Front Cover
 Commission members

Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075981/00010
 Material Information
Title: Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee?
Creation Date: 1959
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000863394
oclc - 01327786
notis - AEG0106
lccn - 50063588
System ID: UF00075981:00010

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Commission members
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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Full Text





Commission Members Serving During
the 1959-1960 Fiscal Year

J. R. Graves, Chairman
Tom B. Swann, Vice-Chairman
J. Ross Bynum
Albert Carlton
Frank Chase
Nash LeGette
Herbert S. Massey
A. V. Saurman
Key Scales, Jr.
Bruce W. Skinner
Herschell N. Sorrells
J. Dan Wright, Jr.

Winter Haven
Dade City
Lake Alfred



J. Dan Wright, Jr. Chairman
Tom B. Swann
Key Scales, Jr.


Key Scales, Jr., Chairman
Herschell Sorrells
Tom B. Swann
Herbert S. Massey
Albert Carlton
J. Ross Bynum
A. V. Saurman


Herbert S. Massey, Chairman
A. V. Saurman
Frank Chase
J. Ross Bynum
Nash LeGette


Frank Chase, Chairman
J. R. Bynum
J. Dan Wright, Jr.
Albert Carlton

A. V. Saurman
Bruce W. Skinner
Herschell Sorrells


Tom B. Swann, Chairman
J. Dan Wright, Jr.
Key Scales, Jr.
Bruce W. Skinner
Herbert S. Massey


Bruce W. Skinner, Chairman
Herbert S. Massey
Albert Carlton
Nash LeGette
Frank Chase


Herschell Sorrells,
Herbert S. Massey
Bruce W. Skinner
J. Dan Wright, Jr.




Frank Chase

Tom B. Swann

J. R. Graves

J. R. Bynum

*This is not only a report of Florida Citrus Commission activities for
the 1959-60 season, it is also a salute to all former memb r s of the Com-
mission in this, our 25th Anniversary Year.
It was in the Spring of 1935 that the State Legislature passed the Act
which created the Florida Citrus Commission. On ano other page of this re-
port you will see a picture of that first Commission, and also the names of r
all the men who have ever s e rved on the Commission. The industry salutes
them for 25 years of constructive service!
This past season, 1959-60, saw production of Florida oranges, grape-
fruit and tangerines total 124,800, 000 boxes -- down 900, 000 boxes from the
previous season. Orange production increased by 5, 500, 000 boxes over 1958-
59, but grapefruit production dropped by 4,700,000 boxes, and the tangerine

1959 1960

A. V. Saurman
A. V. Saurman

Herschell Sorrells

Herbert S. Massey

Bruce W. Skinner

Key Scales, Jr.

J. Dan Wright, Jr.

crop was 1,700,000 boxes less. On-tree value of all citrus to Florida grow-
ers was approximately $216, 000, 000.
Florida maintained its position as the principal citrus producing region
in the world in 1959-60. Flo r ida citrus represented 73% of the U.S. citrus
crop for the season, and 28% of the world's- citrus production.
The Commission's many and varied programs of service to Florida cit-
rus are detailed in this re po rt. Advertising, merchandising, publicity, re-
search, transportation, regulations -- each played its part in the overall ob-
jective, that of promoting the general welfare of the industry.
Veterans of the fir s t full year of Commission operations, in 1936-37,
will be interested to note that the expenditures for consumer advertising, which
were $544, 000 in that year, rose to an all-time high of $3,948,000 in 1959-60.


And of further interest, the percentage of total expenditures for over-
head salaries and expenses as 1.2% of the budget in 1936-37; in 1959-
60 it was 1.9%!

To explain Commission functions in 1959-60 in detail here
would only repeat what follows. But for a quick capsule summary of
some of the highlights of the season, these would have to be included:

... the total expenditure of $6, 612, 852 was the highest
on record.

... of this figure, 88. 6% went into advertising, merchan-
dising and publicity.

S.. $273, 000 was spent on scientific research, by far the
most for this purpose to date and more than
$100,000 above 1958-59.

... new research projects included "foam mat drying" -- a
search for better production of a powdered orange

... long-range planning to work toward future prosperity got
underway with employment of a marketing specialist.

... formation of the new Florida Fresh Citrus Shippers As-
sociation was the outgrowth of Commission action to
help shippers organize, begun in 1959.

... the nutritional film, "The Best Way To Eat," was com-
pleted and accepted by the American Medical Asso-
ciation -- now being shown nationally.

... new program directed toward youth and schools initiated.

... Commission chairman headed delegation to Great Britain
to urge removal of British import restrictions against

... consumer advertising stressed "Get The Real Thing" in
Florida citrus.

... surveys of consumers led to filing of complaint with Fed-
eral Trade Commission, with California joining, alleg-
ing deceptive advertising by the synthetic drink, "Tang."

... publicity program expanded to gain "third person endorse-
ment" of citrus in various media.

... new medical advertising agency employed to put new and
greater emphasis in this field.

These are but a few of the Commission's activities in 1959-
60. Several regulations were adopted to establish more orderly pro-
cedures in our complex industry, including tightening of prohibitions
against fruit thefts and more strict investigation for bond and licen-
sing approvals.

All the members of the Commission, past and present, its
staff and 125 employees -- in the Lakeland headquarters, in the Citrus
Experiment Station at Lake Alfred, and all over the United States and
in Canada and Europe in our merchandising team -- are fully aware
of the heavy responsibility of the Florida Citrus Commission in the
challenging years ahead.

And for the year just concluded, we urge that you now read
through this report, which we respectfully submit to you.

Homer E. Hooks *
General Manager


Homer E. Hooks, General Manager
Robert C. Evans, Director of Administration
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research
Walter J. Page, Director of Public Relations
Frank D. Arn, Director of Advertising and Merchandising
Ted L. Hodson, Manager, Youth and School Service
Ralph M. Henry, Merchandising Manager
Harold S. Gardner, Advertising Manager
John E. O'Reilly, Production Manager
Dr. William E. Black, Marketing Specialist
Clyde P. May, Assistant Director of Public Relations
H. Milton Maclin, Manager of Special Promotions
W. J. Steed, Legal Counsel, Orlando






II~C -IYX~--- r ~ _-- --- .

. -. -


..1 i





Z! 1h

SThe Florida Citrus Commission, with the issuance of this annual report,
celebrates its silver anniversary--25 years of progress toward bettering the
position of the citrus grower and building the industry into the gigantic and in-
fluential segment of the State's economy that it is today. And it took the 82
citrus growers and processors, who have s e r ve d without pay on the 12-man
appointive Commission, to establish order over the years and bring the Flor-
ida citrus industry into its rightful position in the world's citrus empire.
There were dark days leading up to the formation of the Commission.
Price levels were depressed and there were no grade inspection requirements
or standardization of grades, packs, or container s. The dark depression
year of 1934, which sparked the concept of the Commiss ion, saw citrus in
oversupply. Two years earlier, grapefruit had sold for as little as 32 cents
per box, approximately the cost of growing it. Doom seemed widespread for
even on the national front, things seemed to be going from bad to worse.


This is the first Commission, appointed byGovernor Dave Sholtz,which
served from September, 1935, to Aug us t, 1936. Shown (left to right,
first row) are L. L. Chandler of Goulds; L. P. Kirkland of Auburndale,
first chairman; Tom B. Swann of Winter Haven, only original member
still serving on the Commission; W. L. Story of Winter Garden; B. E.
Smith of Z ephyrhills; and H. B. Davis. Back row includes John D.
Clark of Orlando; Earl W. Hartt of Avon Park; Jesse Tapp; C. E. Ste-
wart of DeLand; E. G. Grimes; A. S. Herlong, Sr. of Leesburg; W. E.
Leigh; John M. Knight of Vero Beach; F. E. Brigham; and John S.
Taylor of Largo. Davis, Tapp, Grimes, Leighand Brigham were pres-
ent for the photo, but were not members of the Commission.




x7l jP


C. C-

That was the year when Dollfuss, chancellor of Austria, was
shot to death by Nazi conspirators. President von Hindenburg of
Germany died and Adolf Hitler became Fuehrer. Italy began making
preparations for invasion of Ethiopia. Bread lines were long and the
NRA was two years old.

But citrus industry leaders had their own problems. They
recognized the need for an industry-wide program for high standards
of quality, a promotional program to stimulate demand, and research
for developing new and better citrus products. Yet they were not sure
how to go about it. Several previous tries by voluntary methods had
failed miserably. To make matters worse, the 1934-35 Florida crop
would hit almost 33 million boxes and growers were almost sure to
face a merciless marketing problem in trying to get their share of the
big 100 million U. S. citrus crop sold at a profit.

It was out of this situation that the idea for a Florida Citrus
Commission was born. Committees of growers, processors, lawyers
and legislators put together a blueprint for the unique organization and
in the Spring of 1935, a legislative act plus the approving pen of Gov-
ernor Dave Sholtz, made the Commission a reality. At the same time,
several other citrus laws were adopted and these have been amended
during most of the sessions of the Legislature since. As the industry
changed, so changed the laws.

The infant Commission, consisting of 11 members (later in-
creased to 12), immediately took hold and set a planned course for im-
proving conditions in the industry. It was authorized by law to levy an
excise tax to carry on its activities of advertising and merchandising
the Florida citrus crop, conducting research to discover new products
and uses for citrus, and as watchdog of the citrus laws controlling
methods of harvesting, grading, packing, canning, (and later concen-
trating), and coloring citrus fruit.

The Commission was regarded as a bold experiment at its
birth, yet it was created in the American political tradition of majority
rule and taxation on the basis of representation. Each grower, shipper
and processor has a voice in making industry decisions which are then
enforced by the State's power to tax, license, inspect, regulate and
embargo. At a time of lavish public aid to agriculture, the founders
provided that the entire cost of the Commission program was to be
borne by the industry itself. Not a penny has ever come from general
State funds. Also, coming as it did at a time when it was fashionable
to establish rigid controls on marketing and production of other crops,
the Commission founding fathers left each grower and processor free to
grow what he pleased and sell his crop wherever he wished at whatever
price he could get.


The formula of industry forum and state enforcement proved
far more successful than the founders hoped. The Commission con-
tributed to orderly marketing procedures needed for the spectacular
quarter-century of growth that followed. The blueprint has since been
adopted by other large local crops, among them the Washington State
Apple Commission and the Louisiana Yam Commission. It has been
called a statesmanlike solution to the problem of securing cooperation
among competing growers of a crop while protecting the public.

And the 25 intervening years, though having their ups and downs
as a result of normal marketing conditions, have nonetheless proved
profitable to the industry. The fastest growth of the industry occurred
during these 25 years.

For instance, in 1960, Americans are expected to consume an
average of 45 pounds of Florida citrus fruit compared with 11 pounds
in 1935, the year the Commissio'i was created. Florida production
since then has zoomed from 33 to 120 million boxes of fruit a year.
And Florida has won top place as a citrus producer.

In 1960, Florida grew more than 73 per cent of the U. S. and
nearly 30 per cent of the world citrus crop. Florida citrus acreage
has trebled that of California. The on-tree value of the citrus crop
has swelled from $19-1/2 million in 1934-35 to $216 million in 1959-
60 a hulking 1007 per cent increase to growers.

Through the years the Commission made many constructive
contributions to the industry in addition to its hard-hitting advertis-
ing and strenuous merchandising of yearly crops. They are too
numerous to enumerate here. However, mention should be made of
the Commission's leading part in the development of frozen citrus
concentrates, the Cinderella of the citrus industry. For it was Dr.
L. G. MacDowell, Commission research director, working with his
assistants, C. D. Atkins and Dr. Edwin L. Moore, who made the
breakthrough and developed the process much as we know it today.
They assigned patent interest in what was to prove a multi-million
dollar idea to the Secretary of Agriculture, making it available to all
American citrus growers and processors of every State. Because of
the characteristics of Florida oranges, however, Florida quite properly
reaped the biggest benefit.

Only on? of the original Commission members appointed in 1935
by Governor Dave Sholtz is still active on the Commission. He is Tom
B. Swann of Winter Haven, one of the "Deans" of the industry and who
has served as chairman, vice-chairman and headed just about every
important committee on the State body.


m LManager of Youth and
-. School Services


Stability of the organization seeped down from the Commission
itself to staff members and employees. For instance, two veteran
staff members this year round out 25 years of steady employment with
the Commission. They are Robert Stuart, comptroller, and Ted L.
Hodson, manager of the new youth and school service program. These
are closely followed in length of service by Edward J. Lane, regional
manager in Boston with 23 years, and John E. O'Reilly, production
manager with 21 years. There are 13 additional employees who have
more than 14 years of service each with the Commission.

41at UP.

It is fitting on this 25th anniversary of the Commission to salute
those who, through the years, have given unstintingly of their time and
energies on behalf of the industry through their service on the Commis-
sion. The roll of honor includes:

* L. P. Kirkland Auburndale
A. S. Herlong, Sr. Leesburg
* B. E. Smith Zephyrhills
W. L. Story Winter Garden
* Earl W. Hartt Avon Park
Tom B. Swann Winter Haven
John Maxcy Frostproof
Phil C. Peters Winter Garden
L. P. Thomas Palmetto
Stephen L. Griffin Wauchula
* H. L. Henderson, Winter Haven
* E. H. Williams Crescent City
* John M. Criley Terra Ceia
* E. T. Lyle Orlando
* G. R. Brock Cocoa
Fred W. Davis Lake Wales
C. Walton Rex Orlando
Judge W. L. Tilden, Orlando
* W. F. Glynn Crescent City
W. E. Bishop Citra
L. S. Andrews, Jr. Cocoa
* James Taylor Ocala
Rollie Tillman Lake Wales
J. B. Prevatt Tavares
Clark Brown, Jr. Arcadia
Dan L. McKinnon Orlando
* J. B. Stephens Lakeland
Tom Turnbull Winter Haven
W. F. Robinson Leesburg
Harry Tooke Sanford
Warren Zeuch Vero Beach
Nash LeGette Leesburg
W. Arthur Davis Frostproof
* J. Frank Bennett Clermont
J. J. Parrish, Jr. Titusville
* J. Paul Garber Avon Park
A. B. Michael Wabasso
Marvin H. Walker Lake Wales
J. R. Bynum Titusville
J. Dan Wright, Jr. Sanford
Albert Carlton Wauchula

L. L. Chandler Goulds
* John S. Taylor Largo
John M. Knight Vero Beach
* C. E. Stewart DeLand
John D. Clark Waverly
Barnard Kilgore Clearwater

* E.
* T.
* R.

Moseley Fort Pierce
Spivey Floral City
Wells Arcadia
Crawford West Palm Beach
Ulmer Indian Rocks
Clark Eustis
Hawthorne Ocoee
Todd Avon Park
Clewis, Sr. Tampa

Jeff Flake Wauchula
Charles A. Stewart Lakeland
* M. H. McNutt Orlando
John J. Schumann Vero Beach
* H. L. Askew Lakeland
Latt Maxcy Frostproof
* C. C. Commander, Tampa
* R. A. Fender Maitland
John A. Snively, Jr. -Winter Haven
O. C. Minton Fort Pierce
J. R. McDonald Plant City
* Dodge Taylor -Howey-in-the-Hills
Lorin T. Bice Haines City
L. F. Roper Winter Garden
Robert C. Wooten Dade City
Frank Chase Windermere
C. V. McClurg Lakeland
Key Scales, Jr. Weirsdale
C. V. Griffin- Howey-in-the-Hills
H. N. Sorrells Auburndale
Alfred A. McKethan Brooksville
J. R. Graves Vero Beach
Bruce W. Skinner Dunedin
Herbert S. Massey Dade City
A. V. Saurman Clearwater
Vernon L. Conner Mount Dora

S-- Deceased




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your l)nlyv can't store)
Vital 1in C

canned in FLORIDA

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Fresh-Frozen O)ia nllc .Juice ..... firom 1 1o10Ida
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lro ri Holda

SThe consumer advertising program for the crop year 1959-60, pre-
pared and presented by Benton & Bowles, Inc. on September 16, 1959, and
approved by the Commission and its staff, totaled approximately $4, 000, 000.
It was the largest expenditure for citrus advertising in the history of the
Commis sion.

The advertising was budgeted as a two-part p r o g r am: (a) the Summer Pro-
gram July 1 through October 31, with approximately 16% of the funds allo-
cated during this period; and (b) the Major Program November 1 through
June 30, utilizing the larger portion of the funds available.

Print was used importantly with almo st 80% of the funds expended in this
media. The major share, 46%, went to consumer magazines with 18% in
daily newspapers and 16% in Sunday newspaper supplements. Television re-
ceived about 8. 5% of the funds during this crop year. The balance was devoted
to Trade Journals and preparation costs.

;t )j

The advertising featured ten important and relatively high
volume Florida citrus products. The products and the percent of
advertising funds allocated to each were as follows:

Fresh Oranges 8. 8%
Frozen Orange Concentrate 42. 9%
Canned Orange Juice 8. 6%
Chilled Orange Juice 7. 0%
Temple Oranges 1. 1%
Tangerines 2.6%
Fresh Grapefruit 12.8%
Canned Grapefruit Juice 8. 3%
Canned Grapefruit Sections 4. 0%
Frozen Grapefruit Concentrate 3.9%
100. 0%

Separate programs were directed to Florida tourists, en-
couraging them to buy Florida citrus gift packages, while another
was geared toward the retail trade.

Marketing Objectives

The basic marketing objective for the 1959-60 crop year was
the disposition of available quantities of the various citrus products at
price levels profitable to both the growers and the processors.

Considerations in attaining this marketing objective were:

(a) Maintenance of the highest possible level of per capital con-
sumption of Florida citrus products.

(b) Increasing consumer awareness of Florida citrus products.

(c) Broadening the total market for all Florida citrus products.

Basic Advertising Objectives

The basic advertising objective for the 1959-60 crop year was
the presentation of Florida citrus as a commodity with the specific pro-
duct attributes as an important feature. The advertising was designed
to create maximum consumer usage by widening the base of current
users and by attracting new users, appealing to them on the daily need
for Vitamin C.

Recognizing the availability of synthetics and "juice drinks," it
was felt that the advertising should educate the consumers on the essen-
tiality of Vitamin C and stress the importance of getting this C vitamin

in its natural form. Strength was added by the inclusion of "nature" to
the orange and grapefruit themes -- "nature's power-house of Vitamin
C" and "nature's goldmine of Vitamin C."

The print advertising presented an overall fresh-product image
by use of a background illustration of fresh oranges or fresh grapefruit.
This symbolic method was felt to be highly attributable to the family
similarity so desirable in a commodity campaign, yet permitting dis-
tinctive and relatively competitive treatment to each individual citrus
product featured.

Orange Copy Strategy

Orange advertising, both fresh and processed, was created
with two objectives in mind: to project the importance of the daily
need for Vitamin C and to stimulate the buying impulse of the consumer
so that he would demand this vitamin the natural way.

The copy theme of the previous year's campaign was strength-
ened by the addition of "Nature's" to "Powerhouse of Vitamin C," i. e.,
"Nature's Powerhouse of Vitamin C." Copy research, which was con-
ducted throughout the year, indicated high consumer response to the
idea of getting Vitamin C in its natural form.

The heroic glass of orange juice was always featured in the main
illustration. The symbolic fresh orange background was maintained in
all of the advertising. A copy statement referring to the genuine or pure
orange product extolled "Get the Real Thing."

In addition, the benefits of each orange product were stressed.

Grapefruit Copy Strategy

The grapefruit advertising capitalized on research findings and
also exploited its natural source of Vitamin C. "Goldmine of Vitality
Vitamin C" of the previous year's campaign became "Nature's Goldmine
of Vitamin C." The theme stemmed directly from the product and its
unique advantages, promising a strong and meaningful consumer benefit.
A service campaign with menu suggestions, was conducted for canned
grapefruit sections while the individual benefits of the other grapefruit
products were featured.

The serrated grapefruit spoon offer was made in all fresh grape-
fruit advertising, as an attention-getting device and to induce readers to
eat more grapefruit.

Media Strategy

The media strategy for 1959-60 was designed to keep in sharp
focus the high franchise sales areas existing for Florida citrus products
and those markets where good potential existed. Based on marketing
information available and the copy strategy, the media strategy called

(a) Telling the basic story of the need for Vitamin C to a
selective mass dual audience.

(b) Sufficient continuity to create a deep impact on the value of
citrus as a natural source of Vitamin C.

(c) Flexibility of scheduling which permitted maximum ex-
posure of each product in keeping with its seasonality,
distribution pattern and budget.

To implement this concept to the greatest extent possible, a
custom-built media plan provided coverage and continuity among the
right people in the market areas where consumption and sales by pro-
ducts was greatest. Moreover, the plan continued to exploit sales
among potential customers in all natural citrus markets.

The Plan called for a combination of print (magazines, daily
newspapers and newspaper supplements) and television.


Magazines were felt to be a prime medium for telling the educa-
tional story of Vitamin C for a variety of reasons, including:

(a) Compatible Editorial Context people read magazines for in-
formation, entertainment or both and, therefore, they pro-
vide an excellent background for telling the Vitamin C educa-
tional story.

(b) Prestige the esteem with which readers regard magazines
creates prestige, dignity and relative acceptance for the ad-
vertiser's products.

(c)Deep Impact the high quality reproduction of full-color,
appetite-appealing ads provided strong impact and depth
of impression.

(d)Audience Selectivity a magazine's distinctive editorial for-
mat attracts a specific and selective type of reader. Using a
combination of magazines permits a broad, as well as deep,

(e) Flexibility several of the important national consumer
magazines offered regional editions, i. e. specific geo-
graphic segments of their circulation. This gave the op-
portunity to "custom-build" the magazine circulation to fit
the market patterns or characteristics of each citrus pro-

The breakdown of products and magazines during the crop year
was as follows:

Issue Date


July 6
July 13
July 21
July 27
August 10
August 19
August 24
September 7
October 12
November 28
December 8
December 8
December 12
December 14
December 21
December 26
December 28
January 5
January 9
January 11
1/15 (Feb. )
January 16
January 18
January 23
1/21 (Feb.)
1/23 (Feb.)
January 25
February 2
February 2
February 6
February 8
February 13
February 20
2/20 (March)
February 22

Better Homes & Gardens
Better Homes & Gardens
Progressive Farmer
Better Homes & Gardens
Farm Journal
Farm Journal

Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Grapefruit Sections
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Grapefruit Juice
Canned Grapefruit Sections
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Fresh Oranges
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Fresh Grapefruit
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Fresh Grapefruit
Fresh Grapefruit
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Grapefruit Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Grapefruit Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Fresh Oranges
Fresh Grapefruit
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice


Issue Date

March 1
March 1
March 5
March 7
3/15 (April)
March 19
March 21
March 29
April 2
April 11
April 16
4/21 (May)
4/23 (May)
April 25
April 26
April 26
April 30
May 9
5/15 (June)
5/21 (June)
5/19 (June)
May 23
May 24
May 28
June 11
June 21
June 25


Progressive Farmer
Better Homes & Gardens
Farm Journal
Progressive Farmer
Farm Journal
Better Homes & Gardens


Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Fresh Oranges
Fresh Grapefruit
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Grapefruit Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Canned Grapefruit Sections
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice

Daily Newspapers

A strong daily newspaper list was used for several citrus pro-
ducts at their key seasonal drive periods. They were strategically
chosen according to unload data and other marketing information. They
enabled the advertising message to have deep local-impact along with
providing high merchandisability with the trade.

Two colors were used in most newspapers, enhancing the sales
message and generating greater impact.

For fresh oranges, five advertisements were scheduled.
major newspaper list included 119 newspapers in 94 markets.


For fresh grapefruit, five advertisements were also scheduled.
Three of the ads ran in major newspaper lists which included 141 news-
papers in 102 markets.

Frozen orange concentrate advertisements ran three times
in newspapers during the 1959-60 fiscal year. The lists varied but
generally encompassed 53 newspapers in 42 markets.

One tangerine newspaper advertisement ran in 90 newspapers
in 60 markets.

One Temple orange newspaper advertisement ran in 19 news-
papers in 13 markets.

Sunday Newspaper Supplements

Sunday newspaper supplements were used in 1959-60 primarily
because their circulation is in urban areas and because they were dis-
tributed in markets where sales patterns and unloads closely paralleled
that of the products advertised.

The First Three Markets group (New York News, Chicago
Tribune and Philadelphia Inquirer) were used most extensively. The
breakdown of insertions for products was as follows: frozen orange
concentrate 12; chilled orange juice 6; Temple oranges 3; tanger-
ines 2; fresh oranges 1; and fresh grapefruit 1. Eastern editions
of American Weekly also were utilized to follow citrus product market-
ing patterns. Three chilled orange juice and one tangerine insertion
ran in these eastern editions. One chilled orange juice ad also ran in
the national edition of American Weekly. Two frozen orange concentrate
insertions ran in summer issues of This Week.


With the high stakes and great risks of television, the following
policy was adopted:

1. It had to be, program that had a favorable track record.

2. The availability of such a program had to provide the maxi-
mum audience and, therefore, the greatest efficiency.

3. It would have to be available for a short term and at a time
best for promoting citrus products.

As a result of this policy, nine one-minute telecasts were pur-
chased on the CBS network "What's My Line" show, from February 14
through March 13. Seven commercials were devoted to frozen orange
concentrate and two commercials to fresh grapefruit.

Canadian Advertising

All of the basic advertising and marketing concepts practiced
in the U. S. were followed in the Canadian market. The U. S. adver-
tisements were used in Canadian media, with revisions in copy made
according to regulations set up by the Canadian Department of National
Health and Welfare. Spill-in advertising occurred as a result of major
U. S. consumer magazines distribution in Canada.

The Canadian magazine schedule included Chatelaine and
Mac Lean's. The supplement schedule included Weekend and Star
Weekly. La Presse and La Patrie were used to give coverage to the
large French-speaking group.

Three orange, three grapefruit and one tangerine insertion ran
in daily newspapers in major markets.

Trade Paper Advertising

Trade publications were utilized to feature Florida citrus pro-
duct promotions. Journals used to reach the retail and wholesale trade
included Progressive Grocer, Chain Store Age, Super Market Merchan-
dising and Supermarket News. Canned products were mostly featured.

Fresh frozen orange juice and grapefruit juice were promoted
in some of the above mentioned trade books and in Frozen Food Age,
Frosted Food Field and in Quick Frozen Foods.

The Packer and The Produce News featured promotional cam-
paigns on fresh oranges, grapefruit, tangerines and Temples during
the fresh fruit season.

Two Canadian trade journals, Canadian Grocer and L'Epicier
carried Commission advertising in the Dominion.

Gift Fruit Shippers

The Gift Fruit Shippers in Florida also received advertising
support during the 1959-60 crop year. Small space ads ran twice a
week for 17 weeks in the Miami Herald, to reach tourists often during
their vacation-stay and telling them to remember their friends back
home with gift packages of Florida citrus fruit.

Grapefruit Spoon Offer

The successful grapefruit spoon offer (four serrated-tip stain-
less steel spoons for one dollar) which had begun the previous fiscal

year, was continued in 1959-60. The promotional offer was usually
used as a tag to the fresh grapefruit advertising. The coupon offer
appeared in the Saturday Evening Post on December 26, January 9
and April 2; in Life on January 11 and in the First Three Markets
group on December 6. It appeared in three of the daily newspaper
ads during the weeks of December 3, March 17 and March 31 and was
featured on the "What's My Line" television show on February 14 and
March 13.

The offer was also made in Canada, appearing in Canadian news-
papers during the week of December 10 and in Star Weekly on January 16.

Over one million grapefruit spoons were ordered as a result of
tagging this promotion to the Commission's fresh grapefruit advertising.

Agency Service Operation

Two separate groups operate within Benton & Bowles, Inc., the
Florida Citrus Commission's consumer advertising agency. There is
an Account Executive for processed citrus products and another for
fresh fruit. The creative area also includes separate units one for
orange products and the other for grapefruit products. An agency vice
president is in residence in Lakeland, with offices in the Commission's
building, coordinating the activities of the New York organization with
those of the Commission. The entire agency group reports to a top
level management supervisor who is an officer-director of Benton &
Bowles and who is actively engaged in the Account's daily activities.


The Commission, through its medical and ethical agency,
Noyes & Sproul, carried on an advertising program using full page,
all color ads in 21 leading medical, public health and nutritional
journals. The campaign amounted to 133 pages in these publications
with 13 insertions going to the Journal of the American Medical As-
sociation and six insertions going to each of the 20 other publications.

f%: A1


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Iti ew...








Shortly after the Florida Cit-
rus Commis sion came into being in
1935, plans were developed to carry
ourmessage to the handlers of our pro-
ducts in all part s of the United States
and Canada throughmerchandising rep-
resentatives. It was felt that our na-
tional advertising schedules would be
much more ef e c t ive if the program
were sold to -- and explained to -- food
handlers. Two representatives were
employed to do this job. Since that
date, as the production of. Florida cit-
rus has increased from year to year,
this program has been expanded until
today we have a staff of 55 representa-

tives stationed in the p r i n c i p a mar-
kets in the United States and Canada.
This department is maintained in or-
der to promote a good relationship be-
tween the Florida citrus industry and
the handlers of our products in the re-
tail markets. The benefits of this type
of pro gram have been recognized by
all factors in the citrus industry, and
it is felt that this staff of merchandis-
ing representatives has beenmosthelp-
ful in increasing the usage of all citrus
products in the areas in which they
operate. In the early days of the opera-
tionof themerchandising staff, our
heaviest concentration of man power

_ 1.- ., _

I)T -.IIl

S. I

, J.

was in the Eastern part of the United States; however, as our market
has expanded and our products have been more widely distributed in
all parts of the United States and Canada, our man power has been
shifted in order to give good coverage to all principal markets.

In order that close supervision can be given to all field men,
the country has been divided into four divisions. A Division Manager
is in charge of each division, and a Regional Manager is in charge of
the operation in each principal market. Merchandising Representa-
tives work under the supervision of Regional Managers. The Eastern
Division consists of the Atlantic Coast area and Eastern Canada. The
Central Division covers the central part of the United States and Cen-
tral Canada. The Western Division consists of the Midwestern area
of the United States and Canada, and the Southern Division covers all
the Southern states from Oklahoma and Texas eastward. The men in
the Southern Division and those on the West Coast of the United States
and Canada work under the direct supervision of the Lakeland office.

Many of the members of our merchandising staff are natives
of the State of Florida. For the most part, they have graduated from
an agricultural college, with a major in marketing. In many cases,
men with a good merchandising background are employed from the
area in which they will work.

The field staff must be well informed at all times regarding
new and better merchandising methods, as well as the activities of
the Florida citrus industry. In order to keep these men well in-
formed, Division Meetings have been held three times during the
past year, at which time all aspects of our advertising and merchan-
dising program were discussed. Statistical reports and bulletins are
channeled to the field men during the year in order that they may be
kept abreast of the activities of the industry and so that they may be
better prepared to carry our story to the different trade factors with
whom they are working.

The duties of our merchandising staff cover a wide scope of
operations. They keep retail organizations throughout the country in-
formed regarding our advertising schedules and attempt to have these
organizations tie their own advertising and merchandising programs
in with our campaigns to feature different citrus products when Florida
Citrus Commission advertisements are being carried in their markets.
They arrange promotions with various retail organizations, supply
them with point-of-sale display material, and build many attractive dis-
plays of different citrus products in the retail stores. It is felt that if
our products are well displayed and pinpointed with attractive point-of-
sale display material, Mrs. Housewife will be attracted to these pro-
ducts when she enters the store to do her weekly shopping. Members

of our merchandising staff are doing everything within their limitations
to see that the retail grocer is well supplied with all types of citrus
products and that these products are properly displayed and merchan-

In addition to the work with the retail stores, Commission
representatives contact the auction companies in the terminal markets,
fresh fruit wholesalers, brokers, receivers, frozen food distributors,
hotel and restaurant organizations, and drug and fountain groups in or-
der to keep all factors properly informed regarding our advertising
and merchandising schedules.

During the 1959-1960 season, representatives of the Florida
Citrus Commission made a total of 104, 061 calls. These same repre-
sentatives traveled 1,290, 116 miles in order to cover their respective
territories. During their yearly operation, they conducted a total of
1,515 live demonstrations in which a variety of citrus products were
sampled to customers inx the retail stores. In addition to the live
demonstrations, 1,633 give-away promotions were conducted in which
the customers received awards 'at the conclusion of a promotional
period. Through demonstrations,, both live and give-away, it has been
proved that sales of products can be increased by a very large percent-

Another new type of promotional activity was added to our pro-
gram during the 1959-1960 season. At the beginning of this season, the
Commission set up a budget for prize and premium promotions. This
is a program through which an incentive plan in the form of cash, bonds,
and other premiums are offered to personnel of the different retail or-
ganizations for outstanding jobs of promoting, displaying, and selling
our products. During this fiscal year, 275 such incentive plan promo-
tions have been conducted, with outstanding results. We feel this plan
is most effective in that it offers store personnel an incentive for special
efforts in promoting our products, and that we can obtain a much wider
coverage at a smaller cost. This program has been well received by the
trade factors.

During the year's activities, many special events are planned and
participated in by the merchandising staff. They are as follows:

Planned Promotions

At the beginning of the 1959-1960 season, five major promotions
were arranged, and a promotional brochure outlining each one of these
promotions was distributed to personnel of the retail organizations
throughout the country. Attractive, colorful brochures were prepared
and mailed to some 10, 000 retail personnel well in advance of each

planned promotion. Each brochure outlined the merchandising activities
and the advertising support which would be supplied by the Commission
in connection with this event. After the brochures were mailed, each
retail organization was solicited by a Commission representative to tie
in and cooperate with this program. Special point-of-sale display ma-
terial kits were prepared and distributed in connection with each event.
This type of planned promotional activity has proved to be most success-
ful in that each retail organization could plan well in advance of the pro-
motional period dates.

Trade Luncheons

During the past season, the Florida Citrus Commission enter-
tained some 2,000 leading trade factors during a series of trade
luncheons. Major trade luncheons were held in the following cities:

Boston, Massachusetts
Buffalo, New York
Chicago, Illinois
Cincinnati, Ohio
Cleveland, Ohio
Detroit, Michigan
Minneapolis, Minnesota
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
New York, New York
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Quebec City, Canada
St. Louis, Missouri
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Washington, D. C.

In addition to the major trade luncheons, eight small trade
luncheons were held. At each of these meetings, a complete outline of
our advertising and merchandising program for the individual market
was presented. This type program has been most successful in helping
to create a closer relationship between the handlers of Florida citrus
products in the Northern markets and the Florida citrus industry.

Producers Of Frozen Orange Concentrate
Advertising Campaign

The merchandising staff of the Flc-ida Citrus Commission worked
in close cooperation with the producers of Florida frozen orange concen-
trate in connection with their special summer advertising program. Pro-
motions were arranged through major retail organizations. Many dis-
plays were built in retail stores. A total of 869 live demonstrations were

conducted, at which time frozen orange concentrate was sampled to the
customers in the retail stores. In addition to this retail store activity,
a total of 141,210 kits of special point-of-sale display material were
distributed through the retail organizations. The sales of frozen orange
concentrate were increased by a very large percentage as a result of
this program.


The program of the Florida Citrus Commission is carried to
thousands of people throughout the United States and Canada by partici-
pation in large national conventions. During the past year the Commis-
sion has bought space and exhibited in 17 major conventions which are
related to the food and health fields. The conventions are as follows:

Food 10
Dietetic 1
Hotel and Restaurant 4
School 1
Home Economics 1

In addition to our participation in large national conventions,
orange juice has been served at 88 national convention meetings held
in Florida. A worthwhile public relations job was accomplished by par-
ticipating in these events.

European Program

The European advertising assignment was awarded Lambe &
Robinson-Benton & Bowles, Ltd., of London, England, with affiliates
established in Stockholm, Sweden, Brussels, Belgium, Paris, France,
Frankfurt, Germany, and Geneva, Switzerland. The agencies will handle
all trade and consumer advertising in Great Britain and Continental

The total Commission's European advertising budget for 1959-1960
was $95, 800. This was supplemented with $65, 000 from USDA-P. L. 480
program funds.

The Commission maintains two European merchandising repre-
sentatives, one in Stockholm who contacts all Scandinavian trade factors
and the other in Frankfurt, Germany, who handles all Western European
countries. The principal activity of our representatives is that of co-
ordinating merchandising plans with scheduled advertising. Also, they
represented the Florida citrus industry at six food trade fairs where our
own unique display was used and samples of Florida citrus products were
distributed to hundreds of thousands that visited the fair booths. Some

400 individual store demonstrations were conducted where more samples
were distributed. These demonstration and sampling activities have
been highly acclaimed by all retailers that participated in the program.

The Commission's field representatives work very closely with
the respective USDA embassy attaches for an exchange of ideas and
development of new programs. This is especially true in making up
point-of-sale materials. More than 400, 000 pieces of display material
were made up on the Continent in four languages. An additional 200, 000
pieces were forwarded from the Lakeland office. These are distributed
by both retail and wholesale organizations. The Lakeland office also
sent materials to Australia, India, Indonesia and Puerto Rico.

With the trend toward greater liberalization and more free trad-
ing of commercial products between the U. S. and the Western coun-
tries of Europe, the Commission's advertising and merchandising pro-
gram has been most helpful and will continue to develop greater interest
in marketing of citrus crops throughout all countries of Europe.

Tangelo Promotion

Merchandising activities were conducted in 26 major markets
to support the sale of Florida Tangelos. Special point-of-sale display
material was produced by the Florida Citrus Commission for this com-
paratively new product. Many outstanding displays were built in con-
nection with this program, and results were reported to be most satis-

Tangerine Promotion

Our merchandising men, working in cooperation with the staff of
the Florida Tangerine Cooperative, conducted an intensive promotional
campaign during the tangerine season. Special point-of-sale display ma-
terial was produced by the Florida Tangerine Cooperative to be used in
conjunction with the Florida Citrus Commission's material. Many out-
standing displays were built in the retail stores throughout the United
States and Canada, and through the combined efforts of both organiza-
tions, the use of tangerines has been greatly expanded.

Temple Orange Promotion

Merchandising activities were conducted to tie in with and sup-
port the advertising campaign on Temple oranges. Special point-of-
sale display material was produced by the Florida Citrus Commission.
The advertising and merchandising campaign on Temple oranges has
been most effective in expanding the use of this fine product.

Florida Products Festival

The Merchandising Department of the Commission during the cur-
rent season worked in cooperation with the Florida Development Com-
mission and the Florida State Chamber of Commerce on its annual "Fes-
tival of Florida Products." Point-of-sale display material was supplied
for use in the retail stores to tie in with this event.

Temperature Tests

The Florida citrus industry has, over the years, spent much time
and effort to educate the different trade factors regarding the proper
care and handling of Florida frozen concentrates. A series of colorful
cartoons have been made available and distributed to the retail organiza-
tions depicting the need for better care and handling. Our field repre-
sentatives have, from time to time, made a series of temperature tests
in the retail stores in order to obtain a cross section of handling prac-
tices. They were also asked to pick up samples of frozen orange con-
centrate in their respective markets and ship them to Florida to be
tested for quality by the United States Department of Agriculture. Sixty
frozen orange concentrate surveys have been conducted during the course
of this fiscal year. Excellent cooperation and support was received from
practically all trade factors in connection with this program, and it is
felt that it has been helpful in making store personnel aware of the neces-
sity for better care and handling of this product.

Media Relations

The field staff of the Florida Citrus Commission works in close
cooperation with the different media organizations carrying the Commis-
sion's advertising schedule. Many of the newspapers maintain their own
merchandising staff who spend a portion of their time calling on retail
merchants, urging them to use the display material offered by the Com-
mission and assisting them in the coordinating of their own newspaper
advertising with that of the Florida Citrus Commission. This practice
has been helpful in making the retail operator more aware of the adver-
tising schedule of the Florida Citrus Commission.

Weekly Reports

At the end of each week's work, each Regional Manager and Mer-
chandising Representative submits a market analysis covering the move-
ment and acceptance of Florida citrus products in the area in which he
has been working, a range of prices for each particular product and that
of competitive products in retail stores, and a general condition report
of the activities as far as our products are concerned. These reports
are received in the Florida office, edited, reproduced, and mailed to

some 400 or 500 packers and shippers in the Florida citrus industry. It
is felt that the information contained in these reports is most beneficial
to the citrus industry.


The staff of merchandising men of the Florida Citrus Commission
are provided with up-to-date equipment with which to carry on their pro-
motional activities. During the past year, they have been provided with
"Florida Sunshine Trees" and large plastic "Oranges" and "Grapefruit"
to be used in connection with large, spectacular displays in the retail
stores. Every effort possible has been made to keep the equipment of
the field staff up to date and in step with the progress which is being
made from a merchandising standpoint at the retail level. Films are
provided these men to be used in connection with organizational meetings.
A complete inventory of all equipment is kept up to date in the Lakeland

The work of each representative is reported by the use of a
daily tabulation card on which he reports each individual call. These
cards are mailed to the headquarters office at the end of each day's
operation, are processed by date, region, type of call, displaymaterial
left or ordered, and the type of work done in the individual store. At
the end of each month's operation, a record of calls for each man is
tabulated. This tabulation is broken down by the type of call which he
has made, such as super market, independent, wholesaler, broker, re-
ceiver, etc. This report also indicates the number of miles each man
has traveled in the course of his operation.

The work of the Florida Citrus Commission's representatives
has been well received by the different trade factors throughout the
country. These trade factors look to our representatives for informa-
tion regarding crop conditions, crop quality, and details of our adver-
tising and merchandising program. All possible information regarding
activities in Florida is channeled to the field staff in order that he can
supply information to the trade factors in an intelligent manner. Each
merchandising staff representative has many different trade fields to
cover, and he endeavors at all times to see that the people with whom
he is working are well informed regarding our merchandising activities
and that our products are attractively displayed in the many retail stores
throughout the country.

Many letters are received in the Lakeland office commenting on
the activities of our merchandising staff, and it is the general consensus
of opinion from all information received that this service has been help-
ful to the retail organizations in moving larger quantities of Florida citrus

products through their retail organizations. Much time and effort has
been spent to develop new and modern methods of merchandising and
to keep our entire program in step with the progress which is being
made in the retail food field.


The Production Department is charged with the responsibility
of preparing, ordering and distributing all display and point-of-sale
material used by the Merchandising Department. Most of the ma-
terial is warehoused, packaged and shipped from our own building,
and it is essential that it be shipped to the proper place at the right

All display and educational material is sent out on written or-
ders to retailers, distributors and schools throughout the United
States, Canada and foreign countries. This season, 6,487 orders for
point-of-sale material were processed, and a total of 7,819, 120 pieces
of display material were shipped to food distributors. Over 600,000
pounds of our display material were addressed and wrapped in our of-
fice, and handled by the Railway Express Company and the Post Office.

All display and educational printing purchased by the Commis-
sion is bought in Florida by the Production Department, with the ex-
ception of any work which Florida printers are not equipped to produce.
We are subject to the rules and regulations of the State Purchasing
Commission, which means that all printing jobs amounting to more
than $50. 00 must be advertised, and bids requested. The lowest bidder
receives the contract. One hundred and thirty-nine printing jobs for
point-of-sale and educational material were produced during the 1959-60
season. Written specifications are sent out to printers for each print-
ing job, and copies are sent to the State Purchasing Commission for
their approval.

The food trade, for the most part, demands that display ma-
terial be put up in sets, or kits, for their convenience, and our ware-
house operation is equipped to make up kits according to the retailers'
desires. During the course of the year, 260, 044 kits were assembled
for the trade, both for national promotions and on special requests. In
addition, the Commission's personnel cooperated with the Florida Pro-
cessors' promotion last fall by producing display material and assemb-
ling and shipping 141,210 kits of display material.

The Production Department also has the Commission's mailing
room, which serves all departments, under its jurisdiction. The mailing

room, which does all of the duplicating work for the various departments,
sent 1,642,205 sheets of paper through its duplicating equipment during
the year, making 2,434, 850 impressions.

The mailing room maintains mailing lists for shippers, proces-
sors, publicity, and a mailing list of over 12, 000 plates for food outlets
who are handling Florida citrus products. Frequent mailings are
handled for each of these classifications. A total of 419, 000 pieces of
mail were handled, stamped and turned over to the Post Office this
past year.

School and educational materials are produced and distributed
by the Production Department. During the past year, 10, 870 requests
for educational literature and posters were received from teachers and
students from every state in the Union, and 514, 114 pieces of litera-
ture were sent out in response to these requests.

The Florida Citrus Commission's extensive film program is
handled in this department, as far as circulation and billing are con-
cerned, and this past season our colorful industry films were viewed
by 25, 448, 042 adults and students in group showings and on television




U Far

tl i;"~"i~L~


Looking ahead to the "Golden Sixties" and all the chang-
ing trends which this next decade p r omis es to hold, the public
relations and food publicity services provided by Dudley-Anderson-
Yutzy during the 1959-60 season were geared up to include sev-
eral innovations aimed at reaching broad new segments of the
consumer market.

To set an example, and encourage the "Orange Juice
Break" habit, just such a welcome treat was arranged at two na-
tional conventions with wide influence e -- the American Women
in Radio and Television, and the Home Economists in Business.
Warm reception greeted this gesture, which carried the an-
nounced intent that the recipients should help us spread the popu-
larity of the habit within their own active programs.

Participation in a varietyof nutrition meetings and health
education projects acquainted many key people with the Commis-
sion's interest in these fields and the importance of citrus to these

Special events aimed at c em e n tin g the long support of
food writers and winning new cohorts studded the calendar --
school lunch supervisor rs from across the country; newspaper
food editors; the Society of Magazine Writers; the Science Writers
Association; teen-age experts; disc jockeys.

The pictures on the opening page of this section illus-
trate the variety of activities contained within the publicity pro-
gram during the last year. The Commission's traveling home
economist is shown cutting a radio tape for the Armed Forces
Network, which is beamed to more than a million Americans at
bases throughout the world; on a television pro gram giving one
of her demonstrations on clever new uses of citrus products;
another of our home economists is pictured as she took part in a

nutrition panel whose members included such outstanding personalities
as Dr. Frederick Stare of Harvard University. Food editors from
newspapers in the four corners of the country are shown enjoying Flor-
ida citrus dishes at a brunch given during their annual conference last
fall. Four pictures, typical of those which go to newspapers every
month of the year, show the wide gamut of subject material and the
creative, intelligent presentation of new food ideas which gain impres-
sive use of these pictures in newspapers of every size.

The food publicity, as always, reflected consistent work with
magazines and newspapers, and the people who write their food pages.
These media again gave Florida citrus strong support in their editorial
pages -- women's magazines, Sunday supplements, sectional and farm
publications, special interest magazines, the institutional food press.
To newspapers went a steady stream of interesting new food pictures
and recipes created by our home economics staff. Such materials
covered more than 400 metropolitan and 3,400 small dailies and week-
lies. Special stories were prepared regularly for the house organs of
some 200 companies, appearing on pages that attract high readership
among employee families, and in media which can't be reached by ad-
vertising. Exclusive recipes and picture ideas are constantly being
prepared and presented to the editors of the national women's maga-
zines and the supplements, who do their own photography incorporating
the materials we give them. Circulation figures for this print publi-
city are astronomical -- past a billion!

Our own color pictures rolled up impressive use records. With
nearly 40 transparencies of seasonal subjects built around citrus now
available, and the addition this year of color mats at very low cost to
papers, these editorial illustrations occupied space which it would have
cost more than a quarter of a million dollars to purchase for color ad-
vertising. In addition, they carry the always desirable third-person
authority of the local food editor's by-line.

Television and radio appearances were scheduled for all parts
of the country during the last year -- the west coast, Texas, the Rocky
Mountain area, the southeast, with special attention to the populous
mid-west and northeast. In addition to personal appearances, regular
kits of seasonal interest were sent to television broadcasters, and a
number of script services kept radio commentators well supplied with
news about Florida citrus.

The "3-Minute Cookbook" technique film series showing the uses
of the various fresh and processed citrus items, made about four years
ago, are still receiving wide use on television as part of women's variety
shows, and during the last year were revised, with teaching manuals
added, for distribution through schools, where they have been solidly

Working with the home economists and publicists for many of
the other food companies and associations has resulted in an increas-
ing appearance of citrus in their own publications, and has helped
spread the knowledge of the importance of our products. Particularly
rewarding inclusions in outstanding health columns and books have also
resulted from our work with specialists in these fields.

D-A-Y also assisted in publicizing Commission events, such as
the trade luncheons, the Orange Dessert Contest, the presentation of
grapefruit spoons to the White House, the serving of Florida orange
juice at the Democratic convention in Los Angeles.

As usual, members of the D-A-Y staff covered almost all of the
important media and professional conventions -- American Home
Economics Association, American Dietetic Association, American Medi-
cal Association, Public School Food Service Association, National Res-
taurant Show, Newspaper Food Editors Conference, American Women
in Radio and Television, National Farm Home Editors Association, Na-
tional Youthpower Conference, and large symposia and meetings on
nutrition, foods, and teen-age problems sponsored by many other groups.

Enlarged programs aimed particularly at youth groups has re-
sulted from the work and planning done during the year, and will give
added impetus to awareness and importatice of citrus in these areas dur-
ing the next season.


A public and professional relations program was again carried
on with the medical and dental professions by Noyes & Sproul on behalf
of the Commission. Many personal contacts were made with editors of
scientific journals, with officials of the American Medical Association
and American Dental Association as well as with important practicing
physicians. A close liaison was maintained with widely syndicated
health columnists and many stories on the health aspects of citrus fruit
were funneled to newspapers, columnists and television commentators.


The publicity and public relations firm of Brown & Rowland,
Inc., New York, was retained by the Commission for a six month
period. Stories and feature material produced by Brown & Rowland
were circulated to 59,216,431 newspaper readers and to 43, 168, 236
television viewers and radio listeners.


The Commission, in cooperation with Florida Power & Light
Company, Miami; Florida Power Corporation, St. Petersburg;
Tampa Electric Company, Tampa; Gulf Power Company, Pensacola;
and Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Mansfield, Ohio; sponsored
the second All-Florida Orange Dessert Contest in which 2836 con-
testants participated. The Contest was launched two years ago and
attracted 2301 entries that year.

Preliminary and semi-final contests were conducted all over
the State by the Home Service Departments of the cooperating
privately-owned electric utilities. The Grand Finals were held in
the Nora Mayo Auditorium of the Florida Citrus Building in Winter
Haven on March 31-April 1, 1960. The Grand Championship was
won by Mrs. Myrtle I. Risdall of Fort Lauderdale. Her prize was
appliances for an all-electric kitchen. Second prize winner was Mrs.
Bob Younger of Fort Myers. She won an electric washer-dryer com-
bination. Third prize winner was Mrs. C. B. Clayton of Eustis. She
won a portable electric dishwasher. Mrs. Malcolm Pierson of Tampa
won honorable mention.

Judges for the Grand Finals were Grace Hartley, food editor of
the Atlanta Journal; Myrna Johnston, food and equipment editor of
Better Homes & Gardens Magazine; Meta Given, noted author of recipe
books; Jane Nickerson, former food editor of the New York Times;
Charles H. Baker, Jr., well-known author of articles on food for na-
tional publications; and Mrs. Barbara Clendinen, home editor of Florida
Grower & Rancher Magazine.

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*The Commission's research program, carried out coopera-
tively with the Citrus Experiment Station, Lake Alfred, expanded
considerably d u r in g the past year. In addition, new cooperative
research was undertaken with the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture. Funds expended rose to $273,000.
Major fields of research included processing and by-products,
decay control, fundamental studies of fruit physiology and fruit
maturity, mechanical harvesting aids, the influence of freezing
temperatures on citrus trees and fruit, and the drying of citrus
juices by the "foam-mat" process.
Processing and by-products research was largely concerned
with problems relative to the production, storage and marketing
of frozen concentrated citrus juices; the recovery and identifica-
tion of volatile e s s ence s from citrus juices; the de-bittering of
grapefruit juices; and the production of high density concentrates.
Decay control methods were further investigated, and the
advantages of expeditious handling of fruit in the packinghouse
again demonstrated. Detailed studies were made of the amino
acid content of orange juices as the fruit matured. The physiology
of the development of rind color of citrus fruits was further in-

A mobile picker's platform was redesigned to accommodate two
pickers, and a spindle type picking device to pick fruit by mechanical
spinning was developed.

A freeze chamber 25' x 25' x 25' was constructed to investigate
the influence of low temperatures on citrus fruits and trees.

A study was initiated on the drying of citrus juices by the "foam-
mat" process.

I. Processing and By-Products

Problems relative to the production, storage and marketing of fro-
zen concentrated citrus juices comprise the major portion of this re-

A. Storage Studies on Concentrated Citrus Juices

No significant clarification occurred in 420 Brix concentrates
stored at -80 and 100F. for 412 days. These products had been pre-
pared from heated evaporator feed juice or from concentrates heated at
2-, 3-, or 4-fold. No practical way was' found to incorporate large
amounts of water-insoluble solids in 42 Brix Pineapple orange concen-
trates unless high heat treatment was used.

B. Pectin Studies

Basic research was initiated on the distribution of pectin frac-
tions and pectinesterase in the component parts of citrus fruit during
maturation. Highest pectinesterase activity was found in the juice sacs
and the least in the juice. The peel contained the largest amount of pec-
tins and the juice contained only a small amount.

C. Activated Sludge

Excellent results were obtained in the activated sludge treat-
ment of citrus waste waters using a pilot plant model "Cavitator."
Loadings as high as 0. 29 pounds of organic solids per day per cubic
foot of aeration tank were found feasible.

D. Volatile Flavors in Citrus Juices

The temperature programmed gas chromatographic technique
has indicated the presence of at least 40 volatile compounds in recovered
orange essence. Partial or complete identification of acetaldehyde, hex-
anal, hexenal, octanal, linalool, citral, carvone and ethanol was made.
In addition, beta-myrcene and d-limonene were identified in the oil
separated from the essence by centrifugation.

E. Rapid Method for Predicting Stability of Commercial
(In cooperation with Continental Can Company)

A rapid test to predict potential clarification and gelation in com-
mercial concentrates was further developed and correlated with actual
plant practices. For best correlation, the optimum pH of the rapid
test must be determined for each processing plant.

F. Pulp Washing

Aqueous extracts of orange pulp, as well as samples of orange
juice, were collected from 9 commercial plants during January and
February, and again in June. Comparison of characteristics indicated
that the more acceptable extracts were collected from plants where the
water extraction process was carried out rapidly and under good sani-
tary conditions, recycling was not part of the process, and centrifuges
were used to reduce water-insoluble solids, pectinesterase activity,
and oxalate soluble pectin in the extract.

G. High Density Concentrates

Previously packed high-density orange concentrates were ex-
amined after storage at -8 F. Only small differences in flavor sta-
bility were noted. However, the flavor of some of the 6-fold concen-
trates were markedly better than the 4-fold after a simulated abuse
test of 24 hours at 800 F.

Semi-commercial packs of 4-fold and 5-fold orange concentrates
were made for use in a consumer preference survey.

H. Survey of Commercial Frozen Orange Concentrates

Physical, chemical and organoleptic examinations of 197 sam-
ples of commercial orange concentrates collected from Florida plants
in 1958-59 were completed. Additional samples were collected during
the past season.

Two hundred and fifty samples monthly were collected in major
markets and submitted to the U. S. Department of Agriculture for re-

I. Debittering Grapefruit Products

An investigation to determine the effects of time, temperature
and concentration on the debittering of 550 Brix frozen grapefruit con-
centrate by the enzyme, naringinase, was initiated. As expected, en-
zyme concentration and temperature had marked effects on the reaction.

II. Decay Control

Over 100 experiments were carried out on oranges and tangerines
to evaluate various methods of decay control. Twenty-five explora-
tory tests using either new chemicals or new methods of treatment
failed to yield any procedure superior to present methods using Dowi-
cide A-Hexamine and/or diphenyl. Decay in untreated oranges through-
out the season averaged 27. 2% after storage at 700 F. for two weeks;
after storage at 600 F., the figure was 14. 3%. In all these experi-
ments, prompt handling of the fruit and high humidity in the degreening
room was standard procedure, since the adverse effects of low humidity
and delayed handling had been demonstrated previously. The better
procedure showed up to 92% decay control after two weeks.

The adverse effects of delayed handling of oranges was again
demonstrated. Oranges handled promptly averaged 2. 0% rind break-
down for all varieties after two weeks; whereas oranges held on the
packinghouse floor for 2 days prior to processing averaged 34. 0% rind
breakdown. Delayed handling also more than doubled the losses from
decay after storage for 2 weeks at 700 F.

III. Chemical Constituents of Citrus Fruits

During the period January-May, 1960, 199 samples of chilled
orange juice and 163 samples of frozen concentrated orange juice were
examined for their amino acid content by the ninhydrin colorometric
procedure. The mean concentration of the ninhydrin positive amino
acids was 0.90 millimole per 100 ml. for this period, with over 92% of
the samples falling in the range of 0. 71 to 1. 05 millimole per 100 ml.
The amino acid content increased as the season progressed.

Data obtained from a survey of pink and red grapefruit and navel
oranges were compiled and analyzed. Contrary to observations on other
varieties, pink and red grapefruit on rough lemon rootstock underwent
a decrease in total fruit solids with maturation.

IV. Physiology of Pigments in Citrus Peel

A study was made of the relative effectiveness of curing and ethy-
lene degreening on the disappearance of green color or the development
of yellow color in lemons of the Sicilian variety. Curing at 600 F. was
found to be slower than ethylene degreening, but overall appearance of
the fruit was superior. It was also observed that ethylene degreening
apparently limits the amount of ultimate rr -)r change.

V. Mechanization of Citrus Fruit Picking

When the mobile picker's platform was redesigned to include two
picker's baskets, an increase in picker productivity was obtained. A
spindle type picking device was developed to pick fruit by mechanical
spinning, and an oscillating bar device which separates the fruit by ap-
plying a sudden blow to the stem is being studied.

VI. Freeze Damage to Citrus Trees

The 25' x 25' x 25' freeze chamber was completed and is being
tested, and detailed studies of the effects of freezing temperatures on
the physiology of citrus trees and fruits will be made during the com-
ing season.

Various types of grove heaters were tested for their ability to raise
temperatures in cold pockets; plastic base materials were investigated
for their effectiveness in maintaining soil banks around young trees; and
the use of maleic hydrazide as a spray to induce dormancy was studied.

VII. "Foam-Mat" Drying of Citrus Juices

In cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture, a study of
the "foam-mat" drying of citrus juices was initiated. A hot air tunnel
drier enclosing an endless Teflon belt, and a low humidity "dry" room
were constructed. The process involves whipping concentrated orange
juice to a foam, spreading this foam in thin strips on the Teflon belt,
and drying by a hot air blast. The resulting powder contains approxi-
mately 2% moisture.

VIII. Spray and Dust Schedules

Twenty-two thousand copies of the 1960 Better Fruit Program
Spray and Dust Schedule were printed and distributed.

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*The complicated procedure of mo v in g pro-
ducts to market has become extremely important to
the Florida citrus industry. As production increases,
so also increase the problems encountered in the
transportation of our fresh and processed products to
markets throughout the world.
New and more complex transportation prob-
lems have become almost a matter of routine to the
Florida citrus shipper and processor; problems that
may spell the difference between seasonal success or
profit losses.
The Commission continued to retain the ser-
vice of the Grower s and Shippers League of Florida
to assist in solving these problems affecting trans-
portation. The Leagu e, as a representative of the
citrus indu s try at large, has been most effective in
carrying citrus transportation problems before the

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Interstate Commerce Commission and other federal and state agencies
embodied with the authority to regulate transportation.

Through this service, the League has been instrumental in ef-
fecting huge savings to the citrus industry. Listed below are some of
the more important citrus problems encountered during the 1959-60
season by the Growers and Shippers League, their disposition or

Complaint Against Higher Rail Rates on Fresh
Citrus Fruit to New York I. C. C. Docket 33105:

In the latter part of 1959, the City of New York and the New
York Port Authority filed a complaint against the higher level of
rates assessed by the rail lines on shipments of fresh fruits and
vegetables from the South and Southwest when destined for delivery
to the piers in New York City as compared with the level of rates as-
sessed on these shipments when delivered to adjacent points in New
Jersey. In the case of shipments of fresh citrus fruit from Florida,
this difference amounts to approximately 10 per 100 pounds.

The League and the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association
intervened in this proceeding and at a hearing in January, 1960, pre-
sented testimony and exhibits showing the unreasonableness of the
higher rate applicable at the Manhattan destinations and at the same
time urged that the level of the rates to the New Jersey points not be
raised to the level of the rates to the New York destinations. An ad-
journed hearing to receive railroad testimony and exhibits was held
beginning June 6, 1960, in Washington, D. C. and a further hearing
will be held in October of this year.

Rail Per Car Charges On Fresh Citrus Fruit:

In November, 1959, the origin rail lines filed a proposal to
publish per car charges on fresh citrus fruit moving to destinations
in Southern Territory on the same level as the per car charges which
have been published on vegetables to the same destinations. This ad-
justment also provided for mixed shipments of vegetables and citrus
in the same car, but restricted the per car charges to apply only in
refrigerator cars not exceeding 33 feet 6 inches in length. This pro-
posal was approved by the Southern lines and became effective on
February 19, 1960.

We have requested the members of the Fruit Growers Express
Special Committee dealing with rates on fresh fruits and vegetables
from Florida to publish the present vegetable per car charges to apply
on citrus fruit to Official and Western Trunk Line Territories.

As an example, if these charges are published, the per car
charge on a carload of citrus fruit, without regard to the minimum
weight, from Lake Wales to Jersey City would be $384. 00 as com-
pared to the present charge, based on a 40, 000 pound minimum, of

We have received advice from several members of the Special
Committee that this matter will be given very careful study.

Cancellation Of Citrus Containers From The Tariff:

A railroad proposal was filed with the National Container Com-
mittee proposing to cancel nailed 4/5 bushel Containers Nos. 675 and
679 from the Container and Loading Rules Tariff, and another railroad
proposal was filed to cancel the 1-3/5 bushel Wirebound Bruce Box
No. 5004 from the Container Tariff. Objections against the cancella-
tion of the 1-3/5 bushel container were filed with the Container Com-
mittee and this proposal was withdrawn. The National Container Com-
mittee was advised that Container No. 679 was used to a limited extent
for the shipment of certain types of fruit and the Committee later an-
nounced that this proposal had also been withdrawn and cancelled.

Estimated Weights On Oranges In
4/5 Bushel Containers:

In August, 1959, the rail lines in Southern Territory filed a
proposal to publish estimated weights on oranges of 46-1/2 pounds in
wirebound 4/5 bushel Container No. 3670 and 45-1/2 pounds in fibre-
board 4/5 bushel Containers Nos. 6482 and 6495. After considering
this proposal, the citrus fruit shippers agreed to the publication of
these estimated weights as a means of eliminating the confusion result-
ing from the various weights applying on these containers as the result
of individual weight agreements signed with the Southern Weighing and
Inspection Bureau by the various packing houses throughout the state,
but at the same time the rail lines were requested to continue the test
weighing program on oranges in these containers to insure that the
published estimated weight reflected the true average of actual weights.
The estimated weights on these containers were published effective
January 26, 1960, in the Florida Citrus Fruit Tariff.

In connection with the provisions in the Citrus Fruit Tariff
governing the use of published estimated weights for containers mov-
ing under test permits or for containers on which no estimated weights
have been published, the Southern railroads have filed Submittal No.
A42474 proposing to amend these tariff provisions by requiring that the
billing weight to be used must be that published for a container con-
structed of the same character material. This would mean that the

published weight to be used for a wooden container must be one pro-
vided for a wooden container and the published weight for a fibreboard
container must be one provided for a fibreboard container. Objection
to this proposal has been filed with the Southern Freight Association,
and the matter will be considered by the Southern lines the latter part
of July, 1960.

Open-Top Returnable Containers For
Rail Shipments Of Citrus Fruit:

Emergency Proposal A5401 was filed by the origin rail lines
with the Southern Freight Association proposing to reduce by varying
amounts the rail rates on oranges and grapefruit in open-top return-
able containers to named destinations in Official Territory and also to
reduce the carload minimum weight on these containers to 63, 000
pounds on oranges and 58, 000 pounds on grapefruit. This proposal
was approved by the Southern lines and the reduced rates to Washing-
ton, D. C., St. Louis, Missouri, and Cincinnati, Ohio, were pub-
lished effective December 14, 1959. However, the Eastern railroads
delayed approval of these proposed rates and reduced minima, and to
other destinations in Official Territory the lower rates and minimum
weights did not become effective until March 23, 1960, on short notice

An Evaluation Of Competing Forms
Of Transportation:

There has been considerable discussion within the fresh fruit
and vegetable industry and with officials of refrigerator car lines as
to the division of traffic between the various modes of transportation.
The principal reason for this discussion has been the concern ex-
pressed as to the diminishing movement by rail and that if a greater
movement, particularly from the Southeast, were not accomplished,
the railroads and car lines could not be expected to maintain their
present fleet of refrigerator cars or increase such fleet. This matter
was discussed at the annual convention of the United Fresh Fruit and
Vegetable Association in February of 1960, and a resolution was un-
animously adopted urging that shippers and receivers should carefully
evaluate the respective merits of each competing form and use that
which best fills their requirements, bearing in mind that it is essential
to an adequate distribution system that each competing form enjoy suf-
ficient volume to enable it to maintain adequate facilities and develop
and make available improved methods and equipment.

Reactivation Of Refrigerator Car Research Program:

For several years after the formation of the United Fresh Fruit
and Vegetable Association's Refrigerator Car Committee, a very close

working arrangement was maintained with the Association of American
Railroads in developing new innovations in the construction of refrig-
erator cars, but in recent years that program was more or less aban-
doned by the Association of American railroads, and in view of the
fact that piggy-back operations and containerization seem to be de-
veloping rapidly, there is need for careful study of the formation of
uniform programs by railroads and truck lines.

A resolution to this effect was approved at the United Fresh
Fruit and Vegetable Convention and discussions have been held with
Mr. W. M. Keller, Vice President of the Association of American
Railroads, in charge of their research program, and he has indicated
a real interest in the suggestions made by this Committee.

Specifying Of Temperatures On Rail Ship-
ments Of Frozen Citrus Products:

The rail lines' Perishable Protective Tariff has had no pro-
vision which would allow shippers of frozen products to specify the
temperature at which they wished these products to be transported,
a situation about which the frozen citrus products shippers have been
concerned. A proposal was filed with the National Perishable Freight
Committee which would authorize the frozen food shippers to specify
that these products should be transported at a temperature of zero de-
grees Fahrenheit or lower. This proposal was approved by the Com-
mittee and was published in the Perishable Protective Tariff effective
July 18, 1960.

Rates On Frozen Citrus Products
To Points In The East:

After the inauguration of Sea-Land Service and the publication
of reduced rates by Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation, the rail lines
became concerned with the loss of frozen citrus products tonnage mov-
ing to points in the East served by Pan-Atlantic. In an effort to re-
capture some of this tonnage, the rail lines, effective September 1,
1959, published reduced rates to competitive points in the East subject
to carload minimum weight of 70, 000 pounds, the reduced rates to
apply on a blanket origin basis from the producing points in Central
Florida. Further reductions in these rates were published by the rail
lines effective December 14, 1959, to points in the East and effective
May 19, 1960, to New York City only. To counter these reductions in
the rail rates, Pan-Atlantic, effective February 9, 1960, reduced its
rates to New York, New York, subject to higher minimum weights, but
then on May 22, 1960, cancelled its reduced rates subject to the higher
minimum weights and published higher rates subject to minimum weight
of 70, 000 pounds to its destination points in the East. Although petitions

for suspension against both the rail and boat reduced rates were filed
with the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Commission did not
suspend these rates but did order an investigation into the reasonable-
ness of both the rail and boat line rates. A hearing on these rates
was held in Washington, D. C. in June, 1960. The League attended
this hearing in order to see that the interests of the Florida frozen
citrus products shippers were protected in this proceeding.

In an attempt to participate in some of the frozen citrus pro-
ducts traffic to points to which the reduced rail and boat rates had
been published, one of the truck lines published reduced rates to cer-
tain Eastern destinations, subject to the movement of these trailers in
piggy-back service. Objections to these reduced truck rates were filed
by some of the other truck lines and after several postponements of the
effective date of the reductions, the rates were finally cancelled from
the tariff effective July 1, 1960.

Revision Of Truck Rates On Frozen
Citrus Products:

Over a period of years, the truck tariff containing rates on fro-
zen and chilled citrus products from Florida has become more and
more complex, and because of the various adjustments which have oc-
curred in the rates, now contains many discrepancies and inequities in
the rates from the various shipping points. The League was requested
to make an analysis of these truck rates and a special committee of the
Transportation Advisory Council was appointed to study this analysis
and to try to arrive at a revision of the rates which could be recom-
mended to the truck lines for their approval. A proposed revision of
these rates has been prepared and has been approved by the Transpor-
tation Advisory Council and will be presented to the truck lines at a
meeting in the near future.

Failure Of Mechanical Refrigeration Service
On Shipments Of Frozen Citrus Concentrate:

Some of the frozen citrus concentrate shippers had been ex-
periencing failures of mechanical refrigeration service on rail ship-
ments of frozen citrus concentrate, with the subsequent danger that
the concentrate might experience a rise in temperature while in
transit. Instances of these failures were called to the attention of of-
ficials of the Fruit Growers Express Company and origin rail lines at
Hollywood Beach, Florida, in October, 1959, and to representatives of
other rail lines and other car lines involved throughout the country at a
meeting in Chicago, Illinois, in November, 1959. The importance of
maintaining low temperatures on frozen citrus concentrate was stressed
at these meetings and the officials of the car lines and railroads involved

agreed that a closer inspection of cars containing shipments of frozen
citrus concentrate would be made at points on their lines. Also in-
volved in this problem was the question of disposition to be made on
shipments of frozen citrus concentrate which had been subjected to
possibly damaging temperatures in route. An agreement reached by
one of the frozen concentrate shippers with one of the Trans-Continental
rail lines on the procedure of returning damaged shipments to the ship-
per was approved by the frozen concentrate industry as the basis for
industry-wide agreement. This agreement was also distributed to all
rail carriers through the Freight Claims Division, Association of
American Railroads, and the railroads generally have indicated that
they are in accord with the procedure outlined in this agreement.

The problems involved and the procedures desired to be fol-
lowed were also discussed with representatives of the origin truck
lines and with the National Freight Claims Council of the American
Trucking Association, representing all truck lines.

Ex Parte 137 Charges For Contracts
For Protective Service:

The Interstate Commerce Commission has reopened a pro-
ceeding known as Ex Parte 137, which is an investigation into the
charges for contracts between the car lines and railroads for provid-
ing protective service, insofar as these contracts may include me-
chanical refrigeration service. The charges involved in this proceed-
ing are those between the car lines and railroads, and not those paid
by the shippers to the railroads for protective service, but since the
provisions of the contract between the car lines and the railroads could
ultimately affect the charges paid by the shippers, the League has par-
ticipated in this proceeding. Briefs have been filed and the matter is
now before the Interstate Commerce Commission for decision.

Detention Charges On Mechanical
Refrigerator Cars:

The provisions of the rule of the Perishable Protective Tariff
governing detention on mechanical refrigerator cars were causing a
great deal of confusion and dissatisfaction in the assessment of charges
when detention accrued. A proposal was filed with the National Perish-
able Freight Committee to allow additional free time after placement of
car at stop-off point or final destination, and also to provide for a change
in the method of computing detention on a Saturday, Sunday or legal holi-
day. This proposal was approved by the Perishable Freight Committee
with the amendment that the charge for each detention period was raised
from $2. 88 to $5. 00 per 12 hours or fraction thereof and these changes
were published effective July 22, 1959. Another amendment to this rule

allowing twenty-four hours free time at origin and at each point at which
car was stopped to complete loading was later approved by the Perish-
able Freight Committee and was published effective October 15, 1959.

Rail And Boat Rates On Canned Citrus
Products To Points In The East:

The publication of reduced rates by the rail lines and by Pan-
Atlantic Steamship Corporation in an effort to control the tonnage of
canned citrus products moving to competitive points in the East was the
subject of an investigation by the Interstate Commerce Commission in
July, 1959, in which the League participated. This matter is still
pending before the Interstate Commerce Commission for a decision.

Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation, effective July 2, 1960, in-
creased up to the rail level its rates on canned citrus products to points
in the East to which its rates were lower than the rail rates subject to
60, 000 pound minimum. In June, 1960, the boat line announced a pro-
posed revision of its rates on canned citrus products to a mileage basis,
but following a meeting with the shippers, agreed to reconsider its de-
cision in line with the objections expressed by the shippers to the pro-
posed method of publishing rates.

Reduced Trans-Continental Rail Rates
On Canned Citrus Products:

A proposal to publish reduced rail rates on canned goods, in-
cluding canned citrus products, subject to an increase in minimum
weight to 75, 000 pounds, between Southern and Trans-Continental Ter-
ritory was approved by the Trans-Continental lines. The reduction
proposed was 10 per 100 pounds under the existing rates applicable
on 60, 000 pounds minimum but maintained the differential in the higher
westbound rates over the same rates applicable eastbound to Florida.
The Southern rail lines attempted to secure an equalization of the east-
bound and westbound rates on both the 75, 000 pound minimum and also
on the 60, 000 pound minimum, but the Trans-Continental lines refused
to go along with this equalization. In order to secure some reduction
in the rate, the Southern lines finally agreed to the proposal as origin-
ally approved by the Trans-Continental lines and the reduction of 10
per 100 pounds, subject to carload minimum weight 75, 000 pounds, was
published effective April 15, 1960.

At the request of the canned citrus shippers in Florida, the ori-
gin rail lines filed a proposal to equalize the east and westbound rates
on canned goods subject to 60, 000 pound and 75, 000 pound minimum.
This proposal was approved by the Southern lines, but the Trans-
Continental lines have again recommended that this equalization be de-
clined. A public hearing on this proposal has been set before the Freight

Traffic Managers Committee of the Trans-Continental lines in
Chicago in August, 1960, which will be attended by representatives
of the canned citrus industry and the League.

Reduced Rail Rates On Citrus Pomace:

For some time the citrus pomace shippers in Florida have
been concerned with the increasing rail rates on citrus pomace mov-
ing to points in the East, particularly in New England, New York,
and Pennsylvania. A proposed reduction in these rates was presented
to the origin rail lines, and after conferences with the shippers in
Florida, the Florida lines filed a proposal to reduce the citrus pomace
rates to the East approximately 20 per cent. This proposal was ap-
proved by the Southern rail lines and was submitted to the Eastern
railroads for their concurrence. The Eastern lines have approved the
proposal, subject to a slight increase in the rate proposed, but this
approval has been appealed to their Traffic Executive Association who
now have the adjustment under consideration.

The origin lines have also been concerned with the small
amount of citrus pomace tonnage they have been transporting to points
in Southern Territory. A proposal to reduce the rates on citrus po-
mace to destinations in the states of Alabama, North Carolina, South
Carolina, and Virginia, was filed, and after amendment, approved by
the Southern lines and this adjustment is now in the process of being

Rail Beet Pulp Rate To Florida:

A proposal to publish greatly reduced rates on beet pulp from
points in Western Trunk Line Territory to destinations in Florida was
filed by the rail lines in Western Trunk Line Territory. Objections to
this proposal were filed with the Western Trunk Line carriers and
also with the Southern rail lines when the proposal was submitted to
the Southern Freight Association. After a public hearing before the
Executive Committee of the Southern Freight Association, at which
representatives of the citrus pomace industry and the League appeared
in opposition to the proposed reduced rates, the Executive Committee
recommended disapproval of the proposal in November, 1959. How-
ever, in March, 1960, the Southern Freight Association Executive Com-
mittee reconsidered this proposal and recommended that it be approved
subject to an increase in the rates proposed. This proposal has been
sent back to the Western Trunk Line rail carriers for their action on
this increased rate and is still pending before the Western rail lines.

Increased Railway Express Charges
On Citrus Fruit Shipments:

As part of its reorganization plan to continue in operation, the
Railway Express Agency in July, 1959, announced the filing of in-
creased rates and charges throughout the country. On express citrus
fruit shipments out of Florida, this increase amounted to 25 per
shipment, or 25 per 100 pounds. After considering the effect of this
increase on the Florida fruit shipments and also the efforts being
made by the Express Agency to continue in operation, the Florida Ex-
press Fruit Shippers Association and the League concluded not to pro-
test these increases, but instead to ask that a revision be made in
the express rates applicable on Florida citrus fruit shipments. Con-
ferences have been held with officials of the Express Agency on the
proposed revision of these express charges and we have been assured
by the President of the Railway Express Agency that these revisions
are being given serious consideration. It has not been possible to
complete a study of the proposed revision in the basis of the express
charges from Florida and we have been advised the present level of
rates will be applicable during the coming season.

I. C. C. Docket Ex Parte MC-40 -
Accident Records:

The Interstate Commerce Commission in a reopened proceed-
ing, Docket Ex Parte MC-40, proposed to amend its regulations re-
garding the reporting of accidents involving motor vehicles by enlarg-
ing the scope of the application of these regulations and by extending
the regulations to include private operators of motor vehicles. The
proposed rule making would greatly increase the records required to
be kept by the common and contract carrier truck lines and would also
require that operators of private trucks prepare and maintain detailed
reports of accidents. Objections to the proposed rule were filed by
the League and the matter is now before the Interstate Commerce Com-
mission for decision.

Truck Applications For Operating Authorities:

During the past year, the League has supported on behalf of the
Florida canned and frozen citrus products shippers application of Bel-
ford Trucking Company under its Sub. 40 for authority to transport
frozen and chilled citrus products to all points in Illinois and Missouri,
application Sub. 3 of Florida Frozen Foods Express Limited for author-
ity to transport frozen foods and chilled citrus products to points in On-
tario and Quebec, Canada, and application of Commercial Carrier
Corporation, Sub. 17, for authority to transport canned citrus products
to the State of South Dakota and to points in Wisconsin and the upper

peninsula of Michigan. Proposed reports have been issued by the hear-
ing examiners of the Interstate Commerce Commission recommending
that the Belford application be denied, that the Florida Frozen Foods
Express application be granted to points in Ontario but not Quebec,
Canada, and that the application of Commercial Carrier Corporation
be approved to LaCrosse, Wisconsin, and to points in South Dakota.

Change In Operation Of Sea-Land Service:

When Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation changed its method
of operation from a breakbulk service to the use of trailer bodies in
containership service in October, 1957, it designated the new opera-
tion as "Sea-Land Service." The name of the corporation has now
been officially changed to Sea-Land Service, Inc., effective April 1,

With the inauguration of Sea-Land Service, Pan-Atlantic Steam-
ship Corporation began transporting its own trailers between the in-
terior points in Florida and Tampa and Miami for water movement be-
yond the ports. A complaint was filed by the common carrier truck
lines in Florida against the over-the-road operation of Pan-Atlantic,
and after hearings, the Interstate Commerce Commission finally ruled
that Pan-Atlantic did not have authority to operate beyond the port areas
and ordered the boat line to stop its own trucking operations within

In March, 1960, Sea-Land Service suspended its operations
through Tampa and Miami and consolidated all of its Florida service
in a weekly sailing between Jacksonville, Florida, and Port Newark,
New Jersey. At the same time Sea-Land Service filed with the I. C. C.
an application seeking temporary authority to transport in its own
trucks general commodities between Jacksonville and Tampa, Florida,
and citrus products from the producing areas in Florida to Tampa and
Jacksonville, restricted to movements beyond the port by Sea-Land Ser-
vice. The League supported this request of Sea-Land Service and emer-
gency temporary authority was granted Sea-Land for the above operation
until the latter part of May, 1960, when the emergency authority ex-
pired. The application for temporary authority is still pending before
the Interstate Commerce Commission for its decision. Since the ex-
piration of Sea-Land's temporary emergency authority, Sea-Land's
trailers have been transported between the shipping points and Jackson-
ville by the common carrier truck lines in Florida having the requisite

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*The Comm i s s ion continued its policy of changing its
regulations from time to time in order to meet changing con-
ditions in the industry and to improve the standards of quality
for citrus fruits and products supplied to American consumers.
Some of the more important changes are as follows:


Early in the season the Commission took steps to tighten
the maturity requirements by providing that a composite test
shall be made on each lot of fruit received at packinghouses and
processing plants. If the test fails to meet the minimum ratio
requirement by mo re than one-half point, two additional tests
must be made and if the average of the three tests fail by more
than one-half point, the lot of fruit must be condemned and des-
troyed. Prior to the adoption of this amendment, such fruit
could be re-graded by the owner and re-offered for inspection.
At the time this amendment was adopted, the regulations were
also amended to provide that packinghouses must provide at least
one testing place at or near the point where fruit is received.
In some cases the testing fac ilities were located in a remote

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section of the packinghouse which greatly handicapped inspectors
in performing their duties efficiently.

Trade in

Grade Standards And Quality

The 1959 Legislature, at the reque s t of the industry,
enac ted legislation authorizing the Commission to regulate the
grade of fruit shipped for consumption or use in Florida and for
gift fruit shipments. This authority was sought by the industry
because of numerous complaints about the poor quality of fruit
offered for sale in Florida. The first regulation under this au-
thorization was adopted in November, 1959. It provided a mini-
mum grade of U. S. No. 2 Russet and higher for grapefruit and
U. S. No. 2 and higher for all other citrus fruits. Shortly after
the regulation was issued, a Florida shipper obtained a court
order enjoining the Commissioner of Agriculture from enforcing
the regulation against it. The Commission took the position that
although the injunction order applied only to this one shipper, the
regulation should not be enforced against any shippers until its
legality was resolved. It therefore requested the Commissioner
of Agriculture to discontinue all enforcement. The court later
held that the legislative act and the regulation were legal and
valid and it dissolved the injunction. The enfo rc ement of the

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regulation was resumed for the balance of the season. The mini-
mum grade for all citrus other than grapefruit was changed in De-
cember to U. S. No. 2 and higher, except that fruit in excess of the
discoloration limitations for U. S. No. 2 grade must meet all the
requirements of U. S. No. 1 Russet. The regulation was terminated
on June 16th but was re-adopted to become effective September 1,

In February, 1960, the Commission adopted a FLORIDA
SPECIAL grade for grapefruit. The purpose of this grade was to
permit the utilization of more grapefruit for shipment in fresh form.
The new grade was basically U. S. No. 2 except that tolerances for
misshapen fruit and thickness of skin were tightened.

At the request of the Commission, the U. S. Department of
Agriculture agreed to make certain changes in the grade standards
for fresh oranges, tangelos, grapefruit and tangerines, to be effec-
tive at the beginning of the 1960-61 season. All of the changes were
for the purpose of improving the grades.

The grade standards for Grade "C" sweetened canned orange
juice were amended by reducing the minimum acid requirement from
. 65 to .55. This had the effect of making the acid requirements for
Grade C sweetened juice the same as for Grade C unsweetened.
While this had little effect on the quality of the product, it was the un-
animous opinion of the processors that it would permit more practical
operations at the processing plants. The standards for canned orange
juice were also amended to permit the use of concentrated orange juice,
other than "hot pack" concentrate, in the production of canned juice.
This made it possible to build up the solids and improve the color of the
juice by the addition of concentrate.

Changes In Fruit Sizes

The new orange sizes which became effective in August, 1959,
were used by the industry throughout the 1959-60 season and many
favorable comments were received. The purpose of the change was to
reduce the number of sizes for oranges. Prior to adoption of these
new sizes, a number of shippers expressed concern about making such
a major change in an industry practice of long standing. The Inspection
Service contributed a great deal to the smooth transition by making its
inspectors available to all shippers who requested assistance in chang-
ing to the new packs.

In October, 1959, the Commission changed the sizes of Temple
oranges and tangelos packed in the 4/5 bushel flat wirebound box. The

new sizes were limited to 54s, 66s, 80s, 100s, 120s and 156s. This
had the effect of eliminating sizes 90s, 108s and 130s. This amend-
ment of the regulations eliminated a great deal of confusion in the in-
dustry and the trade by providing more uniformity in the sizes packed
and offered for sale.

Other Changes

The regulations relating to processing procedures were amended
to provide that no citrus fruit may be processed except in the presence
of an inspector or with his consent previously given. This eliminated
the possibility of fruit being processed without the knowledge of the in-
spector who subsequently would be requested to issue inspection cer-
tificates on the packed products.

A regulation was adopted to improve sanitary conditions in the
processing plants. While most plants maintain good sanitary condi-
tions, the purpose of the regulation was to specifically define the sani-
tation conditions which are required. This regulation will become ef-
fective at the beginning of the 1960-61 season.

The regulations were amended to provide that inspectors shall
have free access tc records of processors having to do with additives
such as sugar, citric acid, etc. Inspectors were also given the right
of access to all areas where these ingredients are stored for the pur-
pose of taking physical inventory of them. The purpose of this regu-
lation was to insure strict enforcement of the regulations which pro-
hibit the use of such ingredients in certain processed citrus products.


The Commission continued to employ two experienced men in
the 1959-60 season to check rumors of violations of the Citrus Code
and regulations and to refer any evidence of violations to the proper
enforcing authority for action. In addition, these men made regular
calls at packinghouses and processing plants to ntudy inspection pro-
cedures and plant operations. Many of the changes in the Commis-
sion's regulations were the direct result of recommendations made by
these men. At the end of the season, the Commission, upon the basis
of recommendations received from industry advisory committees,
agreed to continue this activity through the 1960-61 season. The close
cooperation of these field men with the Federal and State Inspection De-
partments and other agencies resulted in generally better enforcement
of the Citrus Code and regulations.



During the 1959-60 season, the Commission reviewed and ap-
proved 1,519 citrus fruit dealer license applications. This compares
with 1,436 applications approved in the previous season. During this
season, twelve applications were denied.

A total of 2, 861 Special Permits were issued during the sea-
son. This included 2,419 permits to move gift fruit by truck, 274 for
the interstate movement of fruit for processing, 72 for the coloring of
Temple oranges, 75 for the experimental use of containers, 16 for
the movement of fruit for charitable purposes, and 5 for the experi-
mental pack of high density concentrated orange juice.


The Commission continued a close check on the surety bonds
posted by citrus fruit dealers in relation to the volume of fruit dealt
with. Forty-two dealers who exceeded the volume covered by the
bonds they had posted increased their bonds by an aggregate amount
of $195, 140.


During the 1959-60 season, the Commission expanded its ser-
vices to the industry by establishing a Marketing Section. The pur-
pose of the marketing staff is to develop and disseminate marketing
information to assist the Commission and the industry to improve and
expand the market for Florida citrus. Major fields of activity include,
(1) the purchase and dissemination of consumer purchase data, (2) is-
suance of crop and processing reports and (3) research on various
problems encountered in marketing Florida's fresh and processed cit-

(1). The Commission continued its policy of supplying the in-
dustry with essential information of estimated total household con-
sumer purchase of fresh oranges and grapefruit, frozen concentrated
juices, chilled orange juice, canned juices, and canned fruit drinks.
These data, purchased from the Market Research Corporation of
America, represent projections to national totals based on reported
purchases from a representative national sample of approximately
6, 000 household consumers.

Available to the industry are (a) Weekly reports of consumer
purchases of canned orange juice, canned grapefruit juice and frozen

orange concentrate; (these reports are issued Friday of each week
and in addition to purchases, show average retail price with year ago
comparisons); (b) Monthly reports on consumer purchases of selected
fruits and juices; (c) Quarterly reports on purchases by householders
of selected fresh citrus fruits, canned juices, frozen concentrated
juices, and ades by geographic region and by types of retail outlets;
(d) One report annually covering selected 6 month period of consumer
purchases of fresh citrus fruits, canned and frozen juices and ades
concerning buying practices of families as related to geographic region
and size of city in which they live, family income, family size, age of
children, occupation and education of family head, age and work status
of housewife; and (e) Two reports each year summarizing information
on availability of fresh items and certain canned and frozen juices and
ades in retail food stores in the United States.

The cost of obtaining the consumer purchase data in the 1959-60
season was defrayed by the Florida Citrus Commission, with some
contribution from the California Prune Advisory Board. In past years,
the Department of Agriculture defrayed part of the cost. The Depart-
ment of Agriculture in the 1959-60 season continued to analyze the
data and publish all reports, except the weekly which was issued di-
rectly from the Commission office. All consumer purchase informa-
tion was obtained by the Commission as part of its broad marketing
research program directed toward improving and expanding markets
for Florida citrus and products.

Each of these reports is helpful to sales managers of Florida
fresh and processed citrus fruits in preparing their sales campaigns
and also provides general guidance to the Commission advertising and
merchandising programs.

(2). The Commission also issued weekly reports covering opera-
tions of Florida citrus processors, as reported by the Florida Canners
Association. The objective of the Commission's issued report was to
make the summary of processors' operations available to a large num-
ber of people who would not otherwise receive the report. Likewise,
the Commission from October through July issued monthly reports of
estimated citrus crop production in Florida and competing states.

(3). Most importantly, the Commission has expanded its mar-
keting research program. Several marketing problems received re-
search attention during the year, including:

a. Analysis of the special frozen orange concentrate ad-
vertising campaign during September, October and November,
1959, by 22 Florida processors. Although this campaign was
not directed or financed by the Commission, it contained a

feature unique to the marketing of agricultural products, namely,
that of couponing. The Florida citrus industry, as well as other
agricultural groups, inquired as to the effectiveness of coupons
as sales stimulators. The Marketing Development Branch, Ag-
ricultural Marketing Service, United States Department of Ag-
riculture, was requested to undertake this study.

The stated objectives of this special campaign were (i) to
attract new users to Florida concentrated frozen orange juice;
and (ii) to increase the level of consumption of present users.
To evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign, therefore, it
was necessary to procure data of consumer purchases from the
Market Research Corporation of America, and the cost of this
was shared equally by the Commission and the USDA. By the
end of the crop season, the USDA had evaluated the effective-
ness of the campaign during the promotional period but had
not had a chance to examine its effects during the post-promo-
tional period. A complete report will be forthcoming early
in the 1960-61 season.

b. Consumer preferences for color-added and natural
color oranges. This study was also undertaken by the Market
Development Branch, Agricultural Marketing Service, United
States Department of Agriculture, at the request of the Com-
mission, to determine probable effects on retail sales if fresh
oranges were not colored prior to shipment. One test was con-
ducted using Hamlins in the Fall of 1959 at a time when there
was great similarity in color of the colored and natural color
fruit, and a report of USDA findings was made to the Commis-
sion. Plans are to repeat the experiments during the Fall of
1960 and the Spring of 1961 at a time when there will be a
greater contrast in color between color-added and natural
color oranges.

c. Determine the average net weight of grapefruit in
field boxes. The Florida Citrus Mutual requested the Com-
mission to undertake this study when it found the industry di-
vided as to the acceptance of 85 pounds as the legal weight of
a field box of fruit. One field man weighed 14,900 boxes of
fruit from October, 1959, through mid-May, 1960, and this
showed the average net weight of grapefruit per field box to
be 82 pounds 6 ounces. This figure varied slightly by type of
handler, production, district, and time of year. A full report
on this study is available at the Commission office.

d. Consumer preferences for high-Brix (51-'1/2 degrees)
and standard Brix (42 degrees) frozen orange concentrate.

Several Florida marketing firms had developed or had avail-
able for market test purposes high Brix concentrate and re-
quested the Commission to determine the consumer prefer-
ences for the new product. This study, handled under contract
by Benton and Bowles, New York City, involves 250 test fami-
lies in New York City and 250 test families in Philadelphia.
Field work was under way at the close of the 1959-60 season,
and report of findings is expected early in the 1960-61 season.

e. Determine the movement of fresh Florida oranges,
grapefruit and tangerines to 100 largest U. S. markets and of
frozen orange concentrate to 200 largest U. S. markets. The
purpose of this study was to determine magnitude of U. S. mar-
kets for Florida citrus, extent of competition and rates of pur-
chases based on unloads and other market information. This
information provides helpful guidance in the geographical place-
ment of advertising and merchandising and is planned to be a
continuous service to the industry.

f. Appraisal of the field merchandising program of the
Florida Citrus Commission. The purpose of this study was to
examine the services rendered by the Commission's merchan-
dising staff to the trade with the view of improving its effective-
ness. A report will be made early in the 1960-61 season.

A meeting of some industry and professional representatives
was also held during the season to review the current program of re-
search and to examine the problems needing future marketing research.

The major fields of prospective research include (1) demand and
price (with emphasis on anticipated price responses to given changes in
supply and competition); (2) market structure and marketing practices;
(3) domestic market development and potential; (4) development of for-
eign markets; and (5) long range planning. Plans are to define each of
these problem areas in detail and present them to the Commission and
industry before developing the 1960-61 program of marketing research.

ya 7

.;^ ~~~ .^ N_ -.v

JULY 1, 1959 TO JUNE 30, 1960

Cash Balance July 1, 1959

RECEIPTS From All Sources

$ 1,792,031.66

6, 164,458.23

$ 7,956,489.89



General Administrative
Furniture and Equipment
General Revenue Fund
Transportation Problems
Market Surveys
Special Field Inspection

Promotions and Publicity
Includes Salaries and Expenses
of Advertising and Merchandising
Force, In-Store Promotions and
Related Publicity
Point-of-Sale Material

Consumer Advertising
Newspapers, Magazines, Tele-
vision and Trade Papers
Professional Journals
By-Products Journals
European Program


Cash Balance June 30, 1960

$ 126,011.46
57,705. 03


3,948, 097.61
80, 538.96

$ 6,612,853.57

$ 1,343,636.32



1959-60 1/


1959-60 1/













1,000 Cases,




- 1,000 Gallons -





(Other than




- -- Tons - -

1959-60 1/

163,397 2/
187,543 2/
218,065 2/
223,311 2/
287,832 2/
262,474 2/
297,254 2/
296,575 2/
291,537 2/
320,'588 2/
284,000 2/

1/ Preliminary, as of August 18, 1960
x Includes Tangerine Juice and Tangerine Blends
xx Includes Orange Sections
2/ Includes meal, pulp and pellets
SOURCE: Florida Canners' Association



(000 Bxs)

(000 Bxs)


(000 Bxs)


(000 Bxs)

























- .02
- .05

(a) Difference between "Total Production" and actual utilization represented by
Economic Abandonment.
(b) Preliminary. 1959-60 season data estimated by Marketing Specialist, Florida
Citrus Commission.

SOURCE FOR DATA PRIOR TO 1959-60 SEASON: Agricultural Marketing Service, U.S.D.A.




2 N