It was at the Hamburg Fair that red and pink grape-
fruit from Florida was first introduced. From the excellent reception,
an extended promotional program was developed for the Ruhr Valley in
Germany. Because of the success of this promotion, the Commission
will extend its advertising and merchandising activities on red and pink
grapefruit into other countries. The format of the promotion followed the
same pattern as used domestically in the United States, which included

sampling, demonstrations, and offering of special incentive rewards to re-
In view of the general trend toward greater liberalization and more
free trading of commercial products between the United States and Western
Europe, the Commission's advertising and merchandising program will
continue to develop greater interest in the marketing of citrus crops through-
out all of the Western European countries. Merchandising activities will
also continue to carry a paramount role in the over-all program.

Media Relations
It has been the policy of the Florida Citrus Commission for many
years to have representatives work in close cooperation with the different
media organizations carrying the Commission's advertising schedule.
Many publications maintain their own merchandising staffs and, in many
instances, these have given valuable merchandising assistance at the re-
tail level.

Concentrate Sampling
At the request of the Research Department of the Florida Citrus Com-
mission, the Commission field representatives have picked up samples of
frozen orange and grapefruit concentrates on a regularly scheduled basis
and shipped them to Florida to be tested for quality by the United States De-
partment of Agriculture. Sixty concentrate surveys have been conducted
during the course of this fiscal year. In addition to the sampling program,
the field representatives carry on a continuous program with the retail
organizations throughout the United States and Canada in an attempt to
promote better care and handling of frozen concentrates at the retail level.
Temperature tests are made in the retail stores from time to time, and
literature regarding better care and handling of frozen products is dis-
tributed at the retail level. Excellent cooperation has been received from
all trade factors in connection with this program, and it is generally felt
that such a program has been helpful in making the store personnel more
aware of the necessity of proper handling for frozen citrus concentrates.

Weekly Reports
Each Florida Citrus Commission field representative is required to
submit to the Lakeland office a weekly report. This report is in the form
of a market analysis covering movement, quality, appearance, and ac-
ceptance of Florida citrus products in the area which he covered during the
week. He also submits a range of retail prices for each particular pro-
duct and that of competitive products, along with a general condition report
of retail activities as far as our products are concerned. These reports
are edited, reproduced, and mailed to some 400 to 500 packers and ship-
pers in the Florida citrus industry. This market information is consid-
ered most beneficial to the industry.

Tools and Equipment
The field staff of the Florida Citrus Commission is provided with up-
to-date equipment with which to carry on promotional activities. This

equipment consists of juice bars, juice dispensers, shadow boxes for dis-
play purposes, turntables, etc. From time to time spectacular displays
are produced, installed in retail stores, and moved from time to time by
the field men. A complete.inventory is kept in'the Lakeland office of all
equipment in the possession of each field man. Every effort possible
has been made to keep the equipment of the field staff up to date and in
step with the progress which is being made from a merchandising stand-
point at a retail level.

In order to keep a complete record of the daily activities of each field
man, a tabulation card is provided which is used to report each individual
call. These cards are mailed to the headquarters office each day and.are
processed by region, type of call, work done in the individual store, and
each man's mileage for the day is reported on these cards and recorded in
the Lakeland office. At the end of each month's operation, a record of the
calls for each man is tabulated. This tabulation is broken down by the
type of call which he has made, such as super market, independent, whole-
saler, broker, receiver, etc. At the end of each year's operation, a sum-
mary of the complete operation of the field staff is compiled from the files
of each individual man. By following this method of operation, it can be
determined at all times whether or not.different segments of the trade are
being covered and, if not, means can be taken to correct the situation.

The service of the Merchandising Department of the Florida Citrus
Commission has been accepted with enthusiasm by the different trade fac-
tors throughout the country. These factors are continually contacting the
Commission's representatives for information regarding crop conditions,
crop quality, and details of our advertising and merchandising program.
All possible information regarding activities of the Florida Citrus Com-
mission and the Florida citrus industry is channeled to the merchandising
representatives in order that they can pass this information on to the trade
factors in an intelligent manner. The service which is offered to the retail
trade by the merchandising staff of the Florida Citrus Commission is well
received, and on many occasions it is necessary to allocate the time of
these representatives in order that all trade factors may be satisfied and
receive their rightful share of these services. It is the general consensus
of opinion from all information which has been received that this service
has been helpful to the retail organizations in moving larger quantities of
Florida citrus products and, in turn, showing a greater profit from their re-
tail operation.


Preparation, ordering, distribution and handling of retail store mer-
chandising and point-of-sale material are the principal activities of this De.
apartment, which enjoyed a record year as far as volume is concerned.
Most of the printed and rhanufactured items which comprise the ma-
terial used by the Merchandising Department field men for their store

displays are delivered to the warehouse in the Lakeland headquarters and
are distributed from that point to every part of the United States and
Canada. All of the educational materials utilized by the Youth and School
Service department are ordered through the Production Department.
No material is sent out unless it is requested in writing, either di-
rectly by the firm using it or by the merchandising representatives. The
field men are kept posted on supplies of the various designs by an inven-
tory sheet mailed out to them twice a month, and samples of newly de-
veloped materials are supplied to them upon delivery to the warehouse.
This past season, a total of 10,753,688 pieces of store display ma-
terial and informational literature were sent out to the retail food trade
and other allied industries. Packaging and preparation for shipping this
amount of material was a mammoth undertaking, amounting to 544, 196
pounds turned over to the United States Post Office, Railway Express, and
in some cases Air Freight when time is an important factor.
The Commission's merchandising activities enable the food retailer to
take full advantage of the consumer advertising program, and so the Pro-
duction Department must work hand in hand with the merchandising field
staff and the grocery trade. Frequent mailings are directed to a list of
more than 10, 000 of the important food outlets, advising them of the Com-
mission's advertising in their markets, and suggesting ways in which they
can benefit by this advertising. The mailing pieces contain self-addressed
order forms for the dealers to return and the display materials are then
assembled in kits for distribution by chain headquarters. During the 1961-
62 season, 247, 162 kits of material were prepared on request, each kit
containing from 10 to 25 posters, pennants and price cards.
Florida printers produced practically all of the printed display ma-
terial used by the Florida Citrus Commission, with the exception of a few
pieces which required special equipment not to be found in Florida. A total
of 165 individual printing jobs were ordered during the fiscal year, for
educational and merchandising distribution.
Supervision of the Florida Citrus Commission's educational film pro-
gram through a national film distributor is a major activity of this de-
partment, and thousands of civic clubs, church groups and schools
availed themselves of these services. Television showings of Commission
films continue to rise, with over 20,000,000 estimated viewers in the past
year being exposed to the Florida citrus story.
The Production Department supervises the Commission's mailing room
which disseminates industry and advertising information to shippers, pro-
cessors, publications and food outlets throughout the United States and
Canada. Some 273,000 pieces of mail were turned over to the Post Office
during the 1961-62 season. The mailing room also operates the duplica-
ting equipment, turning out essential bulletins and statistics for the in-
formation of the industry and the trade. More than 2,300, 000 impres-
sions were produced and mailed out in the course of the past year.


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1/4 cap sugar
i/ teaspoon salt
21/2 cp water, divided
1 can ( o(nceis frozen Florida orange Juiee
concentrate, thawed
1/2 cup tarragon vinegar
1 cup leftover diced chicken or
1 ean (5 ounces) clcen,Tlced
1/2 cap fliely cut celery
Mix gelatine, sugar and salt in saucepan. Stir In 1 cup of
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0 As the Florida Citrus Commission activity has
moved into high-gear with ever-increasing products
and crops to market and, with more avenue s and
areas to be reached, public relations thinking has
accelerated to include more influential activities s
than ever in the 26 year s which Dudley-Anderson-
Yutzy has represented the Commission.
The fact that the re has been consistency in the
publicity e ffo r t pays off more and more each year.
A library of well over 1, 000 food pictures and ap-
proximately 5,000 Florida citrus recipes means
that year by year more publicity is available and
in use, so that now there is scarcely a food column,
cookbook, textbook, or article on food that does not
contain strong recommendation for Florida citrus
Public relations is made up of myriad things,
often hard to describe or visualize. It includes
such vague aspects as reputation with teachers; con-
tacts with government a g e nci e s and other profes-
sional associations; reliability in the eyes of the

press in general; prestige among writers and editors; availability to do
work with other groups; know-how in staging events and affairs; and ver-
satility in providing writing, research development programs.
It is this experience in these many areas which has made it possible
for a broadened program into the larger area of public relations as the
state's industry has expanded.

As the country's oldest and best-known source of tested recipes,
Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy has obtained outstanding use of materials in news-
papers, magazines, company publications, radio and television, textbooks
and cookbooks.
This has resulted in unprecedented coverage for Florida citrus pictures
and recipes, which go to 471 top newspapers every month, to another 3,400
small-town dailies and weeklies, to more than 250 company publications,
to over 300 radio stations, and to more than 150 television stations.
Special efforts are directed year-round to magazine editors who take
their own pictures, but use Agency recipes and ideas; syndicated food
writers such as Cecily Brownstone of Associated Press, Gaynor Maddox of
National Education Association and Ida Bailey Allen of King Features; syn-
dicated radio and television writers; free-lance food writers like James
Beard, Poppy Cannon and Peggy Harvey; to the weekly magazine food edi-
tors -- Clementine Paddleford of This Week; Eleanor Crook who is the
Amy Alden of the American Weekly; Demetria Taylor who is the Beth Mer-
riam of Parade; Melanie DeProft of Family Weekly, Suburbia and All-
Florida Magazine.
Clippings sent in by food editors or accrued through other channels
show that for the year 1961-62, there were more than 20,000 readers for
every dollar expended in the food publicity program. This does not take
into account the additional millions reached through radio and television,
cookbooks, and the various other outlets for food publicity.
During 1961-62, citrus food color pictures occupied space in news-
papers which would have cost more than $120, 000 to purchase. These pic-
tures demonstrate the longevity of good, well-planned efforts. Right now,
color pictures made in 1947 are still being printed as more and more papers
put in color presses. The life of a good food picture is immeasurable.
The "Three-Minute Cookbook" films made some six years ago are still
getting wide usage, both on television and in the schools. Through 8, 816
school showings and 4,762 telecasts, the films reached an audience of more
than 150,000,000 last year.
Until this year, the institutional feeding field had been reached almost
exclusively by the Commission's publicity program. In May, revisions
were completed of the quantity recipes, and the third set of cards to be
printed in the past 13 years are now in circulation. This is a field where
much must be done intensively, and the citrus recipes are done to the speci-
fications of a highly-professional field which offers great sales potential.
Close contacts with such agencies as the United States Department of
Agriculture result in extra effort for citrus products through bulletins and
TV kits which include pictures and recipes supplied by the Agency.
A great deal of time is spent working with publicists and home econo-
mists of other food companies and associations, to insure inclusion of

Florida citrus recipes and ideas developed in Agency test kitchens.
The Agency has participated in many of the leading professional meet-
ings involving food publicity. The Newspaper Food Editors Conference --
where for 15 years the Commission has conducted the opening event; the
American Home Economics Association--for which the Commission co-
hosted a reception for new members; the American Women in Radio and
Television--the Commission hosted a dinner for the national chairman and
officers, who include Secretary-Treasurer Peggy Ware, agency home
economist; the Home Economists in Business; the American Dietetic Asso-
ciation; the Institutional Food Editors Conference; the National Farm Home
Editors Association; and the Public Relations Society of America.
To broaden the scope of activity and influence, considerable work was
done with department stores in staging Florida citrus spectaculars in
fashions and in foods, as conducted with B. Altman & Co. of New York,
where citrus was featured in eight departments as well as in the restau-
rant with special dishes each day and through individually planned food
demonstrations by authoritative specialists.


The Commission, in cooperation with Florida Power & Light Com-
pany, Miami; Florida Power Corporation, St. Petersburg; Tampa Elec-
tric Company, Tampa; Gulf Power Company, Pensacola; and the Hotpoint
Division of General Electric Company, Jacksonville; sponsored the Fourth
Annual All-Florida Orange Dessert Contest in which 3,072 contestants par-
ticipated. The Contest, under the direction of the Commission's Public
Relations Department, was launched initially three years ago and attracted
2, 301 entries the first year.
Preliminary and semi-final contests were conducted all over the State
by the Home Service Departments of the cooperating privately-financed
electric utilities. The Grand Finals, under the direction of the Commis-
sion, were again held in the Nora Mayo Auditorium of the Florida Citrus
Building in Winter Haven on April 12-13, 1962. Mrs. Farris Bryant,
charming wife of the Governor, was honored guest.
The Grand Championship Sweepstakes was won by Mrs. Irvin Wander
of Winter Haven. Her prizes consisted of appliances for an all-electric
kitchen. Second prize winner was Mrs. Vernon Wetherington of Jasper.
She won an electric washer and dryer. Third prize winner was Mrs. O. C.
Phelan of Miami Shores. She won a portable electric dishwasher. Mrs.
Mary Tsolas of Pompano Beach won honorable mention. First male
finalist in the history of the contest, Mr. Alfred S. Arnstam of Miami,
participated in the Grand Finals.
Nationally-known judges for the Grand Finals selected the winners.
They were Clementine Paddleford, food editor of This Week Magazine and
New York Herald-Tribune; Dorothy B. Marsh, director of food and cookery
for Good Housekeeping Institute; Glenna McGinnis, foods and equipment
editor of Woman's Day Magazine; Elizabeth A. Wood, associate editor for
foods and equipment, Better Homes & Gardens Magazine; and Richard B.
Baumgardner, owner of the Kapok Tree Inn in Clearwater.

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0 Since the Youth and School Service program
deals with the cons um er s of the next two or three
decades, the efforts and activities in which the pro-
gramparticipates aremost important to the future
of the citrus industry.
Many of the projects are executed by Dudley-
Anderson-Yutzy, food publicity agency, under the
administration of the C omm i s s ion staff, and. have
won the whole -hearted ap p r ova of the educational
community and social agencies.
Now two years old, the program is well known
around the country and several of the original Com-
mission projects, such as the 1961 Teen-age Nutri-
tion Breakfast in Grand Rapids, Michigan, have
been widely copied by other communities. (More
than 250 work outlines on staging such an event, pre-
pared by Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy, have be en dis-
The award in May to an outstanding t e a che r of
health education was made for the second year in

Georgia, where this department has worked in conjunction with a commit-
tee representing the State Department of Education, the State Home Eco-
nomics Association, Medical Society, Dental Society, Dietetics Associa.-
tion, Home Demonstration Agents, and Nutrition Council.
Health education workshops were staged in Maine and Massachusetts
under Florida Citrus Commission grants; many other states have requested
similar assistance as news of Florida's interest in this field spreads.
The national officers and chairmen of the National Home Demonstration
Agents Association were entertained during annual conventions in 1961 at
Boston and in 1962 at Chicago. These agents, comparable in influence to
the county agents, direct club activities from the 4-H level through PTA
and Women's Clubs.
Florida's participation in the National Youthpower Congress, an out-
growth of the National Food Conference, has increased in stature. Last
year the Commission helped send the Florida delegation of teen-agers to
Chicago for this important meeting, and one Florida representative was
runnerup as the outstanding teen-age girl at the Congress. As a result of
local participation and interest, a Florida committee has been formed to
activate participation in the 1963 Congress, under the auspices of the State
Department of Education. Also, as a result of the Health-Education pro-
jects in Georgia, that state has decided to engage actively in the Youth-
power Congress for the first time, and has asked advice and counsel from
Last spring a half-hour movie entitled "The Beauty Habit" was pro-
duced, directed primarily to teen-age girls through the charm schools con-
ducted by department stores, Girl Scouts, YWCA's and schools. The
"glamour" angle is stressed in the film, since this seems to garner far
more attention from teen-agers than strictly labeled nutrition information.
During the year, a great deal of time -and planning went into an event
which actually occurred after the close of the fiscal year, hut which, be-
cause of its importance, warrants reporting at this time. That was the
International Girl Scout Roundup at Button Bay, Vermont, during two
weeks of July, 1962.
Early in the year, the Girl Scout organization inquired about contribu-
tions of citrus juice and fruit. The possibility of selling orange juice in
the areas reserved for soft drink sales was investigated and after several
months, permission was granted. Through one of Florida's largest pro-
cessors, a salesman was obtained, along with a refrigerated truck and
specially packed eight-ounce containers of juice.
The response was immediate and reassuring, tangible from a sales
angle and proof of the inherent sales potential of Florida citrus products.
Teachers, school nurses, health departments of towns, cities and
counties and others in the field of influencing the youth of the nation are
constantly looking for materials to make instruction easier and more in-
teresting, insofar as teaching nutrition and good health is concerned. The
The program has endeavored to prepare and make available materials
that would encourage such use. Some new material has been developed,
including a very popular booklet, "The Good Ship Vitamin C," produced,
written and illustrated by noted cartoonist-ad specialist Don Herold.

Numerous workshops in the field of nutrition and health education have
utilized the material and films as program supplements.
The map that follows shows sources of requests for the educational ma-
terial. The quantity furnished increased 31 per cent over the previous year.



Flrida Citrn Cor
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0 During 1961-62 the Commission continued its
cooperative r e s e a r ch with the University of Flor-
ida's Citrus Experiment Station at Lake Alfred and
the United States Department of Agriculture Fruit
and Vegetable Products Laboratory at Winter Haven.
In addition, research in cooperation with the Flor-
ida State D e p a r tme nt of Agriculture was initiated
and the United States Department of Agriculture
Foundation Farm rootstock planting near Leesburg
was assisted financially. Also, a human nutritional
research project was placed at Michigan State Uni-
versity. Total funds expended were $347,000.
Research was continued in the areas of process-
ing and by-products, mechanization of citrus fruit
picking, the influence of freezing temperatures on
trees and fruit, decay control, fruit physiology and
maturity, and the production of dried citrus juices.
A study of the determination of "pounds-solids" in
citrus fruits was also undertaken.


I. Processing and By-Products

A. Pectin and Pectic Enzymes in the Fruit
and Processed Products of Citrus
Evaluations were made of the pectins from the component parts of
Valencia and Pineapple oranges at various states of maturity. Dis-
tribution of pectinesterase activity was also followed.
B. Volatile Flavor Components in Citrus Juices
and Processed Citrus Products
The flavor of orange juice was studied objectively through gas chro-
matographic analyses of concentrated natural essences, obtained com-
mercially, and specially recovered volatile components from juices
of established varieties of oranges.
Comparison of analyses of flavor and aroma components of Hamlin,
Pineapple, and Valencia orange juices revealed no significant qualita-
tive differences, but some relative quantitative compositional differ-
ences between juice varieties were observed with advancing maturity.
C. Production of Activated Citrus Sludge
The activated sludge system was kept in operation treating citrus
waste water. The system did an excellent job of treating all concen-
trations of waste within certain limits.
D. A Survey of the Characteristics of Commercial
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Flavor, stability and color were determined for 195 samples of com-
mercial frozen orange concentrate collected from 23 plants, during the
1960-61 season. These samples were graded by a taste panel and fla-
vor grades of "good" and "fair" were given to 43 and 56 per cent, re-
spectively; one per cent of the samples were graded "poor."
E. Effect of Citrus Components on Chemical and Physical
Properties of Frozen Citrus Concentrate
The effect of the use of different component parts of citrus fruit and
processing procedures on the characteristics and quality of frozen cit-
rus concentrates was studied.
F. Utilization of Freeze-Damaged Oranges in
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Properties of orange juices were determined after extraction from fruit
frozen on trees using a portable freezing chamber.
Changes occurred in the juices three days after freezing of the fruit
and became greater as the time between freezing and picking was in-
creased. After freezing of the orange, the acid content of the juices de-
creased, Brix/acid ratio increased, relative serum viscosity increased,
pulp content increased, redness increased, and the lightness or "milky
appearance" increased.
G. Microbiology of Frozen Oranges
The microbiological examination of juice from oranges frozen on trees
by means of a portable freezing unit was continued, and only one orange
with juice highly contaminated and one orange with moderate contamina-
tion were found after examination of 869 frozen oranges picked. Dropped
fruit which appeared sound were also examined, and 25 fruit out of 400
contained microorganisms.

H. Factors Affecting Stability of Frozen
Concentrated Orange Juice
The effects of pectinesterase (PE) activity, quantity of pectic substan-
ces, and degree of concentration on the stability of frozen concentra-
ted orange juice at temperatures above 0F. were again examined.
It was determined that 420 and 50. 70 Brix concentrates in which
the pectinesterase activity was present during concentration were less
stable during 400F. storage than those products to which PE activity
was added only in cutback juices.

II. Physiology of Fruit and Fruit Pigments

A. Organic Acids in the Juice Vesicles of Hamlin Oranges
The organic acids in the juice vesicles of Hamlin oranges at different
stages of fruit development were separated by ion exchange and paper
chromatography. Eight acids were observed, and five of these,
namely, citric, malic, quinic, succinic, and an unknown acid occurred
in sufficiently high amounts in various stages of fruit development to
be measured quantitatively.
B. Physiology of Pigments in Citrus Peel
Grapefruit:- Results of basic research on the natural degreening of cit-
rus under different holding temperatures were applied to commercial
shipments of grapefruit to overseas markets in cooperation with Ap-
shawa Groves. A total of 1,791 half-boxes of early green-colored
grapefruit was packed with minimum of packinghouse treatment and
no fungicidal treatment. The fruits were shipped to the ports of Ham-
burg, Rotterdam or Zurich under ventilation and arrived in Europe
with a good yellow color; degreening had taken place enroute. Decay
rates were less than 2. 5 per cent, and the experimental fruit were ac-
ceptable at auction as shown by the price received.
C. Fruit Physiology
Metabolic studies continued with the isolation of citrus mitochondria,
and the discovery that the enzyme, ascorbic acid oxidase, is present
in young orange fruit tissue.

III. Decay Control

During the 1961-62 season, 103 experiments were completed. Experi-
mental work included: (1) Testing 11 new methods of controlling de-
cay, none of which were effective. (2) Evaluating self-polishing fungi-
cidal water waxes.. (3) No significant difference in decay or rind
breakdown was found between oranges packed in wire-bound crates
and in ventilated cartons. (4) Curing Pineapple oranges two days re-
duced rind breakdown 71 per cent and decay 46 per cent over uncured
fruit allowed to stand two days before processing, while Valencia
orange fruits showed similar reductions of 94 per cent and 30 per cent.
(5) Comparison of decay control of oranges treated with Dowicide A-
Hexamine as a dip at three different temperatures gave no significant
results. (6) Rind breakdown increased in ungassed, color-added

oranges subjected to delayed handling before processing and packing,
while color-added oranges packed without delay showed no significant
increase in stem-end rind breakdown. (7) In oranges subjected to de-
layed handling before processing and packing, the longer the delay the
greater the amount of stem-end rind breakdown. (8) Oranges de-
greened at a high humidity or promptly handled were compared with
those degreened at a low humidity or subjected to delayed handling.
Average rind breakdown in the first case was 2. 7 per cent and in the
second 42. 7 per cent. Decay was again found to increase significantly
with rind breakdown.

IV. Mechanization of Citrus Fruit Picking

A machine to produce an oscillating air blast was constructed to study
the possibility of using this principle for harvesting citrus fruit. Tests
performed in mature groves of different varieties gave fruit removal of
40 to 95.6 per cent.
Tests in Hamlin and Pineapple oranges of an inertia shaker resulted
in fruit removals of 60 to 85 per cent, and trials on Marsh Seedless and
Duncan grapefruit resulted in 85 to 90 per cent removal. The perform-
ance of a cable shaker in Valencia oranges was inferior to that of the
inertia shaker on average size trees.
A search was begun for a chemical treatment that would be effective
in reducing the necessary force to remove the mature fruit from the

V. Prevention of Freeze Damage to Citrus

A total of 31 citrus trees were exposed to low temperatures. Little or
no tree damage occurred on Marsh grapefruit, Dancy tangerine, Par-
son Brown, Pineapple and Valencia oranges exposed to 24 0. 5F. for
periods of six to eight hours, except in the case of three trees of Par-
son Brown which were wet at this temperature and therefore killed back
to the large scaffold limbs. At this temperature and duration, there
was no damage to the fruit of Marsh grapefruit. Dancy tangerine fruit
was partially frozen resulting in a softening at the stem-end and the
fruit dropping from the tree. Orange fruits were all frozen resulting in
loss of flavor, lowering of acid and sugar, and a general insipid flavor
developing three to five days after freezing.


I. Determination of Pounds-Solids

The purpose of this project is to develop accurate and stable methods
for determining the pounds-solids particularly for oranges delivered to
the processor. The program is divided into the selection of the sample,
the extraction of the juice from this sample, and the analysis of the juice
for Brix and acid.

A bulk fruit handling system to study sampling methods was con-
structed. Existing extractors have been modified and new extractors
were obtained for further study on improving machines for extraction.
Automatic methods to perform the manual functions now done by the
State inspectors are being considered and several are presently in the
process of development. Some sampling and extracting tests were run.
In addition, an attempt is being made to develop a satisfactory, re-
producible laboratory method of determination of the pounds-solids con-
tent of citrus fruits.


I. Foam-Mat Drying of Citrus Juices

Progress was made during the year in foam-mat drying of orange juice,
particularly in establishing maximum tolerable temperature and time
relationships in drying, in relative humidity moisture relationships in
dried powder, and in storage studies. Equipment modifications were
made to increase useful air temperatures and improve temperature con-
trol. Investigations also included foam stabilizers, flavor stability com-
parisons of products containing different foam stabilizers, inert gas
packaging, secondary drying, volatile components of orange powders and
preparation of exploratory grapefruit powders.

Human Nutritional Research

A. The project on the influence of the ingestion of orange juice on facial
conditions, under Doctor Herbert S. Spoor, New York Medical College,
was completed and the manuscript is in preparation.
B. A new project, "The Effects of Vitamin C on Physical Performance"
was placed with Professor Wayne D. Van Huss, Michigan State Univer-

Spray and Dust Schedule

Twenty-two thousand copies of the 1962 Better Fruit Program Spray
and Dust Schedule were printed and distributed.

United States Department of Agriculture Foundation
Farm near Leesburg

Substantial financial assistance was rendered the establishment of the
United States Department of Agriculture Foundation Farm rootstock plant-
ing. Funds provided were utilized for land clearing and improvement, ir-
rigation and the erection of a permanent greenhouse.




rTCFIRE: CySF oe~~










N The Commission expanded its operations during
the year by adding a department of economic and
marketing research. The expected heavier produc-
tion and the need for strengthening and expanding
the market for Florida citrus were given as rea-
sons for this action. Expenditures amounted to
$119,227.91 during the year.
The work of this department falls into two major
fields: (1) the dissemination of crop, processing and
consumer purchase information; and, (2) research
on various specific problems encountered in mar-
keting Florida's fresh and processed citrus.

Dissemination of Information

Crop Report The Commission, from October
through July, i s s u ed monthly reports of estimated
citrus crop production in Florida and competing
states, as reported by the U.S.D.A. Crop Report-
ing Board.

Processing Report Weekly reports were issued covering the operations
of the Florida citrus processors, as reported by the Florida Canners As-
sociation. The object of the Commission-issued report was to make the
summary of processors' operations available to a larger number of people
than would otherwise receive the report.

Consumer Purchase Report For the 12th consecutive year, the Commis-
sion supplied the industry with essential information on estimated consumer
purchases of the major citrus and competitive non-citrus products. These
data, purchased from the Market Research Corporation of America, repre-
sent projections to national totals of reported purchases from a representa-
tive national sample of approximately 10,000 household consumers.
Available to the industry are: (1) Weekly reports issued by the Commis-
sion each Monday, showing consumer purchases and prices of frozen orange
concentrate, chilled orange juice, canned orange juice, and canned grape-
fruit juice, with one-year-ago comparisons; (2) Monthly reports by the
Commission, showing consumer purchases, average retail price, and per
cent families buying frozen orange concentrate, chilled orange juice, canned
orange juice, canned grapefruit juice, and canned grapefruit sections. The
U.S.D.A. also issued monthly reports on these as well as competitive
juices and fruit flavored drinks, which are mailed, upon request, by the
Commission to Florida shippers and processors; (3) Annual reports issued
by the U.S. D. A., :covering selected six-month periods of consumer pur-
chases of canned, chilled and frozen juices, ades, drinks and sections as
related to geographic region, city size, family income, family size, age of
children, occupation and education of family head, and age and work status
of housewife.
The cost of obtaining the consumer purchase data in the 1960-61 season
was defrayed by the Florida Citrus Commissioh, with some contributions
from the California Prune Advisory Board. The data published by the
U. S. D. A. was purchased by the Commission from the Market Research
Corporation of America, and represents part of the broad marketing re-
search program directed toward strengthening and expanding markets for
Florida citrus and products. These reports are helpful to the marketers
of Florida fresh and processed citrus and provide a basis for evaluating
and guiding the Commission's advertising and merchandising programs.


The Commission further expanded its marketing research program
during the year on problems not handled by other Florida citrus organi-
zations. These included:

Taste Preference Tests on Florida Grapefruit Drink Mix This new pro-
duct, developed by the Florida Citrus Experiment Station, consists of
single strength grapefruit juice, sugar and grapefruit flavoring. Six taste
tests were conducted, involving 1,081 individuals, and 76 per cent of the
interviewees rated the product above average, 20 per cent average, and
four per cent below average. The product scored slightly higher than

this on sweetness rating. Three out of four respondents indicated a will-
ingness to buy this product based on taste tests. Because of the favor-
able reaction obtained in the taste tests, market testing was undertaken.

Market Testing of Florida Grapefruit Drink Mix The purpose of this test
was to determine the national sales potential for Grapefruit Drink Mix, as
well as the best combinations of promotional efforts to generate sales
most efficiently. The product was stocked in 50 stores in Grand Rapids,
Michigan, and 25 stores in Columbus, Ohio. The Grand Rapids test in-
cluded advertising support and in-store demonstration and special dis-
play in selected stores. The Columbus test included demonstrations, free
distribution of product to shoppers, special display, and shelf talkers.
Sales of the test product, as well as other products containing grapefruit
were audited continually during the 12-week test period, and extensive
consumer survey was also conducted to ascertain attitudes and opinions,
substitutionality, carry-forward effects, etc.
Final results were not available at the time of this report.

Consumer Acceptance of Florida Oranges With and Without Color Added -
The Florida Citrus Commission cooperated with the U.S.D.A. in this
study, conducted in 1959, 1960 and 1961. The report issued by the U. S. D. A.
shows that the sales of Florida oranges decreased significantly in Cleve-
land, which is characteristic of a mid-western market, when only natural-
colored Florida oranges were offered. On the other hand, in Philadelphia,
which is representative of the eastern markets, sales remained about the
same when separate offers were made of natural-colored or color added
The retail sales in each market were increased when both types of
fruit were displayed side-by-side. Such combination displays in Cleve-
land increased sales 36 per cent, and in Philadelphia 20 per cent over the
separate displays of color-add or natural-colored oranges. The increased
sales of test oranges when displayed side-by-side had no measurable ef-
fect on sales of related commodity, such as orange juice, fresh grapefruit
and non-test fresh oranges.
The sales of color-added Florida oranges exceeded the sales of natural-
colored oranges in each of the three tests, whether displayed alone or in
combinations. The average ratio of sales for the three periods was 5-to-4
in favor of the artificially colored fruit. During the test, 2,400 shoppers
were interviewed at the point of purchase in each city and over 70 per cent
said they knew color was sometimes added to the surface of oranges. Pur-
chasers of natural-colored fruit in both cities tended to be more critical
of the color-added fruit than of the natural-colored oranges. However,
their attitude was tempered by the belief that the color is only on the skin
and did not affect the eating quality of the fruit.

The Consum'er (Household) Market for Fruit Juices and Fruit Drinks
During the Past Five Years This study points up the changes in United
States purchases of fruit juices and fruit drinks from 1956-57 through the
1960-61 season. The outstanding development in purchase trends is the

sharp growth in the fruit-flavored drinks and ades, while single strength
fruit juices, especially orange, have decreased. Slight increases in
chilled juices and frozen orange concentrate consumer purchases were ob-
served in spite of a relatively stable Florida production following the 1957
freeze. Frozen orange concentrate, which had not importantly changed in
consumption volume, did show substantial gains in dollar volume of pur-
chases, due to a retail price advance of 30 per cent. While this study
covers the post-freeze years in which the per capital supply was relatively
limited, the fact remains that citrus juices in 1960-61 represented a
smaller share of the total fruit juice and fruit drink market than five
years earlier. The continuation of this trend could lead to more limited
marketing opportunities.
An examination of the fruit juice and drink market is necessary be-
cause about 80 per cent of Florida oranges and about 35 per cent of Flor-
ida grapefruit are sold directly in that market.

Relative Importance of Fresh Citrus Among All Fresh Fruits in Selected
United States Markets This study examined the city-by-city differences
in fresh citrus fruit marketing and the importance of citrus, relative to
all other fresh fruits in 23 United States markets. The cities in the North-
east and Midwestern states received a higher percentage of citrus fruit
than cities in the South and West. Although there was a greater consist-
ency of orange, grapefruit and tangerines in the total fresh fruit mix than
many other fruits, citrus fruits were nearly twice as important in some
markets than in others. Fresh citrus (excluding lemons and limes) ac-
counted for 28 per cent of total fresh fruit unloads in Boston, while only
14. 7 per cent in Birmingham.
Oranges accounted for 77 per cent of all citrus (excluding lemons and
limes) received in New Orleans, while only 54 per cent in Denver. Of the
other, grapefruit was most popular in Denver and least popular in New
Orleans. Tangerines made up the highest per cent of all citrus received
in Pittsburgh and the lowest in Ft. Worth and Minneapolis-St. Paul. The
relative importance of individual citrus fruits could not be explained by
geographical location of the market alone.
Bananas ranked number one in volume, followed by apples and oranges.
Grapefruit made its best sales showing against the cantaloupe-type
melons in the North Central and Eastern markets and weakest showing in
the Western and Southern markets.

Study of Citrus Marketing in Britain Because of the greatly diminished
sales of Florida citrus fruits in the British markets in the last quarter
century, the Florida Citrus Commission undertook to investigate the
causes through Benton & Bowles Limited in London. Five reports emerged
from this study as follows:
1. The market for fresh and canned fruit and fruit juices.
2. Consumer usage and attitudes regarding Florida citrus.
3. Grapefruit placement test.
4. Frozen orange concentrate test.
5. Actions indicated by the British market research studies.

These studies show that the marketing opportunity for frozen orange
juice is less than for fresh citrus. Several attempts to introduce frozen
orange concentrate failed. Also, Florida fruit and products have extensive
competition from other production areas in the world. The British con-
sumer was unaware of Florida as a citrus producing area. In 1, 300 house-
holds interviewed, Florida was not mentioned as a fruit producing area. On
the other hand, California was mentioned by six per cent as growing oranges
and by three per cent as growing grapefruit. The most frequently mentioned
citrus countries were: Spain, South Africa and Israel.
Eighty-seven per cent of the consumers acted favorably to test samples
of frozen orange concentrate, but two-thirds of the testers expected the pro-
duct to be priced lower than quoted. Also, there was a little difference in
the acceptance of canned grapefruit sections packed in light or heavy syrup.
Consumption of canned and fresh fruit products in the United Kingdom
lag behind the United States, and there is little enthusiasm for canned and
frozen citrus products.

Estimated Retail and Institutional Sales of Frozen Orange Concentrate in
100 United States Cities in 1961-62 Marketing Season This estimate was
made as an aid to advertising and promotion placement. The 10 leading re-
tail markets for frozen orange concentrate, in order of importance, were:
New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Detroit, Philadelphia, Boston, San Fran-
cisco, Pittsburgh, Newark, and Washington., D. C. Each is expected to
have in excess of 1,000, 000 gallons of retail sales during the 1961-62 sea-
son, and will account for one-third of the total sales in the nation.
The 10 markets leading the institutional sales of frozen orange concen-
trate are: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San
Francisco, Boston, Washington, D.C., Cleveland and Pittsburgh. Each of
these markets will sell in excess of 100,000 gallons during the 1961-62
marketing season, and account for 43 per cent of the national sales.

Evaluation of the Florida Citrus Commission's Special Multi-Pak Promo-
tion of Frozen Orange Concentrate This promotion, sponsored by the
Florida Citrus Commission, was budgeted at $300,000 -- $250,000 for ad-
vertising-and $50, 000 for merchandising. The object was to increase the
number of cans in each consumer purchase. The results show that the
volume of frozen orange concentrate sold in four-can units remained un-
changed from the pre-promotion period, while six-can purchases were up
slightly, and seven-and-more can purchases declined. The conclusion
reached in this evaluation was that the Commission's Multi-Pak promotion
failed to prevail upon the consumer to purchase significantly more cans at
a time in the usual four- and six-can units of sale. Unavailability of Multi-
Pak units in several markets was listed as a contributing factor in this con-

Analysis of In-Store Demonstrations An analysis was made of 1,710
records of demonstrations received from the Commission's merchandising
field staff during the 1959-60 season, including both fresh and processed
Florida citrus promotions in the United States and Canadian markets. The

findings in this study were: (1) The markets in the heavily populated areas
received the heaviest share of demonstrations. (2) Eighty-nine per cent
were live demonstrations, and 11 per cent non-live. (3) Over one-half of
the demonstrations were conducted in the months of September, October
and November. (4) Fruit featured in demonstrations were: Orange, 88 per
cent; Grapefruit, 11 per cent; and Tangerines, one per cent. (5) Fourteen
per cent of the demonstrations were on fresh fruit and 86 per cent on pro-
cessed products, of which 72 per cent was concentrate.
The primary purpose was to achieve movement rather than placement.
Cost breakdown on live demonstrations was as follows: Demonstrator,
69. 3%; Merchandise, 22. 4%; Cups, 4. 5%; Transportation, 2. 5%; Napkins,
0. 1%; Other Costs, 1.2%.
On the other hand, merchandising accounted for 54 per cent of the cost
of non-live demonstrations. The average cost per live demonstration was
$49. 61, and non-live demonstration, $34. 33, while the per-day cost of
live demonstration was $23.03 and non-live, $4. 76. The cost of selling
each extra unit was 19 per cent of the retail price and varied from six per
cent for fresh fruit to 102 per cent for frozen sections. Non-live demon-
strations, although generating only one-third the sales boost of live demon-
strations, stimulated per unit sales increases at less than one-half the
cost of live demonstrations.
Approximately 2,100,000 shoppers were served during the year, aver-
aging 1, 234 per demonstration. The average duration of each demonstra-
tion was 2. 72 days live demonstrations, 2. 15 days; non-live, 7. 22 days.
Friday and Saturday were the most common days for demonstrations.
Recommendations were made in this study for improving the operations
of the merchandising program.

Analysis of Fresh Fruit Unloads in 41 United States Cities' and Five
Canadian Cities The purpose of this report was to show, not only the
volume, but also the source of fresh orange, grapefruit and tangerines
received, each quarter, in 41 selected United States and five Canadian
cities. The fruit received from Florida in these'.markets during the 1961-
62 season represented a higher per cent of the total than in the 1960-61
season for both orange and grapefruit. Florida supplied 50. Z per cent of
the oranges in the United States cities in 1961-62 compared with 39.2 per
cent, and in the Canadian cities, 21. 8 per cent compared with 14. 6 per cent.
On the other hand, Florida, in 1961-62, supplied 77.7 per cent (up from
66. 1 per cent) of the grapefruit in the United States cities and 90. 6 per
cent (up from 86. 3 per cent) in the Canadian cities. Florida's share of
total market unloads of tangerines dropped from the previous year in both
the United States and Canadian cities. Heavier fresh fruit marketing from
Florida last season were due primarily to increases in market share,
(caused by lesser fruit from California and Texas) rather than increases in
per capital consumption.

Research Underway

The following studies were undertaken prior to the close of the fiscal
year 1961-62, and although not completed are outlined here for informational

The Economic Interrelationships Between Fresh Oranges and Other Fresh,
and Processed Citrus Products This is the first in a series of studies in-
tended to explore the basic competitive relationship between the several
forms in which the Florida citrus crop is marketed. In this test the retail
prices of both Florida and California fresh oranges were varied over a
comparatively wide range. Quantitative shifts in consumer purchases of
fresh oranges were measured, as were the effects on such substitutional
items as fresh grapefruit, frozen citrus products, canned single strength
citrus juices, and non-citrus fruit juices, both frozen and canned.
The basic data was generated through store tests in Grand Rapids,
Michigan, during a six-week period in April and May, 1962. The data is
being analyzed and a report on this phase of the study will be forthcoming.

The Competitive Relationship Between Florida and California Oranges -
The intent of this study was to examine the competitive relationship among
Valencia oranges produced in California, the Indian River section of Flor-
ida and the interior section of Florida. The specific objectives were: (1)
to determine the extent to which customers could be induced to shift their
purchases between the three types of fruit in response to varying price dif-
ferentials; and (2) to measure the quantitative response of customers to
varying general levels of price, thereby obtaining an estimate of the nature
of demand for each type of fruit.
The field work consisted of two phases: first, the consumers were
given a choice from three displays of Valencia oranges reflecting demand
differences between the three types of fruit, then the prices of the oranges
in the three displays were varied in a predetermined manner. Nine price
levels, in four-cent intervals, were applied to the test from the basic
price of 49 cents per dozen for each type Florida orange, and 59 cents per
dozen for California oranges. Records were obtained on: (1) daily sales of
oranges from each display lot; (2) daily records of spoilage or other losses
of oranges; (3) daily sales records for each test store by departments; and
(4) daily customer count for.each store.
The first phase of the study was conducted in six supermarkets in
Grand Rapids, Michigan, in which consumers chose from size 200 Florida
interior and size 200 Florida Indian River and size 138 California Valen-
cia oranges. The second phase was conducted in three stores, same city,
involving Florida size 162, California size 138 Valencia oranges.
The field work was completed May 19, 1962, and the data are being

Consumption Patterns for Citrus and Related Products This study in-
volved the examination of consumer panel data for a southern market and
a northern market to determine: (1) trends in consumption of citrus and
competitive products; (2) basic shifts in purchases which consumers make
to changes in supply and price; and (3) the effects of new competitive pro-
duct introduction upon purchases and use of citrus food items. The sources
of data are the consumer panel maintained by the Georgia Agricultural Ex-
periment Station and the Michigan State University.
To date, basic purchase data were obtained from the Georgia panel for
the following broad groups of products: fresh citrus fruit, frozen concentrates,

canned juice, processed citrus fruits and processed beverages. The family
characteristics include: income, family size and race.
Analytical work has been underway since May 1, 1962, and is now par-
tially completed.

Consumer Preferences for'Various Acidity Levels of Canned Single
Strength Orange Juice and Canned Single Strength Grapefruit Juice inWest
Germany Sales expansion can be more efficiently achieved if the prefer-
ences of consumers are accurately gauged. This test was undertaken to
better understand the taste preferences for citrus juices among foreign
Three acidity levels of single strength orange juice and three acidity
levels of single strength grapefruit juice are being tested among 804 (402
for each product) households in Hanover, Germany. Additionally, 2,000
households in a national sample will be questioned regarding citrus and
competitive products buying and consumption habits.
The overseas phase of this project was financed by PL480 funds. Re-
sults will be available in early 1963.

Pending Research

Additionally, the Florida citrus industry has requested the Florida Cit-
rus Commission to undertake research on the following problems.

Consumer and Market Testing of 3-to-l Frozen Orange Concentrate in
Eight-Ounce Cans The industry is anxious to determine the economic fea-
sibility of marketing orange concentrate in eight-ounce cans. The product
is now available to consumers in six-ounce and 12-ounce cans, with bulk
of the trade in the smaller size.

Evaluation of the Special $3, 500,000 Frozen Orange Concentrate Cam-
paign of Fall, 1962 Although the 1959 special campaign was evaluated,
with good results, the marketing circumstances surrounding this campaign
are so different as to justify its evaluation.
The purpose of the campaign is to increase the usage of concentrate
among existing users and to attract new users. The campaign's impact on
these objectives will be measured in cooperation with the United States De-
partment of Agriculture, through data supplied, under contract, by the Mar-
ket Research Corporation of America.

Consumer Preferences for Various Levels of Solids and Acids in Fresh
Oranges Because retail buyers are giving increasing attention to the in-
ternal qualities of fresh oranges, the Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers Asso-
ciation has requested the Commission to determine the consumer prefer-
ences for fruit of various levels of solids and acids. It is hoped that this
study will assist the Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers to formulate policies
that will not only aid the industry, but also enhance consumer satisfaction
and sales.

Market Testing Various Solids and Acids Levels in Fresh Oranges Fol-
lowing the consumer preference study, the industry believes it is neces-
sary to measure the consumer's willingness to buy fruits of preferred in-
ternal qualities.

Effects of Change in F.O.B. Prices on Distributors Margins for Fresh
Citrus Fruit Since the fresh fruit shippers claim that retail prices do
not always parallel shipping point prices, this study will examine the ef-
fect of changes in shipping point prices on retail prices.

Evaluation of Various Intensities and Combinations of Promotional Efforts
on a Test Market Basis It is presumed the different intensities and mixes
of promotion have different marketing effects. The purpose of this test is
to quantify this premise, and the results will serve as a guide to the Com-
mission's overall promotional program.

Dr. Marshall R. Godwin was employed as a senior economist Novem-
ber 15, 1961, having taken one year's leave of absence from the Univer-
sity of Florida. The staff consists of two professional economists.

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U As production, processing and packaging be-
come more complex, so do the manner and means
of getting Florida cit r u s products to market. And
many times the difference between profit and loss
rests squarely with transportation--the margin left
after transporting the commodity to the marketplace.
The Commission continued to retain the ser-
vices of the Growers and Shippers League of Flor-
ida to assist in solving problems affecting trans-
portation. The League, representing the entire
citrus industry, has been most effective in seeking
satisfactory solutions to complex transportation
problems fr om the Interstate Commerce Commis-
sion and other f e d e r al and state agencies with au-
thority to regulate transportation.
The League, through this service, has been in-
strumental in effecting savings to the citrus indus-
try. Listed in this s e action are some of the more
important citrus problems encountered during the
1961-62 season by the Growers andShippers League
and their ultimate disposition or present status.

Rail Rates on Fresh Citrus Fruit
Several conferences have been held with the origin rail lines on the pub-
lication of per car charges on fresh citrus fruit from Florida. The origin
rail lines are interested in this type of publication, and studies have been
made seeking a possible basis for per car charges, but no conclusion has
yet been reached on a basis for these charges.
A proposal to reduce the rail rates on fresh citrus fruit by approxi-
mately 25 cents per 100 pounds to destinations in upper New York State
and in eastern Canada was filed and approved by the Southern rail lines,
but was disapproved by the Eastern railroads. A proposal to publish re-
duced rates on citrus fruit to points in upper New England states beyond
Boston, Massachusetts, has also been approved by the Southern railroads,
but action on this proposal by the Eastern railroads has been delayed pend-
ing the settlement of a dispute on divisions between the Eastern railroads
and the New England lines.

Rail Piggyback Rates and Services on Fresh Citrus Fruit
Following the success of the pilot operation of piggyback service on
fresh citrus fruit to destinations in the East during the past season, the
rail lines extended this piggyback service to points in the Midwest, such
as Cincinnati, Ohio; Louisville, Kentucky; Evansville, Indiana; St. Louis,
Missouri; and Chicago, Illinois, and also to numerous points in Southern
Territory., Proposals are now pending before the rail lines to further ex-
tend this service to other destinations in the East and also to points in the
South. A proposal to establish piggyback rates to points in Connecticut,
Rhode Island, and Massachusetts was approved by the Southern lines but
the Eastern railroads have not yet acted on this proposal.
Except to destinations in Southern Territory, the piggyback rates as
originally published on citrus fruit were subject to a restriction that two
trailerloads must be loaded per flat car. This restriction has been elim-
inated to destinations in the East, and if eliminated to the Western destina-
tions, would allow the rates to apply per trailerload with no reference to
minimum per flat car.
When fresh citrus fruit piggyback rates were first published, there were
no provisions in the tariff specifying the maximum weight which could be
loaded in each trailer, and there were a number of instances of trailers be-
ing loaded too heavily and fines being assessed against the rail lines on
those trailers which exceeded the maximum weight laws of the states in-
volved. Effective November 6, 1961, a maximum loading restriction was
published in the tariff setting forth the number of containers for each type
of fruit and the maximum weight which could be loaded on mixed shipments.
While sympathizing with the carriers on this problem of maximum loading,
it was felt that the provisions published in the tariff were unduly restrictive
considering the weight of the various types of fruit and also the differences
in the maximum weight laws in the various states. This matter has been
discussed with the carriers on several occasions, and work is continuing
with the rail lines to publish a more realistic provision covering the maxi-
mum loading of these trailers.

Estimated Weights on Fresh Fruit Containers
A proposal was filed with the Southern rail lines by certain container
manufacturers which would require that the estimated weights applicable
on containers of fresh fruits moving under test permits, or on containers
on which no estimated weight had been published, must be those published
for containers constructed of the same character and material. This pro-
posal would require the published weight of a wooden container to be used
on another wooden container and the published weight of a fibreboard con-
tainer to be used for another fibreboard container. Objections to this pro-
posal were filed with the Southern lines and the proposal was withdrawn
by the proponents prior to public hearing;
Estimated weights were published in the tariff effective July 23, 1962,
on all master containers for which estimated weights had not already been
published. The estimated weights published on these containers were
45-1/2 pounds on containers filled with not more than five eight-pound bags
of oranges and grapefruit, 46-1/2 pounds on containers filled with not more
than eight five-pound bags of oranges, and 43-1/2 pounds on containers
filled with not more than eight five-pound bags of grapefruit.
Because of the large numbers of various types of 4/5 bushel containers
being used by the citrus shippers and the consequent requirement for nu-
merous test weighing by the Southern Weighing and Inspection Bureau, the
rail lines, effective August 20, 1962, published an estimated weight of
45-1/2 pounds on all authorized containers for oranges having capacities
from 1700 to 1900 cubic inches, for which weights have not already been
provided, and estimated weight of 40 pounds on similar containers for

Express Rates on Fresh Citrus Fruit
Negotiations were continued with the Railway Express Agency for the
publication of reduced rates on express shipments of citrus fruits from
Florida, with the result that effective September 1, 1961, an incentive
basis of rates was published, applying on shipments of 25 or more pack-
ages consigned to one or more consignees at one or more destinations.
Further conferences were held with officials of the Express Agency for
the purpose of attempting to secure a reduction in the minimum charge
now applicable on fresh citrus fruit express shipments, and also to se-
cure an adjustment in the charges when the shipper or the receiver per-
forms pickup or delivery service. While officials of the Express Agency
have not indicated willingness to make these adjustments at this time,
they are giving the matter further consideration.

Handling of Delay Claims by Eastern Railroads
In February, 1962, the principal Eastern railroads handling perish-
able commodities announced that effective March 1, 1962, they would no
longer honor claims based on late placement of cars for any particular
market. Conferences with officials of the Eastern railroads were held in
New York in February, and the railroads announced that the effective date
of this change would be postponed to April 1, 1962, pending a meeting of
representatives of the industry and railroad officials. Such a meeting was

held in Chicago, Illinois, on March 12, at which it developed that the
problem affected only certain railroads at certain terminals. After fur-
ther conferences it was agreed that new cut-off times at certain markets
would be established for a trial period lasting until October 29, 1962, after
which further negotiations would be carried on as to the permanent cut-off
time, but in the meantime, claims for delayed placement would continue to
be honored.

Rail Rates on Frozen and Chilled Citrus Products
Considerable effort has been spent in trying to convince the origin rail
lines that reduced rates on frozen citrus products should be published sub-
ject to an increase in minimum weight, generally to 60,000 pounds. The
rail lines, however, have consistently opposed such reductions, and have
disapproved several proposals which have been filed seeking reduced
rates based on higher minimum weights. The Southern rail lines, how-
ever, did approve a proposal to publish truck competitive rates on frozen
citrus products, subject to minimum weight of 36,000 pounds, to speci-
fied points in Southern Territory.
During the past year several proposals were filed to publish reduced
rail rates on chilled citrus products from specific origin points in Florida
to specific destinations in Official Territory, subject to increased carload
minimum weight, primarily to meet competition of common carrier or
private trucks, or to meet the competition of existing rates from other
producing points.

Rail Piggyback Rates on Frozen and Chilled Citrus Products
In an effort to secure some of the frozen and chilled citrus products
traffic moving by truck lines, the Southern rail lines during the past sea-
son published Plan II piggyback rates on frozen and chilled citrus pro-
ducts to specific points in Western Trurk Line, Illinois Freight Associa-
tion, Official Territory, and to points in Southern Territory. These rates
were on the same level as the truck rates and also were subject to the
same minimum weights.
Plan III piggyback rates have also been published to specific points in
the East and Midwest in order to meet truck competition on these commo-
dities. Here again, the League has insisted that all of the producing
points be included on adjustments of this kind in order that they may all be
on a competitive basis insofar as transportation costs are concerned.

Truck Rates on Frozen and Chilled Citrus Products
Following an announcement by the rail lines that the rail Plan II piggy-
back rates on frozen and chilled citrus products would be reduced 10 cents
per 100 pounds and made subject to minimum weight of 31,000 pounds, the
truck lines also reduced rates on frozen and chilled citrus products by 10
cents per 100 pounds, subject to 31,000 pounds minimum, to all destina-
tions to which rates based on 31,000 pounds minimum had not already been
published. These reduced rates by truck lines were not subject to stop-off
in transit for partial unloading. The truck lines have also published reduced
rates to specific points in order to meet reductions in rates, subject to
varying minimum weights, made by the rail lines to these points.

A proposal by the truck lines to increase all LTL rates on frozen and
chilled citrus products by 20 per cent met with strenuous objections from
the League and the shippers. Following a conference with the motor car-
riers, the proposal was amended to provide-for an increase of approxi-
mately 17 per cent in the rates on shipments weighing less than 5,000
pounds, and an increase of approximately 6 per cent in the rates on ship-
ments weighing between 5,000 pounds and 10,000 pounds, with no in-
crease to apply on shipments weighing over 10,000 pounds. The amended
proposal, which also included an increase from $10 to $15 in the minimum
charge per LTL shipment (except that there would be no increase on ship-
ments of samples), was approved and became effective on June 29, 1962.
Although the rail Perishable Protective Tariff had been amended to
provide for the specifying of temperatures at which perishable commodi-
ties should be transported, the truck tariffs have had no such provision for
the specifying of temperatures required on these shipments. A proposal
was filed with the National Classification Board to amend the National Mo-
tor Freight Classification by providing a rule that on commodities requir-
ing protection from heat or cold the temperature at which the product
should be transported must be shown on the bill of lading. This proposal
was supported by the League and the matter is now pending before the Na-
tional Classification Board.

Rail Rates on Canned Citrus Products
A proposal to publish a reduction of 15 per cent in the rail rates on
canned citrus products subject to 60, 000 pounds minimum, to be made ap-
plicable on carload minimum weight of 75,000 pounds, within Southern
Territory and from Southern to Official, Western Trunk Line, and South-
western Territories, was approved by the Southern lines and was pub-
lished within Southern Territory effective September 10, 1961. However,
this reduction within Southern Territory was published on a lower basis
than had been approved by the Southern lines, and when the error was dis-
covered, the Southern rail lines insisted that the rates would have to be
published on the basis as approved, and in spite of objections, the correc-
ted rates were published effective June 10, 1962.
The 15 per cent reduction in rates On canned citrus shipments loaded
to 75,000 pounds minimum to points in Western Trunk Line Territory and
Illinois Freight Association Territory was published effective February 10,
1962. The Southwestern lines disapproved this adjustment, and the Offi-
cial Territory lines disapproved the 15 per cent reduction proposed but
did approve a reduction of eight cents per 100 pounds, subject to 75,000
pounds minimum loading, which became effective on August 1, 1962, to
points in Official Territory.

Application of Rule 24 to 75,000 Pounds Minimum Rail Rates
on Canned Citrus Products to Southern Territory
The reduced rail rates on canned citrus products, subject to 75,000
pounds minimum weight, published to points in Southern Territory, were
made not subject to Rule 24 of the Uniform Freight Classification, which
provides that shipments in.excess of the amount which can be loaded in a

single car may be loaded in two or more cars and the rate will be applied
to the total weight of the shipment. Following the publication of these
rates within Southern. Territory, the canned citrus products shippers be-
gan running into difficulty with shipments which exceeded the capacity of
a single car and were not large enough to make two 75,000 pounds car-
loads. In order to correct this situation, the origin rail lines were re-
quested to file a proposal to make these rates subject to Rule 24. After a
public hearing, the General Freight Committee of the Southern Freight
Association approved this proposal, but this approval was appealed to the
executive committee of the Southern Freight Association, and after public
hearing at which representatives of the canned citrus products industry
and the League appeared in support of the proposal, the proposal was fin-
ally disapproved by the executive committee.

Detention and Free Time on Mechanical Refrigerator Cars
The proposal to extend the free time when weather conditions made it
impossible to load or unload mechanical refrigerator cars was approved
by the National Perishable Freight Committee and the Perishable Tariff
was amended effective October 15, 1961, to include this provision.
In order to discourage the use of mechanical refrigerator cars for
storage purposes, a practice which the rail lines discovered had developed
in certain areas, the rail lines filed a proposal with the National Perish-
able Freight Committee to increase detention charges on mechanical re-
frigerator cars held over 48 hours beyond free time to $15 per 12-hour de-
tention period in place of the existing $5 charge for such detention. While
agreeing with the position of the rail lines that mechanical refrigerator
cars should not be used for storage purposes, the League disagreed with
the principle of publishing penalty detention charges in the Perishable
Protective Tariff, believing that penalty of this kind should be published in
the rail Demurrage Tariff. Opposition to the proposal on this basis was
filed by the League with the Perishable Committee, but after considerable
deliberation the Perishable Committee approved a proposal to increase
the detention charge on mechanical refrigerator cars held more than four
days beyond free time to $15 per detention period of 12 hours, such de-
tention to apply not only at origin point but also at stop-off, hold or recon-
signment point, and at final destination, and publication was made in the
tariff effective January 20, 1962.
Proposals to change the provisions of this penalty detention were filed
by various parties with the National Perishable Freight Committee, but
the Committee disapproved these proposals. However, in August, 1962,
the Perishable Committee-did approve a proposal to increase the free time
from 24 hours to 48 hours and to offset this, reduce to three days the
amount of time at which regular detention occurred before the increased
penalty of $15 per detention period began. This proposal was approved by
the Perishable Committee and is now awaiting action by some of the rail-
road jurisdictions.

Truck Charges on Stopping in Transit to Complete Load
or to Partially Unload
During the past year there has been a number of proposals filed by the
truck lines to cancel or amend the present rules and charges on truck

shipments stopped in transit to complete loading or to partially unload.
Most of these proposals would affect canned citrus products shippers who
prefer the present method of charging so much per stop for this privilege.
The League has consistently opposed the proposed changes in these rules
and charges, and many of the truck lines serving the Florida canned citrus
industry have agreed with the position of the League. As the result of this
effort, three proposals have been withdrawn or disapproved, and action on
one proposal is being withheld.

Ocean Freight Rates to Europe
Last year there was considerable interest in developing a larger export
movement of fresh citrus fruit and fresh vegetables as well as processed
citrus products, particularly to European markets. In September, 1961, a
conference of interested shippers, League officials, and officials of steam-
ship lines and conferences was held to discuss the possibilities of securing
more effective freight rates and improved service on these commodities.
Somewhat later in the year, the steamship lines operating from Gulf
ports to European ports announced that effective January 1, 1962, they
planned to increase freight rates by 10 per cent. Objections to this pro-
posed increase were registered with the steamship conference, and instead
of increases, reductions were made in the ocean freight rates on canned
and frozen citrus products moving to the various European ports.

Rail Rates on Citrus Pomace
Several proposals were filed with the rail lines for the publication of
reduced rail rates on citrus pomace, subject to minimum weight of 60,000
pounds, from specific origin points in Florida to specific destinations in
the various Southern states. In line with the policy of the industry that all
plants should be on a competitive basis, the League handled with the Sou-
thern Freight Association and the rail lines for inclusion of all shipping
points in these rate adjustments, with the result that rates have been pub-
lished from all of the producing points to the destinations to which the re-
duced rates were proposed.

Ex Parte 137 Contracts for Protective Services
Oral argument in reopened Ex Parte 137, an investigation by the Inter-
state Commerce Commission of the contracts between the rail lines and the
car lines and other parties furnishing protective service on behalf of the
rail lines, was held September 21, 1961, before Division 2 of the Inter-
state Commerce Commission. Division 2 released its decision in this
proceeding on September 18, 1962, and the decision is now being analyzed
to determine its possible effect on the charges which the shippers pay for
refrigeration service.

Truck Line Applications
During the past year there have been 35 applications filed by truck
lines for new authority or for extension of present authority which have
been considered by the Transportation Advisory Council of the Florida
Canners Association and by the Citrus Processors Association. Of these

I i'

applications, support by the League has been authorized on 11 applica-
tions and the League has not been authorized to take any action on 24 of
the applications. The League has appeared at hearings, or has been
authorized to appear at future hearings, in support of the following appli-
cations: Application of Alterman Transport Lines to purchase the au-
thority of McDowall Transport to transport canned citrus fruits and juices
to points in the Midwest; application of Alterman Transport Lines for au-
thority to transport frozen foods to the states of Montana and Wyoming;
application of Alterman Transport Lines to transport frozen citrus pro-
ducts to Baltimore, Maryland, Washington, D. C. Norfolk and Richmond,
Virginia; application of Belford Trucking Company to transport frozen
and chilled citrus products to the states of Illinois and Missouri; applica-
tion of J. M. Blythe Motor Lines to transport canned goods to the states
in the Northeast; application of Clay Hyder Trucking Lines to transport
frozen and chilled citrus products to points in North and South Carolina,
and chilled citrus products in tank trucks to states in the South; applica-
tion of Food Transport, Inc., for authority to transport canned goods to
West Virginia and the Eastern portion of Ohio; application of Watkins Mo-
tor Lines to transport frozen and chilled citrus products to states in the Pa-
cific Northwest; application of Florida Refrigerated Service to transport
frozen citrus products to the Pacific Northwest; application of Clay Hyder
Trucking Lines to transport liquid food products in tank trucks within the
state of Florida; and application of Seaboard Air Line Railroad Company
for authority to perform piggyback service on general commodities be-
tween Wildwood and Winter Haven and between Wildwood and Oviedo, Florida.

Transportation Legislation
During the past year a great deal of time has been required to analyze
and to take appropriate action on bills affecting transportation which have
been introduced in the Congress. The following is a brief outline of some
of this transportation legislation.
Senate Bill 1197 would eliminate much of the freedom of rate making
provisions enacted in the Transportation Act of 1958. A statement was
filed with the Senate Committee on Commerce in opposition to this bill,
which has not yet been reported by the Senate Committee.
Senate Bill 2560, introduced by Senator Smathers, was designed to
curb illegal truck operations in interstate commerce, but in addition to
which would have required the registration with the Interstate Commerce
Commission of all motor trucks transporting agricultural commodities.
The League presented testimony in opposition to this registration provi-
sion of the bill before the Senate Committee, and the bill, as reported by
the Senate Committee and passed by the Senate, contained no reference to
this registration provision.
Senate Bills 3243 and 3242, with similar bills in the House of Repre-
sentatives, were introduced to implement the recommendations of the
President as outlined in his Message on Transportation to the Congress.
Of particular interest to our industry was Senate Bill 3243 which would re-
move the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission over mini-
mum rates published on agricultural commodities and on bulk commodities.

The League supported the principle of Senate Bill 3243 at a hearing before
the Senate Committee on Commerce, and hearings on both of these bills
are continuing in both the House and the Senate.
A special committee on unregulated and unauthorized transportation
has been appointed by the National Industrial Traffic League to study and
make recommendations to the NIT League on the problems of this type of
transportation. The Growers and Shippers League belongs to this Com-
mittee and to the Committee Against Unlawful Transportation, whose pur-
pose is, through an educational program, to acquaint the general public,
the shipping public, and state and federal legislators with the economical
dangers involved in illegal transportation.



si._G \ o.


'i-; o


U During thel961-62 seasonthe Commission
adopted 14 amendments to its regulations and adopted
one new regulation to meet c ha ng in g conditions in
the industry. Most of the amendments were of a
minor nature but several were fairly significant.
A new regulation was adopted to govern the pro-
cedure for registration of producers and establish
a method of conducting referendums under the Flor-
ida Citrus Stabilization Act adopted by the 1961
Legislature. The Act provides that, after a public
hearing and a referendum of growers, the Commis-
sion may issue a marketing o rd e r-for one or more
types of citrus fruits if the proposed order is ap-
proved by 51 per cent of all growers affected by
such order and the grower s voting for such order
produce at least 51 per cent of the total volume of
fruit covered by the orde r. The Act provides that
the Commission shall adopt rules and regulations
governing the registration of producers and the
method of conducting referendums.

In order to conduct a referendum under the Act, it is necessary for
the Commission to have a list of the names and mailing addresses of all
growers who would be affected by marketing orders. There was no such
list available from any source in Florida at the time the Act was passed
and the Commission immediately began compiling such a list. During
the past year much time and some funds have been expended for this in-
formation. We feel that it is now fairly complete and the Commission is
in a position to conduct referendums if marketing orders are requested
by industry groups.
The Commission adopted a standard stock label design to be used by
all shippers who pack fresh citrus fruit in polyethylene bags. The pur-
pose of this regulation is to bring about uniformity and attractiveness in
the display of fruit at the store level. In addition to the other factors, the
design makes prominent use of the word "FLORIDA" in order to tie in
with the consumer advertising program. Subsequent to the end of the
1961-62 season, the Commission also adopted a standard design for mesh
Under the regulation covering containers, the Commission has for sev-
eral years prescribed the bagmasters or outer containers which may be
used for shipping fruit in five and eight-pound bags. During the past year
this regulation was amended to provide that any corrugated bagmaster could
be used which does not contain more than five eight-pound bags or eight
five-pound bags. The amendment does not apply to wooden containers.
During the past year a number of complaints were received about fruit
being sold at roadside stands in bags which were improperly labeled as to
content. Representatives of the Commission met with officials of the Di-
vision of Standards, State Department of Agriculture, the Florida Express-
Fruit Shippers Association and representatives of bag manufacturers and
an agreement was reached to bring about uniformity in the size and content
of the bags. The Commission adopted an amendment to Regulation No. 3
to further tighten the restrictions against the mislabeling of fruit containers.


During the year the Commission issued 340 permits for the movement
of fruit out of Florida for processing, 20 permits for the movement of fruit
for charitable purposes, 71 permits for the use of fresh fruit containers on
an experimental basis, 900 permits for the movement of gift fruit ship-
ments out of Florida by truck, and four permits for the production of high
density frozen concentrated orange juice. Three of the permits for high
density concentrate covered institutional size containers and one covered
retail sizes. The law permits the packing of high density concentrate with-
out permits if it is within the Brix range and packed in containers pre-
scribed by the Commission's regulations. Permits are required in all
cases where high density frozen concentrated orange juice is packed for
sale in retail size cans. While only one permit was issued last season,
other concentrators have indicated interest in packing 4-plus-i concentrate
in retail size cans and plans are under way by the Commission, in coopera-
tion with the processors, to conduct extensive market tests for this product.


During the 1961-62 season the Commission approved 1,542 applica-
tions for citrus fruit dealer's licenses. Of this number, 1,250 were re-
newals and 292 were applicants who obtained a license for the first time.
The total of 1,542 applicants included 161 fresh fruit shippers, 52 pro-
cessors, 429 truckers and brokers, 221 bonded express fruit shippers
and 679 non-bonded express fruit shippers. Eight applications were
denied during the season.
The Commission continued to carefully check the surety bonds posted
by citrus fruit dealers for the purpose of determining whether they were
in line with the volume of fruit dealt with. Because of the increased
amount of bond required under an amendment to the Code by the 1961
Legislature, and the higher cost of the bonds last year, many dealers
were required to increase their bonds after they began operations. A
total of 147 bonds were increased by over $1,000,000. In some cases the
dealers were required to increase their bonds as many as three times.
This was the result of the dealer posting a small bond at the beginning of
the season and dealing with more fruit than the bond covered. As soon as
he exceeded the volume covered by the bond, he was requested by the Com-
missioner of Agriculture to increase the bond. The Commission worked
very closely with the Commissioner's office in checking these bonds.
The Commissioner's records show that the licensed dealers posted
bonds in an aggregate amount of more than $11,000,000 during the 1961-62

JULY 1, 1961 TO JUNE 30, 1962

Cash Balance July 1, 1961

RECEIPTS: From All Sources
Less Advance to Stabilization Fund

$ 7,265,154.60
25,000. 00


$ 1,637,856.74


$ 8,878,011.34


General Administrative
Furniture and Equipment
General Revenue Fund
Transportation Problems
Market Research and Development
Special Field Inspection

Merchandising and Promotions:
Includes Salaries and Expenses
of Advertising and Merchandising
Force, In-Store Promotions, etc.

Point-of-Sale Material

Public Relations and Publicity

Youth and School Program

Consumer Advertising:

Newspapers, Magazines, Tele-
vision and Trade Papers, Radio
Professional Journals
By-Products Journals
European Program


Cash Balance June 30, 1962

$ 144,693.83
5, 323. 25






$ 6,549,576.90

$ 2,328,434.44



1961-62 /


1961-62 1/













1,000 Cases, 24/2's


- 1,000





Gallons - -



(Other than





1961-62 1/

- - Tons -.- -- -


.5 ,035

Includes Tangerine Juice and Tangerine Blends
Includes Orange Sections
Includes Processed Tangerine Concentrate 68
Includes meal, pulp and pellets

Source: Florida Canners' Association



(000 Bxs)


1961-62 (b)




(a) 36,000
(a) 42,000







1, h54






(a) Difference between "Total Production" and actual utilization represented by
Economic Abandonment.
(b) Preliminary.

Source for Data: Statistical Reporting Service, U.S.D.A.


(000 Bxs)

(000 Bxs)


(000 Bxs)












- .02
- .05


L~ OR~~ I DA.



I-jakelsc ad,


--C A.