Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075981/00008
 Material Information
Title: Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee?
Creation Date: 1957
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000863394
oclc - 01327786
notis - AEG0106
lccn - 50063588
System ID: UF00075981:00008

Full Text

1957-1958 annual report






Commission Members Serving During
the 1957-58 Fiscal Year

Key Scales, Jr., Chairman
J. R. Graves, Vice-Chairman
J. Ross Bynum
Frank Chase
Nash LeGette
Herbert S. Massey
A. V. Saurman
Bruce W. Skinner
Herschell N. Sorrells
Thomas B. Swann
Marvin Walker
J. Dan Wright, Jr.


J. R. Graves, Chairman
Marvin Walker
Thomas B. Swann
Bruce W. Skinner
J. Dan Wright, Jr.
Herschell N. Sorrells


Bruce W. Skinner, Chairman
Herbert S. Massey
Marvin Walker
Nash LeGette
Frank Chase

Dade City
Lake Alfred
Winter Haven
Lake Wales


Marvin Walker, Chairman
J. Ross Bynum
A. V. Saurman
Thomas B. Swann
Nash LeGette


Thomas B. Swann, Chairman
Frank Chase
A. V. Saurman
J. Ross Bynum
Herbert S. Massey


Homer E. Hooks, General Manager
Robert C. Evans, Director of Administration
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research
Walter J. Page, Director of Public Relations
Frank D. Arn, Director of Advertising and Merchandising
Ralph M. Henry, Merchandising Manager
Harold S. Gardner, Advertising Manager
Ted L. Hodson, Manager of Special Promotions
John E. O'Reilly, Production Manager
Joseph C. Fuller, Statistician*
Clyde P. May, Assistant Director of Public Relations

*Resigned effective September 15, 1958
1 -



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The season of 1957-58 will be remembered for a long
time for the devastating freezes which gripped the Florida cit-
rus industry from mid-December until late February. The
rapid production growth of citrus was stopped in its tracks, and
we finished the season with a harvest 20% below the original
crop estimate. But, despite the severe freeze losses, we pro-
duced 116 million boxes of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines and
limes, comprising 69% of the total United States citrus produc-
tion and 28% of the world's citrus crop. In terms of dollar value
to Florida growers, the sharply reduced supplies enhanced the
value of the remaining fruit to the extent that total on-tree re-
turns were $219,000,000 for 1957-58.

The Florida Citrus Commission moved promptly in the
freeze emergency to lead the industry through its period of crisis.
The Commission adopted a policy of permitting as much fruit as
possible to be utilized in fresh or processed form, but at the same
time making absolutely sure that the high quality standards for
Florida citrus would be in no way compromised. The Commission
held a series of special meetings and public hearings through the
year to implement this policy.

Its success is indicated by the utilization of 80% of the total
crop and by the fact that consumers continued to buy our fruit and
products at such a rate that year-end inventories were the lowest
in several seasons. The Commission's consumer advertising pro-
gram had to be trimmed because of reduced funds available, but
sufficient advertising was continued to impress on the public that
the Florida citrus industry was very much in business. The fact
that consumers continued to buy our citrus products in high volume,
despite higher prices, indicated the cumulative value of the many
years' advertising and promotional efforts of the Commission and
brand advertisers in the industry, stressing the health values and
daily need for citrus fruits and juices.

Realizing that our first assurances should go to wholesalers,
distributors and retailers who handle our fruit and juices, the Com-
mission sent direct mail messages and advertised in trade magazines
immediately after the freeze to advise these handlers of our fruit and
products of the facts in Florida. This served to reassure everyone
that Florida citrus would still be available and in good quality.

Acting on the recommendation of the Concentrators' Ad-
visory Committee, the Commission had a regulation in effect when
the first freeze came to control the type of freeze damaged fruit which


could be used in the manufacture of frozen orange concentrate.
Since this was the first major freeze since the invention of fro-
zen orange concentrate, the Commission was cautious after the
freezes to be sure that its objectives of maximum utilization
without endangering quality were followed, especially with re-
spect to concentrate. Commission and University of Florida re-
search scientists had been carrying on laboratory projects on
handling freeze-damaged fruit since 1951, so that a great deal was
known about the hazards of processing such fruit. The freezes of
1957-58 offered a maximum practical opportunity to put these re-
search findings to work, and it became apparent to the Commis-
sion and to independent plant research technicians that with prop r
precautions good concentrate could be made from this fruit. So,
on further advice from the Concentrators' Advisory Committee,
the Commission modified its regulations through the season to per-
mit more fruit to be used in concentrate. Actually, quality con-
trols on the finished product were tightened to their highest point
in the history of the industry.

A special section of this report deals with the historic
freezes of the season, and I think you will find a great deal of
valuable information there.

While activities resulting from the freezes occupied most of
the Commission's attention during the season, this was by no means
its only function. We employed Mr. Harold S. Gardner as Adver-
tising Manager, and thus rounded out our departmental staff handling
the Commission's advertising and merchandising programs. We in-
stituted a special campaign in the Fall to emphasize the use of
Florida citrus to combat the flu which was sweeping the country at
that time. The Commission actively supported legislation to permit
the use of biphenyl as a decay inhibitor of our fresh fruit without the
necessity of confused labelling at the retail stores. Long strides
were made in the improvement of fresh fruit grades, the raising of
basic maturity standards, and the consolidation of fresh fruit ship-
ping containers.

Our research laboratory instituted an artificial freezing pro-
ject, in which entire trees can be subjected to cold temperatures in
grove locations and thus be examined under controlled conditions to
learn what could be done to develop better cold resistance in our
root stocks and horticultural practices.

The season of 1957-58 will be long remembered as one which
inflicted shocking losses to Florida citrus. But it will also be re-
membered for the alert and responsible leadership of the Florida
Citrus Commission in guiding the industry out of adversity and into
the path of full recovery -- stronger and more prosperous than ever.


We cordially invite you to examine the Commission's re-
port in detail. We think you will find a great deal of information
of particular interest to all those who directly and indirectly bene-
fit from Florida's great citrus industry.

omer E. Hooks, General Manager
Florida Citrus Commission






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The 1957-58 Florida citrus season was one that will be
long remembered by the industry. It was characterized by
short supplies and high prices as the result of a series of
memorable freezes, starting with the big one on the night of De-
cember 12, 1957.

Citrus suffered considerable damage due to the severe
cold, but freezes of other seasons during the century and late
part of 1800 actually caused a greater percentage loss of fruit
and trees. Last season, Florida's loss has been calculated at
about 20 per cent.

It should be pointed out, however, that records of the
Weather Bureau indicate that the average temperature for De-
cember, 1957, January and February, 1958, was the coldest
ever recorded in Florida for any three consecutive months.

Weather became the main topic of conversation for many
months when a cold Arctic "high" slithered into Florida on De-
cember 11, dropping temperatures by the morning of December
12 to the low 20s in high and low ground locations in north and
central districts, mid-20s to the low 30s in the Everglades and
slightly below freezing on the Lower East Coast. Thus began a
series of no less than eight separate and distinct freezes spanning
the next two months.

Citrus fruit and trees were damaged frequently during this
period by low temperatures. However, Mother Nature abetted
survival by prolonging the cold, thereby permitting the harvesting
of the major portion of wholesome freeze-damaged fruit, particu-
larly oranges and grapefruit.

Heating of groves on the Northern rim of the citrus belt
and in colder groves in other sections undoubtedly saved many
groves and fruit from absolute loss. As in any commodity in
short supply, prices rose and the dollar value of the remainder
of the crop rose rapidly.

Immediate and constructive action by the Florida Citrus
Commission was responsible, in great part, for leading the in-
dustry out of the uncertainties caused by the first freeze. The
Commission immediately adopted a strong guiding policy which
vowed to protect the good name of Florida citrus and citrus pro-
ducts at all costs, and to see that as much of the growers' fruit

- 11 -

was used as was humanly possible. Both objectives were
achieved through wise passage of regulations and rules which
are covered in the next section of this report.

Florida's production, before the freeze December 12,
was estimated at 102 million boxes of oranges and 38. 0 million
boxes of grapefruit. Actual utilization, however, amounted to
82. 5 million boxes of oranges and 31. 1 million boxes of grape-
fruit, indicating the sizable loss. The orange harvest was the
shortest since the 1952-53 season and grapefruit was the lightest
since the 1949-50 season.

As in previous years, most of the orange crop went into
processed citrus products. A total of 63, 691,900 boxes of
oranges, or 77.2 per cent of the orange crop, went into canned
juices and salad, frozen concentrate, processed concentrate,
concentrate blend, chilled sections and salad, and chilled juice.
The balance went into fresh fruit channels, interstate by-products
and local home use.

This compares with the 73.2 per cent, or 68, 063, 862 boxes,
going into processed channels the year previous.

Slightly more than half of the grapefruit crop went into pro-
cessed products, also. Some 16,437,485 boxes, or 52.8 per cent,
were processed into canned juices and blend, sections and salad,
frozen concentrate, frozen concentrate blend, and chilled juice
and sections. The balance of the crop was shipped fresh with the
exception of a small amount for local and home use.

The year previous, 1956-57, a total of 19,038,037 boxes,
or 50.9 per cent, went into processed products.

In summary, the industry (with the exception of severe loss
suffered by many individual growers) survived the freeze very well.
This was attributed to short supplies and strong demand for both
fresh and processed products. Prices for oranges, grapefruit and
tangerines in the Northern auctions averaged the highest in 30
years with the exception of 1949-50 when grapefruit averaged a
little bit more than this past season.

The Commission, following the first freeze, in December,
carried on an intensive public relations program designed to reach
consumers and the trade all over the Nation and Canada, telling
the "cold facts" about the situation in Florida, and what the industry
was doing for the protection of producer, shipper, processor and

- 12 -

consumer. Indicative of the public relations aspects needed dur-
ing these trying times, the Commission supplemented flow of in-
formation through news channels with a paid advertisement which
appeared in the major trade press throughout the Nation and
Canada. A copy of the ad is reproduced on the following pages.

A copy of the resolution, declaring the embargo on ship-
ment of all fruit, was sent to thousands of wholesalers and re-
tailers handling fresh Florida citrus on December 17. On Janu-
ary 20, 1958, a bulletin was sent to all brokers, buyers, distribu-
tors, warehousemen and retailers of Florida frozen orange con-
centrate, setting forth what the Commission had done to protect
the product and assuring the trade that continued high quality
could be expected, despite the cold weather. Copies of these
are also reproduced on the following pages.

- 13 -


reports to the

Florida was subjected to a

very severe freeze

a 0

At first reading, this.news, headlined in newspapers
across the country, doubtless seemed hard to believe.
Then, the big questions came to your mind as they
did to ours: "What will be the effect on sales of fresh
and processed Florida Citrus Products? What has
happened to the Florida Citrus crop?"
This Is What Happened
In December, temperatures dipped to a 17-year
record low. Then, in January and in early February,
further low temperatures occurred. We can all realize
the magnitude of this freeze and appreciate that some
crop damage was inevitable.
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Estimates Damage

The United States Department of Agriculture acted
quickly to determine the quantity of crop that con-
tinued to measure up to the strict quality standards
and regulations, not only of the USDA, but of the
Florida Citrus Commission.
Official estimates of crop damage revealed some
interesting facts. In spite of the freezes, the available
fruit for fresh shipments and for processing still ex-
ceeds the average total available Florida crop of the
past ten years.
For example: On February 10, the USDA estimated
that approximately 17 million boxes of oranges would
not be used, since they would not meet Florida's

Super Market Merchandising .
Chain Store Age . .
Progressive Grocer . .
Quick Frozen Foods (Trade Edition)
Canadian Grocer . .

superior standards of quality. Yet, despite the freeze,
the USDA further estimated there will be a total of
85 million-yes, 85 million-boxes of oranges avail-
able for the '57-'58 season. In the case of grapefruit,
six million boxes are considered lost. Yet the available
crop will still reach a total of 32 million boxes for the
season, according to the USDA estimate. Tangerines
were seriously affected-nearly one-third of the total
crop was lost.
In the face of these authoritative figures, none of us
can afford to be less than optimistic about the con-
tinuing progress of Florida Citrus, fresh and processed.
Quality Safeguards
For you, your customers, and for the Florida Citrus
Industry, it is not enough to merely make a product
available. Your reputation as a merchandiser of
quality products is of vital importance and must be
Since the creation of the Florida Citrus Commis-
sion 23 years ago, Florida has diligently formulated
the strongest, tightest quality controls on fruit and
products of any citrus or other fruit-producing area in
the world. In December, 1957, the Commission took
immediate action to protect the interests of everyone
concerned with the marketing and sale of Florida
Citrus Products.
The Industry has pledged complete support to the
Commission's program for safeguarding the quality

S March,
. March,
SMarch 15,


Food Stores of America

and reputation of Florida Citrus that you and your
customers have come to expect.

Shipping Embargo
Immediately following the freeze, the Commission
imposed a 7-day embargo (Dec. 14-21) on fresh fruit
shipments, in order to safeguard the quality reputa-
tion of Florida Citrus, and for the protection of food
stores with their customers. Since the embargo, rigid
inspection on the quality of all fresh fruit shipments
is being enforced.

What About Concentrate:
Current industry estimates indicate the pack of fro-
zen orange concentrate this season will be approxi-

mately 50 million gallons. This, of course, is less than
the total pack for last season.
Tighter controls are being exercised. All the re-
sources, experience and expert knowledge of the
Commission, Concentrate Advisory Committee, and
technical and control men in laboratories and plants
are reflected in the regulations now in effect.
All concentrate must pass USDA Grade "A" re-
quirements, as well as a new higher test for stability.
These standards are being rigidly enforced by the
USDA Inspection Service in Florida. Also, additional
Florida State Inspectors have been assigned to carry
out the program as set down by the Florida Citrus

Retailers report

their Citrus promotions moving ahead

From all over the country, we have received a great
many reports of food stores continuing promotions of
Florida Citrus in all its forms.
Consumer enthusiasm for Florida Citrus further
proves the necessity and advisability of featuring
citrus fruits and juices that have, over a period of
many years, built up a consistent reputation for
Advertising And Promotional Services
The Florida Citrus Commission's National adver-
tising campaign continues to bring the nutritional and
taste story of fresh and processed fruit to the con-
suming public. In support of this campaign, and of
your store promotions, Florida Citrus Commission
merchandising representatives in your area are actively

engaged in helping promote sales all year 'round.

Your Cooperation Is Appreciated
The entire Florida Citrus Industry wishes to take this
opportunity to thank you for your understanding and
cooperation. For some of you, this freeze may prob-
ably have been the first in your experience. Your
attention to the problem, and your actions toward
solving it, are appreciated by us all.
Since Mother Nature is unpredictable, evaluation
efforts continue. The next three months should fully
assess the net effect of the freeze.
The months ahead are vitally important to you and
to Florida Citrus. Be assured your interests are para-
mount in the Commission's continuing program.

HOMER E. HOOKS, General Manager


Supermarket News . .
Packer . .
Produce News & Produce Barometer
Nargus Bulletin . .
Frozen Food Age . .

SFebruary 24,
S. March 1,
SFebruary 28,
S. .March,
S. .March,



December 17, 1957



WHEREAS, the Florida Citrus Commission was created
many years ago and among its purposes was to stabilize the
Florida citrus industry and to protect the public against fraud,
deception, and financial loss through unscrupulous practices and
haphazard methods in connection with the processing and market-
ing of citrus fruit and the canned or concentrated products there-
of, and

WHEREAS, the Florida Legislature, on the petition of
the citrus industry, has heretofore enacted strict laws and dele-
gated full power to the Commission controlling the marketing of
Florida citrus and the manufacture, sale and distribution of fro-
zen concentrated orange juice more stringent and with more pro-
tective features than any other citrus producing area in the world,

WHEREAS, the Legislature in its wisdom delegated the
authority to the Florida Citrus Commission to declare an embargo
under certain circumstances when citrus fruit was damaged by a
freeze, and

WHEREAS, the Florida Citrus Commission has found and
determined that there was a freeze in Florida between December
11 and December 14, 1957, which did cause serious damage to
some citrus fruit in the State, and

WHEREAS, the Commission, in its wisdom, deemed it
necessary and expedient to declare the embargo in order to pro-
tect the public and the growers and enhance the quality and reputa-
tion of citrus fruit and the canned and concentrated products there-
of in domestic and export markets, and

- 16 -

WHEREAS, even though an embargo was declared there
are millions of boxes of good, wholesome citrus fruit in Florida
that were not damaged by the freeze, and many thousands of
gallons of frozen orange concentrate which were processed and
manufactured out of good wholesome citrus fruit prior to the
freeze, and

WHEREAS, all of the fruit that was not damaged and all
of the concentrate that was manufactured before the freeze will
immediately, after the embargo, be put into the channels of trade,

WHEREAS, after the embargo terminates, which will be
in a few days, Florida will resume the marketing of its usual
excellent high quality citrus fruit, free of all freeze damage,
and again resume the manufacture of its excellent high quality
frozen concentrated orange juice under the usual strict regula-
tions of the Florida Citrus Commission.

Citrus Commission that we declare that one of the purposes of
the embargo was to protect the public against the purchase of
frozen fruit and the purchase of frozen orange concentrate which
might have been processed out of the oranges damaged by the
freeze and of inferior quality, but for the embargo, as well as to
protect the growers and shippers in the State who have unfrozen
fruit of high quality and the citrus industry in the future, and to
carry out the objectives of the Legislature in creating the Com-
mission, and we respectfully request the press, news agencies,
and the public to give full notice to the protective features of the
action of the Commission in declaring the embargo.

Adopted December 16, 1957, by unanimous vote of the
Florida Citrus Commission.

Homer E. Hooks, General Mana r

- 17 -


January 20, 1958



Florida suffered a severe freeze December 12-13 and
further damaging weather on January 9. The U. S. Department
of Agriculture estimates that 22 million boxes of our orange crop
are lost, leaving a total of 80 million boxes for the season -- the
shortest Florida orange crop in five years. As of now, we esti-
mate the total concentrate pack for the season will be a little over
48, 000, 000 gallons, compared to 72, 000, 000 gallons last year.

This has caused serious changes in Florida citrus opera-
tions. You have a very definite interest in what has happened and
what will happen, because orange concentrate is an important part
of your business and a staple item in the consumer diet. It is the
largest single user of our orange crop. For these reasons, I
think it well to inform you, directly, about some things we have
done to safeguard the quality of this product that means so much to
us all. Here are the facts:

1. The Florida Citrus Commission was created 23 years ago
by state law. Among its purposes is to stabilize the Florida citrus
industry and to protect the public against fraud, deception, and
financial loss through unscrupulous practices and haphazard methods
in connection with the processing and marketing of citrus fruit and
the canned or concentrated products thereof.

2. We in Florida already have the strongest and tightest
quality controls on our fruit and products of any citrus or other
fruit producing area in the world.

- 18 -

3. Since the freeze, the Commission has met weekly in
public hearings to consider the recommendations of its Concen-
trate Advisory Committee, another legally established body,
made up of nine concentrators, as well as to hear advice from
technical and quality control men in our own laboratories and in
individual plants.

4. As the result of extensive testing and scientific work
going back several years, the Commission has said that concen-
trators cannot use loads of fruit containing more than 25% freeze-
damaged oranges in frozen concentrated orange juice and ship it
out immediately after packing. If they wish to use loads of higher
than 25%, they may pack directly into consumer-size cans, but
they must hold these cans 45 days before the product can be in-
spected, so as to allow for possible off-flavors to develop.

5. Allfinished concentrate -- whether held 45 days or not --
must pass USDA Grade "A" requirements as to flavor and must
also pass a new and higher gelation test.

6. The USDA Inspection Service in Florida has served no-
tice that it will "rigidly enforce" the standards. The Commission
has gone on record supporting the Inspection Service 100%.

7. Concentrators have collectively and individually pledged
their support to the Commission's quality program.

The Florida Citrus Commission has acted in your interest
to protect the good name of Florida orange concentrate among the
consumers. You can be assured that the concentrate you get from
Florida will meet all the exacting standards placed upon it by the
Commission, the USDA, and the concentrators themselves.

Very truly yours,

Homer E. Hooks
General Manager

- 19 -

Regulations Governing the Use of Freeze Damaged Oranges
for the Production of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice
During the 1957-58 Season

On November 20, 1957 (prior to the first freeze) the Com-
mission, upon recommendation of the Concentrators' Advisory
Committee, adopted Regulation No. 32, relating to the use of
freeze damaged oranges for the production of frozen concentrated
orange juice. This regulation, which became effective on Novem-
ber 25, 1957, provided that whenever freezing temperatures of
sufficient degree to cause serious damage to citrus fruit occur in
any section of the citrus area, the Commission must determine
whether serious damage has resulted to oranges. It further pro-
vided that if the finding is affirmative, the Commission may at any
time within 72 hours after such freeze order either or both of the

(1)A complete embargo or prohibition against the sale or
movement of oranges into channels of human consump-
tion (which included processing into frozen concentrate)
for a period not to exceed 7 days. (No complete em-
bargos were invoked and this section of the regulation
was later repealed by the Commission).

(2)Prohibit the use of "damaged" oranges for frozen con-

The regulation also provided that at all times, without an
order by the Commission, it was unlawful to sell, transport, re-
ceive or deliver (except for processing into products other than fro-
zen orange concentrate) any oranges "seriously damaged" by freez-
ing. A tolerance of 15 percent was provided.

Freeze damage was determined by cutting and examining the
fruit. The fruit was considered "damaged" if there was marked dry-
ing extending into the segments of the fruit more than 1/4 inch at
the stem end or more than the equivalent of this amount by volume
when occurring in other portions of the fruit, or if before the drying
process developed, there was a water soaked appearance, broken
down juice cells, mushy condition, or open spaces in the pulp. It
was considered "seriously damaged" if the dryness extended more
than 1/2 inch into the fruit, or the other conditions enumerated above
were present.

The foregoing definitions of "damaged" and "seriously dam-
aged" should be kept in mind in reviewing regulations adopted after
the freeze.

- 20 -

The first freezing temperatures occurred on the night of
December 12, 1957. The provision of Regulation 32 which pro-
hibited the use of "seriously damaged" oranges for orange con-
centrate (with a tolerance of 15%) automatically became operative
when the freeze occurred.

Subsequent to December 12, Regulation 32 was amended
several times and other regulations relating to the production of
frozen orange concentrate were adopted and amended from time
to time as conditions warranted. There follows below a summary
of all regulations which were applicable after the first freeze.

12/12/57 thru

12/17/57 thru

12/31/57 thru

1/3/58 thru

Seriously damaged oranges could not be used. A
tolerance of 15% was allowed. This limitation
automatically became effective under Regulation
32 which was adopted prior to the freeze (Regula-
tion No. 32 adopted November 20, 1957, became
effective November 25, 1957.

Damaged oranges could not be used. Tolerance of
5% was allowed. (Regulation No. 33 adopted De-
cember 14, 1957). Regulation 33 had the effect of
tightening the restrictions on the use of freeze
damaged oranges. It made inoperative the pro-
vision of Regulation 32 which prohibited the use of
"seriously damaged" oranges, but permitted a
tolerance of 15 percent. Thus, prior to adoption of
Regulation No. 33 up to 15%, seriously damaged
oranges could be used, but with the adoption of
Regulation 33 no seriously damaged oranges could
be used and the use of damagede" oranges was
limited to 5 percent by the tolerance allowed.

Seriously damaged oranges could not be used. A
tolerance of 15% was allowed. (This was accomp-
lished by the repeal of Regulation No. 33 on Decem-
ber 30, 1957, effective December 31, 1957. By re-
peal of No. 33, Regulation No. 32 again automati-
cally became effective and prohibited the use of
"seriously damaged" oranges, with a tolerance of 15

Seriously damaged oranges could not be used, but the
tolerance was increased to 25%. (Amendment No. 2
to Regulation No. 32, adopted December 30, 1957, to
be effective January 3, 1958).

- 21 -

Concentrate produced from oranges whose use
was permitted (oranges which did not show more
than 25 percent "serious damage"), and/or bulk
concentrate, (concentrate for manufacturing)
could not show in excess of No. 2 gelation, as
defined by Amendment No. 1 to Regulation No. 19,
adopted December 30, 1957, to become effective
January 3, 1958. The degree of gelation was con-
sidered to be an indication of trouble which was
likely to develop in concentrate produced from
freeze damaged oranges and this gel test which
was described in detail in the regulation was
adopted as additional safeguard to quality.

Bulk concentrate (concentrate for manufacturing)
produced from oranges showing damage in excess
of the tolerance allowed could be used for produc-
tion of frozen concentrated orange juice (in con-
sumer size cans) upon the condition (1) such bulk
concentrate was held 45 days before use, (2) when
used, it met flavor requirements of Grade A con-
centrate for manufacturing as provided by USDA
grade standards, and (3) not more than 20%, on a
solids basis, of the frozen concentrated orange
juice would consist of such bulk concentrate UN-
LESS it met gel test of #2 or less in which event
up to 30% of the frozen concentrated orange juice
could consist of such bulk concentrate. (Amend-
ment No. 1 to Regulation No. 19, adopted Decem-
ber 30, 1957, to become effective January 3,
1958). Effective January 7, this 30% limitation
was increased to 50%. (Amendment No. 2 to Regu-
lation No. 19, adopted January 3, 1958, to become
effective January 7, 1958).

It should be explained at this point that none of the
regulations prohibited processors from utilizing
oranges which showed damage or serious damage
in excess of the tolerance permitted, for the pack-
ing in bulk of frozen concentrate for manufacturing
purposes. The regulations were applicable only to
frozen concentrated orange juice packed in consumer
or institutional size cans to be sold for consumption
as frozen concentrated orange juice. Therefore,
when concentrators received oranges which showed
freeze damage in excess of the tolerance permitted,
they used them for packing bulk concentrate. This
product could be used for beverage bases, etc.,

- 22 -

without restriction. However, after continuous
testing of this bulk concentrate by the research
people, it was decided that if the product, at the
end of a 45 day holding period, met the gel test
and flavor requirements for Grade A concentrate,
it would be safe to permit the use of a limited
amount of it in the production of frozen concen-
trated orange juice in consumer or institutional
size cans.

1/21/58 thru The regulations which were effective in the period
2/28/58 January 3 through January 20 were effective during
this period with the following exceptions or addi-

1. Oranges showing serious damage in excess of
the 25% tolerance allowed, could be packed
directly in 6 oz. cans, or oranges with such ex-
cess damage could be blended with bulk concen-
trate produced from such oranges (not to exceed
50% of such concentrate) all upon the condition
that the 6 oz. cans of concentrate would not be
offered for inspection sooner than 45 days after
packed. The processor was required to furnish
the inspector in charge at the plant with certain
information regarding boxes run, bins run, per-
cent of seriously damaged fruit in each bin, codes,
and other information needed by the inspector to
keep up with the operations at the plant. (Amend-
ment No. 3 to Regulation 32, adopted January 17,
1958 to become effective on January 21, 1958).

2. ALL frozen concentrated orange juice, when in-
spected, had to meet the requirements of Grade A
(according to USDA standards and Florida Citrus
Code) or be labeled "Substandard" (prior to this
time Grade B could be packed, but there is no
record of any such pack). Frozen concentrated
orange juice could be produced from bulk concen-
trate made from oranges showing more than 25%
serious damage upon the following conditions:

(a) The bulk concentrate must be held at least
45 days before use and must meet Grade A
for manufacturing at time of use.

(b) Not more than 20%, on a solids basis, of the
frozen concentrated orange juice produced

- 23 -

could consist of such bulk concentrate unless
it met No. 2 gel test in which event up to 50%
of the frozen concentrated orange juice could
consist of such bulk concentrate.

The frozen concentrated orange juice produced
under (a) and (b) above could be offered for im-
mediate inspection and be sold holding period
of 45 days was not required as the bulk concen-
trate had been held 45 days before being used.
If the processor elected to do so, he could use
the bulk concentrate made from oranges with
more than 25% serious damage for packing fro-
zen concentrated orange juice in 6 oz. cans with-
out the 45 day waiting period provided in (a) above
and without the limitations provided in (b) above,
upon the condition:

1. Not more than 50%, on a solids basis, of
such bulk concentrate could be used in the
production of the frozen concentrated orange

2. The finished product (6 oz. cans) had to be
held 45 days before it was offered for inspec-
tion and upon inspection it had to meet Grade
A and the No. 2 gel test.

3. A processor could not offer concentrate for re-
inspection (in event it failed to meet Grade A) at
intervals of less than 30 days. (Amendment No.
3 to Regulation No. 32, adopted January 17, 1958
to become effective January 21, 1958. Amend-
ment No. 3 to Regulation No. 19, adopted Janu-
ary 17, 1958, to become effective January 21,

3/1/58 thru All of the regulations which were applicable during
4/25/58 the period January 21 to February 28, inclusive,
were applicable during this period. However, the
method of determining freeze damage, as hereto-
fore explained in summarizing the provisions of
Regulation No. 32, was changed, effective March 1,
1958, to July 31, 1958. Up to March 1, oranges
were considered "damaged" if there was marked
drying extending into the segments of the fruit more

24 -

than 1/4 inch at the stem end or more than the
equivalent of this amount by volume when occur-
ring in other portions of the fruit, or if before
the drying process developed, there was a water
soaked appearance, broken down juice cells,
mushy condition, or open spaces in the pulp. It
was considered "seriously damaged" if the dry-
ness extended more than 1/2 inch into the fruit,
or the other conditions enumerated above were

The method of determining damage or serious
damage was by cutting the fruit. This method of
determining freeze damage had been used on fruit
to be shipped in fresh form with satisfactory re-
sults for many years, but for a number of reasons
it was not considered very satisfactory for fruit to
be utilized by processors. Therefore, effective
March 1, the regulation was changed to provide
that if oranges contained 40# or more juice per box
of 90 lbs. of fruit, they would not be considered
as seriously damaged and would not be subject to
the freeze damage restrictions applicable to fro-
zen concentrated orange juice produced from
oranges showing freeze damage in excess of the
25% tolerance allowed. Oranges which contained
less than 40# of juice per box were considered
seriously damaged and subject to all of the re-
strictions which were previously applicable to
fruit of this classification. (Amendment No. 4 to
Regulation No. 19, adopted February 19, 1958,
and effective March 1, 1958.)

4/26/58 to Same regulations applicable except that, effective
July 31, 1958 April 26 to July 31, the figure of 40# of juice per
box which had been the breaking point for seriously
damaged fruit, was changed to 35# per box. (Amend-
ment No. 5 to Regulation 19, adopted April 22, 1958,
to become effective April 26, 1958).

Under all of the foregoing regulations, frozen concentrated
orange juice which did not comply with regulations had to be labeled
SUBSTANDARD in bold type not less than 1/4" high printed diagonally
across can.

- 25 -

FREEZES MORNINGS OF DECEMBER 12-13, 1957, January 9,
Feburary 4 and 5 and February 14, 1958, for low ground locations.
Temperatures in pockets were generally slightly lower. Maps
courtesy of Federal-State Frost Warning Service, Lakeland, Florida




The consumer advertising program for the fiscal year
1957-58, presented on June 20 by Benton & Bowles and approved
by the Commission and its staff, was to have been the most com-
prehensive in the history of the Florida Citrus Commission's ad-
vertising. It entailed a proposed expenditure of $4, 000, 000 with
a reserve of $400, 000 to be spent at the discretion of Commission
members. It called for substantial advertising coverage in tele-
vision, national magazines and newspapers for the ten most im-
portant citrus products: Fresh Oranges, Frozen Orange Concen-
trate, Canned Orange Juice and Chilled Orange Juice, Fresh
Grapefruit, Canned Grapefruit Juice, Frozen Grapefruit Concen-
trate, Grapefruit Sections, Tangerines and Temple Oranges.

On December 20th, over a third of this advertising was can-
celled to insure that expenditures for the year would not exceed the
decreased revenues resulting from the freeze. However, a strong
continuous advertising program was salvaged with expenditures for
the year totaling approximately $2, 700, 000.

Primary Marketing Objective:

The fundamental marketing objective for 1957-58 continued
as in the past to be the development and the expansion of the usage
of Florida citrus in its various forms and varieties, a task that was
vitally necessary in the face of an anticipated orange crop of over
100 million boxes. The orderly marketing of such a crop, that could
provide adequate grower and processor profits, presented a serious
challenge to the industry.

Basic Advertising Principles:

All citrus advertising was designed to create maximum con-
sumer usage. The common denominator for all citrus advertising,
the daily need for Vitamin C and other citrus health benefits, were
made an important part of each advertisement. Also, in each adver-
tisement the individual and specific consumer advantages of each
product were emphasized.

Orange Copy Platform:

With breakfast usage of orange juice at a high level, the in-
creased consumption necessary to utilize a 102 million box crop was
felt must also come from increased usage at other times of the day.
From the premise that busy, active people deplete their Vitamin C
and energy faster, a campaign was evolved wherein prominent athletes

- 29 -

told of their need for a second glass of orange juice to replace the
Vitamin C and quick energy that they used up in their activities. The
same need on the part of the average consumer was established by
setting examples of normal daily activity which uses up extra Vita-
min C and energy.

The phrase "Body Wisdom" identified the intuitive desire
for orange juice to replace the Vitamin C used up in periods of
physical or mental stress.

Additionally, provision was made to focus considerable of
the advertising during the Asiatic Flu epidemic on the benefits of
citrus juices as a flu preventative. All told, about $500, 000 was
used for orange and grapefruit "flu" copy.

Grapefruit Copy Platform:

The desire on the part of every one to "Look Better and Feel
Better" was exploited in all grapefruit advertising. Under the "Try
the 30-Day Grapefruit Plan," the Vitamin C and health-giving quali-
ties of grapefruit and grapefruit juice were extolled.

During the flu season, the majority of the copy on both fresh
and canned juice pointed up the desirability of these products in help-
ing to fight flu and colds.

Grapefruit sections advertising appeared in home service
magazines and the layouts, while still carrying the "Look Better-
Feel Better" theme, were in food editorial and recipe form.


The principal dictates this past year of media selection were:

1. The desire for continuity of impression.

2. The need for flexibility to meet seasonal and geographic

3. Adaptability to allot each of the various products and forms
the amount of advertising to which it was entitled.

4. Its ability to contribute to increased promotional and ad-
vertising activities at the retail level.

- 30 -


Low cost daytime network television in conjunction with a high
rated television show constituted the largest part of the 1957-58 ad-
vertising campaign. With its more than six minutes of commercial
time per week, its use provided the frequency and continuous coverage
called for in the media platform.

The two daytime shows: "The Garry Moore Show" and "Edge
of Night" reach 38% of the television homes on an average of 4. 2
times during a four-week period and at a considerably lower cost per
thousand homes reached than that of the average television show,
either daytime or nighttime.

On December 29th the Citrus Commission, after lengthy ne-
gotiations, began sponsoring on an every other week basis the im-
portant nighttime quiz show, "What's My Line?" After the freeze,
however, it was necessary to curtail the number of participation.
However, the 12-minute commercial time that was used by the Com-
mission from December 29th to March 16th represented what has been
described as one of the most outstanding Florida citrus advertising

Fresh Grapefruit on "Today" Show:

In addition to its share of the other television programs, fresh
grapefruit was scheduled for a total of 51 minutes on the NBC show,
"Today," starring Dave Garroway during the peak shipping period.


National magazines had been planned as an important part of
both the orange and grapefruit campaigns because of their known
ability through the use of color and appetite appeal to educate the pub-
lic to the nutritional value of food products.

The orange campaign featuring the athletes and the need of ac-
tive, busy people for extra quantities of orange juice started in No-
vember and ran part way through February when it was terminated as
a result of the freeze. The same is true of the grapefruit magazine

For the first time, fresh fruit was advertised in a national
magazine, through an arrangement with Reader's Digest whereby a
"split-run," distributed in the eastern part of the country, carried a
fresh orange advertisement, with the western distribution being fro-
zen orange juice.

- 31 -

Tangerines and Temple Oranges Featured in
Sunday Color Newspapers:

To meet the specific distribution pattern of tangerines and
Temples, Sunday newspaper (color supplements) were utilized as in
previous years.

Daily Newspapers:

For fresh oranges, 123 daily newspapers were scheduled in
95 markets and were carefully selected on the basis of unloads and
merchandising opportunities for the field force.

For fresh grapefruit, 136 newspapers covering 107 markets
were scheduled.

In addition to the fresh fruit newspaper schedules, 170 news-
papers covering 141 markets were used during the promotion period
for frozen orange concentrate.


Daytime Television:

"Arthur Godfrey Time" Originally started in the latter part of
the previous fiscal year as a special promotional effort for frozen
orange concentrate, this advertising continued into 1957-58. A total
of 7 TV/Radio simulcasts (21 commercial minutes) were run on con-
secutive Thursdays from July 4th through August 15th. One hundred
and six markets across the country received these programs.

"Edge of Night" Participation in this top-rated daytime serial
dramatic show began on August 23, 1957, and ran through May 16, 1958.
Major days with 2 minutes of commercial time were scheduled on alter-
nate Tuesdays and Fridays, with minor days (one minute of commercial)
scheduled primarily on Wednesdays. A total of 117 minutes, therefore,
were devoted to the "deep sell" of Florida citrus products on this pro-

"The Garry Moore Show" Commercials on this program were
primarily "live" given by Mr. Moore or members of his cast with be-
lievability and sincerity. They were scheduled in the same manner as
"Edge of Night" and when combined with that show, amounted to
22, 505, 000 weekly commercial contacts in behalf of Florida citrus. All
products were rotated on both of these shows in accordance with the
promotional program established by the "Citrus Sales Planner. "

- 32 -

"Today" Show As originally scheduled, a total of 51 min-
utes of commercial time were to be devoted to fresh grapefruit on
this powerful morning show. As a result of the curtailment in ac-
tivities, only 19 minutes were used -- 13 in December and 6 in
January. They were, however, extremely effective and believable,
given as they were by Dave Garroway who presented fresh grape-
fruit in a particularly appetizing and appealing manner. Four of
these commercials were devoted to the grapefruit spoon offer with
exceptionally good results.

"What's My Line?" The following was the schedule of pro-
duct participation on this show:

12/29 3 minutes -

- 2 minutes -

- 1 minute

- 2 minutes -

- 1 minute

- 2 minutes -

1 minute

Frozen Orange Juice

Fresh Grapefruit

Frozen Orange Juice

Frozen Orange Juice

Fresh Grapefruit (East)
Canned Grapefruit Juice (West)

Frozen Orange Juice

Fresh Oranges (East)
Canned Orange Juice (West)

These 12 minutes of commercial time reached over 178 million
viewers at an average cost of only 1.94 per thousand.

Daily Newspapers:

The proposed schedule for fresh fruit was naturally decimated
by the cancellations resulting from the freeze. Whereas 13 advertise-
ments were planned for fresh fruit and frozen orange juice, it was
possible to run only four, a fresh grapefruit ad in 107 markets, a
fresh orange ad in 95 markets, a tangerine ad in 58 markets and a fro-
zen orange juice ad in 141 markets.

- 33 -








The final schedule for magazines was as follows:

American Home
Better Homes & Gardens
Farm Journal
Farm Journal
Farm Journal
Ladies' Home Journal
Ladies' Home Journal


Reader's Digest

- October
- October
- October
- December
- February
- November
- January
- October
- January

- September 1
- November 18
- December

- January
- December

- Grapefruit Sections
- Grapefruit Sections
- Canned Orange Juice
- Canned Orange Juice
- Canned Orange Juice
- Canned Orange Juice
-Canned Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
FrozenOrange Juice)Split Run
Split Run
Fresh Oranges )
6- Frozen Orange Juice
- Frozen Orange Juice
- Fresh Oranges )Split Run
Frozen Orange Juice)
- Frozen Orange Juice
- Fresh Oranges )Split Run
FrozenOrange Juice)

Sunday Newspapers (Color Supplements):

This medium was used exclusively for tangerines and Temple
oranges. Following the shipping pattern, 2 ads for tangerines were run,
one in early December and one in mid-January, in American Weekly
(Eastern Edition), The First 3 Markets Groups, and the Atlanta Journal

On January 26th a full color ad featuring Temple oranges was run
in the First 3 Markets Group.

Outdoor Billboards for Gift Fruit Shippers:

As in the past, billboards in the 25 major tourist areas of the
state reminded visitors to send gift packages of citrus to friends back
home. This campaign was conducted during January, February and

Trade Paper Advertising:

As an added contribution to our aim of coordinating retail ac-
tivity with consumer advertising, our trade paper advertising called
the attention of the retailer to a sales event planned for the succeeding
month. Chain Store Age, Progressive Grocer, The Packer, The Pro-
duce News and Frozen Food Age were used to carry these messages.

- 34 -

Canadian Advertising:

Our program in Canada was conducted on the same basis as
our United States program with all of the same goals and strategy.
The only exception was in the broadcast field where radio spots were
used in lieu of television spots. Canadian television has not advanced
as yet to the stage where it adequately covers all of the markets neces-
sary for citrus. Radio, on the other hand, does reach the full list.


The Agency group assigned to the Citrus Commission account
includes a separate organization -- both creative-wise and contact-
wise -- for fresh and processed citrus products. The full group re-
ports directly to a top-level management supervisor. In this instance,
it is an officer-director, the Chairman of the Executive Committee.
An Agency Vice President is in charge of the Branch Office in the Com-
mission Building in Lakeland, coordinating the Agency's activities with
those of the Commission and the Benton & Bowles New York organiza-

- 35 -




Major emphasis during the past year in promoting health bene-
fits of citrus to the medical, dental and nursing professions has been
on advertising in professional journals of prestige and wide reader-
ship. Direct mail contact consisted of one mailing to a select list.
Many highly specialized projects have been executed in the area of
health-oriented public relations reaching both professional and lay
audiences. No new clinical research projects have been inaugurated
of the type designed to expand and substantiate valid health uses of
citrus, although one such project had been developed and was awaiting
approval at the time of the frost damage to the crop.


Journal Advertising

Professional journals that carried important health messages
on citrus to the most influential members of the health professions
numbered sixteen. They were of the following types:

National general medical 3
General practitioner 3
Pediatric 2
Obstetric 1
Nutrition 1
Public Health 1
Dental 3
Nursing 2

Total circulation of these journals was 1, 159,000; 101 inser-
tions, all of which were full pages in two colors, were used during the
year; total advertising impressions numbered 7,610,000.

Seven different messages were used to highlight specific roles
of citrus fruits in the total health picture. These were:

Benefits of citrus in acne

Need for citrus to protect oral health (teeth and gums)

Stepped-up citrus intake useful in preventing miscarriage

Comparison proves there's no juice like citrus juice

High vitamin C content of frozen orange juice

- 39

How citrus supplies the vitamin C needed during growth

Citrus several times a day in the peptic ulcer diet

Direct Mail Advertising

Approximately 25, 000 selected physicians received a reprint
of the published study by Doctors Irvin H. Strub and Frank C. ValDez
(Chicago) on their experiences in feeding orange juice "several times
daily" to a group of peptic ulcer patients. Accompanying the reprint
was a short memorandum calling special attention to significant high-
lights of the study.


As in past years, friendly relations were maintained on behalf
of the Commission with such official and influential professional groups
as the American Medical Association and the American Dental Asso-
ciation. In addition, numerous special projects of both immediate
and longer range significance were planned and executed, such as:

Personal letters to all the leading syndicated medical
columnists (M. D. 's who write signed health columns
for newspapers) discussing the significance to the gen-
eral public of the findings made by Doctors Strub and
ValDez in their study of the influence of orange juice
on the healing of peptic ulcers. A reprint of their paper
published in the Journal of the American Medical Asso-
ciation was enclosed for the files of each columnist.

News release to wire services and leading newspapers
on another timely report from different investigators
pointing out the benefits of increased vitamin C intake
in the treatment of peptic ulcer patients.

Two releases to woman's page editors of leading newspapers -

One a discussion of the obesity problems and the practi-
cal aspects of controlling the appetite, featuring the
use of the citrus snack as a proved method of satisfying
the appetite between meals without adding significant

The other a feature article with accompanying personal
letter dramatizing the benefits of higher citrus intake
to meet the increased needs for vitamin C in teen-agers.

- 40 -

Development of a "Child Care" column by Dorothy Noyes
(released by Columbia Features to numerous leading
newspapers) pointing out the dangerous increase in infan-
tile scurvy and highlighting the need for mothers to make
certain, from the early weeks of life on, that their babies
are getting ample amounts of orange juice every day.

Two specially prepared scripts developed and sent to over
500 women commentators on "homemaker" radio and TV
programs -

One on the subject of "How to Meet Junior's Eating
Problems," calling special attention to the need for
citrus every day.

The other citing the precautions that should be taken
during the then current Asian Flu epidemic, includ-
ing recommendation of increased citrus intake.

Much additional work was done to secure prominent mention
of the health values of citrus in special radio programs on nutrition
and in magazine articles on various special health subjects. Special
work was done also in arranging for a prominent physician-dentist
to address the May meeting of the Florida State Dental Society, stress-
ing the importance of adequate citrus intake to maintain oral health.

Contact is maintained on a continuing basis with innumerable
nutritional authorities to keep them supplied with latest information on
citrus and to keep them alerted to the increasing number of reports on
vitamin C deficiencies in various population groups. Similarly num-
erous leading medical educators are contacted frequently in a cam-
paign to gain greater prominence for the health values of citrus in the
training programs for new physicians, dentists and nurses. Special
library research projects are also conducted continuously to provide
significant up-to-date information that will sustain the interest of
these high-level health authorities in the vitamin C deficiency problem
and the corresponding need for wider professional recommendation of
citrus in the daily diets of all age groups.


Although no new clinical research projects were started in the
past year, we secured publication in the November 1957 issue of the
New York State Dental Journal of the study by Doctor Thomas of the
University of Alabama on dental aspects of citrus intake.

- 41

Also, extensive recommendations were made embracing
many important health areas where research proof of citrus bene-
fits could stimulate wider medical recommendation of citrus. Just
before the freeze damage to the citrus crop, plans were nearing
completion for a research project to provide considerable statisti-
cal evidence of the value of citrus in the Asian Flu problem. How-
ever, this proposed undertaking was cancelled when the extent of
the crop damage made it apparent that special research funds for
this purpose could not be made available.

- 42 -

V -



The Merchandising Department of the Florida Citrus Com-
mission has been operated for the past 22 years in order to create
a better relationship between the Florida citrus industry and the
many retail organizations operating throughout the United States and
Canada and to work with these different retail organizations promot-
ing citrus products in fresh, single strength canned, and frozen con-
centrate forms. Inasmuch as the Florida Citrus Commission is sup-
ported by, and represents the entire industry, the policy over the
years has been to promote the over-all use of the end product rather
than to promote the use of a specific brand, or brands. This mer-
chandising program has been well accepted by the different trade fac-
tors throughout the country and has been expanded from year to year
as the needs for this work became more apparent. At the beginning
of the 1956-57 season, authorization was granted by the Florida Cit-
rus Commission for the employment of 65 field men to be located in
the important marketing areas throughout the United States and
Canada. Like all other segments of the industry, the program for the
1957-58 season was greatly affected by the severe freeze of December
13 and 14, 1957, and by the subsequent freezes through January and
February of 1958. Due to reductions in our merchandising budget
caused by the freeze, it was necessary to reduce our field staff from
65 men, as of December 15, 1957, to 55 men, effective January 15,
1958. Other segments of our merchandising program were reduced
in proportion.

In order to maintain a well supervised organization, the country
has been divided into four divisions. A Division Manager is in charge
of each division, and a Regional Manager is in charge of the operation
of our program in each of the principal markets. Merchandising Repre-
sentatives work under the supervision of the Regional Manager. Since
our staff reduction in January, we have 16 men working in the Eastern
Division, which consists of the Atlantic Coast area and Eastern Canada.
Seventeen men are employed in the Central Division, which covers the
Central part of the United States and Central Canada. In the Western
Division we have 9 men covering the mid-Western section of the United
States and Canada, and in the Southern Division and the West Coast Di-
vision, 12 men are employed. The men in the Southern and West Coast
Divisions are under the direct supervision of the Lakeland office.

The concentration of our manpower is in the area East of the
Mississippi River, since a large portion of all Florida citrus products
are distributed in this area. The manpower of our merchandising staff
is located in such a manner that good coverage is given to all the prin-
cipal markets throughout the United States and Canada handling Florida
citrus products.

- 45 -

About 30% of the men employed on the merchandising staff of
the Florida Citrus Commission during this fiscal year are from
Florida. Other men are hired in the respective markets in which
they are working. When employed by the Florida Citrus Commission,
each man is given a well planned training course in order that he may
have a good background of citrus production and citrus marketing.
Divisional meetings are held from time to time throughout the year in
order that our field representatives may be well posted at all times
regarding advertising and merchandising planning and that they may
be kept abreast of the activities in connection with the Florida citrus
industry in Florida. It is felt that well trained men are better pre-
pared to carry our citrus story to the retail trade factors with whom
they are working.

The duties of our merchandising men cover a wide scope of
operations. They keep the different retail organizations throughout
the country informed regarding our advertising schedules. They at-
tempt to have these organizations tie their own advertising and mer-
chandising program in with our campaign and to feature different cit-
rus products when being advertised by the Florida Citrus Commission
in their respective markets. They contact the Auction groups in the
terminal markets, fresh fruit wholesalers, brokers, receivers, fro-
zen food distributors, hotel and restaurant organizations, and drug
and fountain groups to keep them informed regarding our advertising
and merchandising schedules and to arrange promotions with these dif-
ferent retail organizations throughout the country. They also supply
point-of-sale display material and build many attractive displays in
the retail stores in order that Mrs. Housewife will be attracted to our
product when she enters the retail store to do her weekly shopping. Al-
though our merchandising men try to cover all segments of the trade,
the largest portion of their time is spent with the retail food outlets.

During the 1957-58 season our staff made many contacts out-
lining to the different trade factors the effects of the freeze in Florida,
keeping them posted regarding supplies and assuring these different
factors that the Florida citrus industry was taking every precaution
possible and doing everything within its limitations to assure them that
a good, high-grade product would be delivered to them by the Florida
citrus industry even though our crop was severely damaged by the
freeze. This information was well accepted by the different trade fac-
tors, and many fine comments have been received regarding the re-
liable information which was brought to them by our representatives.

During the course of the 1957-58 season, although our staff was
reduced by 10 men, they made a total of 120,931 calls, and traveled
a distance of 1,207,862 miles in making these contacts. We feel that
much credit should be given to this merchandising staff for the long

- 46 -

hours they worked in order to cover their territory and keep their
trade informed regarding citrus activities during the crucial months
of December, January and February.

In the course of their operation during this fiscal year, 590
demonstrations were conducted in the retail stores. During these
demonstrations, different citrus products were sampled to the cus-
tomers. This has proven to be a most effective way of increasing
sales. In addition to live demonstrations, 1,930 "give-away" pro-
motions were conducted in which customers received rewards at the
conclusion of the promotional period. This type of activity has been
well accepted in that the promotion can be extended to many more
stores than is possible through live demonstrations. Again, our
demonstration program was curtailed to a considerable extent due to
the reduction in our budget for this type of promotion after the freezes.

The Florida Citrus Commission has made available for dis-
tribution through its merchandising men a complete line of colorful
point-of-sale display material. Our budget in this department was re-
duced, and activities were curtailed to a certain extent; however, dur-
ing the 1957-58 season, 6,226,520 pieces of point-of-sale display ma-
terial were distributed to the retail organizations throughout the United
States and Canada. This material is very colorful, and it is designed
to attract the customer's attention to Florida citrus products in the re-
tail stores and to create in her mind a desire to buy this product.

A service has been made available in our Lakeland warehouse
whereby point-of-sale display material can be packaged in tailor-made
kits. These kits are tailored to meet the individual requirements of the
retail organizations and are distributed to the retail stores through the
organization headquarters. A total of 348,977 kits were prepared and
distributed during the past season. Some 5, 176 orders for point-of-
sale material have been received and filled during the year.

In arranging a program for our over-all year's activities, many
special events are planned and cataloged. Several of these events were
cancelled due to the lack of supplies. Others were carried through to
a successful completion. These special events are as follows:

Planned Promotions

At the beginning of our fiscal year, six planned promotions were
arranged, and a promotional calendar outlining each of these events was
distributed to all retail organizations throughout the country. One of
these events was cancelled after the December freeze, but the others
were carried through to successful completion. Advertising schedules
were arranged to support these promotions, and participation by the

- 47 -

retail organizations was solicited well in advance by our merchan-
dising staff. This type of promotional activity has proven to be
most successful and has been well accepted by the retail organiza-
tions throughout the country.

National Citrus Merchandising Promotions

Three major promotions were planned by the National Citrus
Merchandising Committee. This committee is made up of repre-
sentatives from the citrus industries of Florida, California, and
Texas. Due to the damage suffered by the Florida citrus industry
after the December freeze and the short supply of citrus products in
California, none of these promotions were carried through as planned.
It was the consensus of opinion of all citrus producing areas that these
events were not needed this year.

Tangerine Promotions

A hard-hitting tangerine promotion was planned in cooperation
with the Florida Tangerine Cooperative. Special point-of-sale dis-
play material was produced by the Florida Tangerine Cooperative to
be used in conjunction with the Florida Citrus Commission material.
This program got off to a good start early in December, and many
events were planned and were in operation with the different retail or-
ganizations throughout the United States and Canada. After the Decem-
ber freeze, at which time tangerines were very severely damaged, the
entire promotional program was cancelled. During the months of Janu-
ary and February, shipments of tangerines were heavier than had been
expected, and many requests were received for tangerine point-of-sale
display material, and our merchandising men were able to work suc-
cessfully with many organizations where supplies were available.

Trade Luncheons

During October and November of the 1957-58 season the Florida
Citrus Commission entertained more than 1, 500 leading trade factors
during a series of 19 trade luncheons, which were held in the following

Atlanta, Georgia
Baltimore, Maryland
Boston, Massachusetts
Buffalo, New York
Chicago, Illinois
Cincinnati, Ohio
Cleveland, Ohio

- 48 -

Detroit, Michigan
Kansas City, Missouri
Minneapolis, Minnesota
Montreal, Canada
New Orleans, Louisiana
New York, New York
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Quebec City, Canada
St. Louis, Missouri
Toronto, Canada
Washington, D. C.

At each one of these luncheons a complete outline of the ad-
vertising and merchandising support as applied to that particular
market was presented. This program has been conducted by the
Florida Citrus Commission for the past 8 years and has been most
successful in helping to create a closer relationship between the dif-
ferent trade factors in the Northern markets and the Florida citrus

International Apple Association Convention

The Florida Citrus Commission, in cooperation with Florida
Citrus Mutual, held a "Florida Day" luncheon at the International
Apple Association Convention, which was held in Cincinnati, Ohio.
This meeting was attended by some 950 fruit and produce dealers
throughout the United States and Canada. It is felt that through this
type of meeting the growers, shippers, and processors in Florida
have a fine opportunity to express their appreciation to the trade fac-
tors in the Northern markets for their support.


The Florida Citrus Commission carries its message to many
different organizations by participation in large national conventions
throughout the United States and Canada and many small conventions
which are held in the State of Florida. During the past year the Com-
mission has participated in 68 different events. Exhibit space was
purchased in 12 national conventions in the following fields:

Food 9
Dietetic 1
Hotel and
Restaurant 1
School 1

- 49 -

The Commission also participated in hospitality activities
of the National Governors' Conference, which was held at Miami

Florida Products Festival

The Merchandising Department of the Florida Citrus Com-
mission again worked cooperatively with the Florida Development
Commission on its annual "Festival of Florida Products." It is a
well-planned program to promote Florida citrus products, along
with all other products produced within the State of Florida. The
Florida Citrus Commission supplied and mailed point-of-sale dis-
play material for use in retail stores to tie in with the "Florida Pro-
ducts Festival." Excellent cooperation was received from the re-
tail organizations operating within the State of Florida; and, through
this type of promotion, larger quantities of Florida products were

European Program

An intensive advertising and merchandising program has been
conducted in the European markets. To carry on this campaign, a
representative is stationed in Frankfurt and another in Stockholm.
Their program is conducted similar to the program established in the
States; however, in that they cover such a large territory, they cannot
make as many retail calls as are made by the merchandising staff in
this country. During the past year, they have conducted approximately
350 in-store demonstrations where our product was sampled to the
customers. They have participated in 6 of the major food fairs in
European countries and have sampled our canned and frozen products
to many thousands of potential customers. Fresh grapefruit was pro-
moted with a "give-away" deal on plastic grapefruit knives. This type
of promotion was most successful.

Although our own budget was reduced, we were able to obtain
an additional $25 000 through the U. S. D. A. PL-480 Funds Program.
A total of 22, 300 pieces of in-store display material were shipped to
Europe from Lakeland. In addition to this material, several hundred
thousand pieces were produced in the foreign countries in which they
were used. Requests were received for 377 pieces of educational ma-
terial through the Lakeland office. Prints of our industry film, "The
Sun Goes North," were produced with a German script sound track.
Through the use of these films, the Florida citrus story has been
brought to many thousands of people in the foreign markets. It is felt
that the potential for Florida citrus in the foreign markets is very
great, and the advertising and merchandising program as conducted
will be most helpful in developing this market.

- 50 -

School Material

The Florida Citrus Commission produces a very colorful
line of educational material for use in grammar schools, high
schools,, and colleges for the promotion of Florida citrus products
from a health standpoint. A total of 5, 724 requests have been re-
ceived from teachers throughout the country for this particular type
of material. An aggregate of 447, 875 pieces of display material
were used to fill these orders. It is felt that this is a very impor-
tant phase of our operation in that it points out to the youth in our
schools the necessity of citrus products in their daily diet. Material
distributed has been well received by the different schools throughout
the country, and many fine comments have been heard from teachers
using this material.

In-Store Temperature Tests

The Florida citrus industry has been very much concerned re-
garding the handling of Florida frozen concentrates after they leave
the in-state warehouses. In order to obtain a cross-section of the
handling practices in the retail stores, our men have been asked to
make a series of store checks and temperature tests. They have also
been asked to pick up samples of concentrate in their respective mar-
kets and ship them to Florida to be tested for quality by the U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture. During the current season, they have car-
ried on this store temperature testing program and have collected
samples of concentrate from a cross-section of retail stores through-
out the United States and Canada. This program has been most help-
ful in bringing to the attention of the handlers throughout the country
the importance of proper care and storage of frozen concentrates.
Excellent cooperation and support has been received from practically
all trade factors in connection with this program.

In order to keep an accurate check on the work being done by
each field representative, they are supplied with a daily tabulation
card on which they report each individual call. These cards are re-
ceived in the Florida office, are processed by date, region, type of
call, display material left or ordered, and the type of work done in
the individual store. At the end of each month, a record of the calls
for each man is tabulated, this record being broken down by the type
of calls which he has made.

At the end of each week's work, a report is submitted cover-
ing the activities for that particular week, the movement and accep-
tance of Florida citrus products in the area covered, a range of
prices for each particular product and that of competitive products
in the retail stores. These reports are edited and mailed to some

- 51 -

500 packers, shippers, and other factors in the citrus industry. Much
valuable information is contained in these reports which we feel is
helpful to the different factors in the industry.

The field men are provided with up-to-date equipment with
which to carry on their promotional operations. They have juice dis-
pensers, juice bars, turntables, projectors, and screens to be used
in connection with their over-all program. This equipment is kept in
good condition at all times and is made available to many retail trade
factors in connection with their promotional programs.

Although the over-all merchandising program was curtailed to
a considerable extent, due to budgetary reductions after the freeze, it
is felt that our field men have rendered a very valuable service to the
industry by being able to keep the different trade factors properly and
honestly informed regarding the many complex activities in Florida.
This service has been well accepted in all of the larger markets hand-
ling our products.

- 52 -

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ik, ,

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"One picture is worth a thousand words" -- which is why
most of the publicity for the Florida Citrus Commission is tied to
eye-catching illustrations.

For more than twenty years, Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy has
consistently reminded food editors and, through them, consumers,
of the variety of uses for citrus products, and of the daily need for
these products.

Magazines, newspapers, radio, TV, schools -- all are
utilized in this continual educational program.

Flexible Program

During the 1957-58 season, our publicity program was
necessarily geared to the exigencies of the immediate times (one of
the advantages of such an editorial publicity program is that it can
be quickly revamped; tailored to meet sudden needs). Dudley-
Anderson-Yutzy issued wires and newsletters reassuring editors
that they could continue to recommend citrus as a good buy as well
as from a health standpoint. And they did, as myriad clippings
proved! As has been pointed out by many, the fact that sales at no
point dropped off is proof of the efficacy of the Commission's long-
term public relations program; obviously, Americans consider
orange juice, or its counterparts, as they do bread and milk and
meat the staff of life at least of modern American life.

There are many facets to the program which has created this
healthy and enviable status. And each year there are more facets to
consider, to utilize, to capitalize on.

TV Movies Score

Television, of course, is the most exciting of the new media,
and in this field, the Florida Citrus Commission has helped pioneer
the good use of so-called "free" time via its public relations program.
A thoroughly trained home economist and television performer tours
the country regularly, appearing as guest star under the auspices of
the local TV cooking or food expert. This live program has been
augmented by the production of five 3-minute films, which show in
concise techniques the variety of uses for fresh, frozen and canned
citrus. These films, which cost a few thousand dollars to produce,
in one year occupied TV time on more than 100 stations worth well
over a quarter of a million dollars.

- 55 -

Regular program ideas go by mail to TV stations as well
as to radio stations. For radio, tape recordings and platters,
which find wide and repeated use the country over, have also been

Food Writers Best Allies

Newspapers and magazines, despite the glamor of TV and
movies, remain our most influential allies in keeping the consumer
aware of the importance of citrus in the daily diet and of its versa-
tility. For this reason we work closely with the food editors of the
national and sectional magazines, the cook book authors, the fa-
mous pen names of the Sunday supplements and the national press
syndicates, and with practically every by-line newspaper food
writer in the country. We know them all personally, and find par-
ticipation in such annual events as the Newspaper Food Editors
Conference, an ideal method of renewing our first-hand chats with
these valuable communicators.

We constantly confer with magazine editors and free-lance
writers; to big and little newspapers goes a steady stream of sea-
sonal food photographs and recipes and helpful hints. Over 3,800
papers, practically every daily in the country, and all the sizable
weeklies, receive this material each month of the year. What's
more to the point, they use it -- circulation figures for the Florida
Citrus Commission's newspaper publicity as shown by clippings
runs to over a billion a year -- which means that through this media
alone, more than 15, 000 readers are reached for each dollar of the
publicity budget.

Color Editorial Valuable

Citrus color pictures which brighten the pages of newspapers
nowadays are one of the most successful services provided. These
have a long life, and some which were made ten years ago are still
appearing in locally edited Roto supplements and weekday ROP pages.

During 1957-58, use of these pictures was increased by the
spread of color presses to the point where they occupied space which
would have cost more than $150, 000 to purchase. And aside from
the fact that the space cost nothing, the accompanying text bore the
authority of the by-line of the local food writer.

Slide Film for Schools

In the educational field, a slide film based on good nutrition
and titled "Food The Prime Cosmetic" was produced and received

- 56 -

high praise as well as more than 2,000 showings its first year.
This area is one of constant activity work with school lunch per-
sonnel, preparation of demonstration outlines for teachers and ex-
tension workers, supplying current information and photos to text
book writers.

Many other fields have received close attention. Coopera-
tive tie-ins with other food groups and companies make it possible
for Florida citrus to show up well in others' publicity. For the
mass feeding field, Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy's writer-demonstration-
specialist in this vital end of the food business prepares material
slanted to its specific needs.

- 57 -






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The Commission has eighteen technical employees at this labor-
atory working in the fields of processing, by-products, decay control,
fundamental studies of maturity, and mechanical fruit harvesting.

A. Processing and By-Products Research

The processing research is concerned largely with the pre-
paration and storage of frozen concentrated citrus juices. In-
cluded are such subjects as the occurrence of various micro-
organisms and their effect on the quality of the product, the
physical and chemical characteristics of commercial and
laboratory samples of frozen concentrates, and the effect of
the time and temperature of storage. This past season much
emphasis was placed on the examination of freeze-damaged
oranges and their efficient utilization.

1. Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices

Identification of Microorganisms in Citrus Concentrates. -
Three hundred forty samples of citrus juices and concen-
trates were analyzed. Seventy-two percent of the samples
contained streptococcus-like microorganisms, 11% of these
cultures survived the presumptive test for enterococci and
about 5. 5% survived the confirmatory test. Seven of these
cultures were similar to Streptococcus liquefaciens, and six
cultures were similar to S. faecalis.

Microorganisms that produced gas in lactose broth were
found in 17. 3% of the 340 samples. When cultures of these
organisms were streaked on E. M. B. agar, only three of them
resembled coli-like colonies and 15 resembled Aerobacter

Results obtained from the examination of these samples con-
firmed previous observations that juice from either cold-damaged,
overmature, or mishandled fruit often contains coli- or strepto-
coccus-like organisms, but such organisms are usually killed at
temperatures of 1650 to 1750F. The occurrence of these organ-
isms in commercial concentrates may result from the use of
unheated cutback juice or the recontamination of juice in the
cooling section of a regenerative heat exchanger.

- 61 -

Examination of Freeze-Damaged Oranges. Juices ex-
tracted from cold-damaged Hamlin, Parson Brown, Pine-
apple and Valencia oranges were plated on dextrose, potato
dextrose, and orange serum agars. The fruit was extracted
and finished so that variations in juice yield and pulp content
were obtained.

The plate counts for juices from Hamlin or Parson Brown
oranges increased with increases in pulp content, juice yield,
and holding time.

The plate counts for the juice from freeze-damaged Pine-
apple oranges were high initially but decreased after 15 days
at 400F. Freeze-damaged Valencia oranges extracted and
finished to give high yields of juice and pulp showed higher
juice plate counts than juices obtained under conditions of low
juice and pulp yields. Streptococci were present in all of
these Valencia juice samples, but the organisms failed to grow
in Difco enterococcus screening medium.

2. Storage studies on Concentrated Citrus Juices

Packs of 420 Brix Pineapple and Valencia orange concen-
trates were stored at -80, 100, 200, 300, and 400F. to inves-
tigate further the relative effect of heating either the single-
strength juice prior to evaporation of 2-, 3-, and 4-fold con-
centrates withdrawn during the evaporation of unheated juice
and subsequently heat treated.

The physical stability of the Pineapple orange concentrates
followed the trend of similarly prepared 1954 Pineapple and Va-
lencia orange concentrates in that the best and poorest protec-
tion against clarification in concentrates during storage was
found in those prepared from juices heated at single-strength
and 4-fold, respectively. Contrary to these findings, the pres-
ent Valencia orange concentrates showed the best and poorest
protection against clarification during storage when prepared
from juices heated at 3-fold and single-strength, respectively.

To further investigate these anomalies, additional packs of
420 Brix Valencia orange concentrates have been prepared.

3. Examination of Commercial Frozen Citrus Concentrates

Orange: Determinations were made of physical and chemical
qualities of 212 samples of commercial frozen concentrated
orange juices obtained during the 1956-57 season.

- 62 -

Soluble solids ranged from 41.0 to 43. 50 Brix; total acid,
as citric, 2.46 to 3.60%; Brix-to-acid ratio, 11.7 to 16.9;
and ascorbic acid, 112 to 212 milligrams per 100 grams,
which corresponded to 33 to 63 milligrams per 100 milliliters
in the reconstituted juices. Recoverable oil varied from 0. 015
to 0. 068 milliliter per 100 grams of concentrate, correspond-
ing to 0. 004 to 0. 020% by volume in the reconstituted juices.
Hunter "a" values ranged in the orange concentrates from 2. 3
to 11.4; "b" values, 28.2 to 34.6; and "Rd" values, 18.2 to
32.0. Total glycosides, expressed as hesperidin, varied
from 53.5 to 118.6 milligrams per 100 milliliters in the recon-
stituted juices. Diacetyl values ranged from 0.0 to 2.2 parts
per million.

Examination of the concentrates immediately after thawing
indicated that 94. 3% were free of gel lumps, the occurrence
of gelation was questionable in 5. 2% and slight gelation was
evident in only 0. 5%. Pectinesterase activity, ranged from a
low of 1. 3 to a high of 15. 8 units. Water-soluble pectin varied
from 30.7 to 65. 3 milligrams per 100 grams of juice. Water-
insoluble solids, indicative of extracting and finishing opera-
tions ranged between 102 milligrams and 284 milligrams per
100 grams. Alcohol-insoluble solids ranged from 340 to 613
milligrams. Pulp content showed a variation of 8. 0 to 18. 0%.
The samples did not show any clarification when initially ex-
amined. After storage for 96 hours at 400F., gelation and
clarification were again determined. Fifty-seven percent of
the concentrates were free of gel lumps and 43% showed very slight to
slight gelation. Clarification was slight in 13. 7%, definite in
9. 9% and extreme in 1.9% of the samples, with 74. 5% showing
no appreciable loss of cloud.

Grapefruit: Ninety-six samples of commercial frozen con-
centrated grapefruit juice, obtained during the 1956-57 season,
were examined. Soluble solids varied from 37.90 to 47.50
Brix; total acid, as citric, 3. 60 to 4. 69%; Brix-to-acid ratio,
8. 7 to 11.5; and ascorbic acid, 94 to 163 milligrams per 100
grams, equivalent to 28 to 48 milligrams per 100 milliliters in
the reconstituted juices. Recoverable oil ranged from 0.002 to
0. 125 milliliter per 100 grams, corresponding to a trace to
0. 037% by volume in the reconstituted juices. Hunter "a" values
varied from -6.3 to -2.4; "b" values, 16.2 to 24.8; and "Rd"
values, 13.8 to 29.9. Total glycosides, expressed as naringin,
ranged from 32 to 75 milligrams per 100 milliliters in the recon-
stituted grapefruit juices; naringin varied from 19 to 46 milli-
grams per 100 milliliters, as determined by the difference in
total glycosides before and after hydrolysis of the naringin by a

- 63 -

glycosidase. Diacetyl values ranged from 0.0 to 1.7 parts
per million.

Pectinesterase activity in these samples was restricted
to a narrow range of 0.4 to 3. 8 units. The pulp content was
distributed over the range of 4. 6 to 15. 0%. The pectic con-
tent of the samples varied from 20 to 39 milligrams per 100
grams in 69.8% of the samples. Water-insoluble solids in the
reconstituted juices ranged from 39 to 135 milligrams per 100

None of these samples showed any initial clarification or
gelation. After storage at 400F. for 96 hours, slight gelation
was noted in eight concentrates, slight clarification occurred
in two products, and definite clarification in one sample.

The flavor of all of these samples of grapefruit concentrates
was of acceptable quality, except one which was graded "poor"
because of an off-flavor; 66 of the concentrates were graded
"good" and 29 samples were graded "fair."

Study continued on the important problem of determining
those processing factors that adversely affect the flavor of fro-
zen concentrated orange juice. Accumulating results indicate
the importance of carefully controlling yield of juice, pulp con-
tent, recoverable oil content and stabilization temperatures if
concentrates of good flavor are to be produced.

4. Market Survey of Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice

In a continuing survey of the quality of frozen concentrated
orange juice at the retail level, 250 samples per month are be-
ing collected in major markets across the country. Tempera-
tures of the freezer cabinet and the product itself are recorded
at the time of purchase. The samples are returned to Florida
packed in dry ice, and are then re-evaluated for grade by the
Processed Foods Inspection Service, U. S. Department of Agri-

In spite of the fact that all samples were Grade A when
shipped from Florida, only 85% to 90% of the samples returned
still attain that grade, and the remainder have suffered some
flavor loss. This loss in quality reflects the temperature abuse
occurring in the channels of trade.

To date, results obtained on samples packed after the Decem-
ber 1957 freeze are not noticeably different from previous ob-

- 64 -

5. Frozen Concentrates for Lemonade

Frozen concentrates for lemonade were made from juices
extracted from 42 different selections of Florida lemons to
determine variety suitability. The fruit was harvested and
processed from October 14 through December 20; forty of the
lots of fruit were supplied by Minute Maid Corporation, Or-
lando, Florida, and two of the lots by Libby, McNeill and
Libby, Ocala, Florida. Total acid, as citric, in the lemon
juices varied from 5. 16 to 6.41 grams per 100 milliliters;
yield of juice from the fruit 3. 76 to 5. 80 gallons per 90 pounds;
yield of acid, 1.69 to 2.76 pounds per 90 pounds of fruit. Fro-
zen concentrates for lemonade were made from each of the 42
lemon juices. Sugar was added to the juice so that a Brix-to-
acid ratio of 15 to 16 was obtained and then coldpressed lemon
oil, prepared from the same fruit from which the juice was ex-
tracted, was added. The products were canned, frozen and
stored at -80F. until used. All of the concentrates, except two,
were found to be acceptable and to have a satisfactory lemon
flavor; the product made from Meyer lemons did not have a
good typical lemon flavor and another sample of concentrate
was excessively bitter and astringent because of the use of ex-
cessive pressure during extraction and finishing of the juice

The lemon juices and the 42 samples of concentrate for
lemonade were examined for microbiological content by plat-
ing on dextrose, potato dextrose, and orange serum agars.
Also, a 1:10 dilution of each sample of juice or concentrate
was inoculated into lauryl tryptose broth for the detection of
coliform bacteria and streptococci. No coliform bacteria or
streptococci were found in any of the lemon juice or concen-
trate samples.

6. Characteristics of Processed Citrus Products Made From
Freeze-Damaged Fruit

Because of the severe freezes occurring during the 1957-58
season, major emphasis was placed on problems of using
freeze-damaged fruit in frozen concentrated orange juice. Many
experimental packs were processed in the pilot plant and the
collection and examination of commercial samples throughout
the season was very extensive. Data are being accumulated from
the examination of these products and final evaluation will be
possible when storage studies are completed during the next year.
Experimental packs were processed to obtain information on these
major problems: (a) affect of the use of freeze-damaged fruit on

- 65 -

the chemical, physical, and organoleptic properties of the
product, both initially and after storage, (b) development
of procedures for determining the extent of freeze damage
in oranges, (c) determination of maximum amounts of cold-
damaged fruit that might be used with undamaged oranges to
produce concentrate of acceptable quality, and (d) changes
in processing procedures necessary for the production of ac-
ceptable products when using damaged fruit.

During the 1956-57 season, experimental samples of fro-
zen orange concentrate were processed from Hamlin, Parson
Brown, Pineapple and Valencia oranges that had been damaged
by cold temperatures that occurred in the northern area of the
citrus belt in November, 1956. Results obtained from the
examination of these products during the past year and prior
to the freeze of December, 1957, confirmed previously re-
ported information. The most important observation being
that physical stability and flavor problems were magnified
when damaged fruit was used. However, the results also
showed that by modifying processing procedures, frozen
orange concentrate of good stability and acceptable flavor
could be produced from freeze-damaged fruit. The use of
less pressure during extraction and finishing of the juice, a
stabilization temperature of 1950F. and control of the peel
oil and pulp content in the concentrate were found to be ad-
vantageous. These conclusions have been further confirmed
by data so far obtained from the examination of samples of
both experimental and commercial packs of frozen orange
concentrate processed following the major freeze of Decem-
ber, 1957.

Two hundred commercial samples of frozen concentrated
orange juice, packed from December 31, 1957, to January 8,
1958, were collected from 18 processing plants so that con-
centrates containing juice from a portion of freeze-damaged
fruit could be evaluated as to their physical stability and fla-
vor. Initially, all of the samples showed no separation or
clarification and no gelation of any practical importance.
After storage at 800F. for 24 hours, 89. 5% of the samples
showed no significant loss in cloud, while slight, definite,
and extreme degrees of clarification were found in 3. 5, 4. 0,
and 3.0%, respectively; a slight degree of gelation was evi-
dent in 10. 5% of the samples and a semi-gel occurred in
0. 5% or only one sample. Pectinesterase activity in the con-
centrates varied from 0.3 to 5.5 units and the pulp content
ranged from 8. 5 to 17. 0%, by volume, in the reconstituted
juices. Flavor-wise, most of the products were acceptable,
but of only fair quality.

- 66 -

A total of 59 samples of frozen concentrated orange juice
for manufacturing (bulk concentrate) was obtained from 22
commercial plants; 28 samples were processed from Decem-
ber 28, 1957, to January 10, 1958; 18 samples from Janu-
ary 20 to February 7; and 13 samples from March 14 to April
14. The flavor of all of these samples, except two, was ac-
ceptable, but of only fair quality, when they were examined
initially; oxidized and buttermilk type off-flavors were detect-
able in the two unacceptable samples. The initial flavor of
35 of the 46 bulk concentrates, packed when early and mid-
season fruit was available, was maintained during storage of
the products at -80F. for approximately three months; slight
flavor deterioration occurred in 6 of the samples, and 5 of
the products became unacceptable because of the development
of objectionable off-flavors. The physical stability of the 59
samples was found to be satisfactory, although slight gelation
occurred in some of the concentrates after storage for 24
hours at 800F. ; definite clarification was found in only one
sample. Soluble solids in the bulk concentrates ranged from
42.0 to 66. 70Brix; total acid, as citric, 2.93 to 6.31%; Brix-
to-acid ratio, 10.0 to 19.5; and pH, 3.4 to 3.7. The pulp con-
tent in the reconstituted juices of approximately 120Brix varied
from 7 to 18%, by volume, and the Hunter Color Difference
Meter "Rd" values ranged from 19.0 to 26.5, "a" values from
-7. 1 to -2.8, and "b" values from 25.2 to 30.3.

Samples of commercial frozen orange concentrate were col-
lected semi-monthly from Florida plants throughout the 1957-58
season. These 193 samples are being examined so that a com-
parison may be made with results obtained from similar surveys
during previous seasons. The initial examination of these
samples for flavor, color, and stability indicates that the flavor
of almost all of these concentrates was acceptable; however, in
general, both the flavor and color were not as good as that found
in samples packed during the 1956-57 season. The physical sta-
bility of these products was good and better than that in concen-
trates obtained during the previous season.

7. Comparison of Juices from Sound arid Frozen Citrus Fruits

A comparison was made of some constituents of juices ex-
tracted from sound and frozen Pineapple and Valencia oranges
and seedy grapefruit. Fruit was cut and separated on the basis
of internal appearance into three classifications, not damaged,
damaged and seriously damaged. Harvesting dates for fruit used
were as follows: Pineapple oranges, January 16, 1958; seedy
grapefruit, February 25, 1958; and Valencia oranges, April 17,

- 67

April 21, and May 23, 1958. The only common differences
found in chemical characteristics between the juices extrac-
ted from sound and freeze-damaged fruit were lower acidities,
which resulted in an increased Brix-to-acid ratio, and an in-
crease in both pH and flavonoids as the fruit became seriously

Juices from damaged Pineapple oranges and seedy grape-
fruit, when compared to sound fruit, increased in serum pec-
tin, viscosity, cloud, and water-soluble pectin, whereas pec-
tinesterase activity and sodium hydroxide-soluble pectin (pro-
topectin) decreased; oxalate-soluble pectin increased very
slightly. However, when juices from damaged Valencia oranges
were examined, soluble solids, pectin serum, viscosity, and
water-soluble pectin decreased and sodium hydroxide-soluble
pectin increased or remained about the same when compared
with juices from sound Valencia oranges. The cloud and am-
monium oxalate-soluble pectin was found to be the same in
juices from both sound and damaged Valencia oranges; pectin-
esterase activity varied in most instances with the water-
insoluble solids but not in relation to the degree of damaged

8. Viscosity of Concentrated Citrus Juices

Various instruments and procedures were investigated for
measuring the viscosity of concentrated citrus juices, and the
Brookfield viscometer was found to be the most suitable. Vis-
cosity determinations on various samples of citrus concentrates
were made using this instrument with the No. 2 spindle at 12
r.p.m. and with the measurement being made after one minute
of operation. The samples were maintained at 300C. in a 6-
ounce concentrate can.

The viscosity of 100 commercial samples of frozen concen-
trated orange juice produced during the 1956-57 season ranged
from a low of 430 centipoises to a high of 2500 centipoises; con-
centrates produced while midseason fruit was available were,
in general, more viscous than those packed during the last sea-
son period. Results obtained from the examination of both com-
mercial and experimental products also indicated that the degree
of concentration and the pulp content of the citrus concentrates
are very important factors influencing viscosity and that some
relationship may exist between the viscosity and the physical sta-
bility of such products.

- 68 -

9. Effect of Dielectric Heat on Some of the Constituents of
Orange Juice

In using dielectric heat to concentrate Valencia orange juice,
no destruction of either pectinesterase or microorganisms at-
tributable to this process was found; the use of dielectric heat
was not detrimental to the flavor, ascorbic acid or cloud of the
juice. No significant differences resulted when the same 500
Brix Valencia concentrate was further concentrated to 80Brix
using either dielectric or steam heat, although there was a
trend for concentrates withdrawn from the evaporator at dif-
ferent degree of concentration to be slightly less viscous when
dielectric heating was used. At the request of Mr. Ralph Sar-
geant, the dielectric equipment and the assistance of Mr. H. C.
M. Longacre were made available for this investigation by
Sylvania Electric Products, Inc., New York, N.Y. The equip-
ment consisted of a 10-kilowatt dielectric generator that was
operated by Mr. Longacre at a frequency of 15 megacycles and
with a drop of 25 volts across the electrode.

10. Chromatography

A new laboratory for the application of chromatography to
research problems was completed during the year. The labora-
tory is equipped for all techniques employed in chromatographic
analysis, including an instrument for studies in gas-liquid and
gas-solid partition chromatography.

The recently acquired Perkin-Elmer Vapor Fractometer has
been used in preliminary studies of the gas-liquid partition
chromatography of the oils of orange, grapefruit, lemon and
lime. A comprehensive study of the constituents of citrus oils
and volatile flavor constituents of processed citrus juice and
concentrates has been planned. Emphasis will be placed upon
the study of off-flavors and identification of the chemical nature
of the compounds responsible for these undesirable flavors.

11. Recovery of Fruit Solids from Orange Pulp

An investigation was begun of the recovery by water extrac-
tion of soluble solids from orange pulp that is obtained during
the extraction and finishing of orange juice in citrus processing
plants. Pulp from the pilot plant finisher was extracted with
water using several procedures; some of the water extracts
were concentrated in a small evaporator. Samples of water
extracts and concentrates were canned, frozen and stored at
-80F. These products, together with similar samples obtained

- 69 -

from several commercial plants, are being examined to de-
termine the amounts of sugars, acids and other constituents
that may be obtained by water extraction of orange pulp. Some
of the concentrated water extracts were added to orange con-
centrate prior to freezing to determine the effect of the use of
such extracts on the flavor and other characteristics of this
product, both initially and after storage.

Preliminary results indicated that a possible procedure for
the water extraction of solids from orange pulp was that of
adding water to the pulp from the finisher, immediately heating
the slurry in a tubular pasteurizer at 1950F. and then removing
the excessive amounts of insoluble solids by another finisher,
set only moderately tight. Such a process might have the ad-
vantages of simplicity, rapidity, hot extraction of solids, and
reduced microbiological and enzymic problems.

12. Pectin and Pectic Enzyme Studies of Citrus Fruits and
Citrus Processed Products

Silver Cluster grapefruit picked from both arsenated and un-
arsenated trees were processed into canned grapefruit sections
in December, 1956, and January, February and March, 1957.
These sections were then stored for 36 weeks at 800F. and
examined periodically. There was no darkening of the sections
during storage and only sections canned from grapefruit picked
in March showed signs of softening after 12 weeks of storage;
all of the sections processed in December, 1956, and January
and February, 1957, from both arsenated and unarsenated fruit
remained firm. Water-insoluble solids were approximately the
same in'the sections regardless of arsenation and picking date
of the fruit and remained constant during the 36 weeks of storage
at 800F.

13. Production and Use of Activated Citrus Sludge

The study of activated citrus sludge as an animal or chicken
feed supplement was completed. In addition to analyses pre-
viously reported, the sludge samples were found to contain from
7. 65 to 12. 10 micrograms per gram of niacin and from 18. 68
to 37. 60 micrograms per gram of riboflavin.

The final results indicate that excess sludge from the treat-
ment of citrus waste waters by the activated sludge process con-
tains appreciable amounts of B-group vitamins and large amounts
of protein. Its principal value in animal feeds would be its pro-
tein content; however, its vitamin Bl2 content would be valuable
in a chicken feed supplement.

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14. Inositol in Citrus Fruits

The development of an economical method for the extrac-
tion and recovery of myo-inositol from citrus peel, juices
and processing liquids was studied. The two raw materials
used were filter press waters from orange and grapefruit
peels and distillery slops from the manufacture of citrus al-
cohol. These liquids are both waste materials.

It was possible to recover up to 50% of the inositol present
in the form of crude solutions; however, final purification still
presents a difficult problem.

15. Citrus Vinegar

Several ways to prepare clear citrus vinegar were found; the
use of a sediment-forming enzyme followed by its removal with
activated carbon, the use of a non-sediment-forming enzyme
preparation, and clarification with a bentonite-Celite mixture.

B. Chemical Constituents of Citrus Fruit as Related to Quality

1. A comprehensive study of the carbohydrates in the peel of
citrus fruit revealed that the total sugars in the peel increased
with season. Hamlin oranges picked in October had 7.9% total
sugars in their fresh peel, which increased to over 10% in lat-
ter part of December and early January. Similar seasonal
trends were shown with Pineapple oranges and Marsh grapefruit.
In Valencia oranges there was no consistent trend in total peel
sugars with season. The fructose content was 1.5 to 2.0 times
greater than glucose in the peel of Pineapple oranges and 1.0
and 1.5 times greater in the peel of Hamlin and Valencia oranges.
In grapefruit this ratio ranged between 0. 85 and 1. 10. During
the maturing period, the sucrose content in the peel of Hamlin
and Pineapple oranges decreased. In Marsh grapefruit it in-
creased from August to November but decreased thereafter. Suc-
rose content in the peel of Valencia orange fluctuated between
December and May.

There was no marked difference in the polysaccharides of the
peel of citrus fruits among different varieties. The hydrolysate
of the fraction containing pectin also included arabinose and
galactose in a total amount of about 40% of the pectin present. The
hemicellulose fraction of both orange and grapefruit peel contained
xylan, glucosan, galactan, and araban in the ratio of about 4:3:3:1
with a trace amount of uronic acids. The alpha-cellulose fraction
after hydrolysis yielded between 80-90% glucose in the total sugars

- 71 -

present. Arabinose, xylose, and galacturonic acid composed
the remainder of the sugars with traces of mannose and galac-

Protein analyses were made on the alcohol-insoluble solids
of the various component parts of citrus fruit. Although there
was no significant differences between the corresponding parts
of different varieties, the protein content of the different parts
of the fruit varied. The peel and rag contained between 4. 5 to
6. 5% protein in their alcohol insoluble solids, the juice sac
membrane had between 13.7 and 15.2%, and the juice had be-
tween 19 and 25%. On the fresh weight basis, the peel of the
grapefruit contained an average of 0. 6% protein, while that of
the oranges about 0. 8%. In the juice these values were 0. 05%
and 0. 10% for grapefruit and oranges, respectively. In general,
grapefruit had lower protein content in all parts of the fruit than
oranges, and there was no significant difference among the three
varieties of oranges studied. There was a distinct increase in
the protein content of the juices as the fruit matured.

2. Physiology of Pigments in Citrus Peel

This project was initiated during the past year to obtain more
basic information about the chloroplast pigments in the rind of
citrus fruit. From such information it is hoped that a means of
improving the external color of citrus may be obtained.

Past work on the separation of carotenoid pigments of citrus
peel has been limited to partition between two solvents using one
transfer, or chromatography. When this pigment complex was
partitioned between two solvents, using 99 transfers in a Craig
counter-current apparatus, the carotenoid complex was resolved
into six fractions: I hydrocarbons, II monols, IIIA diols, IIIB
monoether diols, IIIC diether diols, and IID polyols. The diether
diol carotenoids constitute the largest fraction of carotenoids in
mature, orange-colored Valencia orange peel. This carotenoid
fraction showed a marked increase as the color of peel varies
from yellow to orange.

3. Characteristics of Pink and Red Grapefruit

A better understanding of the changes in internal quality and
maturity factors is needed for more effective marketing of pink
and red grapefruit. A survey was conducted from 1953 to 1957,
and samples were picked bi-weekly each season from 140 loca-
tions. The usual juice factors and also naringin, carotene,
lycopene, and color were ascertained.

72 -

Juice increased one-third from September to March, in-
creasing sharply in the very early season. About 3% of the
fruit in September and 16% in October met the higher stand-
ards in 1957. The red fruit contained 3% more juice than the
pink variety; moreover, fruit on sour orange had 2% more
juice than on rough lemon stock. Interior fruit contained 5%
more juice than coastal fruit.

Solids content was low during 1953-54, and much fruit did
not meet standards; however, solids content was high during
the remainder of the survey. In fruit on rough lemon solids
steadily decreased with maturity, but on sour orange solids
increased except in wet seasons.

Naringin decreased significantly with season in red grape-
fruit on both the sour orange and rough lemon rootstocks. In
the case of the pink variety, the seasonal downward trend of
the naringin content was observed only on rough lemon.

The main pigments in the edible portion of pink and red
grapefruit are lycopene and beta-carotene. The latter in-
creased markedly in the early season and remained constant
for the rest of the season. The lycopene content decreased
consistently during the entire maturing period. The flesh
color of the fruit as measured on the Hunter Color and Color
Difference meter also decreased throughout the season. The
correlation coefficient between lycopene and the Hunter color
values was 0.972, indicating that lycopene is chiefly responsi-
ble for the flesh color of these fruits.

C. Mechanization of Citrus Fruit Picking

Picking citrus fruit is hard, time-consuming labor and the
industry is quite interested in the development of machines
that would make this task easier, faster and less expensive.
The design requirements of such machines are being studied.

A motion and time study of the present picking method was
made in nine orange groves with tree heights of 16 to 23 feet,
and tree yields of 6-1/2 to 10-1/3 boxes. Also, a study was
made in four grapefruit groves with tree heights of 17 to 20 feet
and tree yields of 4 to 8-1/3 boxes. An analysis of the motions
involved led to the conclusion that it would be extremely diffi-
cult to construct a practical mechanical device that would pick
citrus fruit as the fruit is now grown. In picking oranges under
efficient conditions, 18 to 26% of the pickers' time (not including
delay allowance) was spent in activities other than picking. When

- 73 -

picking grapefruit, 34% of the pickers' time was spent in
other activities. It was found by timing a worker that his
(in position) picking rate was 67. 2% higher picking from the
ground than picking from a ladder. A mechanical device
that would eliminate part of this unproductive labor and pro-
vide a more substantial work platform for picking that fruit
which cannot be reached from the ground would increase the
per day production of a worker.

A mobile ladder picking aid for use in conjunction with a
six-man crew is under development. A method of harvest-
ing citrus fruit by shaking the fruit from the tree and catch-
ing it in a canvas-covered frame is being studied and a catch
frame and tree shaker was constructed for use in testing this
method. Complete evaluation of the equipment and method
will be made during the coming year.

Two commercial movable platforms originally designed to
aid in pruning deciduous fruit and an experimental boom-type
machine developed by a private company to position two pickers
in the tree were tried in picking oranges. Although these ma-
chines incorporated many promising design features, theywere
not developed to a point where a full-scale field test would be

D. Decay Control Research

Incidence of Decay in Oranges. In contrast to the two
previous seasons, the incidence of post-harvest decaycaused
principally by stem-end rot and common blue green-mold in
1957-58 was very high. Average total loss from decay in un-
treated check lots in 70 experiments was 37. 1% and 55. 1% for
oranges held at 700F. for two and three weeks, respectively.
When stored at 600F., the corresponding figures were 25.9%
and 44. 6%.

These figures represent the average amount of decay
throughout the entire season and include oranges degreened
in the coloring rooms and those not so treated. The varieties
used were Hamlin, Parson Brown, Pineapple and Valencia
oranges. In the Annual Report for 1956-57, it was suggested
that the marked difference in decay during the past few seasons
could be accounted for by variation in weather conditions and
attention was called to the low amount of stem-end rot that de-
veloped in degreened Hamlin oranges in Fall of 1956, only 3. 1%
and 6. 6% for two and three weeks storage, respectively, at
70 F. During the Fall of 1957, the average amounts of stem-
end rot at 700F. in degreened Hamlin oranges were 33. 5%

- 74 -

for two weeks storage and 50.7% for three weeks storage
or about 10 times as much. Even more striking differ-
ences between the two seasons were recorded when the
fruit was held at 600F.

Since it was thought that rainfall might be a factor in the
initial infection of the fruit buttons in the grove with stem-
end rot fungi, an attempt was made to correlate total annual
rainfall in inches with the percentages of stem-end rot in de-
greened Hamlin oranges over a ten-year period. However,
this did not result in a significant correlation coefficient.
Later calculations using the total rainfall for the months of
March and April only and the percentages of stem-end rot
for 11 years, a correlation coefficient (r) of 0. 707 was ob-
tained which proved to be significant at the 5% level and not
quite significant at the 1.0% level. This correlation indi-
cates that infection of the fruit buttons may occur sometime
during March and April, depending on the time of bloom and
the early development of the fruits. Since these data for de-
greened Hamlin oranges were obtained early in the season,
possible effects of freezes can be ruled out.

Effect of Freezing Weather on Decay. Decay records for
two weeks storage taken during the months of December and
January of this season show that the freezes markedly in-
creased Penicillium mold decay. Four samples of Hamlin
oranges picked from December 3 to December 11 (before
the first freeze) showed an average loss from mold of 6. 3%
while four samples picked from December 16 to January 15
after the freeze developed 16.5%. These samples were all
degreened for 48 hours and hence there was some curing ac-
tion which offset to an extent the effect of cold damage. How-
ever, four lots of Hamlin oranges harvested from January 14
to 23, and not degreened, developed from 19% to 59% mold
for two weeks storage with an average loss from this source
of 40.7%. Pineapple oranges, harvested in February, showed
an average loss of 48. 9% from mold decay. Valencia oranges
harvested later in the season did not develop such excessive
amounts of mold decay.

Miscellaneous Decay Control Experiments. Tests were
made during the past season on 19 chemical preparations to
determine their possible value in controlling decay in oranges.
Although these preparations were claimed to have fungicidal
properties, none was found to be effective in combatting decay
in oranges. One preparation which did prove to be effective
was a combination of the sodium salts of Shirlan, 0. 5% plus

- 75 -

2,4-D, 0. 5%, in aqueous solution, used as a dip. The
treatment gave about the same control as Dowicide A-
Hexamine. However, the use of these chemicals on cit-
rus fruits has not at present the approval of the U. S.
Food and Drug Administration.

Dowicide A-Hexamine and Diphenyl Treatments. Dur-
ing the greater part of the 1957-58 season, a series of 23
experiments were carried out on oranges to determine the
effectiveness of these treatments singly and in combina-
tion. Dowicide A-Hexamine was also combined with pyr-
rolidine, and diphenyl pads were used in conjunction with
a non-buffing fungicidal wax. Including the check lots,
there were eight treatments and, as identical lots were
stored at two different temperatures, 600F. and 700F.,
there was a total of 16 lots in each experiment. Hamlin,
Pineapple and Valencia oranges both degreened and not de-
greened were used. Based on two weeks storage at 700F.,
the percentages of decay control, for five of the treatments
were as follows: Dowicide A-Hexamine, 50%; Diphenyl,
82%; Dowicide A-Hexamine and diphenyl, 94%; Dowicide A-
Hexamine plus pyrrolidine, 87%; fungicidal wax and di-
phenyl, 86%. When the fruit was stored at 600F., the cor-
responding percentages of decay control were: 74%, 85%,
97% and 93%. Two other treatments with fungicidal waxes
containing Dowicide A and Hexamine gave rather poor con-
trol of decay at 700F. and only fair control at 600F. All
treatments were more effective when the oranges were
stored at 600F. even when compared with check lots at the
same temperatures.

As had been reported for previous seasons, a Dowicide
A-Hexamine dipping treatment, followed by packaging in
cartons with diphenyl pads, is shown to be superior to
either treatment singly. This is true also when one of the
fungicidal waxes (PF-1) mentioned above is combined with
diphenyl pads. Attention should be called also to the effect
of adding 1. 0% pyrrolidine to the standard Dowicide A-
Hexamine solution. The treatment is a single dipping ope-
ration followed by a water rinse. Compared with the stan-
dard Dowicide A-Hexamine method, decay control was in-
creased from 50% to 87% and from 74% to 96% in fruit held
at 700F. and 600F., respectively. An additional experi-
ment in which 0. 5% pyrrolidine was added to the standard
Dowicide A-Hexamine solution indicates that it is about as
effective as the 1.0% addition. At present, the use of
pyrrolidine is experimental only; approval by the F. D. & A.

- 76 -

will be necessary before commercial application can be

Ammonia Treatment of Oranges During the Degreening
Operation. The results of an investigation carried out in
1956-57 showed that ammonia treatments of Florida oranges
in fiberboard cartons did not give effective decay control.
Preliminary experiments the same season, treating Valen-
cia oranges with vapors of ammonium carbonate in small
cabinets during degreening, gave rather promising results.
At the beginning of the past season, a large coloring room
was modified so that appreciable concentration of ammonia
could be maintained during a degreening period of 48 hours.
This was done by vaporizing ammonium carbonate inside
the room. Check lots of fruit were degreened at the same
time in another coloring room. With this set-up, a series
of nine experiments was performed with Hamlin and Par-
son Brown oranges. By analysis, the concentration of am-
monia in the "ammonia" room as NH3 varied from about
100 ppm to 417 ppm by volume during the different runs.
No appreciable reduction in decay resulted from the treat-
ment even with the higher concentration of ammonia. Aver-
age total decay after two weeks storage for treated fruit
(62 replications) was 34. 2% while the same number of check
lots lost an average of 36. 0%

While no effect on decay was noted in this study, inter-
esting and important data were obtained in regard to stem-
end peel breakdown, known also as "rind breakdown,"
"burnt stem," "brown stem," etc. This physiological
trouble was very severe in commercial fruit this past sea-
son and also in the experiments described. Careful counts
of this condition were made in all lots one week from har-
vest. The percentage of stem-end peel breakdown in
oranges degreened in the "ammonia" room varied from zero
to only 1. 3% with an average of 0. 5% while in the check lots
it varied from 9. 2% to 91. 3% with an average of 35. 6%. This
amounted to practically perfect control of rind breakdown.
Later studies showed that ammonia treatment was not re-
sponsible for this result. It was due to the lower air flow in
the "ammonia" room combined with a slightly higher average
relative humidity than was maintained in the "check" room.

Control of Stem-end Peel Breakdown and its Effect on De-
cay in Valencia Oranges. Since the studies on ammonia
treatments strongly indicated that certain conditions in the
coloring room during degreening were responsible for the

- 77 -

incidence of stem-end peel breakdown, a careful study was
made to obtain more information along this line. Stem-end
peel breakdown or brown stem is a physiological collapse
of the rind tissue at the stem end of the fruit and is not
caused by pathogenic organisms. It is very severe some
years and responsible for many rejections in northern mar-

In the first series of four experiments, three coloring
rooms were used: No. 1 with rate of air flow 500 ft. /min.;
No. 2 with air flow rate 378 ft. / min.; and No. 3 with air
flow 255 ft. /min. Average relative humidity in these rooms
during the four runs was 59%, 63% and 91%, and the average
weight loss of the fruit was 4.55%, 3. 60% and 0. 58% for
rooms 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The average percentages
of stem-end peel breakdown one week from harvest or five
days after degreening were very striking; fruit from room 1
showed 70.2%, that from room 2, 45. 2%, and that from
room 3, 0.4%.. The data should be reliable since for each
treatment in each experiment there were five replicates or
a total of 20 for each treatment. Average total decay in
oranges from the three rooms two weeks from harvest was
also marked and was 39.0%, 33.7%, and 24.2% for rooms
1, 2 and 3, respectively. By treatment in room 3 under
conditions of relatively low air flow and high relative hu-
midity decay was reduced 38% and 28% compared with
rooms 1 and 2, respectively, in which air flow was greater
and the humidity lower. Stem-end peel breakdown was con-
trolled practically 100% by degreening under the conditions
maintained in room 3.

These results and later extensive studies can be briefly
summarized as follows: (1) low air flow and high humidity
in the coloring room will prevent stem-end peel breakdown;
(2) with high stem-end peel breakdown, there is more de-
cay, both stem-end rot and mold; (3) with high incidence of
stem-end peel breakdown Dowicide A-Hexamine is not very
effective in controlling decay; (4) stem-end peel breakdown
is increased by a high rate of transpiration from the fruit
during degreening; (5) even with a high rate of air flow,
stem-end peel breakdown will be prevented if the relative
humidity is sufficiently high; (6) degreening oranges under
conditions which favor the development of stem-end peel
breakdown increased the number of small sizes and de-
creased the number of large sizes; (7) standing in open
crates in the packinghouse without degreening increases
the incidence of stem-end peel breakdown; (8) processing

- 78 -

the fruit promptly after picking decreases the incidence of
stem-end peel breakdown; (9) conditions in the coloring
room conducive to the development of stem-end peel break-
down cause a softening of the fruit; (10) rind breakdown will
result from adverse coloring room conditions in the absence
of ethylene gas; (11) peel breakdown will not be increased by
the color-added treatment in oranges degreened under the
proper conditions of air flow and humidity.

E. Spray and Dust Schedules

Twenty-two thousand Better Fruit Program Spray and
Dust Schedules were printed and distributed.


Texas Women's University

The first phase of the study on the effect of feeding ele-
mentary school children a daily supplement of orange juice
has been completed, and the information gained is being
published by this university. A second phase of the work,
relating to teenage children and children suffering from acne,
is nearing completion.

- 79 -

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As is the case in any successful industrial endeavor, the
complicated procedure of moving products to market has become
extremely important to the Florida citrus industry. As produc-
tion increases, so also increase the problems encountered in the
transportation of our fresh and processed products to markets
throughout the world.

New and more complex transportation problems have be-
come almost a matter of routine to the Florida citrus shipper
and processor; problems that may spell the difference between
seasonal success or profit losses.

To assist in solving these problems affecting transporta-
tion, the Commission continued to retain the service of the Growers
and Shippers League of Florida. The League, as a representative
of the citrus industry at large, has been most effective in carrying
citrus transportation problems before the Interstate Commerce
Commission and other federal and state agencies embodied with
the authority to regulate transportation.

Through this service, the League has been instrumental in
effecting huge savings to the citrus industry. Listed below are
some of the more important citrus problems encountered during the
1957-58 season by the Growers and Shippers League, their dis-
position or status:

Reduction in Rail Rates On Fresh Citrus Fruit To Official

Following extensive negotiations with the carriers and ap-
proval by the Southern Rail Lines, the rail carriers in Official Ter-
ritory approved a truck competitive reduction in the rail rates on
fresh citrus fruit to points in Official Territory. These reduced
rates were published effective October 7, 1957, and, except at de-
livery points on Manhattan at New York City, were made not sub-
ject to the increase of 9 percent with a maximum of 11 cents per
one hundred pounds which had been granted by the Interstate Com-
merce Commission in Ex Parte 206. As examples, using oranges
from Lake Wales as representative, the rate to Chicago, Illinois,
was reduced from 108 to 97 cents per 100 pounds; to Cleveland,
Ohio, from 125 to 108 cents; to New York, New York, from 134.4
to 119 cents; and to Boston, Massachusetts, from 152.6 to 129 cents
per 100 pounds.

- 83 -

Reduced Rail Rates On Fresh Citrus Fruit To Points In
Southern Territory

The rail lines in the South in an effort to secure additional
tonnage of fresh citrus fruit moving to points in the South filed re-
duced truck competitive rates to apply to shipments in refrigera-
tor cars to points in Southern Territory, effective October 15, 1957.

Proposed Amendment To Agricultural Exemption Provisions Of
The Inter-State Commerce Act

As a result of recent court decisions broadening the list of
commodities which had been declared exempt when moving by
truck under Section 203(b)(6) of the Interstate Commerce Act,
several bills had been introduced in the Congress proposing to re-
strict the agricultural exemption provisions of the Act. In order
to protect the position of the Florida citrus industry that fresh
citrus fruit should be continued under the exemption but that fro-
zen and chilled citrus products should be considered non-exempt,
the League cooperated with a committee of canned goods and fro-
zen food shippers, representatives of the Association of American
Railroads, and representatives of the American Trucking Associa-
tion in drafting a proposed bill to maintain the present exemption
on fresh commodities and to bring back under regulation frozen
and chilled products. At the request of this committee, Senator
George Smathers introduced this proposed legislation in the Senate
as Senate Bill S-2553.

The Senate Sub-Committee on Land Transportation in Janu-
ary, 1958, began a series of hearings on possible ways of improving
the deteriorating position of the railroads of the country. Among the
suggestions offered by the representatives of the transportation in-
dustry testifying at these hearings were restrictions of the agricul-
tural exemption. The League also testified at these hearings on the
need for continuing the exemption on fresh commodities. After the
conclusion of these hearings, the Sub-Committee introduced in the
Senate Bill S-3778 which, as amended and approved by the Senate,
would, among other provisions, provide that the commodities now
considered exempt would continue to be exempt with the exception
that frozen fruit and vegetables would be brought back under regula-
tions. A similar bill with slightly different wording had been passed
by the House of Representatives, and as a result of consideration of
these two bills by a conference committee, the portion of the bills
pertaining to the agricultural exemption was amended to provide
that the exemption would continue to apply to those commodities which
had been ruled to be exempt except that it would not apply to frozen
fruits, frozen berries, frozen vegetables, cocoa beans, coffee beans,

- 84 -

tea, bananas, or hemp, and imported wool, nor to fish or shell
fish which have been treated for preserving. The bill also con-
tained a so-called "grandfather rights" clause, under which
truckers who had been transporting as exempt commodities, the
commodities being brought back under regulation would be given
operating rights to continue to transport the same commodities be-
tween the same points which they had been serving. The conference
bill was approved by both the House and Senate, and was signed into
law by the President on August 12, 1958.

Ex Parte 212 Increased Freight Rates, 1958

In December, 1957, the rail lines throughout the country
filed tariffs scheduled to become effective February 1, 1958, which
proposed to increase rail rates and charges on various commodi-
ties and accessorial services. No increase was proposed on oranges,
grapefruit or tangerines, nor on refrigeration or heating service, a
1 cent per 100 pound increase was proposed on canned goods except
on movements within Southern Territory, a 1 cent per 100 pound in-
crease was proposed on frozen citrus products from Florida to
points in Trans-Continental Territory, and a 3 percent increase was
proposed on citrus pomace. New unloading charges of $2.86 per ton
were proposed for application on fresh fruits unloaded at points in
New York City and at the Philadelphia produce terminals in spite of
the fact that previous unloading charges on fresh fruits at these
points has been found not justified and had been ordered cancelled.
Changes were also proposed in the diversion and reconsignment
rules and increases were proposed in the charges for these services.

Opposition to these proposals and petitions for suspension
were filed by the League, and after hearing an oral argument in this
proceeding, the Interstate Commerce Commission suspended the
proposed unloading charges on fresh fruits at New York and Phila-
delphia, granted a ten percent increase in the existing charges for
diversion and reconsignment of fresh fruit but maintained in effect
the same number of free diversions and reconsignments, and allowed
the other increases requested to go into effect on February 15, 1958.
A verified statement and exhibit has been filed by the League in op-
position to the proposed unloading charges at New York and Philadel-
phia. Continued hearing and final oral argument in this case was
held in Washington, D. C. in July of this year, and the case is now
before the Commission for final decision.

Ex Parte 206 Increased Freight Rates And Charges, 1957

In a continuation of this proceeding, the Interstate Commerce
Commission, effective August 26, 1957, granted the rail carriers a

- 85 -

further increase in their freight rates and charges so that the total
increase authorized on fresh fruits and canned and frozen citrus
products was 9 percent with a maximum of 11 cents per 100 pounds.
The League continued negotiations with the rail carriers on the re-
moval of these increases with the result that all or part of the Ex
Parte 206 increases have been taken off of the rail rates on Florida
fresh citrus and canned and frozen citrus products moving to many
parts of the country.

Ex Parte 210 Increased Express Rates And Charges, 1957

A petition for a 15 percent increase in express charges was
filed by the Railway Express Agency in July, 1957. If granted, this
increase would have resulted in an estimated increase in the trans-
portation charges of the express fruit shippers in Florida of ap-
proximately $750, 000 per year based on the volume of shipments
which had been made in the past few years. Opposition to the pro-
posed increase was made by the League and oral argument was
heard in Washington in May, 1958. The matter is now before the
Commission for its decision.

Reduction In Rail Rates On Canned Citrus Products To Points
In Official Territory

Because of truck competition, the rail lines in June, 1957,
published reduced rates on canned goods moving between Southern
and Official Territories. After the increases in Ex Parte 206 be-
came effective, the rail lines found that they were still continuing
to lose tonnage because of the high level of rates and proposed a
lower scale for application from Florida to Official Territory. At
the same time, Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation published rates
on canned citrus from Florida to points in Official Territory which
were to be competitive with the reduced rail rates on canned citrus.
Petitions for suspension against both the rail and water line rates
were filed with the Commission and the rates were suspended and
later withdrawn. In lieu of the proposed rates, the rail lines and
the boat line both removed the Ex Parte 206 increases from the ef-
fective rates.

Charges For Mechanical Refrigeration Service

On rail shipments of frozen citrus products stored in transit, the
refrigeration charge has been based on separate charges from origin to
storage point and from storage point to final destinationwhich results ina
much higher refrigeration cost as compared with the through refrigeration
charge from point of origin to point of final destination. A proposal was
filedwith the National Perishable Freight Committee to assess on shipments

- 86 -

stored in transit the through mechanical refrigeration charge from
point of origin to point of final destination plus a charge of $50. 00
to cover the cost to the carriers at the storage point. The $50. 00
charge was felt to be too high for the services performed and oppo-
sition to the level of this charge was entered at a hearing before the
committee. The committee approved the proposal and the change
was made effective July 18, 1958, resulting in a reduction in the
over-all refrigeration cost on these shipments, although not as
great a reduction as is believed justified. The publication of the
rules, regulations and charges on mechanical refrigeration service
in the Perishable Protective Tariff has been revised and although it
has resulted in no major change, it is being analyzed for possible
future action.

Repeal Of Federal Transportation Tax

Over a period of years we have urged the repeal of the Federal
Excise Taxes of 3 percent on freight transportation charges and 10
percent on charges for communications. This year we again handled
with our Congressional delegation and statements requesting favor-
able action on the repeal of the taxes were made before Committees
of the House and the Senate. In June, 1958, the House and Senate ap-
proved the repeal of the Federal 3 percent Transportation Tax on
property and effective August 1, 1958, the tax no longer applied.

Through Rail Rates To Canadian Destinations

Rail shipments of canned and frozen citrus products moving
to points in Canada move on combinations of rates which are very
difficult to determine. The League has been handling with both the
origin and Canadian rail lines in an effort to have through rates pub-
lished on these commodities. The Canadian lines have approved a
proposal for the publication of through rates and the proposal has
been submitted to the Southern carriers for their concurrence. The
League has also been working with the rail lines for a reduction in
the rates on citrus fruits to Canadian destinations in line with re-
ductions which have already been made to points in Official Territory.

Additional Stop In Transit On Frozen Citrus Products

As a means of assisting in the better distribution of the
smaller pack of frozen citrus concentrate resulting from the freezes
of this season, the rail and truck lines serving the frozen citrus
products industry were requested to authorize an additional stop in
transit for partial unloading. The truck lines serving the industry
authorized an additional stop, but the origin rail lines advised that
they were unwilling to file a proposal for an additional stop in the

- 87 -

South and did not feel that they could file a proposal for an addi-
tional stop in other territories. Proposals suggesting an addi-
tional stop have been filed by rail lines in other territories but
as yet no action has been taken on these proposals.

Free Time For Partial Unloading Of Rail Shipments Of Frozen
Citrus Concentrate

Rail shipments of frozen citrus concentrate stopped in
transit for partial unloading were allowed a total of six hours
after arrival at stop-off point before charges for detention were
assessed. Many charges for detention on cars stopped off for
partial unloading were not received by the shippers until several
months after shipment had been made. In an effort to correct this
situation, the rail lines filed a proposal with the National Perish-
able Freight Committee to provide that no charge for detention
would be assessed until after the first 24 hours after placement of
the car for partial unloading. The League supported this proposal
and effective April 28, 1958, the time allowed at stop-off point for
partial unloading was changed to 24 hours.

Truck Tariff On Canned Citrus

The truck rates applying on canned citrus products moving
from Florida to various destinations have been in a confused state
for some time and the shippers have urged the truck lines to pub-
lish a single tariff containing the applicable truck rate on canned
citrus products in order that both the shippers and the carriers
might be able to determine the applicable rate on any given ship-
ment. After many conferences and much correspondence with the
truck lines, the matter was considered by the Southern Motor Car-
riers Rate Conference and a proposal was filed with the Conference
proposing the publication of a single tariff on canned goods from
points in Florida to points in the Eastern part of the United States.
This proposal is still before the Conference for action by the motor

Applications Of Truck Lines For Operating Authority

The League and the shippers of canned, chilled and frozen
citrus products have received several requests in the past year to
support applications of truck lines to transport these commodities
to various destinations. Industry support was given by the League
to some of these applications but many of the applications were not
supported by the League as it was decided that the service sought
did not warrant the League's action on behalf of the industry. An
application for transfer of operating authority to transport citrus

- 88 -

molasses to points in the Southeast was supported as it was felt that
the service of a common carrier motor truck line should be avail-
able for the use of shippers that had a need for this service.

Reduced Rail Rates On Citrus Pomace To Points In The East,
Carload Minimum Weight 60, 000 Pounds

In an effort to increase the movement of citrus pomace to
points in the East a proposal was filed with the origin rail lines
suggesting the establishment of reduced rail rates based on an in-
creased carload minimum weight of 60, 000 pounds. This proposal
was supported by the receivers in the East as well as by the Florida
shippers and was approved by both the Southern and Eastern Rail-
roads, becoming effective October 3, 1957.

Proposed Reduction In Rail Rates On Citrus Pomace To Points
In CFA And IFA Territories

As an aid in trying to promote the sale of citrus pomace in
CFA and IFA Territories, or roughly the States of Illinois, Indiana,
Ohio, and Michigan, the rail lines were requested to re-establish
the level of rates which had existed for several years and which had
been cancelled because of lack of movement. Rates on approximately
the old level were approved by the Southern Rail Lines but the North-
ern Railroads refused to concur in the proposal and suggested in
place thereof the extension of the proposed rates to all points in Of-
ficial Territory, which would have resulted in a considerable in-
crease in the rail rates to points to which citrus pomace now moves.
This matter is still being handled in an effort to persuade the North-
ern Lines to make an adjustment in the rates to CFA and IFA Terri-
tories without disturbing the present basis of rates into the East.

Mixing In Transit On Citrus Pomace At Buffalo, New York

Over the past several years efforts have been made to have
the origin and Northern Railroads approve a mixing in transit
privilege on Florida citrus pomace at Buffalo, New York. Such a
privilege would result in a considerable volume of pomace being
used in the mixture of feed at that point. The rail lines have been
reluctant to authorize this transit privilege because of the routing
involved and also because of the division of revenue. This matter
is still being handled with the railroad and with the mills and re-
ceivers in the East in an effort to secure approval of this transit

- 89 -

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Regulatory Activities

Freeze-Dam-age Regulations. The most important regu-
lations adopted by the Commission related to the use of freeze-
damaged oranges following the severe freeze on December 12 and
13. These regulations are summarized in another section of this
report. It had been many years since the industry experienced a
severe freeze and when such prior freezes occurred, the Com-
mission was not empowered to adopt regulations applicable to the
use of freeze-damaged fruit for processing. However, the 1957
Legislature authorized the Commission to adopt regulations gover-
ning the use of freeze-damaged oranges for the production of fro-
zen concentrated orange juice. The Act established a Concentra-
tor's Advisory Committee, consisting of representatives of nine
concentrators, and provided that upon the recommendation of this
Committee, and after a public hearing, the Commission was
authorized to adopt regulations.

During the 1955-56 and 1956-57 seasons, there was a
limited volume of oranges which were seriously damaged by
freezing and some experimental work had been done on the pro-
duction of frozen concentrated orange juice from such fruit. These
experiments indicated that serious quality problems were likely to
be encountered with the use of freeze-damaged fruit, the deteriora-
tion of quality being related to the degree of damage in the fruit
used. This work by the research people served as a valuable guide
to the Commission, with the cooperation of the industry, in adopt-
ing regulations which were designed to safeguard the quality of
Florida concentrate.

For a period of several months following the first freeze,
the Commission held numerous meetings. Research was intensi-
fied and the regulations were gradually relaxed when the work by
the technical people indicated that more of the freeze-damaged
fruit could be used without seriously affecting quality. It was the
policy of the Commission to permit the utilization of as much of
the damaged fruit as possible without jeopardizing the quality of
the finished product and thereby adversely affecting the good name
of Florida citrus products. It is generally agreed that the regu-
lations which were adopted achieved this objective.

In addition to the regulations governing the use of freeze-
damaged oranges for concentrate, the Commission, immediately
following the freeze, invoked a 7-day embargo against the sale or
movement of fresh citrus fruit. The purpose of this was to prevent

- 93 -

the movement of freeze damaged fruit to consumers and to pro-
vide a waiting period during which the evidence of freeze damage
could more readily be detected by the inspectors. Following the
7-day embargo, the regulation prohibited the shipment of seri-
ously damaged fruit.

Other Regulations. In response to requests from the in-
dustry, the Commission adopted several amendments to the regu-
lation covering the use and marking of containers for fresh citrus.
The principal change was the elimination of seven containers and
the addition of one new container for the shipment of fresh citrus.

A new regulation was adopted requiring truckers or "bird
dogs" to file monthly reports with the Commission on the amount
of fruit dealt with. This information is needed to provide a check
on the adequacy of surety bonds posted as required by the Citrus
Code. The reports were obtained during the past year on a volun-
tary basis and on the basis of the information received, 42 citrus
dealers were required to increase the amount of the surety bonds
which had been posted.

Other regulations relating to chilled orange juice, regis-
tration of labels, performance bonds for gift fruit shippers who
advertise as "Bonded Shipper," and coloring of Temple oranges,
were adopted.

Theft Of Citrus Fruit

The Commission worked closely with the Commissioner of
Agriculture in taking measures to curb the theft of citrus fruit.
The Governor's office, the Highway Patrol, and the Sheriffs in the
citrus producing area were requested to give this matter special
attention. A bulletin was sent to all citrus fruit dealers alerting
them to the possibility of fruit thefts, urging that they require a
bill of sale or some proof of ownership of fruit delivered to them,
and advising them that the Commission would recommend revoca-
tion of the license of any dealer who knowingly accepted stolen fruit.

Master Calendar Of Meetings

Due to the multiplicity of citrus meetings scheduled by var-
ious industry groups and the conflict of meeting dates, the Com-
mission established a Master Calendar of Meetings in which citrus
meetings scheduled are recorded for many months in advance. This
information is made available to anyone interested in it and should
serve to avoid conflicts in scheduling meetings.

- 94 -

Citrus Fruit Dealer Licenses And Special Permits

During the 1957-58 fiscal year, the Commission reviewed
and approved 1,330 applications for citrus fruit dealer licenses.
In addition, 3 applications were denied because of unfavorable in-
formation received concerning the applicants.

A total of 1,693 Special Permits were issued covering ex-
perimental use of new containers, the movement of gift fruit
shipments of citrus fruit by truck, the movement of citrus fruit
outside the State for processing and the movement of fruit for
charitable or relief purposes.

Statistical Services

The Commission's Statistical Department prepared and dis-
tributed to the industry several statistical reports, including
weekly reports covering operations of Florida citrus processors,
as supplied by the Florida Canners Association, weekly and
monthly reports of the Market Research Corporation on the volume
of consumer purchases and prices paid for citrus fruits and pro-
ducts. These reports also contained information on the percent of
U. S. families buying citrus, availability of citrus fruits and pro-
ducts in retail stores, and additional information of value to sales
managers in the citrus industry. The Commission also compiled
a report showing the unloads of fresh citrus fruits in the various
markets in the 1957-58 season.

Legislative Matters

During the year, members of the Commission's staff par-
ticipated in many meetings and worked closely with Florida's Con-
gressional representatives on administrative and legislative mat-
ters of importance to the citrus industry. Among the more im-
portant matters were (1) the addition of color to oranges (U. S.,
Canada and Germany); (2) labeling of fruit which received post-
harvest pesticide treatment to retard decay; (3) false and mislead-
ing labeling of citrus products; (4) standards of identity for citrus
products; (5) theft of citrus field boxes; and (6) discriminatory laws
of other states relating to the labeling of frozen concentrated orange

- 95 -


_ A..

-- \ ,V






(000 Bxs)



(000 Bxs)





(000 Bxs)
















- .10
- .02
- .05
- .10
- .14

(a) Difference between "Total Production" and actual utilization represented by
Economic Abandonment.

- 99 -



(000 Bxs)











- -




1,000 Gallons - -



L12 19
303 28
345 148
535 16
180 51





- - Tons - -

163,397 /1
187,543 71
218,065 /1
223,311 71
287,832 71
262,474 /1
297,253 71
296,575 /1
291,537 /1


/1 Includes meal, pulp and pellets
x Includes Tangerine Juice and Tangerine Blends
xx Includes Orange Sections
(Source: Florida Canners' Association) 100 -



1,000 Cases,





CITRUS (Other than
SALAD Concentrate)
------- - -

310xx 42,579
1,274xx 50,651
1,098xx 42,376
433xx 37,743
955xx 48,339
611xx 38,910
689xx 38,725
875xx 45,080
810xx 38,299
719xx 39,604
591xx 40,303
476xx 37,172








Litho USA