Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075981/00009
 Material Information
Title: Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee?
Creation Date: 1958
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000863394
oclc - 01327786
notis - AEG0106
lccn - 50063588
System ID: UF00075981:00009

Full Text

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Commission Members Serving During
the 1958-59 Fiscal Year

J. R. Graves, Chairman
Thomas B. Swann, Vice-Chairman
J. Ross Bynum
Albert Carlton
Frank Chase
Nash LeGette
Herbert S. Massey
A. V. Saurman
Key Scales, Jr.
Bruce W. Skinner
Herschell N. Sorrells
J. Dan Wright, Jr.


Winter Haven
Dade City
Lake Alfred


J. Dan Wright, Jr., Chairman
A. V. Saurman
Thomas B. Swann
Bruce W. Skinner
Key Scales, Jr.
Herschell N. Sorrells


Bruce W. Skinner, Chairman
Herbert S. Massey
Albert Carlton
Nash LeGette
Frank Chase

Key Scales, Jr., Chairman
Herschell N. Sorrells
Herbert S. Massey
Thomas B. Swann
Albert Carlton
J. Ross Bynum


Herbert S. Massey, Chairman
A. V. Saurman
Frank Chase
J. Ross Bynum
Nash LeGette


Homer E. Hooks, General Manager
Robert C. Evans, Director of Administration
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research
Walter J. Page, Director of Public Relations
Frank D. Arn, Director of-Advertising and Merchandising
Ralph M. Henry, Merchandising Manager
Harold S. Gardner, Advertising Manager
Ted L. Hodson, Manager of Special Promotions
John E. O'Reilly, Production Manager
Dr. William E. Black, Marketing Specialist*
Clyde P. May, Assistant Director of Public Relations
W. J. Steed, Legal Counsel, Orlando

*Employment effective October 1, 1959

F -P

The Florida citrus season of 1958-59
marked a long stride toward complete re-
covery from the devastating fr e e z es of the
previous season. Production of oranges,
grapefruit and tangerines totalled 126, 000, 000
boxes, up 10,000,000 boxes over the 1957-
58 season. Florida production represented
71%of U. S. citrus, and 30% of the wo rld
citrus production. Led by the highest orange
prices on record, the on-tree value to growers
for all Florida citrus reached $294, 000, 000.

The Florida Citrus Commission was
active throughout the year in serving the in-
dustry in a broad scope of programs and ser-
vices. The report which follows details these
services and demonstrates the many-sided
operations of the Commission fo r and in be-
half of the industry.

The Commission's adv e rtisingand
merchandising programs were the heaviest
on record d. Over $5, 000, 000 was spent in
this field; $3, 755, 000 of this total in national
consumer advertising, and $1,200,000 in
promotions, display material, and in-store
demonstrations of Florida citrus. Additional
amounts were spent in newspaper food-page


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publicity, medical and dental publicity and public relations, adver-
tising and promotions in Europe, films, etc.

This heavy barrage of "total sell" emphasized in many new
and forceful ways the nutritional and taste values of Florida fresh
and processed citrus. Its aim, as always through the 24 consecu-
tive years of the Commission's promotional program, was to create
a basic knowledge and desire on the part of the consumer for Florida
citrus in all forms.

Before the season had progressed very far, it became apparent
to the Commission that fresh citrus sales were declining alarmingly.
This trend was later borne out vividly, as fresh orange shipments for
the season were the lowest in 23 years. For the first time in history,
Florida's fresh grapefruit shipments exceeded oranges.

The Commission's early recognition of this development and
encouragement to stimulate this important outlet resulted in a series
of constructive moves by fresh fruit shippers to improve their posi-
tion. Special committees of packinghouse managers and sales mana-
gers were named and brought in recommendations for improvements
in fruit sizing, packaging, decay controls. The Commission has set
up a permanent advisory committee from the industry on fresh fruit
matters to continue work toward building up this vital phase of the in-

The Commission coordinated industry legislative proposals at
the 1959 biennial session. Many months before the Legislature con-
vened, the Commission and other industry groups began assembling
various requests for modifications in the Citrus Code. Public hear-
ings were held, and the final proposals taken to Tallahassee had the
full support of the entire industry. Some 20 bills were proposed and
ultimately passed and became law. All these serve to strengthen and
safeguard the basic orderly procedures which govern the complex cit-
rus industry.

In the field of inspection and controls, the Commission put into
effect new measures to tighten requirements for citrus fruit dealer's
licenses, and also established a two-man "Special Field Force" to
survey ways in which fresh and processed inspection procedures could
be improved.

Many other significant advances were made in other areas, such
as research, nutritional studies, transportation matters, and others.
You will find these and other subjects covered in this booklet. We hope
you will take the time to read these reports, which demonstrate the job
the Florida Citrus Commission did in 1958-59 and is continuing to do to
assure the progress and prosperity of our great industry.


The consumer advertising program
for the crop year 1958-59, presented by
Benton & Bowles on September 16, 1958,
and approved by the Commission and s taff,
totaled approximately $3,800, 000. It had
been budgeted as a two-part program, (a)
major program for eight months, Novem-
ber 1 through June 30, which had been pre-
ceded by the (b) Summer program four
months from July 1 through October 31.

A substantial portion of the funds -
nearly 40% was allocated to network tele-
vision which the Florida Citrus Commis-
sion had not used extensively in the past.
Another 30% of the funds was placed in con-
sumer magazines. Daily and Sunday news-
papers were also used importantly.

The advertising program gave sup-
port to ten important and high volume Flor-
ida citrus products: fresh oranges, f r o z en
orange concentrate, single strength orange
juice, chilled o range juice, fresh grape-
fruit, canned grapefruit sections, single
strength grapefruit juice, frozen grape-
fruit concentrate, Temple oranges and fresh
tangerines. A separate campaign was also

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conducted to encourage Florida tourists to buy gift packages of
Florida citrus products.

Marketing Objectives

The fundamental marketing objective for 1958-59 was the
disposition of available quantities of the specific crops at price
levels profitable to both the grower and the processor.

The basic considerations in the attainment of this market-
ing objective were:

a. Maintaining the highest possible level of per capital con-
sumption of Florida citrus.

b. Re-establishing the Florida citrus franchises as funda-
mental groundwork for the marketing of the constantly
increasing crop.

c. Increasing awareness of Florida citrus products.

d. Broadening the total market for Florida citrus, both
fresh and processed.

Basic Advertising Objectives

The fundamental advertising principle recommended for
1958-59 was a basic educational one. The advertising was designed
to broaden the base of users for each of the ten Florida citrus pro-
ducts and to attract new users and encourage them to use the vari-
ous products regularly. The daily need for Vitamin C was re-af-
firmed in the strongest way possible. Not only was Florida citrus
in general promoted, but also the individual and specific advantages
of each product.

The word "Florida" embodied a prominent sunburst over the
letter "i" in all media. The object of the device was to establish a
trademark or logotype that implied origin by association wherever
used. It was also intended to be applied by the industry to all fruit
labels, containers and display materials.

Orange Copy Platform

Copy research indicated that the most effective method of
forcefully presenting the story of the daily need for Vitamin C was
in the word POWERHOUSE. The major copy phrase that evolved,
therefore, was "Powerhouse of Vitamin C. Further copy points

stressed that the best kind of Vitamin C was the naturalkind and
that bonus nutrients were contained in real, pure orange products,
in the perfect balance that nature intended.

The same basic format was retained in all orange products
advertisements. The focus point was always the orange product with
integrated backgrounds literally associated with sports and Florida.
Associated with the sports scene was an appropriate star athlete pic-
tured in a product panel, re-enforcing the campaign theme.

The same powerful theme was also used on television.

In addition to the above, each individual orange product was
advertised on its own specific advantages.

Grapefruit Copy Platform

Advertising for grapefruit, a wonderfully rich source of
Vitamin C, used the basic theme of GOLDMINE OF VITALITY
VITAMIN C. It was felt that the word "vitality" implied extra en-
ergy, extra health and extra get-up-and-go that grapefruit brings
you. In addition to the basic copy phrase, each individual grape-
fruit product was advertised for its own specific advantages.

A "Fight Colds" message was featured along with the above
theme in fresh grapefruit advertising during the peak of the "cold
season," pointing up the desirability of this product in warding off

Serrated grapefruit spoons were offered in fresh grapefruit
advertising in all forms of media as an added inducement to eat
more grapefruit without time consuming preparation.

Media Strategy

The media strategy for 1958-59 was as follows: "To provide
media vehicles offering the maximum opportunity for the exploita-
tion of the new copy. Wherever possible, TV commercial time and
printed space must be sufficient to permit the complete and detailed
delivery of the Copy Story. "

In addition, the media selection followed the dictates of the

a. The desire for continuity of impression.
b. The need for flexibility to meet seasonal and geographic

c. Adaptability to allot each of the various products and
forms the amount of advertising to which it is entitled.

d. Its ability to contribute to increased promotional and
advertising activities at the retail level.


To do a basic job of delivering a mass dual audience with
great impact, the Media Plan for 1958-59 provided an important
use of nighttime network television for Florida citrus. The pro-
grams selected were those with proven track records that de-
livered a large audience at an efficient cost. Since each show was
carried by a large network of stations, they afforded broad national

From a cost standpoint, the Florida citrus programs were
extremely efficient in that their cost per thousand people reach of
$2. 84 compared to an average evening half hour cost of $3. 86.

The three high efficiency, low cost programs were:

Program Day and Time Dates

Doug Edwards
and the News Friday, 7:15-7:30 p.m. 12/19/58 thru6/12/59

What's My Line Sunday, 10:30-11:00 p.m. 12/7/58 thru 1/25/59

Perry Mason Saturday, 7:30-8:00 p.m. 2/7/59 thru 6/6/59

Doug Edwards & The News

"Doug Edwards" had an average audience rating of 14. 6 which
on a four week cumulative basis reached 14, 373, 000 of the television
homes in the United States 2. 6 times.

Commercial time allocated on the Doug Edwards news show for
the various citrus products was as follows: fresh oranges two :60
and two :30 participation, with the West Coast cut out and replaced by
frozen orange concentrate; frozen orange concentrate twelve :60 and
nine :30 participation, with two :60's and two :30's cut into the West
Coast; chilled orange juice one :60 and one :30 participation; canned
orange juice four :60 and one :30 participation; fresh grapefruit -
one :60 and one :30; canned grapefruit juice four :60 and two :30
participation; and frozen grapefruit concentrate one :60 participa-

These 33 minutes of commercial time reached over 240, -
903, 000 viewers at an average cost of only $2. 78 per thousand

What's My Line

"What's My Line" had proved quite successful to Florida cit-
rus during the 1957-58 season and was, therefore, carried over to
the 1958-59 fiscal.

"What's My Line" had an average audience rating of 24. 0
which on a four week cumulative basis reached over 20, 915, 000 of
the television homes in the United States 2.9 times.

Commercial time allocated on "What's My Line" for the vari-
ous citrus products was as follows: fresh oranges one :60 partici-
pation, with the West Coast cut out and replaced by frozen orange
concentrate; frozen orange concentrate five :60 participation with
one :60 cut into the West Coast; canned orange juice two :60 par-
ticipations; fresh grapefruit one :60 participation; canned grape-
fruit juice two :60 participation; and frozen grapefruit concentrate -
one :60 participation.

These 12 commercials reached over 118, 788, 000 viewers at
an average cost of only $3. 03 thousand viewers.

Perry Mason

"Perry Mason" was equally powerful, with an average rating
of 25.9. This represented 21,360, 000 homes on a four week cumula-
tive basis, reaching each 2. 1 times during this period.

Commercial time allocated on "Perry Mason" for the various
citrus products was as follows: fresh oranges one :60 participation,
with the West Coast cut out and replaced by frozen orange concentrate;
frozen orange concentrate eight :60 participation with one :60 cut
into the West Coast; chilled orange juice two :60 participation;
canned orange juice two :60 participation; fresh grapefruit two :60
participation; canned grapefruit juice two :60 participation; and
frozen grapefruit concentrate one :60 participation.

The 18 participation of Florida citrus products on "Perry Ma-
son" reached over 200, 142, 000 viewers at an average cost of only
$2.71 per thousand viewers.


Magazines provided Florida citrus products with prestige
and portrayed a feeling of quality and dignity through fine reproduc-
tion which is particularly important in food advertising. Magazines
provided the vehicle in which the product story was visually pre-
sented in appetite appealing full color.

The magazine schedule provided the appearance of one adver-
tisement on an every other issue of every third issue basis. Although
the advertisements featured the individual Florida citrus products,
continuity was achieved by the tight schedule of insertions.

The breakdown of products and publications during the 1958-59
fiscal year was as follows:




Better Homes & Gardens
Better Homes & Gardens
American Home
American Home
Saturday Evening Post
Saturday Evening Post
Ladies Home Journal
Reader's Digest
Reader's Digest

Ladies Home Journal

Better Homes & Gardens
Reader's Digest
Ladies Home Journal
Better Homes & Gardens

Ladies Home Journal

September 13
October 11
November 24
December 15

January 12
January 20

January 26
February 2
February 3
February 23
February 17
March 9

March 17

Grapefruit Sections
Grapefruit Sections
Grapefruit Sections
Grapefruit Sections
Canned Orange Juice
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Fresh Grapefruit
Fresh Oranges
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Fresh Grapefruit
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Fresh Oranges
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Fresh Grapefruit
Fresh Grapefruit
Chilled Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Fresh Grapefruit
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Fresh Grapefruit
Chilled Orange Juice
Fresh Oranges
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Canned Orange Juice
Chilled Orange Juice


Reader's Digest
Better Homes & Gardens
Reader's Digest

April 1:
April 1,
April 2'
May 18
May 26
June 1

Frozen Orange Concentrate
Frozen Grapefruit Concentrate
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Grapefruit Sections
Frozen Orange Concentrate
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Canned Grapefruit Juice
Frozen Orange Concentrate

The Florida citrus magazine schedule for 1958-59 had a com-
bined circulation of 43, 192,600 and reached 87% of all United States

Daily Newspapers

Daily newspapers gave extra impetus to individual products at
their key seasonal drive periods. Because of their flexibility, news-
papers could be strategically placed according to unloads and the sea-
sonality of the fruit.

During the 1958-59 fiscal year, two colors were used in a group
of 25 top market newspapers which generated additional impact in these
important areas.

For fresh oranges, three advertisements were scheduled in 113
daily newspapers in 84 markets.

For grapefruit, four advertisements were scheduled in 134 daily
newspapers in 116 markets. Another two grapefruit insertions also ran
in a selected group of five markets.

Tangerine advertising appeared in two newspaper insertions in
88 daily newspapers in 63 markets.

One Temple orange advertisement ran in 18 newspapers in 13

The combined per insertion circulation of all the newspapers
totaled 116, 800, 000.

Sunday Supplements

Sunday supplements were used during 1958-59 because their
circulation is primarily in urban areas and because those used were



distributed in a group of cities where sales patterns and unloads
closely parallel that of the products advertised.

Colorful and appetite appealing tangerine ads appeared in
American Weekly and the First 3 Markets Group (New York News,
Chicago Tribune, Philadelphia Inquirer) stressing the "limited sup-
ply" aspect as an added urgency factor.. Temple orange advertis-
ing, featuring the "hand-eating" quality of Temples, appeared in
the First 3 Markets Group. The First 3 Markets Group also car-
ried a series of advertising on chilled orange juice and on grape-
fruit sections.

Trade Paper Advertising

Promotions, featuring canned products were announced in
these four leading publications: Progressive Grocer, Chain Store
Age, Super Market Merchandising and Supermarket News.

Orange and grapefruit concentrate promotions were adver-
tised to the trade through some of the above mentioned books and
in: Quick Frozen Foods, Frozen Food Age and Frosted Food Field.

During the fresh fruit season, the two leading produce pub-
lications, The Packer and The Produce News were used to an-
nounce promotional programs on oranges, grapefruit and tangerines.

Two Canadian trade publications, Canadian Grocer and
L'Epicier were used to announce promotions in the Dominion.

Canadian Advertising

The Florida citrus consumer advertising for 1958-59 followed
all of the basic advertising and marketing philosophies practiced in
the U. S. It was felt that a distinct potential existed in Canada, based
on unload figures and other pertinent consumer data.

The Canadian advertising program included a total of 15 in-
sertions in the leading Canadian color publications: Reader's Digest
(Canadian edition), Weekend Magazine and Star Weekly both com-
parable to American Sunday supplements. In order to give proper
coverage to the large French population, La Presse and La Patrie
(also weeklies) were scheduled.

Radio was used as the broadcast vehicle. In the top five mar-
kets, ten :60 announcements were scheduled for a period of 25 weeks.

Daily newspapers in major markets were also used for
fresh oranges, fresh grapefruit and tangerines.

A large amount of "spill-in" advertising also occurred in
Canada due to Florida citrus ads appearing in the major U. S. maga-

Special copy retaining most of the strength of the United States
version, but tailored to Canadian National Government Department
of Health and Welfare requirements was prepared for use in the Do-

Gift Fruit Shippers

The 1958-59 program also included an advertising effort in
behalf of the Gift Fruit Shippers. Advertising reminding visitors to
send gift packages of citrus to friends back home appeared in news-
papers in Miami, St. Petersburg, Tampa and Orlando. A total of
ten 600 line advertisements ran in these cities beginning in early De-
cember and running frequently through March.

Grapefruit Spoon Offer

The fresh grapefruit serrated spoon offer was made on four
of the Florida citrus telecasts, as follows: "Doug Edwards" on De-
cember 19; "What's My Line" on December 13; and "Perry Mason"
on February 7 and repeated on February 21. The offer appeared as
an integral part of the fresh grapefruit advertising in LIFE, Decem-
DENS, February; LIFE, February 23; and again in LADIES HOME
JOURNAL, March. It also appeared in a fresh grapefruit advertise-
ment in newspapers during the week of December 1st and in a selec-
ted market list of newspapers on April 9th and 16th.

The returns from the "spoon" offer were nearly one million.

Agency Service Organization

As has been the practice, the Agency Group assigned to the
Florida Citrus Commission account includes a separate organization,
both in the creative area and in contact for fresh and processed citrus
products. The full group reports directly to a top level management
supervisor who is an officer-director of Benton & Bowles. An Agency
Vice President is in charge of the Branch Office in the Commission
building in Lakeland, coordinating the Agency's activities with those of
the Commission and Benton & Bowles' New York organization.

-o .

During the pas t year professional
promotion by Noyes & Sproul on behalf of
the Florida Citrus Commis s ion has con- -
tinued to concentrate on establishing recog-
nition of s pe c if ic health benefits of citrus
fruits in the medical, dental, nursing, nu-
trition and hospital fields.

Professional journals were used as ....
the principal media for reaching large pro- .
fessional audiences at low cost. In addi-
tion, a select ist of leading physicians re-
ceived one special mailing featuring the use _
of citrus for controlling excessive appetite
in patients for whom physicians prescribe
a reducing diet.

Health messages concerning citrus
have also been directed to large consumer "-
audiences. Supplementing this public re-
lations program beamed to the general pub-
lic has been a personal letter and individualr-'
contact campaign to hand-picked, top-level .
physician specialists to gain increased recog-
nition of the advantages of citrus in the re-
ducing diet. -

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Journal Advertising

Twenty-one professional journals of the following types were
used for advertising messages to the health professions:

National general medical 3
General practitioner 3
Pediatric 2
Obstetric 2
Nutrition and Dietetic 2
Public Health 1
Hospital 3
Nursing 2
Dental 3

Specific health benefits of citrus were featured in seven dif-
ferent full page, two-color advertisements on the following subjects:

Role of citrus in protecting health of the teeth
and gums

Comparison chart showing there's no juice like
citrus juice

Citrus intake needed to supply vitamin C require-
ments during growth

Extra citrus supplies the extra vitamin C needed
in the season of respiratory infections

How stepped-up intake of citrus helps prevent

Peptic ulcer sufferers can benefit from citrus
several times daily

Incentive plan that helps patients stick to reducing
diet (featuring the Commission's professional
service item for distribution to physicians)

A total of 8, 887, 000 individual advertising impressions were
obtained from the 133 pages of advertising that were run in a selec-
tive manner in the twenty-one journals whose combined circulation
totalled 1,270,000.

Direct Mail Distribution of Professional Service Item

An outgrowth of many conferences between the Agency's phy-
sician consultant panel and creative staff was the development of a
packet of individual weight-loss performance charts which enable the
physician to establish for patients on a reducing diet weekly weight-
loss goals; the same chart permits the patient to see whether he is
sticking sufficiently close to the prescribed diet to attain these goals.

Each of the 23, 000 busiest family physicians received one of
these packets (with ten charts and directions for use) in the latter
part of 1958. The charts were also offered to other physicians in
journal advertising.

Each chart, which is of pocket size for the patient to carry,
mentions the proved value of orange juice as a way of appeasing the
appetite at the same time it helps maintain good nutrition during a
period of restricted food intake.

Included in the directions for the physician on each packet of
ten charts is prominent reference to Dr. Norman Jolliffe's clinical
study initiated by the Agency on behalf of the Commission in which
he proved that orange juice between meals helps control excessive
appetite so that weight-loss performance is greatly improved.

Public and Professional Relations

A slight expansion of activities permitted more frequent per-
sonal contacts with influential editors of scientific journals, with of-
ficials of the American Medical Association and American Dental As-
sociation, and with important practicing physicians; also close con-
tact was maintained with a number of widely syndicated health colum-
nists, and special stories on health aspects of citrus were developed
and released to selected newspaper editors and columnists and to TV

Among the results achieved were:

Cultivating and maintaining good relations with
editors of medical, dental, hospital, and nursing
journals to inspire greater interest in citrus through
creating more receptiveness to the importance of
improved nutrition in everyday medical practice.

Three releases to women's page editors of leading
daily newspapers

one explaining the importance of increased
citrus intake as a vital aid to combatting the
threat of upper respiratory infections;

... one citing a recent medical report on the need
for ample amounts of vitamin C as supplied
by citrus in the rehabilitation program accom-
panying and following orthopedic procedures
for correcting bodily injuries or deformities;

and one detailing the special advantages of
citrus in the reducing regimen and describ-
ing the unique value to patients of the weight-
loss performance charts that had just been
distributed by the Commission to physicians.

On the subject of the weight-loss performance charts, in
addition to the story for women's page editors, other
special stories were developed and releases sent to:

Printers Ink (trade magazine)
Newspaper Science Editors
Syndicated Medical Columnists

A TV script and a photographic blow-up of a weight-loss
chart were sent to each of 135 selected commentators
whose responses over the years have shown that they
like and use health-oriented program material of this
factual nature.

Another special activity to get further goodwill impact
for the Commission and increased professional recog-
nition of the value of citrus as a reducing aid was the
contacting -- in person and by letter -- of numerous
obesity specialists and directors of obesity clinics to
give them packets of the charts. This also provided an
excellent opportunity to emphasize the professional ser-
vice nature of this item as well as to call attention to
the published work of Dr. Norman Jolliffe showing how
successfully he employed orange juice to solve a com-
monly encountered problem of reducing patients.

Conferences with officials of the American Medical As-
sociation and the American Dental Association to obtain
their views with respect to specific health claims being
considered for the professional advertising program --
e. g., clearance of professional advertising copy with

respect to the role of citrus in the upper respiratory
infection problem.

Special work with selected columnists to obtain items
on the need for citrus in their health columns, result-
ing in such items in a widely syndicated column by
Josephine Lowman ("Why Grow Old?") and in two of the
Myrtle Meyer Eldred syndicated columns ("Your Baby
and Mine").

Series of conferences with selected authorities in the
nutritional publishing and editing field regarding appro-
priate revising and rewriting of Dr. Pauline Beery
Mack's research report for publication in general and
specialty medical journals.

Technical Consultation on the Revised Nutritional Film Project

In the latter part of 1958, when it was decided to revise the
original movie developed in conjunction with the research of Dr.
Mack, Noyes & Sproul was selected to act in a technical consultant
capacity for the revised project.

After numerous preliminary conferences to evaluate several
possible approaches, it was agreed to effect a tie-in of the film with
the nutritional research activities of Dr. Robert Olson, Professor
and Head of the Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Univer-
sity of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health.

The new script was developed and much actual shooting of the
new film was done during the first half of 1959. By the close of the
fiscal year, the film was nearly completed in all details and plans
were being readied for its premiere in the early Spring.


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One of the major activities of the
Florida Citrus Commission is its Merchan-
dising Department. A la r ge sum of money
is spent each year for consumer advertis-
ing, and it is felt that in order to make this
consumer advertising more effective it must
be properly merchandised to the retail or-
ganizations throughout the country. The
benefits of this intensive merchandising pro-
gram have been recognized by all different
factors in the citrus industry, since it was
conceived some 23 years ago. The program
has been expanded from year to year as much
as possible withinbudgetary limitations. In-
asmuch as the Florida Citrus Commission
is supported by, and represents, the entire
industry, the policy over the years has been
to promote the over-all us e of the end pro-
duct rather than to promote the use of a spe-
cific brand, or brands. This program has
been well accepted by the different retail
trade organizations throughout the country.

At the beginning of the 1958-59 sea-
son, authorization was granted by the Flor-
ida Citrus Commission for the employment
of 5 5 merchandising representatives to be
located in important marketing areas in the





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United States and Canada. These representatives of the Florida
citrus industry arrange and conduct an intensive, hard-hitting
merchandising program with all segments of the trade in their
respective areas.

In order to maintain a well supervised organization, the
country has been divided into four divisions. A Division Manager
is in charge of each division, and a Regional Manager is in charge
of the operation of the program in each of the principal markets.
Merchandising Representatives work under the supervision of the
Regional Managers. During the current season, there were 15
men working in the Eastern Division, which consists of the Atlan-
tic Coast area and Eastern Canada. Sixteen men were employed
in the Central Division, which covers the Central part of the
United States and Central Canada. In the Western Division, we
had ten men covering the mid-Western section of the United States
and Canada, and in the Southern Division and West Coast Division,
fourteen men were employed. Men in the Southern and West Coast
Divisions are under the direct supervision of the Lakeland office.

Inasmuch as a large percentage of Florida citrus products
are distributed East of the Mississippi River, our heaviest con-
centration of manpower lies in this area.

Many of the men employed by the Florida Citrus Commis-
sion are from Florida. About 30% of the present staff are gradu-
ates from one of the Florida universities. Other men are hired in
the respective markets in which they are working. Because a well
trained man is more efficient, a great amount of time and effort
has been spent to see that each merchandising man is well prepared
for the work which he will be doing. Special training is given to
each man at the time of employment, and he is then placed under the
supervision of a Regional Manager until he is thoroughly acquainted
with the work. Divisional Meetings are held from time to time dur-
ing the year in order that our field representatives may be well
posted at all times regarding advertising and merchandising planning
and so that they may be kept well abreast of the activities in connec-
tion with the Florida citrus industry. A well trained man is better
prepared to carry the citrus story to the retail-trade factors with
whom he is working.

The duties of our merchandising representatives cover a wide
scope of operation. They inform the different retail organizations
throughout the country of our advertising activities and attempt to
have these different organizations tie their own advertising and mer-
chandising programs in with our campaign and to advertise and feature
citrus products when being advertised by the Florida Citrus Commission

in their respective markets. They contact the fruit auctions in the
terminal markets, fresh fruit wholesalers, receivers, brokers,
frozen food distributors, drug and fountain groups, and hotel and
restaurant organizations to keep them informed regarding our mer-
chandising and advertising schedules and to arrange promotions with
these different retail organizations. They supply point-of-sale dis-
play material and build many attractive displays in the retail stores.
Although our merchandising representatives try to cover all seg-
ments of the trade, the largest portion of their time is spent with the
retail food outlets.

In addition to display work, a demonstration and prize award
program is conducted by field representatives. During the past sea-
son, 918 live demonstrations were conducted. 2,434 Special give-
away promotions were arranged and carried through to completion in
the retail stores. In addition to the demonstration program, a prize
and premium program was initiated during the past season. Under
this program, United States Savings Bonds or cash were offered to
organizations' personnel showing the largest increase in sales of
Florida citrus products. This type of promotional activity was found
to be most effective and was well received by the different retail or-

During the 1958-59 season our 55-man merchandising staff
made a total of 105,445 calls and traveled a distance of 1, 195,949
miles in making these contacts.

The Florida Citrus Commission has made available for dis-
tribution through its merchandising men a complete line of colorful
point-of-sale display material. During the current season, 7, 364, -
562 pieces of material were distributed to retail organizations
throughout the United States and Canada. This material is very
colorful, and it is designed to attract the customer's attention to
Florida citrus products in the retail stores and to create in her mind
a desire to buy our products.

In addition to our regular line of display material, two new
spectacular displays were introduced. One was a large plastic
orange, and the other was the "Florida Sunshine Tree." Both of
these spectacular pieces of material were designed for special
events, such as store openings, special sales, etc., and proved to
be most effective.

The Lakeland warehouse is equipped whereby point-of-sale
display material can be packaged in tailor-made kits. These kits
are tailored to meet the individual requirements of the retail organi-
zations and are distributed through the organizations' headquarters.

A total of 230, 047 kits of display material were assembled and sent
out to the retail trade during this current year. 5, 769 orders for
point-of-sale display material were received and filled during the

In arranging a program for our year's activities, many
special events are planned. These special events are as follows:

Planned Promotions

At the beginning of each fiscal year a program of planned
merchandising promotions is arranged, and a promotional calendar,
outlining each one of these events, is produced and distributed to the
retail organizations. During the current year, four planned promo-
tions were conducted. Special point-of-sale display material was
produced, and advertising schedules were arranged to support each
one of these promotions. Participation by retail organizations was
solicited well in advance of each event by our merchandising staff.
This type of promotional activity has proven to be most successful
and has been well accepted by the different trade factors throughout
the country.

Trade Luncheons

During the fall of the 1958-59 season the Florida Citrus Com-
mission entertained more than 1, 500 of the leading trade factors
with a series of 13 trade luncheons which were held in the following
markets: Cleveland, Ohio; Cincinnati, Ohio; Chicago, Illinois; St.
Louis, Missouri; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; New York City; Phila-
delphia, Pennsylvania; Washington, D, C. ; Minneapolis, Minnesota;
Buffalo, New York; Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Montreal, Quebec,
Canada; and Quebec City, Canada. At each of these luncheon meet-
ings, a complete outline of the advertising and merchandising pro-
gram as applied to that particular market was presented.

In addition to the 13 major trade luncheon meetings, several
small meetings were held in markets in the Southern and mid-Western

This program has been most successful in helping to create a
closer relationship between the handlers of Florida citrus products
in Northern markets and the Florida citrus industry.

Tangerine Promotion

Our merchandising staff of the Florida Citrus Commission,
working in cooperation with the staff of the Florida Tangerine Co-op.,

conducted an intensive, hard-hitting campaign at the peak of the tan-
gerine season. Special point-of-sale display material was provided
by the Florida Tangerine Co-op., and was used in conjunction with
the Florida Citrus Commission's material. Through the combined
efforts of the two organizations, it is felt that the use of tangerines
was greatly expanded and that a better price was received by growers
in the State of Florida.

Temple Orange Promotion

Intensive merchandising activities were conducted in several
of the larger markets to tie in with and support the advertising cam-
paign on Temple oranges. Special point-of-sale display material
was produced by the Florida Citrus Commission for this campaign.

Tangelo Promotion

A promotion on Tangelos was conducted in several markets in
cooperation with shippers of this comparatively new product. This
fruit was well accepted by the retail trade, and it is felt that this mar-
ket can be greatly expanded in future years.

Sucaryl Sweetened Grapefruit Juice Test Market Promotion

In order to determine the acceptance and marketing possibili-
ties of grapefruit juice sweetened with Sucaryl, a test market pro-
gram was conducted in Fort Wayne, Indiana, during the months of
September, October, and November, 1958. In setting up this pro-
gram, a trade luncheon was held in Fort Wayne, attended by repre-
sentatives of all retail organizations participating in this test mar-
ket program. An intensive demonstration and sampling program was
conducted over a period of three weeks, after which the product was
kept on display for another period of 30 days. At the end of the test
market period, it was determined that this was an acceptable pro-
duct and a product which offered a great potential.


The Florida Citrus Commission carries its program to many
groups throughout the United States and Canada by participating in
large national conventions. During the past year the Commission
participated in a total of 99 events. Of these, exhibit space was pur-
chased in 21 national conventions in the following fields: Food 10;
Dietetic 1; Hotel and Restaurant 4; School 1; Florida Prevue 1;
Medical 2; State Fair 1; Home Economics 1. In addition to the
participation in national conventions, orange juice was served at 78
national convention meetings in the State of Florida. It is felt that a

worthwhile public relations job was accomplished by participating
in these events.

Florida Products Festival

The Merchandising Department of the Florida Citrus Com-
mission has, during the current season, worked in cooperation with
the Florida Development Commission and the State Junior Chambers
of Commerce on its annual "Festival of Florida Products." This is
a well planned promotion to promote Florida citrus products, along
with other products produced within the State of Florida. Excellent
cooperation was received from the retail organizations in the state.

European Program

Following the freeze of 1957, shipments of both fresh and
processed Florida citrus products were drastically reduced and
prices rapidly increased throughout Western Europe. In the face
of these adverse marketing conditions, the Commission's advertis-
ing and merchandising programs continued on the same intensive
basis as in previous years.

To supplement our own budget, we were able to obtain
$104, 000 through U. S. D. A. PL-480 Program funds. This money
was used specifically for the promotion of fresh and processed
grapefruit in the densely populated Ruhr Valley area of Western
Germany. It enabled us to get hundreds of thousands of specially
prepared point-of-sale merchandising pieces, educational leaflets,
pamphlets, brochures and recipe booklets that were printed in Ger-
man. These received excellent acceptance by the German consuming
public. New film commercials were also produced from these funds
and shown in 609 theatres throughout Germany.

From the Commission's budget, our film "Sonne fur den Nor-
den" ("The Sun Goes North") was re-edited into a 15-minute produc-
tion and made available to television stations as a public service edi-
torial feature. To date, 87 showings have been made.

During the past year, our two European representatives have
conducted approximately 450 in-store demonstrations where our cit-
rus products were sampled. Also, they have participated in seven
major food trade fairs where literally thousands of potential cus-
tomers had the opportunity of tasting our fine citrus fruits and pro-
cessed products.

With the trend toward more free trade of agricultural pro-
ducts between the United States and the Western countries of Europe,
along with greater liberalization of present restrictions, it is felt

that the advertising and merchandising program as being conducted
will be most helpful in the future development of a greater market
throughout all European countries.

In-Store Temperature Tests

The Florida citrus industry has been very much concerned
regarding the handling of Florida frozen concentrates after they
leave the in-state warehouses. In order to obtain a cross-section of
the handling practices in the retail stores, our men were asked to
make a series of store checks and temperature tests. They were
also asked to pick up samples of concentrate in their respective
markets and ship them to Florida to be tested for quality by the
U. S. Department of Agriculture. During the current season, they
carried on this store temperature testing program and collected
samples of concentrate from a cross-section of retail stores in the
United States and Canada. This program was most helpful in bring-
ing to the attention of the handlers throughout the country the impor-
tance of proper care and storage of frozen concentrates. Excellent
cooperation and support was received from practically all trade fac-
tors in connection with this program.

School Material

The Florida Citrus Commission produces a very colorful line
of educational material for use in grammar schools, high schools,
and colleges for the promotion of Florida citrus products from a
health standpoint. A total of 6, 536 requests were received from
teachers throughout the country for this material. 163,382 pieces of
display material were used to fill these orders. This type of ma-
terial was well received by the different schools throughout the coun-
try, and many fine comments were heard from teachers using it.

Media Relations

The field staff of the Florida Citrus Commission works in
cooperation with the different newspapers carrying the Florida citrus
advertising schedules. Many of these newspapers maintain merchan-
dising representatives of their own who spend a portion of their time
calling on retail merchants, urging them to use the display material
offered by the Commission and assisting them in the coordination of
their own newspaper advertising with that of the Florida Citrus Com-


The merchandising representatives of the Florida Citrus

Commission are provided with up-to-date equipment with which to
carry on their promotional operations. They have juice dispensers,
juice bars, turntables, projectors, and screens to be used in con-
nection with their over-all program. A complete inventory of this
equipment is kept in the Lakeland office.

The work of each representative is reported by the use of a
daily tabulation card on which he reports each individual call. These
cards are mailed to the headquarters office each day, are processed
by date, region, type of call, display material left or ordered, and
the type of work done in the individual store. At the end of each
month's operation a record of calls for each man is tabulated. This
tabulation is broken down by the type of calls which he has made,
such as super market, independent, wholesaler, brokers, receivers,
etc. At the end of each week's work a report is submitted covering
the activities for that particular week, the movement and acceptance
of Florida citrus products in the area covered, a range of prices for
each particular product and that of competitive products in the retail
stores. These reports are received in the Florida office, edited,
and mailed to some 400 or 500 packers and shippers in the Florida
citrus industry. Much valuable information is contained in these re-
ports which we feel is very beneficial to the citrus industry.

The retail grocers in the Northern markets look to the Flor-
ida Citrus Commission's representatives for up-to-date information
regarding crop conditions, crop quality, and details of the industry's
advertising and merchandising program. The field staff is kept in-
formed so that they can supply this information in an intelligent man-
ner. The activities of the Florida Citrus Commission's merchandis-
ing men cover many different fields. He endeavors to see that all
trade factors are informed regarding our, merchandising and adver-
tising program and that our products are attractively displayed in as
many retail stores as possible.

The comments received from the trade over the years indicate
that the merchandising program of the Florida Citrus Commission has
been well received and that this service has been helpful to the retail
organizations in moving larger quantities of Florida citrus products.

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The invaluable third p e r s o n technique
was utilized strongly in all the publicity work
for the Florida Citrus Commission under
the a u s p i c e s of Dudley- Anderson- Yutzy,
which for some 22 yea r s has conducted the
job of seeing to it that Florida citrus pro-
ducts receive consistent, frequent, favor-
able attention in the nation's food press.

Practically every food writer of any -
note in the country carried article s under
his or her own by-line, calling attention sea-
sonally to the variety, plentyand nutri-
tious qualities of Fl o r i d a citrus products,
thus instilling in their readers' conscious-
ness the benefits of our fruits as seen through a1111m SMS Me 1111 Z
their discerning eyes. -

Many of the articles reflected not only
month-in, month-out contacts with these
writers on spec ific subjects of interest at
the moment, but also their own first-hand
impressions of the industry and of Florida,
gained during tours four and five years ago,
which continue to pay handsome rewards.
To extend this personal interest, another
editor tour, lasting a week and covering 800
miles, was staged in March of 1959, which

should carry the influence of our story into many more publications,
under new by-lines in the food field.

Keeping in close touch with the nation's press via the leading
metropolitan papers and syndicated writers stems from our regular
participation in the Newspaper Food Editors Conference, an annual
event in late September, when we have an opportunity to digest news
of the coming season for 150 of the top writers in the country. All
through the year, of course, regular pictures, recipes and stories
are channeled to this imposing group of writers, as well as to the
smaller papers via regular mat features.

Particular attention is paid to the food writers for the maga-
zine supplements and big Sunday newspapers, and our color pic-
tures have earned us an enviable reputation and have shown our
wares to millions in the most appetizing fashion. Space which
would cost nearly $200, 000 to purchase for advertising has been
given over to our color in the past twelve months.

Television naturally receives a great deal of attention, as it
has become a dominant factor in influencing consumers. In addi-
tion to special demonstration kits and a series of five short tech-
nique TV films on the uses of fruit and citrus products, made a few
seasons ago and still enjoying constant circulation (447 reported
showings), the Florida Citrus Commission's own traveling television
home economist, Peggy Ware, has traveled far and wide doing guest
appearances which have added greatly to the interest in citrus.

Among the cities in which she was seen and heard by thousands
of viewers, during the 1958-59 season, were Boston, Bristol, Va.,
Johnson City, Tenn. Louisville, Ky. Greensboro, N. C. Grand
Rapids, Milwaukee, Green Bay, Chicago, New York City, Buffalo,
Detroit, Utica, Rochester, Syracuse, Windsor, Ontario, Montreal,
Quebec, Springfield, Burlington, Vt., Portland, Maine, Hartford,
Conn., Washington, D. C. Roanoke and Baltimore.

Radio, coming back with a bounce as a vital means of com-
munication, has carried plenty of citrus news, too, via such far-flung
users as the Associated Press, United Press International, Monitor,
and our own taped services.

Special bulletins and outlines to extension workers and home
demonstration agents, as well as to school personnel and school
lunch administrators has extended the knowledge and desirability of
citrus in areas where future customers are the most numerous.

Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy works constantly, too, with other
food companies and groups, to insure regular inclusion of citrus
in their own promotional materials, and with writers on an indus-
try and trade level to get the true facts and up-to-date information
into the hands of the people who are the most prolific in these fields.

Regular attendance at all important conventions within the
food field by our home economists (the staff now includes eight who
are constantly creating and testing new citrus recipes in our test
kitchens) and other specialists keep Florida citrus in the forefront
of publicity identity. Among those covered each year besides the
Newspaper Food Editors Conference are the conventions of the
American Home Economics Association, American Women in Radio
and Television, the Canadian Home Economics Association, the
Public School Food Service Association, the American Dietetics As-
sociation, and the National Restaurant Association.

The Commission maintained an ac-
tive, vigorous research program during the
past year. This research was carried out
in cooperation with the Citrus Experiment
Station, Lake Alfred. Seventeen technical
employees were engaged in this effort, and
$168, 000 was expended.

The major fields of research in-
cluded processing, by-products, decay con-
trol, fundamental studies of maturity, me-
chanical harvesting, and the artificial freez-
ing of citrus trees.

I. Processing Research

This research is aimed mainly at the
various problems encountered in the pro-
duction and s to ra g e of frozen concentra-
ted citrus juices.

A. Characteristics of Concentrates Made
from Freeze-Damaged Fruit

Problems concerning the use of
freeze-damaged fruit for the production of
frozen orange concentrate were extensively
investigated by the chemical, physical,


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bacteriological, and organoleptic examination of both juices and
concentrates, packed experimentally and commercially, using fro-
zen oranges made available by the several freezes occurring during
the 1957-58 season.

B. Storage Studies on Concentrated Citrus Juices

Further studies were made on the storage properties of
frozen orange concentrates at various temperatures. The concen-
trates were heated at several concentrations and temperatures,
and included some packs made using pulp washing techniques.

C. Recovery of Fruit Solids from Orange Pulp (Pulp Washing)

Experimental and commercial samples of water extracts of
orange pulp were characterized and their characteristics compared
with those of orange juice. The effect of various extraction pro-
cedures on the percentage of soluble solids recoverable from orange
pulp was also investigated, and a pilot plant unit for pulp washing
was constructed and used.

D. Volatile Flavor Components

A basic study of the volatile components responsible for the
natural flavor and occasional off-flavors in citrus products has been
undertaken. Gas chromatographic techniques are being used to iso-
late and identify these elusive and fugitive materials.

E. High-Density Concentrates

A pilot plant single-stage evaporator, significantly different
from existing units, was built and installed. It was used to produce
5- and 6-fold concentrates from Hamlin, Pineapple and Valencia

F. Pectin Studies

Pectins were isolated as alcohol-insoluble solids from sev-
eral commercial and experimental concentrates. These crude pre-
cipitates were further separated by extraction procedures and then

G. Rapid Method for Predicting the Stability of Commercial
Frozen Orange Concentrate

A tentative rapid method has been developed for predicting the
cloud stability of concentrates. Good correlation with conventional

methods was obtained in 87% of 197 commercial samples.

H. Market Surveys

Two hundred fifty samples of frozen concentrated orange juice
were collected monthly in major markets. Re-examination of these
samples by U. S. Department of Agriculture personnel established
the amount of flavor degradation due to temperature abuse in distri-
bution channels.

II. By-Products

A. Citrus Vinegar

Excellent vinegars were produced from orange, grapefruit
and tangerine juices, and citrus feed mill press liquor in recently
developed, submerged type fermentation equipment. One hundred
gallon quantities of all four vinegars were made to enable sampling
to interested parties.

B. Inositol

The work on the recovery of inositol from citrus juices and
press waters was continued.

C. Activated Sludge

The protein content of activated sludge was examined for its
component amino acids. Eight of these amino acids were identified
and an additional ten were indicated to be present.

III. Decay Control

Ninety eight experiments on post-harvest decay control were
performed, using 120,000 oranges and 12,000 tangerines. Good de-
cay control was obtained at two weeks storage at 700F., using di-
phenyl and/or Dowicide-hexamine, and fungicidal waxes. Even bet-
ter results were obtained when the storage temperature was lowered
to 600F.

Nineteen new chemical preparations tested for decay control
were ineffective.

The effects of packinghouse handling on rind breakdown and
on increased decay loss due to rind breakdown were further investi-
gated. The importance of high humidity and relatively low air-flow
during degreening, or of prompt handling after harvest when de-

greening was not necessary, was amply demonstrated. It was also
apparent that the curing of fruit was beneficial when delays in pro-
cessing were necessary.

IV. Chemical Constituents of Citrus Fruits as Related to Quality

Quinic acid, hitherto unidentified in citrus fruit, was shown
to be a component of the juice and peel of oranges, grapefruit,
lemons and limes. This acid, as well as citric and malic acids, was
determined on a monthly basis during the maturation of arsenated and
unarsenated grapefruit.

V. Physiology of Pigments in Citrus Peel

Post-harvest storage temperatures were noted to have a
marked effect on color development in the peel of oranges. Hamlin
oranges stored for four weeks at 600F. were indistinguishable from
highly colored Pineapple oranges. This 600F. storage temperature
was superior to either 500F. or 700F. Valencia oranges exposed to
light in post-harvest storage showed marked color development which
was greater than the color change due to temperature alone.

VI. Mechanization of Citrus Fruit Picking

An experimental mobile picker's platform featuring three di-
mensional displacement was developed to serve as a research tool in
evaluating the possibilities of this general type of machine for use in
picking citrus fruit. A boom-type tree shaker was tested on grape-
fruit and oranges with 50% to 80% fruit removal. Excessive bark
damage was experienced in early spring.

VII. Artificial Freezing of Citrus Trees

A project has been initiated to study the effect of freezing ma-
ture citrus trees, and their fruit, at different temperatures and
times. This will be accomplished by use of a large, portable freez-
ing chamber approximately 25' x 25' x 25'.

VIII. Spray and Dust Schedules

Twenty-two thousand 1959 Better Fruit Program Spray and
Dust Schedules were printed and distributed.

Those persons wishing more detailed information on any of the
above subjects may contact the Research Department, Florida Citrus


As the Florida citrus industry con-
tinues to grow and maintain leadership as
the world's largest producer of citrus fruits
and products, so grow the complexities in
moving these products to market.

With each succeeding season, new
and mo r e complex transportation problems
beset the Florida citrus shipper and pro-
cessor. Though many of these are con-
sidered routine, they often spell the differ-
ence between profit and loss over the span
of a season.

To assist in solving many of the in-
tricacies involved in transportation, the
Commission continued to retain the services
of the Growers and Shippers League of Flor-
ida. The League, as a representative of the
citrus industry at large, has been most ef-
fective in carrying citrus transportation
problems before the Interstate Commerce
Commis s ion another federal and state agen-
cies charged with the responsibilityof regu-
lating transportation.

Through this service, the League has
been instrumental in effecting huge savings

I ~Y


to the industry. Listed below are some of the more important citrus
problems encountered during the 1958-59 season by the Growers and
Shippers League, their disposition or status:

Removal of Ex Parte 206 Increase From Rail Rates
On Frozen Citrus Products to Southwestern and
Western Trunk Line Territories:

Following the removal, effective December 18, 1957, of the
last increase of 4 percent, with a 4 cents per 100 pounds maximum,
granted under Ex Parte 206, from the rail rates on frozen citrus
products in Southwestern and Western Trunk Line Territories, ne-
gotiations were continued with the railroads for the removal of all of
the Ex Parte 206 increase from these rates. These negotiations were
successful and effective October 25, 1958, the original increase of 5
percent, with a maximum of 7 cents per 100 pounds, was taken off of
the rail rates on frozen citrus products from points in Florida to
points in Southwestern and Western Trunk Line Territories.

Reduced Rail Rates on Canned Citrus Products to Points
in Southwestern and Western Trunk Line Territories:

As the result of continued handling with the rail lines for an
equalization of the rates on canned citrus products moving from Flor-
ida to points in Western Trunk Line and Southwestern Territories to
the same basis as the rates on canned goods moving from those terri-
tories to points in the South, the Southern Lines and the carriers in
the Western Territory approved a reduction in the Westbound rate
and these reductions were published effective October 10, 1958.

Ex Parte 212 Increased Freight Rates, 1958:

In Ex Parte 212 the rail lines throughout the country had re-
quested specific increases in rates on various commodities and ser-
vices. No increase had been proposed on oranges, grapefruit, or
tangerines, nor in the charges for refrigeration or heater services.
Increases of 1 cent per 100 pounds on canned goods except in Southern
Territory, 1 cent per 100 pounds on frozen citrus products to points
in Trans-Continental Territory, 3 cents per 100 pounds in the rates
on citrus pomace, and an increase of 10 percent in the charges for di-
version and reconsignment had been authorized by the Interstate Com-
merce Commission effective February 15, 1958. Following continued
hearings and oral argument, the Interstate Commerce Commission in
September, 1958, released its decision and order in this proceeding
authorizing the publication of unloading charges of $2. 86 per ton on
fresh fruits and vegetables unloaded at specified points in New York
and Philadelphia. These charges became effective on September 15,

Rail Rates on Fresh Citrus to Points in Manhattan:

For many years the rail rates on fresh citrus fruits from
Florida to the pier terminal in Manhattan have been the same as
the rate applying to points on the New Jersey side of the Hudson
River. When the last adjustment in rail rates on fresh citrus fruits
was made to Official Territory, the rail lines published a higher
basis of rates to the pier terminal than were applicable to points on
the Jersey side. Following these rate adjustments, officials of the
Pennsylvania Railroad were approached to reduce the rate to the
Manhattan piers to the level of the New Jersey rate, but this request
was turned down. A complaint has been filed by the New York Port
Authority attacking the higher level of the rates at Manhattan points
and this complaint is being watched very carefully in order to pro-
tect the interests of the Florida shippers.

As a means of avoiding the higher delivery costs on commo-
dities delivered to Manhattan piers and also as a means of improv-
ing the distribution and marketing arrangements at New York, it has
been suggested that the auction facilities be moved to the Jersey side
of the Hudson River. This suggestion has been approved by the
Executive Committee of the Growers and Shippers League of Florida
and conferences on this proposed move have been held with railroad
officials and also with officials of marketing organizations and other
shipper organizations making use of the New York terminals. Ef-
forts are being continued to secure sufficient support from all inter-
ested agencies to insure the approval of this transfer.

Railway Express Rates on Fresh Citrus Fruits:

In Ex Parte 210 the Railway Express Agency had asked for a
15 percent increase in express rates and charges including express
charges on fresh citrus fruit shipments from Florida. The League
opposed this proposed increase on behalf of the Florida express fruit
shippers and in its decision and order issued in October, 1958, the
Interstate Commerce Commission did not grant any increase in the
express rate on citrus fruit shipped from Florida.

In November, 1958, the Railway Express Agency published
an increase of 3-1/2 percent in their rates and charges effective
January 1, 1959. Petitions for suspension of these increases were
filed with the Interstate Commerce Commission and the rates were
suspended. The Express Agency later announced that the revenue
anticipated to be received from this increase would be totally inade-
quate to meet the needs of the Agency and withdrew the suspended

The future of the Railway Express Agency as an indepen-
dent entity has been uncertain as some of the ownership rail lines
had announced their intention to withdraw from the Agency. Of-
fers were made from outside businesses to purchase the Railway
Express Agency and legislation was introduced in the Congress
authorizing the Post Office Department to take over the operation
of the Express Agency. In the meantime, however, a plan to re-
organize the Railway Express Agency has been approved by the
ownership rail lines, subject to approval of the Interstate Com-
merce Commission, and subject to the further provision that an
increase in rates and charges can be secured.

Charges for Rail Mechanical Refrigeration:

The level of the rail charges for mechanical refrigeration
service is being very carefully studied with the view of possible ad-
justment in these charges. The Interstate Commerce Commission
recently ordered the rail and car lines providing mechanical re-
frigeration service to file with the Commission accounting reports
on this service and these reports are being studied for data which
may be helpful in the analysis of the charges made to the shippers
for mechanical refrigeration service.

Rail and Boat Rate Reductions on Canned Citrus
Products to Points in the East:

In order to meet competition of the boat line, the rail lines
proposed and approved substantial reductions in the rail rates on
canned citrus products from points in Florida to points in the East.
To maintain its competitive position the boat line further reduced
its rates on these commodities and the reduced rates of both the
rail and boat line became effective February 1, 1959. Although pe-
titions for suspension were filed against both the rail and the boat
line reduced rates, the Interstate Commerce Commission did not
suspend the rates but did order an investigation of both sets of rates,
which proceeding is now pending before the Commission.

Canned Goods Rail Rates To Trans-Continental Territory:

The Trans-Continental Rail Lines had become concerned with
the loss of canned goods tonnage to other forms of transportation,
and proposed to reduce the rates 10 cents per 100 pounds while in-
creasing the minimum weight from 60, 000 to 75, 000 pounds. When
this proposal was considered by the Southern Rail lines after a public
hearing, the Southern carriers approved the reduced rate subject to
75, 000 pounds loading with the provision that the Westbound rate
from Florida Peninsula points would be the same as the proposed

Eastbound rate. The Southern carriers further amended the pro-
posal to provide that the Westbound rate subject to loading of
60,000 pounds should be the same as the present Eastbound rate
subject to 60, 000 pounds minimum. This proposal has been sent
back to the Trans-Continental Rail Lines for their further con-
sideration of the proposal as amended by the Southern Lines.

Canned Citrus Truck Tariff From Florida:

For several years, the canned citrus products shippers in
Florida had been urging the truck lines to publish a single tariff
covering the truck rates on canned citrus products from points in
Florida to points in the United States. After numerous conferences
and lengthy consideration, the truck lines approved the publication
of such a tariff and this tariff was published as Southern Motor Car-
riers Rate Conference Tariff 178, effective October 30, 1958. This
tariff contains rates to points in Southern and Eastern Territories
and efforts are being continued to have the scope of this tariff ex-
tended to cover all points to which truck shipments of canned citrus
products are made.

Truck Line Proposals Affecting Canned Citrus Products:

In May, 1959, there was filed by the truck lines in Southern
Territory a proposal to cancel the privilege of stopping in transit to
complete loading. As this transit privilege is used by most of the
canned citrus products shippers in Florida, objections were filed to
this proposal and the proposal was disapproved insofar as it affected
the shipment of canned citrus products by truck.

Another proposal filed by the Southern truck lines would re-
quire that truck charges on all shipments stopped to partially unload
must be prepaid. Although in most instances this is done by the
Florida canned citrus shippers already, there are instances in which
it is necessary that shipments of this kind be made on a collect basis.
Objections to this proposal were filed with the truck lines and the
matter is still pending before the carriers.

Proposals to increase the truck rates on all commodities to
bring them up to the level of the rail rates were filed in October,
1958. Objections to these increases were filed with the Southern
carriers and after consideration the truck lines approved increases
only to the extent that increases, if any, had been made by the rail
lines on comparable traffic.

Changes in Agricultural Exemption Under
the Interstate Commerce Act:

The Transportation Act of 1958, which became effective on
August 12, 1958, declared, among other provisions, that frozen
fruits and vegetables which had formerly been declared exempt un-
der Section 203(b)(6) of the Interstate Commerce Act would now be
subject to regulation of the Interstate Commerce Commission. The
Act also set up a provision for the truck lines which had formerly
transported these commodities as exempt items to file so-called
grandfather rights applications which would entitle them to continue
to perform the same operations as they had formerly conducted. In
order to insure the continuation of service by truck lines hauling
formerly exempt commodities, pending final determination of their
grandfather rights application, the League worked with other inter-
ested shipper groups, with Senator Smathers' office, and with repre-
sentatives of the Interstate Commerce Commission in setting up
proper procedures for the filing of grandfather rights applications
for continuation of truck service.

Through Rail Rates to Canada:

Negotiations were continued with the rail lines for the publi-
cation of through rates on frozen and canned citrus products from
Florida to points in Canada, as well as adjustments in the rail rates
on fresh citrus to Canadian destinations. A proposal to publish
through rates on frozen and canned citrus products to points in
Eastern Canada based on existing combination rates was approved
by the Southern and Canadian Lines, but was held up because of ob-
jections to the proposal by rail lines in Official Territory. In June,
1959, another proposal was filed by the Southern Rail Carriers to
publish rail rates on frozen citrus products to points in Ontario,
Canada, made competitive with existing truck rates on these com-
modities. This proposal is still pending before the rail carriers.
Numerous conferences have been held with both the origin and
Canadian Rail Line officials regarding the publication of reduced
rates on fresh citrus fruit to points in Canada and information has
been furnished the rail lines for their use in preparing proposals
for reductions. These matters are still being handled with the rail
lines in an effort to secure an adjustment in these rail rates.

Adjustment in Rail Rates on Citrus Pomace:

In an attempt to secure tonnage of citrus pomace moving to
points in Georgia, the origin rail lines of Florida published reduced
rates to points in Georgia on their line and to points on lines of other
carriers which wished to join them in the publication. These reduced

rates became effective March 15, 1959.

A proposal to publish lower rates on citrus pomace to
points in Central Freight Association and Illinois Freight Asso-
ciation Territories based on the level of exception rates formerly
in effect had been approved by the Southern rail lines but had been
amended by the rail lines in the North so as to be unsatisfactory to
the citrus pomace shippers in Florida. As the result of continu-
ing action by the shippers and the Southern rail lines, the Eastern
Railroads finally approved the proposal as originally filed by the
Southern lines and these reduced rates are now in the process of be-
ing published.

Reduced Rail Rates on Beet Pulp to Points in Florida:

A number of proposals to reduce the rail rates on beet pulp
from points in the West to points in Florida have been filed with the
Western rail lines by beet pulp shippers in the West. Most of these
proposals were for drastically reduced rates and because of the ad-
verse effect which these rates, if approved, would have on the cit-
rus pomace shippers in Florida, objections were filed to these
various proposals. Most of these proposals were turned down by
the rail carriers while others are still pending for decision.

Applications for Operating Authorities of Truck Lines:

During the past year there were filed with the Interstate
Commerce Commission a number of applications for operating
authorities which were of interest to the shippers in Florida. Among
these was an application of J. M. Blythe Motor Lines for authority
to transport frozen foods from points in Florida to points in the New
England States. This application was supported by the League and
shippers but was denied by the Interstate Commerce Commission.
An application of Clay Hyder Trucking Lines to purchase part of the
operating rights of Seaboard Food Express covering transportation
of frozen foods from points in Florida to points in Texas was suppor-
ted by the industry and is still pending before the Interstate Com-
merce Commission. An application of Florida Frozen Foods Express
Limited for authority to transport frozen citrus products from all
origin points in Florida to points in Ontario, Canada, received the
support of the industry and this application has now been approved by
the Commission. An application of Alterman Transport Lines to
transport frozen citrus products from all points in Florida to Rich-
mond, Virginia, Washington, D. C. and Baltimore, Maryland, and
an application of Clay Hyder Trucking Lines to transport frozen and
chilled citrus products from points in Florida to points in South Caro-
lina and to points in the Eastern part of North Carolina are awaiting
hearing before the Interstate Commerce Commission.

-- -l

Selected Pulls
and Julce
i, -. I" ,

Regulatory Activities

In line with the Commission's policy
of amending its regulations to meet changing
conditions in the industry, a number of
amendments and new regulations were
adopted during the past season. Some of the
more important changes were as follows:

Upon recommendation of the Packing-
house Managers Association and the Sale s
Managers Club, the number of orange sizes
was reduced from seven to five. The new
sizes which will be used in the coming sea-
son are 125, 163, 200, 252 and 324.

Murcotts which have been classified
in the past as both tangerines and oranges
were classified by the 19 59 Legislature as
"Murcott Honey Oranges," and included in
the Florida Citrus Cod e. Accordingly, the
Commission adopted grade, size and ma-
turity standards for this fruit and also issued
a regulation prohibiting the use of color.

For a number of years the chilled
orange juice industry has operated under
minimum quality standards adopted by the





ic-- E



.......... ,"."' ""

.... --~-I"

Commission. The U. S. Department of Agriculture issued grade
standards for this product and the Commission adopted these stand-
ards as Florida standards, retaining some of the provisions of its
previous regulation, such as prohibiting the use of additives, label
declaration on the use of frozen concentrate in producing the pro-
duct, and limiting the use of the word "Fresh" to juice which has not
been processed in any manner.

The Commission's regulation governing the allotments to
shippers for coloring Temple oranges on an experimental basis was
revised to insure more equitable distribution of the allotments.

In an effort to more carefully screen applicants for citrus
fruit dealer's licenses, the Commission revised its regulation to
require that new applicants supply a current financial statement,
supply the names of three citrus growers as references, and post
the required surety bond before the Commission acts on the applica-
tion. In this connection, a report from Dun & Bradstreet is ob-
tained on each new applicant.

During the past two years a large number of new orange ades
and drinks have been produced by Florida processors. In some
cases, these products contain very little orange juice, but the label
described the product as being an "Orange Juice Drink. The Com-
mission passed a regulation prohibiting the word "juice" in the
name of these products when packed in cardboard cartons.

In order to provide information for a more careful check on
bonding requirements of citrus fruit dealers, the Commission
adopted a regulation requiring all dealers to file a monthly report
showing the volume of fruit dealt with. Since the amount of the
surety bond is based upon the volume of fruit dealt with, the informa-
tion from these monthly reports during the 1958-59 season resulted
in requests being made to 49 citrus dealers to increase their bonds.
The bonds of these dealers were increased by $243, 760.

The Commission has cooperated with all law enforcement
agencies in an effort to reduce the theft of citrus fruit. After meet-
ing with law enforcement people and industry groups, the Commis-
sion adopted a regulation requiring all citrus fruit dealers to keep
records showing (1) the type of vehicle in which each load of fruit is
delivered, (2) the license tag number of such vehicle, and (3) the
number of the Driver's License of the person driving the truck.

Special Field Force

Beginning with the 1958-59 season, the Commission estab-
lished a Special Field Force with the two-fold purpose of deter-
mining how and why violations of the Citrus Code and Regulations
may occur and to check out all rumors of violations, and where evi-
dence of violations is found, to refer such information to the appro-
priate enforcing authority for action. Two men were employed with
one being assigned to fresh fruit packinghouses and the other to pro-
cessing plants. During the past season these men made a study of
all present inspection and enforcement procedures and controls and
submitted recommendations to the Commission designed to strengthen
the effectiveness of the regulations and their enforcement. Most of
these recommendations were approved by the Commission and in
several instances where amendments to the regulations were in-
volved, such amendments were adopted and made effective. Members
of the industry were very complimentary on the effectiveness of the
work of the special field force and the Commission plans to continue
this work in the 1959-60 season.

Licenses and Special Permits

During the 1958-59 season, the Commission reviewed and ap-
proved 1,436 applications for citrus fruit dealer licenses. In addi-
tion, 17 applications were denied because of unfavorable information
received concerning the applicants.

A total 2, 877 Special Permits were issued covering the ex-
perimental use of new containers, the movement of gift fruit ship-
ments of citrus fruit by truck, the movement of citrus fruit outside
the State for processing, the movement of fruit for charitable or re-
lief purposes, and the experimental coloring of Temple oranges.

Statistical Services

The Commission continued its policy of supplying the industry
with important statistical information. The regular publications in-
cluded weekly reports covering operations of Florida citrus proces-
sors, as supplied by the Florida Canners Association; weekly and
monthly reports of the Market Research Corporation on the volume
of consumer purchases and prices paid for citrus fruits and pro-
ducts. The Commission also continued to compile information on
destinations in U. S. A. and Canada of all truck shipments of citrus
fruits moving out of Florida. A report containing this information
for the 1958-59 season and a comparison with the previous season
was prepared and mailed to the industry. This report is very help-
ful to sales managers of fresh citrus fruits in preparing their sales

campaigns and also provides a valuable guide to the Commission's
advertising department in scheduling consumer advertising in the
various markets in relation to the marketing potential.


The Commission assumed the leadership in developing sev-
eral important changes in the Florida Citrus laws which were pre-
sented to the 1959 Legislature and passed. Many months prior to
the Legislative session, the Commission's Legislative Committee
held meetings with other industry groups to make a study of changes
needed in the citrus laws. All groups were asked to submit pro-
posed changes. These proposals were studied and discussed at pub-
lic meetings in an effort to eliminate the less important items and
obtain general agreement on the changes which were considered most
important. As a result of this work, the industry developed a "legis-
lative package" which was presented to the Legislature. Representa-
tives and Senators from the citrus producing areas successfully
steered the proposals to final passage. The principal measures were
as follows:

1. Extending the present advertising taxes on oranges and
grapefruit and the provision for making rebates to brand
advertisers of fresh grapefruit, for a period of four years.

2. Granting the Commission authority to establish minimum
grade requirements for citrus fruit sold within the State
of Florida and for gift fruit shipments. This would apply
to all fresh fruit sales except fruit sold at roadside fruit
stands which is not purchased from a licensed citrus fruit

3. Removal from the Citrus Code of all provisions for the
regulation of limes as was recommended by members of
the Florida lime industry.

4. Increased the ratio requirement for oranges, including
Temples, by 1/2 point.

5. Extended for a period of 2 years provisions for coloring
Temple oranges on an experimental basis.

6. Defines Murcotts as "Murcott Honey Oranges," provides
for an advertising tax of 5 cents per box, and provides
that Murcotts shall be subject to other provisions of the
Citrus Code.

7. Changes qualifications and classification of members of
the Commission.

8. Authorizes the Commission to establish maximum freeze
damage of citrus fruit to be used in the production of fro-
zen concentrated juices.

9. Authorizes the Commission, after a public hearing, to
waive minimum solids requirements for grapefruit for
processing during the period April 15 to July 31.

10. Authorizes the Commission, after public hearing, to es-
tablish minimum standards for processed citrus products
above the minimum requirements of the law. This Act
provides for the appointment by the Commission of a
Canners Quality Committee and a Chilled Juice Quality
Committee, which shall recommend proposals for the im-
provement of minimum quality or grade standards. It
also provides for appointment of a Concentrate Quality
Committee by the Governor of Florida.

11. Increase inspection fees for citrus fruits and products.

12. Require the marking of trucks, tractors, trailers, etc.,
engaged in hauling citrus fruits on the highways, with
name of owner and, if a licensed citrus fruit dealer, this
must also be shown.

13. Changes the time in which the Commission may act after
freezing temperatures occur, from 72 to 96 hours and also
provides that any embargo may cover a maximum period
of 10 days instead of 7 days as previously provided.

14. Changes the definition of "canned products" to include pro-
ducts packed in any other manner and in any other container.

15. Adopt a special act to prohibit interference with inspectors
of canned or concentrated products.

16. Adopt an act which provides for the automatic revocation
of certificate of registration for any packinghouse, canning
plant or concentrating plant whenever the citrus fruit dealer's
license is revoked or suspended.

17. Authorizes payment of actual expenses of Commission
employees traveling on official business outside the
state, under rules and regulations to be established
by the Commission; also providing for a limited fund
for payment of promotional expenses for guests in-
volved in such promotions.



JULY 1, 1958 To JUNE 30, 1959

Cash Balance July 1, 1958

RECEIPTS From All Sources

$1,597,831. 58


$7,838,970. 61



General Administrative
Furniture and Equipment
General Revenue Fund
Transportation Problems
Market Surveys
Special Field Inspection

Promotions and Publicity
Includes Salaries and Expenses of
Advertising and Field Force, In-
Store Promotions and Related
Point-of-Sale Material

Consumer Advertising
Newspapers, Magazines, Tele-
vision, Radio and Trade Papers
Professional Journals
By-Products Journals
European Program

$114,756. 10
25,806. 28
181,271. 05
54,738. 77

426, 072. 79

86,364. 66
165, 103.43


$6, 046, 938. 95

Cash Balance June 30, 1959

$ 1, 792, 031. 66




(000 Bxs)


(000 Bxs)





(000 Bxs)
















- .10
- .02
- .05


(a) Difference between "Total Production" and actual utilization represented by
Economic Abandonment.
(b) Preliminary.

SOURCE: U. S. Department of Agriculture



(000 Bxs)




Date Due

1,000 Cases, 24/2's









- 1,000 Gallons -





- - Tons - -

163,397 /1
187,543 /1
218,065 /1
223,311 /1
287,832 /1
262,474 71
297,254 /I
296,575 /1
291,537 /1
320,588 /1


/1 Includes meal, pulp and pellets
x Includes Tangerine Juice and Tangerine Blends
xx Includes Orange Sections
(Source: Florida Canners' Association)





(Other than