Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075981/00007
 Material Information
Title: Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee?
Creation Date: 1956
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000863394
oclc - 01327786
notis - AEG0106
lccn - 50063588
System ID: UF00075981:00007

Full Text

florida citrus

38. 1745
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Commission Members Serving During
the 1956-57 Fiscal Year

Herschell N. Sorrells, Chairman
J. R. Graves, Vice-Chairman
J. Ross Bynum
Frank Chase
Nash LeGette
Herbert S. Massey
A. V. Saurman
Key Scales
Bruce W. Skinner
Thomas B. Swann
Marvin Walker
J. Dan Wright, Jr.


Key Scales, Chairman
Marvin Walker
Thomas B. Swann
J. R. Graves
Bruce W. Skinner
J. Dan Wright, Jr.


J. R. Graves, Chairman
Herbert S. Massey
Marvin Walker
Nash LeGette
Thomas B. Swann

Dade City
Winter Haven
Lake Wales


Frank Chase, Chairman
A. V. Saurman
J. Ross Bynum
Bruce W. Skinner
Herbert S. Massey


Marvin Walker, Chairman
J. Ross Bynum
Nash LeGette
A. V. Saurman
Thomas B. Swann


Homer E. Hooks, General Manager
Robert C. Evans, Director of Administration
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research
Walter J. Page, Director of Public Relations
Frank D. Arn, Director of Advertising and Merchandising
Ralph M. Henry, Merchandising Manager
Ted L. Hodson, Manager of Special Promotions
John E. O'Reilly, Production Manager
Joseph C. Fuller, Statistician
Clyde P. May, Assistant to Director of Public Relations

*Effective August 1, 1957

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Florida's citrus industry continued its growth and progress in
1956-57 as the world's foremost citrus-producing area. Measured in
volume of fruit produced, Florida's 134, 000, 000 boxes of oranges,
grapefruit, tangerines and limes comprised 68% of all the citrus grown
in the United States, and 30% of the world's crop. And in terms of dol-
lar value to Florida growers, $167,000,000.00 made 1956-57 one of the
best years on record.

But even more striking than the yard-stick of boxes and dollars
were the solid accomplishments of the industry in 1956-57. The Florida
Citrus Commission, the state agency which operates under state law to
regulate the industry and to carry on its tremendous advertising and pro-
motional program, contributed in a large manner to this list of achieve-

Members of the Commission wisely foresaw, early in the season,
the two principal goals which were to mark this year as one of significance
in the field of constructive leadership. They saw marketing problems re-
sulting from much larger crops ahead, particularly oranges, from the
thousands of acres of new plantings set out since the advent of frozen
orange concentrate. And, second, they saw the absolute necessity of in-
suring that consumers would continue to receive top quality Florida citrus
products in whatever form they chose to buy it.

The Commission took steps to implement these two objectives.
Meetings were called around the industry to seek and coordinate the best
thinking of everyone engaged in citrus. Finally, a comprehensive program
was developed for presentation to the Florida Legislature, meeting in its
regular 1957 session.

The Commission, with other industry organizations in full coopera-
tion, asked the Legislature for two historic changes in the citrus laws of
Florida: First, that the advertising tax on oranges be increased from 3 to
5' per box, which was estimated to make available two million dollars more
for advertising oranges. Second, that the Commission's authority to regu-
late the production of frozen orange concentrate be broadened by the creation
of a Concentrators Advisory Committee. This committee would be empowered
to work with and advise the Commission in making sure that Florida's "Cin-
derella" product, frozen orange concentrate, would continue to be of the flavor
and quality which made it the fastest-growing food product in history.

The Legislature gave its complete assent to these requests and to
several others -- all designed to safeguard the exacting standards of quality
which the Florida citrus industry long ago prescribed for itself.


And so the Commission, acting for the whole industry, set its
sights on the two objectives of equipping itself, through additional ad-
vertising funds, to help market the industry's largest crops, and to
maintain and even tighten the rigid quality standards on Florida citrus
fruit and products.

But these were not all of the Commission's activities for the

In the Fall of 1956 the Commission occupied its new headquarters
building on Memorial Boulevard in Lakeland. The Commission holds
regular monthly meetings there, to which the public generally, and par-
ticularly those engaged in citrus, are invited to attend.

In connection with its regulatory authority, the Commission pro-
cessed applications from each person or company requesting a citrus
fruit dealer's license, as well as many hundreds of special permits.

Besides these functions, the Commission carried on numerous
projects with state and federal agencies to protect and advance the posi-
tion of Florida's citrus industry and to facilitate the ever-wider distribu-
tion of our fruit and products in this country and abroad.

We cordially invite your attention to the contents of this Report for
amplification of this brief summary. You will find interesting and inspir-
ing information on all of the many activities -- big and little -- which your
Florida Citrus Commission is doing for you who have any interest, direct
or indirect, in Florida's great and growing citrus industry.

General Manager



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During the 1956-57 fiscal year, the Florida Citrus Commission
conducted a hard-hitting advertising campaign designed to create a
stronger awareness of Florida citrus and citrus products. It was a
bigger program than the previous year and incorporated many inova-
tions not previously found in Florida citrus advertising.

Two new products, not previously advertised, were introduced
for the first time. Chilled orange juice and frozen grapefruit juice
brought to ten the number of products advertised yearly by the Commis-
sion. Chilled orange juice made its debut in BETTER HOMES AND
GARDENS and LADIES' HOME JOURNAL magazines while frozen grape-
fruit juice advertising was inaugurated in LIFE magazine. All were in
full color.

On July 6, 1956, Benton & Bowles presented its recommended ad-
vertising program for the 1956-57 fiscal year. This program was ac-
cepted by the Commission, and its major components were as follows:

Primary Marketing Objective

The fundamental marketing objective for 1956-57 continued to be
the development and expansion of the markets for Florida Citrus in all
forms and varieties, together with the maintenance and increase in grower
and processor profits.

Basic Advertising Principles

Following fundamental principles of sound consumer advertising
and the basic strategy originally recommended in 1955, all Citrus Com-
mission advertising was designed to create the maximum consumer buy-
ing influence. The common denominators of all citrus, (Vitamin C and
other health benefits) were an important part of each advertisement, and,
in addition, the individual and specific consumer advantages of each pro-
duct were emphasized in every advertising message.

Where Commission Advertising Appeared

While one of the basic principles of Benton & Bowles' advertising
philosophy is continuity of impressions, it was considered essential that
periodic promotional activity be conducted featuring individual products
based on seasonal supply and consumer purchasing habits. Under a fol-
lowing paragraph, the integration of consumer advertising and retail mer-
chandising will be further discussed. The selection of media closely
approximated the 1955-56 season. The basic requirements of continuity,


flexibility, and adaptability to seasonal and product variations naturally
remain the same. In addition, this year, where practicable, media
was selected to even more closely coincide with thesales pattern of
each individual product.

Television Basic Medium

Television was again used as the basic medium, being the medium
that offers the greatest geographical and seasonal flexibility, and variety
of audience at the most efficient cost. Within the limitations of the bud-
get, television spots most efficiently accomplish our fundamental objec-
tives. The plan for 1956-57 provided for an average of 4. 2 highly rated
spots per week in 67 key markets (107 stations) for the full 52 weeks of
the year. These television spots alone reached an average of 28,000,000
homes per week at the very low cost of $0.92 per thousand homes.

The scheduling of these spots was rotated on a periodic basis
among the various products in direct ratio to each individual product's
accural percentage.

Special Program for Fresh Grapefruit

To give increased emphasis to Fresh Grapefruit during the 18
weeks when shipments were at their peak, the NBC morning show,
"Today, starring Dave Garroway, was used. Three one-minute live
participation per week were devoted to Fresh Grapefruit. Approxi-
mately 51% of the budget was used for television.

Radio Supplements T. V.

In order to supplement our spot television purchases, radio was
used. The NBC week-end radio show, "Monitor," provided us the oppor-
tunity to support our periodic promotional drives over a 26-week period.
We used eight one-minute spots per week-end and reached a sizable home
audience and, as a plus, an equally large family automotive radio listen-
ing audience. Less than four per cent of the budget was spent on radio.

Magazines for Processed Products

To further intensify the specific product merchandising events
and to provide the colorful appetite appeal, so important to the sale of
citrus products, national magazines were used. Chilled orange juice
and frozen grapefruit juice, ninth and tenth products to be advertised by
the Commission, were introduced to the public in national magazines. Be-
cause of their national distribution pattern, this medium was used exclu-
sively for processed products.

Approximately 15 per cent of the budget was allocated to magazines.


Sunday Newspapers in Color

As in 1955-56, Sunday newspapers (Color supplements) were
used for our two specialty products, Tangerines and Temple Oranges.
This medium allows for a more individually tailored selection of mar-
kets and is, therefore, most appropriate for these two items.

Daily Newspapers for Fresh Fruit

Black and white daily newspapers, with their great local impact
and merchandisability, were used extensively for fresh citrus; to an-
nounce the arrival of fruit in individual markets, and as an added spur
to the efforts of the merchandising men, to get greater retail tie-in ad-


The Calendar of Florida Citrus Promotions continued in this sea-
son to be the coordinating link between retail merchandising activity and
the consumer advertising. It established the working schedule of the Com-
mission's merchandising representatives and provided them with a pre-
planned program for contacting chain and independent retailers to more
effectively promote the various Florida citrus products.

This year, in addition to the Calendar of Events, the merchandis-
ing men were provided with a selling portfolio. This device gave the men
the opportunity of systematically and effectively telling the full story of the
Commission's advertising program to the trade. All of the activity of the
field force, including tie-in advertising, demonstrations, and displays,
was directed to a close coordination with the specific consumer advertis-
ing on each product.

Details of the Media'Program

Television Spots

Television spots were run in the top 67 markets in the country on
over 107 stations. Two hundred and seventy-seven times each week,
Florida citrus selling messages were scheduled adjacent to some of the
highest rated television shows on the air. All products participated in
these spots on a rotation basis in accordance with the promotional pattern
established by the Calendar of Events.

Daily Newspapers

Fresh Oranges were advertised on four separate occasions in 103
markets. These markets were selected on a basis of unloads, population,
and chain-headquarters location.


Fresh Grapefruit was advertised four times in 114 of the most
important grapefruit cities.

In behalf of Temple Oranges, a special campaign was conducted
in 13 markets during the month of January.

Tangerines were advertised in November and January in 65

The magazine schedule for 1956-57 campaign was as follows:


Full Page,4 Color
Full Page, 4 Color

Feb., 1957
May, 1957

Grapefruit Sections
Grapefruit Sections

AMERICAN HOME Full Page, 4 Color

March, 1957 Grapefruit Sections







Page, 4 Color
Page, 4 Color
Page,4 Color
Page, 4 Color
Page, 4 Color

Page, 4
Page, 4
Page, 4

Full Page, 4
Full Page, 4
Full Page, 4
Full Page, 4



Jr. Page, 4 Color
Jr. Page, 4 Color
Jr. Page, 4 Color
Jr. Page, 4 Color

Oct. 8, 1956
Dec. 3, 1956
Mar. 4, 1957
May 6, 1957

Oct., 1956
Dec. 1956
Feb. 1957
Mar. 1957

Nov. ,1956
Jan., 1957
Feb. 1957
June, 1957

Jan.12, 1957
Mar. 9,1957
Apr. 6,1957

Frozen Orange Juice
Frozen Orange Juice
FrozenOrange Juice
FrozenOrange Juice
FrozenOrange Juice

Canned Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice
Canned Orange Juice

Canned Orange Juice
CannedOrange Juice
CannedOrange Juice
Canned Orange Juice


Grft. Juice
Grft. Juice
Grft. Juice
Grft. Juice

Sunday Newspapers Color Supplements

Sunday supplements were used exclusively for Tangerines and
Temples. For the former, two insertions, one in December, and one in
January appeared in AMERICAN WEEKLY (Eastern Edition), FIRST THREE
ATLANTA JOURNAL CONSTITUTION. Temple Oranges were advertised
in the FIRST THREE MARKETS GROUP on January 20.

To supplement our television activity, radio spots were used. On


the NBC "Monitor" week-end program eight one-minute spots were used
periodically throughout the year to give added weight to the particular
product then being featured.

Trade Paper Advertising

As an added contribution to our aim of coordinating retail activity
with consumer advertising, our trade paper advertising called the atten-
tion of the retailer to a sales event planned for the succeeding month.
DUCE NEWS, and FROZEN FOOD AGE, were used to carry these mess-

Canadian Advertising

Our program in Canada was conducted on the same basis as our
United States program with all the same goals and strategy. The only ex-
ception was in the broadcast field where radio spots were used in lieu of
television spots. Canadian television has not advanced as yet to the stage
where it adequately covers all of the markets necessary for citrus. Radio,
on the other hand, does reach the full list.

Agency Service Organization

The service function consists of an Agency Vice-President in
charge of the Branch Office in the Commission Building in Lakeland, co-
ordinating the Agency's activities with those of the Commission, and the
Agency's New York organization.


Listed on the last page of this report is a breakdown of the final
advertising budget for the fiscal year. By way of explanation, two unusual
occurrences during the year deserve mention:

In December, it was necessary to reduce the advertising budget
by five per cent, from $3, 050, 000 to $2, 900, 000. This reduction
actually had the effect of reducing the last six months of the fis-
cal year by ten per cent, since the $150, 000 reduction had to be
made solely in that period. At approximately this same time, it
was decided to begin consumer advertising on Chilled Orange
Juice and Frozen Grapefruit Concentrate. The addition of these
two products to our program had the effect of reducing monies
allocated to the other eight products.

In April, the Commission authorized the expenditure of $250, 000
to conduct a special drive on Frozen Orange Juice in an attempt
to boost lagging sales. A once-a-week fifteen-minute segment

- 10 -

of the Arthur Godfrey daytime television and radio show was pur-
chased with $180, 000 of this amount. A newspaper advertise-
ment was run on May 23 in 150 markets at a cost of approxi-
mately $70, 000.

Grand total expenditure for consumer advertising in the 1956-
57 season was $3, 179,478. 14.

- 11 -


$ %

378,477.23 21.3

$ %

549,624.20 45

$ %

126,422.39 100

$ %

58,760.81 100

2. Processed












Total Spent
1. Fresh $ 1, 113,400.39

Percentage of Total Expenditure

2. Processed


$ 3,179,478.14

NOTE: Total expenditure includes $115.76 for Tangelo advertising

1. Fresh






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For the past 10 years, the Commission has provided for a program
of advertising directed toward the medical, dental, and other professions
concerned with the problem of health. This program has been developed
and executed by Noyes and Sproul, Inc. an agency which specializes in
professional advertising.


Journal Advertising

Fifteen selected professional journals were used to carry citrus
messages to important segments of the health professions. By categories,
these journals were:

3 national general medical
3 general practitioner
1 obstetric
2 pediatric
1 nutrition
1 public health
2 dental
2 nursing

Total circulation was 1, 033, 000; number of insertions during the
year was 91, all of which were full pages in two colors; total advertising
impressions were 6,425,000.

Advertising messages featured specific health values of citrus fruits
and the need for special attention to a liberal citrus intake in view of con-
tinuing reports of vitamin C deficiencies. Subjects covered in this series of
advertisements included the following:

New proof of high nutritional values in frozen orange juice
Citrus fruits helpful in teen-age acne
High citrus intake in preventing miscarriage
Infantile scurvy rate is increasing
Citrus to guard against oral diseases
There's no juice like citrus juice

Direct Mail Advertising

A limited mailing of the second edition of the Medical Information
Booklet was made to a highly selective list of about 34, 000 physicians and
professors of pediatrics, obstetrics, and internal medicine in all medical

- 14 -


No new clinical research projects have been started this year.

The report of the study by Drs. Irvin H. Strub and Frank C. Val-
Dez of Chicago concerning effects of orange juice in the management of
peptic ulcer patients was published in the April 27 issue of the Journal of
American Medical Association. Reprints of this paper are to be mailed
in the coming year to about 27, 000 physicians.

The approved manuscript of the completed study by Dr. Thomas
of the University of Alabama on dental aspects of citrus ingestion has been
submitted for publication in the New York State Dental Journal. We shall
continue following through on this to get the earliest possible publication if
it is accepted here or elsewhere.


In addition to continuing contacts with the American Medical As-
sociation and the American Dental Association to secure official approval of
advertising messages presenting positive health values of citrus fruits, sev-
eral special projects have been handled on behalf of the Commission.

One of the most far-reaching of these was the interest sparked on
the part of the American Medical Association in editorializing on the many
fallacies in the book Arthritis and Common Sense by Dan Dale Alexander.
The author's many disparaging and false statements about citrus fruits were
thus put in their proper perspective in the thinking of the profession and
much of the damaging impact of these false concepts which had gained wide
public acceptance was eliminated.

Press releases were distributed on the higher vitamin C content of
frozen citrus revealed in the assays made by the Wisconsin Alumni Research
Foundation. The value of citrus in dietary control of childhood obesity was
played up in a story released to the United Press wire service. The fact that
allergy to citrus is rarely encountered was the subject of a carefully docu-
mented communication to physicians who prepare daily syndicated health
columns for newspapers.

In addition, a unique public relations service on behalf of the Com-
mission has been instituted by sending stories on the health values of citrus
to a selected list of about 100 industrial house organs culled from the more
than 3, 000 that are published. Each of the ones selected has requested
health items from us. This list, which reaches an audience in excess of
4, 000, 000 people, constitutes an important new communications channel for
citrus messages to wage earners and salaried workers whose incomes for the
most part are above average and the majority of whom are heads of families.

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The Me rchandising Department of the Florida Citrus Commission
is maintained to promote a sound relationship between the Florida citrus
industry and the many retail organizations throughout the United States and
Canada and to assist these retail organizations in promoting the sale and
use of citrus products in fresh, single-strength canned, and frozen concen-
trate forms. Inasmuch as the Citrus Commission represents the entire in-
dustry, the policy over the years has been to promote the over-all use of
the end product rather than to promote the use of brand, or brands. The
benefits of this program have been recognized by all factors in the citrus in-
dustry, and this program has been expanded from year to year as much as
possible within budgetary limitations. During the 1956-57 season, authori-
zation was granted by the Florida Citrus Commission for the employment of
65 field men. These men are located in important marketing areas through-
out the United States and Canada.

In order that close supervision can be given to all field men, the
country has been divided into four divisions. A Division Manager is in
charge of each, and a Regional Manager is in charge of the operation in
principal markets. Merchandising Representatives work under the super-
vision of Regional Managers. The Eastern Division consists of the Atlantic
Coast area and Eastern Canada. The Central Division covers the central
part of the United States and Central Canada. The Western Division consists
of the midwestern area of the United States and Canada, and the Southern Di-
vision encompasses all of the southern states from Oklahoma and Texas,
eastward. The men in the Southern Division and those on the West Coast of
the United States and Canada work under the direct supervision of the Lake-
land office.

A large percentage of Florida citrus products is distributed East of
the Mississippi River. Because of this distribution pattern, our heaviest
concentration of manpower lies in this area; however, with a staff of 65 men,
we have sufficient manpower to give good coverage to all the principal mar-
kets throughout the United States and Canada.

It is felt that the field staff must be well informed regarding new
and better methods of merchandising, as well as the activities of the Florida
citrus industry within the State of Florida. With this in mind, Divisional
Meetings are held at least twice each year, and during the past season, all
field men were brought to Florida for a 3-day training period. During the
course of the year, many different statistical reports and bulletins are
channeled to the field men in order that they may keep abreast of the activi-
ties of the industry and so that they may be better prepared to carry our
story to the retail trade factors with whom they are working.

- 17 -

The duties of our merchandising men cover a wide scope of opera-
tion. They keep retail organizations throughout the country informed re-
garding our advertising schedules. They attempt to have these organiza-
tions tie their own advertising and merchandising programs in with our
campaign and to feature different citrus products when Florida Citrus Com-
mission advertisements are being carried in their markets. They arrange
promotions with various retail organizations throughout the country, supply
them with point-of-sale display material, and build attractive displays in
their retail stores in order that the customer will be attracted to our pro-
ducts when she enters this store to do her weekly shopping.

A Florida Citrus Commission representative contacts the auction
companies in terminal markets, fresh fruit wholesalers, brokers, receivers,
frozen food distributors, hotel and restaurant organizations, and drug and
fountain groups to keep all factors properly informed regarding our adver-
tising and merchandising schedules. But the large portion of his time is
spent in the retail stores building attractive displays and putting up point-of-
sale display material.

During the 1956-57 season, the Commission's representatives made
a total of 108,054 calls, accumulating a total distance of 1,286, 025 miles.
They conducted 1, 181 live demonstrations in which a variety of citrus pro-
ducts were sampled to customers in the retail stores. In addition to live
demonstrations, 2,505 give-away promotions were conducted in which the
customers received awards at the conclusion of a promotional period. This
type of activity has proved to be most successful in that it can be extended
to many more stores than is possible through live demonstration programs.
Through the medium of demonstrations, both live and give-away, it has
been definitely proved that sales of products can be increased by a very
large percentage.

A new feature was introduced during the past year for promotion of
fresh Florida grapefruit, It was a small plastic grapefruit knife which was
supplied to retail organizations by our merchandising staff and given away
to customers with each unit purchase of fresh grapefruit. Some 582, 000
knives were used for promotional purposes by our field men. In addition to
the above, several organizations purchased these knives and used them in
connection with their own planned promotions. This type of a give-away gad-
get is very helpful in increasing sales of fresh Florida grapefruit.

The Florida Citrus Commission has made available for distribution
through its merchandising men a complete line of colorful point-of-sale dis-
play material. Such material is designed to pinpoint the product in retail
stores and to create a desire by customers entering these stores to purchase
Florida citrus products. During the 1956-57 season, 7,941,772 pieces of
point-of-sale display material were distributed to retail organizations
throughout the United States, Canada, and the European market.

- 18 -

In order to receive wider distribution and better usage of this ma-
terial, arrangements have been made for packaging material in kits at the
Lakeland warehouse. Each kit is tailored to meet the individual require-
ments of retail organizations; they are distributed to retail stores by the
organization's headquarters. A total of 361,565 such kits were packaged
and distributed during the past season. Some 8,256 orders have been re-
ceived during the year from field representatives.

During the course of the year's activities, many special events, or
promotions, have been participated in by the merchandising staff. They
are as follows:

Planned Promotions

At the beginning of the fiscal year, twelve planned promotions were
arranged, and a promotional calendar, outlining each of these promotions,
was distributed to all retail organizations throughout the country. Adver-
tising support was arranged for, and participation by the retail organiza-
tions was solicited well in advance by our merchandising men. This type
of program proved to be most successful, as promotions could be arranged
well in advance and point-of-sale display material kits prepared and de-
livered prior to the promotional dates.

National Citrus Merchandising Promotions

Four major promotions were conducted in connection with the pro-
gram formulated by the National Citrus Merchandising Committee. This
committee is made up of representatives from the citrus industries of
Florida, California, and Texas. Special point-of-sale display material kits
were prepared and distributed in support of these promotions, and excellent
cooperation was received from all trade factors.

Tangerine Promotion

Our merchandising staff, working in cooperation with the staff of
the Florida Tangerine Cooperative, conducted an intensive promotional cam-
paign at the peak of the tangerine season. Special point-of-sale display ma-
terial was produced by the Florida Tangerine Cooperative to be used in con-
junction with the Florida Citrus Commission's material. Many outstanding
displays were built in the retail stores throughout the United States and Can-
ada, and it is felt that through the combined efforts of both organizations, the
use of tangerines has been greatly expanded. Live demonstrations were
abandoned this year in connection with the tangerine program in order that a
wider coverage could be made through display work in the retail stores.

Temple Orange Promotion

Intensive merchandising activities were conducted in several of the
larger markets to tie in with, and support, the advertising campaign on

- 19 -

Temple oranges. Special point-of-sale display material was produced by
the Florida Citrus Commission, and many fine displays were built in the
retail stores throughout the country in connection with this campaign.

Trade Luncheons

During the past season, the Florida Citrus Commission entertained
more than 1,600 leading trade factors during a series of eighteen luncheons.
At the time of each luncheon, a complete outline of the advertising and mer-
chandising support for the individual market was presented. This type of
meeting has been most helpful in creating a closer relationship between the
different trade factors and the Florida.citrus industry. It also gives trade
factors a firsthand look at the advertising and merchandising program as
applied to their particular market.

International Apple Convention

The Florida Citrus Commission, in cooperation with Florida Citrus
Mutual, held a "Florida Day" luncheon at the International Apple Associa-
tion Convention which was held in Atlanta, Georgia. There was an attend-
ance of 850. It is felt that through this type of meeting, the growers, ship-
pers, and processors in Florida have a wonderful opportunity to express
their appreciation to the trade factors in the Northern markets for their sup-
port. This is the fourth year that such a "Florida Day" luncheon has been
held in connection with the International Apple Association, and much good
will has been created by this program.

Citrus Queen Activities

During the past season, the Florida Citrus Commission has em-
ployed the full-time services of a Florida Citrus Queen. In cooperation with
our merchandising staff, she has, during the past year, appeared in 20 mar-
kets in connection with storewide promotions. In addition to her appearance
in retail stores, arrangements are made in advance for her appearance on
local radio and television shows. Excellent publicity has also been secured
for the Florida Citrus Queen through the newspapers carrying our advertis-
ing schedule in the markets in which she appeared. She has assisted in five
national conventions which are related to the food field. Her reception in
each market where she has appeared and in each of the national conventions
has been excellent, and it is felt that her efforts have been most useful in
promoting Florida citrus products during the past season.


The program of the Florida Citrus Commission is carried to many
different groups and organizations throughout the United States and Canada
by participation in large national conventions. During the past year, the

- 20 -

Commission has participated in 81 different events. Exhibit space was pur-
chased in fifteen national conventions in the following fields:

Food and Grocery 4
Hotel and Restaurant 4
Educational 1
Frozen Foods 1
Wholesale Fruits and Produce 4
Home Economics 1

We participated in 64 conventions, mostly national, which were held
in the State of Florida, by supplying orange juice to those in attendance.

Florida Products Festival

The Merchandising Department of the Florida Citrus Commission has
worked in cooperation with the Florida Development Commission on its an-
nual "Festival of Florida Products. It is a well-planned program to promote
Florida citrus products, along with all other products produced within the
State of Florida. The Florida Citrus Commission supplied and mailed point-
of-sale display material for use in retail stores to tie in with the "Florida
Products Festival. Excellent cooperation was received from the retail or-
ganizations operating within the State of Florida; and, through this type of
promotion, larger quantities of Florida products were sold.

Florida Avocado and Lime Commission

The Merchandising Department of the Commission has worked in close
cooperation with the Florida Avocado and Lime Commission. Point-of-sale
display material promoting the use of Florida limes was produced by the Com-
mission, and the merchandising staff cooperated with the Florida Avocado and
Lime Commission in the distribution of this material to the retail organiza-
tions throughout the country.

European Program

During this fiscal year, an intensive advertising and merchandising
program has been conducted in the European markets. Two field represen-
tatives, one with headquarters in Frankfurt and the other in Stockholm, are
stationed in this European market. During the past year, these men dis-
tributed 285, 720 pieces of point-of-sale display material which was produced
through the Lakeland office. In addition, 175, 000 pieces of material printed
in foreign languages were produced and distributed in Europe. An additional
100, 000 recipe folders were produced and distributed in Europe.

Our merchandising men bought space and participated in eight fairs
throughout the European countries. By exhibiting in these large fairs, it gave

- 21

our merchandising men an opportunity to sample our products to many po-
tential customers.

A total of 174 in-store demonstrations have been conducted where our
products were sampled to the customers entering the retail stores.

Many showings have been made of the industry film, "The Sun Goes
North, which has been produced with a German script sound track. Through
this particular type of activity, the Florida citrus story has been presented
to many thousands of people in this foreign market. It is conceded that the po-
tential for Florida citrus products in the European market is unlimited and
that through this type of merchandising work the sale of our products can be
greatly increased.

School Material

During this fiscal year, the Florida Citrus Commission has produced
a very colorful line of educational material to be used in grammar schools,
high schools, and colleges for the promotion of Florida citrus products from
a health standpoint. A total of 5, 169 requests have been received from
teachers throughout the country for this particular type of material. Money
spent for this type of point-of-sale display material helps point out to the
youth in our schools the importance of citrus products in their daily diet.

Temperature Tests

In order to ascertain theway in which Florida frozen concentrates are
handled after leaving the Florida warehouses, our field men were requested
to make a series of store checks and temperature tests. In this connection,
our representatives have contacted headquarters of practically all major re-
tail organizations throughout the United States and Canada to stress the im-
portance of proper care and storage of frozen concentrated products. During
the current season they have collected samples of frozen concentrate from a
cross section of stores throughout the country and shipped these samples to
Florida for quality tests by the United States Department of Agriculture. This
program has been most useful in bringing to the attention of the handlers
throughout the country the importance of proper care and storage of this pro-
duct. It has been well received and excellent cooperation given by all organi-

Media Cooperation

The merchandising men of the Florida Citrus Commission work in
close cooperation with the different media on our advertising schedule. Many
newspaper organizations have merchandising men building displays and in-
stalling point-of-sale display material in connection with the products which
they are advertising. Support is solicited from these organizations, and

- 22 -

additional help is received in many instances in connection with store pro-
motions. This same type of merchandising assistance is solicited from
radio and television stations and from magazines and other publications
carrying our schedule.

Representatives of the Florida Citrus Commission's merchandising
staff are provided with up-to-date equipment, such as automatic juicing
machines, dispensers, juice bars, turntables, projectors and films, etc.,
in order to carry out their promotional programs.

Each Commission representative submits at the end of each day's
work a tabulation card for each contact.

At the end of each week's work, a weekly report is submitted cover-
ing his activities and reporting on the movement and acceptance of Florida
citrus products in the areas in which he has been working. He also notes
prices at the retail level and of competitive products. These reports are
edited, combined, .and mailed to some 500 packers, shippers, and other fac-
tors in the citrus industry and allied fields.

- 23 -


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Consumers, whether they read newspapers and magazines, listen
to radio or watch TV, go to cooking schools, or read cookbooks and spe-
cial food articles, couldn't miss news and recommendations for Florida
citrus, fresh, canned and frozen, during the last year. The Commis-
sion's publicity program, in its 20th year with Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy,
rolled into a new high gear to match the tempo of modern life.

Most significant advances were made in the area of radio and TV,
with new formats designed for each. Additional strides were made in the
institutional eating field--which now represents one out of every three
meals consumed by the American public.

Improved calibre and handling of the traditional newspaper releases
brought greater use of our material, and was better timed to help the Com-
mission's own sales promotions. Regular contacts with magazine food edi-
tors, cookbook writers, and syndicate food columnists resulted in more con-
stant use of citrus in all types of food articles.

Color pictures, sometimes on citrus alone, sometimes as part of a
holiday theme picture, increase in value of space occupied and usefulness
each year.. As space costs go up on newspapers, so does the value of the
editorial use of our material. A tally of the year's use of color pictures
made for the Commission brings the figure to over a half million dollars--
and this with the added aura of prestige of the local food editor's signature!
Not only many newspapers use these pictures; a great many regional and so-
called secondary magazines use them.

For radio, a completely revised service has been in effect for just
one year, whereby we have made our initial effort in the use of radio
platters. A series entitled "Summertime, U.S. A. ," which afforded sta-
tions five separate programs on this theme, was first sent out to 250 sta-
tions last summer. It has been sent to another 250 stations this year, with
all reporting use and, in many cases, more than once. High praise was
heaped on the Commission for the subject matter, which, of course, dwelt
heavily on citrus through scripts prepared by us and recorded by leading
health, child care, and food specialists. Scripts of these platters were also
sent to 100 foreign language radio stations.

In addition to the platter service, a monthly kit of cards for radio
programmers is sent out. It has been found that they much prefer this
method of presentation to lengthy scripts. Seven hundred and fifty have re-
quested this service, which again ties in nicely to planned promotions, and
is handled on the local level, with the authority of the local commentator
adding her or his weight to our script.

- 25 -

For television, we have continued our regular recipe and photo kits
to 250 programmers still boasting live shows. For the other stations, we
have filled a definite need with the production of a series of "3-Minute
Cookbook" technique type films, which are just what the name indicates.
Photographed in color and sound in our test kitchens, they have more than
paid for themselves.

Budgeted at $3, 500. 00 each for production and 100 prints and dis-
tribution, our initial offer to TV stations brought orders for 120 prints,
which we furnished. We know that each film has been shown at least once
by each station, and figuring their use at the lowest time rate of the indi-
vidual stations, this represents $6,644.00 worth of TV time. But far more
important results come from the fact that most stations want to retainthe
films in their permanent library. Many have reported use three or four
times. Thus the value received on each of these films is probably some
place between $25, 000. 00 and $50, 000. 00 worth of air time, for a small in-
vestment. Often they are used within an existing women's program; fre-
quently, they are used as the nucleus of a food show which continues the
theme. Stations which have no facilities for women's programs welcome
them as they furnish service and a good sales tool for local food merchants.
Three Florida films have been in distribution during the 1956-57 season: one
on fresh grapefruit; one on frozen orange juice concentrate; one on canned,
frozen and chilled grapefruit sections; two others are completed now and will
be distributed this fall -- one on tangerines, and one on the various varieties
of our fresh oranges.

An institutional food specialist, added to our staff a year ago, has in-
creased appreciably the space we have had directed to citrus in hotel and
restaurant publications. She has assisted at the Florida Citrus Commission
booth at the National Restaurant Show and the School Food Service convention,
in both of which groups she has wide contacts. Almost monthly articles in
leading journals within these fields have resulted, which stimulate more regu-
lar menu inclusion of our products by the great mass feeding industries.

Dudley, Anderson and Yutzy has continued as for many years to repre-
sent the Florida citrus industry at such meetings as the Newspaper Food
Editors Conference, the National Farm Home Editors Conference, The Amer-
ican Women in Radio and Television, the American Home Economics Associa-
tion, the American Dietetic Association and Home Economists in Business.
Our expanded home economics department -- we now have six home econo-
mists on our staff, including our traveling TV and radio home economist --
and better kitchen facilities make it possible for us to offer more personal
service to the national magazine and syndicate writers, which is necessary
in view of the vast competition for existing food space what with some 8, 000
food items being promoted by various means these days.

- 26 -



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The Commission has seventeen employees at this laboratory work-
ing in the fields of processing, by-products, decay control and fundamental
studies of maturity.

A. Processing and By-Products Research

1. Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices

Identification of Microorganisms in Citrus Concentrates. -
Streptococcus-like organisms are associated with juice from fruit
that is overmature or has been damaged mechanically or by freez-
ing. Such organisms are sometimes found in citrus concentrates,
but die rapidly at 0F. These organisms have proved very diffi-
cult to classify as to species, but are suspected to be closely re-
lated to the streptococcus lactis-type. At this time it is believed
that these organisms are common contaminants of plants and soil
and will not be of any public health significance.

Examination of Freeze-Damaged Oranges. Juices extracted
from Pineapple and Valencia oranges showing evidence of freeze
injury increased in total plate counts as the damage became more
severe. Streptococcus-like organisms were found in the juices
and the coli-aerogenes contamination also present in a few of the
samples was of the aerobacter-type.

Chilled Orange Juice. Chilled orange juices were packed in
waxed cartons to determine the effects of temperatures of storage
and stabilization on the rate of growth of microorganisms in this
product. Other packs of chilled juice were prepared, from both
420 and 590 Brix frozen orange concentrates after storage of these
products for two months; these chilled juices were also stored at
different temperatures.

Storage temperature was the most important factor in prevent-
ing micro-biological spoilage of these chilled orange juices dur-
ing storage, but the types and numbers of microorganisms present
and the pH of the juices were also a factor. Products stored at
500 and 600F. spoiled very rapidly, whereas there was no evidence
of fermentation in chilled juices held at 320 and 400F. for three
weeks. Heat treatment of juices at 1550, 1750, or 1950F. before
chilling reduced greatly the total number of microorganisms, but

- 28 -

the initial plate counts and those after the samples had been
stored at 40 F." for 24 days were about the same, regardless of
the stabilization temperature. Chilled juices prepared from
stabilized frozen 420 or 590 Brix orange concentrates had simi-
lar microbiological characteristics and showed little difference
in the rate of microbiological spoilage from those prepared from
freshly extracted juice which was stabilized by heat treatment be-
fore chilling and packaging.

2. Storage Studies on Concentrated Citrus Juices

Ten 420 Brix Pineapple orange concentrates were made from
either single-strength juice heated to 165 F. prior to evapora-
tion, or from 2-, 3-, and 4-fold concentrates withdrawn during
the evaporation of unheated juice and subsequently heat treated
at this temperature. The heated juice and concentrates were
then individually concentrated to 550 Brix; each of the four re-
sulting products was divided into two portions which were cut-
back to 420 Brix with either 0. 030 inch finisher juice or 0. 040
inch Inline extractor juice. One unheated control 550 Brix con-
centrate was also prepared and cut back to 420 Brix with the above
two cutback juices.

Five 420 Brix Valencia orange concentrates were prepared
similarly with three exceptions: (a) the extracted juice before
finishing was passed through a pump that would cut the pulp par-
ticles to uniform size and should liberate more water-soluble pec-
tin, (b) because of a difference in pH, the single-strength juice
and 2-, 3-, and 4-fold concentrates were heated to 1750F. to ob-
tain about the same percentage inactivation of pectinesterase as
was obtained for the Pineapple orange juices and concentrates and
(c) the 550 Brix concentrates were cut back to 42 Brix with the
0. 040 inch Inline extractor juice only. The amount of pectines-
terase inactivation for the heated juices and concentrates, made
from the two orange varieties, fell within the narrow range of 94. 2
to 95. 8%.

Both the Pineapple orange and Valencia orange concentrates are
being stored at -80, 100, 200, 300 and 400F., and are being ex-
amined at periodic intervals. In general, based on analyses to
date, results are in agreement with previous work which showed
that concentrates prepared from juices heated at 2-, 3-, and 4-fold
lost cloud more rapidly at the higher storage temperatures and did
so in direct relation to the degree of concentration before heat

- 29 -

3. Clarification and Gelation in Concentrated Citrus Juices

Examination of Commercial Frozen Grapefruit Concentrates. -
Twenty-eight samples of commercial frozen concentrated grape-
fruit juice were examined for some characteristics that deter-
mine their physical and chemical stability. The low pectines-
terase values found indicate that effective heat treatment was
used in preparation of these products. The pulp content ranged
from 4. 0 to 11. 5%. The pectic content of the samples was de-
termined on both the reconstituted juice and a centrifuged portion
of the juice.

None of these samples showed any initial clarification or gela-
tion and after storage at 800F. for 24 hours, slight gelation was
noted in two concentrates and a semi-gel formed in only one
sample; under the same conditions of storage, definite clarifi-
cation occurred in two products and extreme clarification in six
samples. Neither clarification nor gelation occurred to any sig-
nificant degree in any of the 28 grapefruit concentrates after
storage at 400F. for 48 hours.

Factors to Consider in Determining Clarification in Frozen
Orange Concentrate. Different procedures for thawing frozen
orange concentrate prior to analysis, and conditions for centri-
fugation of the reconstituted juice were studied. As expected,
centrifugation for 10 minutes at 1300 rpm resulted in greater
pulp values than 15 minutes at 1700 rpm; however, no significant
differences in the amount of cloud or pectin in the serum resulted.

When the frozen orange concentrates were thawed and then ex-
amined immediately, the various methods of thawing had no effect
on the light transmittance values or the pectin content of the re-
constituted centrifuged juices. However, agitation during thawing
of frozen samples prior to storage did affect the amount of cloud
that resulted in the reconstituted juices, especially in a concen-
trate having a low pectin content and a high pectinesterase activity.
Higher light transmittance values, indicating less cloud, were
found in products that were stored at either 400 or 800F. in the
frozen state or thawed without agitation and then placed in storage
at this elevated temperature, than in those samples thawed prior
to storage by rotation of the cans in water. These results indi-
cated that it was preferable to thaw samples of frozen orange con-
centrates in water at 400F. by rotating for one hour when they are
to be stored at 400F. ; samples to be stored at 800F. should be ro-
tated in water at 800F. for 15 minutes. If such precautions are
not taken, variable data may be obtained for the same sample of
concentrate concerning the degree of clarification that occurs dur-
ing storage at either 400 or 800F"

- 30 -

4. Relationship of Heat Treatment to Quality of Processed Citrus

A procedure for completely inactivating the pectinesterase in
grapefruit sections packed in 211 x 400 cans with 420 Brix sugar
syrup consisted of exhausting for 15 minutes in a hot water bath
at 1950F. (temperature at center of can about 1750F. ), process-
ing in a water bath for 40 minutes at 1950F. (temperature at cen-
ter of can about 1900F. ), and cooling 15 minutes in running tap

When canned sections were experimentally heated in a water
bath at a temperature of 2080F. for 60 minutes or more, they
turned soft in texture and tan in color.

Grapefruit used in this study was selected so that the effect of
the use of arsenated or unarsenated fruit on the quality of the
canned grapefruit sections could also be investigated.

5. Flavor of Processed Citrus Products

Further studies on oxidized flavors in frozen citrus concen-
trates showed that the addition to Hamlin orange concentrate of
beta-carotene and lycopene, with or without the addition of as-
corbic acid, eliminated or reduced the occurrence of these off-

The flavor of samples from 28 packs of commercial frozen
grapefruit concentrates was evaluated by a taste panel; the samples
were collected from 11 plants during the 1955-56 season. The
flavor of all of these samples was of acceptable quality; 14 of the
concentrates were graded "good" and the other 14 samples were
graded "fair. Defects most frequently mentioned were bitter-
ness and the oxidized off-flavors.

An investigation was started to determine the effect of various
procedures on the flavor of frozen concentrated orange juice.
Packs of frozen Valencia orange concentrate were made which in-
cluded processing variables, such as yield of juice, stabilization
temperature, degree of clarification, quantity of cutback juice
used, and pulp and recoverable oil content of the 420 Brix concen-
trate. Flavor evaluation of these products has not been completed.

Packs of 420 Brix and 530 and 590 Brix high-density frozen
orange concentrates were made from the same batch of Valencia
orange juice so that a comparison of the flavor and other charac-
teristics of these products could be made, both initially and after

- 31 -

storage. The products were prepared both with and without the ad-
dition of cold-pressed Valencia orange oil, and one pack of 590
Brix high-density concentrate was made using, for cutback juice,
a 240 Brix concentrate that had been obtained by freeze concentra-
tion of Valencia orange juice.

6. Factors Affecting Quality of Processed Grapefruit Products

Characteristics of 11 experimental packs of unsweetened 380
Brix frozen concentrated grapefruit juices were determined. These
products were processed in March, April, May and August, 1956,
using grapefruit from different localities. The flavor of these un-
sweetened 380 Brix grapefruit concentrates was evaluated, as well
as that of 19 packs containing added sugar that were prepared from
the same 500 Brix concentrates used in making the unsweetened
products. The sweetened concentrates were made by adding either
or both the minimum and maximum amounts of sugar so that the
finished products would contain 36% juice solids, degree Brix from
380 to 480 and Brix-to-acid ratio from 10 to 13. Coldpressed
grapefruit oil was added to the sweetened products on the basis of
0. 02 ml. /100g. but none was added to the unsweetened concentrates.
The reconstituted juices from each of the 30 packs were tasted by
from 31 to 42 persons, including the Station taste panel and quality
control personnel of five commercial plants. The results indicate
a definite preference for the sweetened concentrates; also, a very
slight preference for the sweetened products that contained a mini-
mum amount of added sugar. Flavor defects most frequently in-
dicated as reasons for poor flavor quality in some of the products
were sourness, bitterness, astringency, and oxidized off-flavors.

Forty experimental packs of frozen grapefruit concentrates
packed to determine the effect of variety and maturity of fruit and
other factors on quality were examined. Duncan and Marsh grape-
fruit were used and the fruit was obtained from the same four plots
at intervals of about six weeks. Arsenated and unarsenated fruit
of both varieties were used. Packs were first processed on Janu-
ary 4 and the last packs prepared on June 29. Data on the recon-
stituted juices varied within the following ranges: pulp from 7 to
22%, water-insoluble solids from 76 to 212 mg. /100g., pectines-
terase activity from none to 2. 1 units, and water-soluble pectin
from 24 to 56 mg. /100g. The water-soluble pectin was found to
be significantly higher in the Duncan than in the Marsh seedless re-
constituted juices. The results from the analyses showed that con-
centrates produced from arsenated fruit were just as stable as
products made from unarsenated fruit. There was neither gelation
nor loss of cloud during storage of the concentrates at 400F. for 48

- 32 -

7. Standardization of Processed Citrus Products

Over 200 samples of commercial frozen orange concentrate
have been collected from Florida plants during the 1956-57 sea-
son. These samples are being examined for flavor and various
physical and chemical characteristics so that a comparison may
be made with results obtained from similar surveys made during
the 1953-54 and 1954-55 citrus seasons.

To determine individual preferences for canned grapefruit juice
sweetened with the artificial sweetener, Sucaryl, three packs of
canned juices were processed. One pack consisted of the unsweet-
ened juice, sugar was added to the same juice for the second pack
and the third pack was prepared from the same juice sweetened
with Sucaryl.

8. Gelation in Orange Marmalade Bases

Pregelation sometimes occurs in barrels of commercial bitter
orange marmalade bases during storage in warehouses at ambient
temperatures prior to its processing into orange marmalade.
Methods for the prevention of this pregelation were investigated.

9. Characteristics of Processed Citrus Products Made from
Freeze-Damaged Fruit

A study of the characteristics of 37 experimental packs of fro-
zen concentrated orange juice, most of which contained juice from
freeze-damaged fruit, was completed. A reduction in total acid,
and resulting increase in pH and Brix-to-acid ratio, was charac-
teristic in the concentrate made from freeze-damaged fruit. The
pulp and flavonoid content of the reconstituted juice usually increased
with extent of freeze injury in the oranges. A very high relative
viscosity was found to be typical of products prepared from cold-
damaged Pineapple-type oranges, but this was not true when dam-
aged Valencia oranges were used. An increase in total pectin was
characteristic of concentrates prepared from freeze-injured fruit.
Gelation and clarification were almost always worse when concen-
trates were made from damaged Pineapple-type oranges than when
undamaged fruit was used. Higher temperatures than 175 F. were
necessary for stabilization to prevent gelation and clarification,
but heat treatment of the cut-back juice was not found necessary for
that purpose when the evaporator-feed juice was heated at 1950F.
Valencia orange concentrates made from freeze-damaged fruit
showed little tendency to gel or clarify. Loss of flavor and/or the
development of off-flavor may occur rapidly in concentrate pre-
pared from fruit injured during a freeze.

- 33 -

10. Production and Use of Activated Citrus Sludge

The production of activated citrus sludge using the laboratory
activated sludge system was concluded. Samples of dried sludge
were collected representing 15 variations of nutrient levels and
drying methods. During all 15 runs, the reductions in B.O.D.
and organic solids were excellent. The samples collected have
been analyzed for nitrogen, thiamine, pantothenic acid and vita-
rin B12.

As a result of a four month study on the effect of increased
temperature on the activated sludge culture, it was found that (1)
An activated sludge unit could be operated at 360C. with no dele-
terious effect on the culture or the degree of treatment obtained,
(2) If, in approaching a temperature of 360C., a rapid rise in
temperature of 40 or 50C. occurred, a temporary period of un-
healthy conditions was encountered but recovery took place if no
further increase in temperature occurred, (3) As temperatures
were increased above 360C., the number of species of protozoa
began to decrease, (4) At a temperature of 430C. the culture was
completely devoid of all protozoa and (5) At a temperature of 460C. ,
the degree of treatment obtained was so poor that further investiga-
tion was not deemed necessary.

The modified method for determining the strength of citrus waste
water by means of chemical oxygen demand analysis was changed
further. By comparison with a set of standards sealed in glass the
chemical oxygen demand of a sample may be estimated, according
to the new procedure, to the nearest 100 ppm without the use of
titration or colorimetric instruments. The method is satisfactory
when speed is more essential than accuracy.

11. Inositol in Citrus Fruits

In the course of these studies it was established that inositol oc-
curs naturally in citrus fruits as the free, water soluble, myo-
form. It was found to be distributed throughout the fruit with the
largest amount in the juice; also decreasing amounts in order in
the rag, peel and pulp. Primary emphasis was placed on the de-
velopment of an economical method for recovery of inositol from
citrus juices, peel and waste liquids from both processing and by-
products plants.

12. Citrus Vinegar

Over 30 gallons of grapefruit vinegar were made. Samples of
this, as well as samples of orange and tangerine vinegars, were
submitted to several food companies, various organizations, and

- 34 -

many persons for evaluation of flavor. Many favorable comments
were received indicating that these vinegars had distinctive and
desirable flavor characteristics; also, that they could be mer-
chandised in a manner similar to wine vinegar.

13. Effect of Borax and Arsenic Sprays on Certain Characteris-
tics of Extracted Juices of Marsh Grapefruit

Various data were obtained on juices extracted from Marsh
grapefruit picked from trees that had received arsenic and boron
sprays. Regardless of the amount of arsenic spray, juice ex-
tracted from fruit which was sprayed with boron was 23. 5 and
20.9% lower in water-insoluble solids and pectinesterase activity,
respectively. The juices from fruit from trees receiving 1.25 and
3. 0 lb. of lead arsenate/100 gals. water, regardless of boron
spray, contained less water-soluble pectin than grapefruit from un-
arsenated trees or from those receiving only 0.4 lb. of lead arsen-
ate/100 gals. of the spray application.

B. Chemical Constituents of Citrus Fruits as Related to Quality

With the exception of pectic materials, the alcohol insoluble solids
in citrus fruits have not been subject to detailed studies. In compari-
son with the soluble constituents, these insoluble solids are present
in low concentrations in the various component parts of the fruit.
Nevertheless, they are important in the understanding of the total
carbohydrate metabolism of the fruit as well as the physical structure
of citrus products.

The alcohol insoluble solids of the four component parts of Pine-
apple and Valencia oranges at several stages of maturity and of Dun-
can grapefruit were studied. The four component parts were the peel,
including the flavedo and albedo; the section membrane; the pulp; and
the juice with all the pulp removed by a 100-mesh screen.

About 90% of the alcohol insoluble solids of the peel and the section
membrane, 80% of those of the pulp, but only 50 to 60% of those of the
juice was polysaccharides. The alcohol insoluble materials were di-
vided into fractions by extraction with dilute alcohol (50%), Versene
solution at pH 11 for 30 minutes followed by Pectinol at pH 5, and
cold alkali. Each fraction and the residue were hydrolyzed, and the
mixture of sugars was separated on a paper chromatogram. The
sugars were identified by their Rf values and by the colors produced
with various spraying reagents.

The sugars produced upon hydrolysis of the arbitary fractions
varied according to the fraction. The general sugar pattern of cor-
responding component parts of the two varieties of oranges seemed

- 35 -

to be rather similar. Arabinose'and galactose were the two main
sugars occurring in the hydrolysate of the dilute alcohol extraction
of the insoluble material of all four component parts of oranges,
and galacturonic acid was the main carbohydrate in the Versene-
Pectinol fraction. In the case of grapefruit, arabinose and galactose
were only found in traces in the dilute alcohol fraction, but occurred
mainly in the Versene-Pectinol fraction together with galacturonic
acid. This observation suggests a possible difference in the associa-
tion of pectin with the two polysaccharides in the two kinds of fruit.

Xylose was the principal sugar from the alkali extract, although
small amounts of glucose, arabinose and galactose were also indi-
cated. In the hydrolysate of the residue glucose had by far the high-
est concentration. Xylose as well as mannose, arabinose, and
traces of galactose was also found.

In a study of the organic acids of various component parts of Dun-
can grapefruit, it was found that the total organic acid concentration
of the juice was five times that of the peel but only twice that of the
rag. The ratio of citric acid to malic acid in the component parts of
the fruit averaged 0. 2, 11.3, 22.5, and 48. 5 for the peel, rag, pulp
and juice, respectively. The malic acid concentration of the peel
was about 3 milli-equivalent per 100 gram. About 1 m. e. per 100
grams was found in both the rag and the pulp, but only 0. 5 m. e. per
100 gram in the juice.

C. Citrus Fruit Decay Studies

Incidence of Decay in Oranges

As in previous seasons, practically all post-harvest decay in
Florida citrus fruits during the 1956-57 season was due to stem-
end rot and common blue-green mold.. The average total loss from
decay based on untreated control lots of oranges in 72 experiments
performed throughout the season was 11. 9% and 20. 6% for fruit held
at 700F. for two and three weeks, respectively. Corresponding
figures for oranges held at 60 F., were 8. 6% and 15. 8%. The values
for both holding temperatures are slightly lower than those reported
for the 1955-56 season. Hamlin oranges were particularly notable
for the small amount of decay they developed; after three weeks at
700F., the average loss was only 8.8%.

Decay Control with Dowicide A-Hexamine and Diphenyl

This series of 28 experiments continued through the entire fruit
season. Eight experiments, in four of which the fruits were de-
greened and four in which they were not degreened, were performed
with each of the following varieties of oranges: Hamlin, Parson Brown

36 -

and Valencia. Four experiments were performed with ungassed
Pineapple oranges.

Average decay control for two weeks based on untreated control
lots was as follows:

% Decay Control at
No. Treatment 700F. 600F.
1 Check
2 Dow-Hex dip 72 81
3 Dow-Hex applied onwasher brushes 70 87
4 Double Dow-Hex dip 78 93
5 Dow-Hex dip and Diphenyl pads 92 96
6 Diphenyl pads 79 82

In experiments performed early in the season with late-bloom Va-
lencia oranges, it was found that Dowicide A-Hexamine applied be-
fore degreening the fruit would control ethylene burn. A photograph
of oranges from one of these experiments is shown in Figure 1.

Use of Fungicidal Waxes for Decay Control

A commercial non-buffing water-wax emulsion, Primafresh, in
which was dissolved 1. 0% Dowicide A, 0. 5% Hexamine and 0. 2%
sodium hydroxide, was found to be stable over a long period of time
and imparted a high and lasting gloss when applied to oranges. De-
cay control was 70% for two weeks at 70 F. while for the same
period at 600F., it was 86%. In the fourth series, comparisons of
the Primafresh fungicidal wax (PF-1) were made with 101A fungici-
dal wax and with a Dowicide A-Hexamine dipping treatment. In
other treatments the wax applications were preceded with a Dowicide
A-Hexamine dip. The results are shown graphically in Figure 2. A
distinct advantage of the use of fungicidal waxes is that waxing of the
fruit and decay control treatments are combined in one operation.

Ammonia Producing Compounds Applied in Fiberboard Cartons

Like the experiments with Dowicide A-Hexamine and Diphenyl
just described, this series extended through the entire season. The
reason for an extended investigation of these methods was that no
tolerance for ammonia residue in citrus fruits is required by the
U.S. Food and Drug Administration and also that no labeling of fruit
so treated is required in retail stores. However, the low percentage
of decay control combined with superficial mold growth and some
peel injury indicate that neither of these methods would be useful for
controlling decay in Florida citrus. The average reduction in decay

- 37 -


Fig. 1. Control of ethylene peel burn with Dowicide
A-Hexamine applied before degreening.
Number of fruits out of 100 in each case with
ethylene burn: left treated; right untreated

Total Decay


o oL



101 A WAX




101 A WAX


Fig. 2. Effect of fungicidal waxes alone and in combination
with a Dowicide A-Hexamine dipping treatment (Dow-
Hex) on decay in Valencia oranges. Storage at 600F.

after two weeks storage at 700F. was only 54% when ammonia pel-
letized mats were used. For 600F. storage, the corresponding
figures were 73% and 65%. Combination of ammonia treatments
with a Dowicide A-Hexamine dipping method failed to increase de-
cay control over that of the latter alone.

Decay Control with Ammonium Carbonate

Since difficulties were encountered in the application of various
ammonia producing compounds placed in fiberboard cartons with
oranges, experiments were carried out in which the fruits were ex-
posed in small degreening chambers for two to three days with
varying amounts of ammonium carbonate. In the first series of
trials, oranges which had been washed and waxed were used. While
stem-end rot was controlled there was considerable peel injury and
increased mold decay. Later the experiments were repeated with
unwashed oranges and ammonia treatments were combined with
ethylene degreening. Rather favorable results were obtained; peel
injury was practically eliminated and good decay control resulted.
Decay control at 700F. for one, two and three weeks was 97%, 84%
and 67%, respectively, when 150 grams of ammonium carbonate per
50 cubic feet were used. Results are presented graphically in Fig-
ure 3. With smaller amounts of the chemical, anthracnose infec-
tion occurred at the stem-end in the second and third week of stor-
age. The method of treatment looks promising and will be investi-
gated further.

Treatment of Valencia Oranges for Decay Control Preliminary
to Cold Storage

Valencia oranges picked May 24, 1956, were treated and placed
in storage the same day at 400F. Aside from untreated check lots,
three fungicidal treatments were given: (1) Standard Dowicide A-
Hexamine dip followed by a rinse; (2) Like the first but the fruit
packed with Diphenyl pads; (3) Unwashed fruit as received from the
grove was given a Dowicide A-Hexamine dip and not rinsed after
which it was waxed with water-wax emulsion.

Decay control with the first treatment paralleled previous sea-
sons, and the second method gave the same high degree of control
reported last season. The third method is of special interest since
it was designed to prevent spoilage in oranges to be used for the
preparation of chilled juice. In addition to protection against decay
the natural waxes plus the application of a wax emulsion gave a high
degree of shrinkage control until the fruit was washed prior to juice
extraction. Average decay control for this treatment after 12 weeks
at 400F. plus seven days at 700F. was 89%. The fruit was firm,

- 40 -

0 50
(NH4)2 COs

100 150
GMS./ 50 Ft.3

Fig. 3. Effect of ammonium carbonate vapor treatments on
decay in Valencia oranges. Storage two weeks at 700F.







good in appearance and juice extracted from it was of excellent
quality. Technical assistance was given a chilled juice concern
which reported that oranges treated this way were 95% sound and
in excellent condition after five months in cold storage while un-
treated fruit was a total loss.

D. Effect of Dipping Treatments in Ethylene Dibromide (EDB)
Emulsions on Valencia Oranges

A number of experiments were performed in which oranges were
dipped in EDB emulsion, since this procedure has been used in Ha-
waii for killing fruit-fly larvae in infested fruit. Inspection during
the storage period of three weeks at 700F. revealed no peel injury
and no effect on decay due to the EDB treatment, however, for
several reasons this procedure was not considered practical for
Florida packing houses.

E. Effect of Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) Fumigation on Decay and Peel
Injury i-n Citrus Fruits

This is a part of the work done at the Citrus Experiment Station to
determine if fumigation of citrus fruit to kill medfly larvae would
cause harmful effects which might reduce the market value of the
fruit. Experiments were performed from August 23 to October 10,
1956, and for the most part, late-bloom Valencia oranges were used.
In the first experiment, 16 ounces of EDB per 1,000 cubic feet, or
twice the recommended amount of the fumigant, were used. This
caused a very marked increase in the incidence of stem-end rot both
in ungassed oranges and in those degreened with ethylene gas. In
subsequent experiments, with the recommended amount of EDB, the
increase in stem-end rot was not so great. However, the average
increase over unfumigated lots was 53%. No peel injury was caused
by the prescribed EDB fumigations; the only peel injury noted was
typical ethylene burn and this occurred only in lots degreened with
ethylene. Dowicide A-Hexamine applied either before or after fumi-
gation controlled stem-end rot.

The length of fumigation period and the size of load in the fumiga-
tion chamber were also studied. Increasing the fumigation period
by 50% had little effect, possibly because (as shown by air analyses)
the EDB level rapidly decreases during the two-hour fumigation
period. A high amount of peel injury was encountered when only a
few fruit were fumigated in a comparatively large chamber. This
was particularly so with grapefruit andkumquats.

Experiments with Hamlin oranges and Duncan grapefruit of the
1956-57 crop were carried out. These fruits were very green and
immature and while no peel injury resulted from EDB fumigations,

- 42 -

practically no decay developed. Therefore, the possible effect
of EDB on stem-end rot was not shown. It is evident, however,
from the experiments with Valencia oranges that EDB acceler-
ates the development of stem-end rot. It is recommended that a
fungicidal treatment such as Dowicide A-Hexamine be applied to
fumigated fruit.

F. Maturity Survey

For the third full year representative groves of red and pink
grapefruit and of navel oranges were sampled at two week inter-
vals. The sampling period extended from September 15, 1956, to
March 15, 1957. Approximately 1865 acres of red grapefruit,
978 acres of pink grapefruit and 410 acres of navel oranges were
included. The grapefruit samples consisted of 6 fruit each of sizes
54, 70 and 96 from about each ten acres of grove. The navel orange
samples consisted of 12 fruit each of sizes 96, 150 and 200 per ap-
proximate ten acres of grove. In the laboratory these samples were
analyzed for juice content, percent acid and total soluble solids.
Fertilizer, spray and production records were obtained for each
grove and in June leaf samples were collected for analysis. It is
expected that it will take about two years to tabulate and analyze the
data obtained.

G. Spray and Dust Schedules

Twenty-two thousand Better Fruit Program Spray and Dust Sche-
dules were printed and distributed.


Columbia University

The research on the growth, reproduction and longevity of guinea
pigs fed on different levels of ascorbic acid was concluded. The results are
being written up under the direction of Dr. Clara Mae Taylor.

Texas State College for Women

This study on the effect of supplementing the diet of school children
with daily portions of orange juice was continued through the two additional
semesters of the 1956-57 school year. The results are being analyzed on
business machines and should be available in September, 1957. A thirty-
minute color film is being made using this study as its subject.

- 43 -


I:;' 7 ..

* s....
~~ ?.' i J'' r



As is the case in any successful industrial endeavor, the compli-
cated procedure of moving products to market has become extremely
important to the Florida citrus industry. As production increases, so
also increase the problems encountered in the transportation of our fresh
and processed products to markets throughout the world.

New and more complex transportation problems have become al-
most a matter of routine to the Florida citrus shipper and processor;
problems that may spell the difference between seasonal success or
profit losses.

To assist in solving these problems affecting transportation, the
Commission continued to retain the service of the Growers and Shippers
League of Florida. The League, as a representative of the citrus indus-
try at large, has been most effective in carrying citrus transportation
problems before the Interstate Commerce Commission and other federal
and state agencies embodied with the authority to regulate transportation.

Through this service, the League has been instrumental in effect-
ing huge savings to the citrus industry. Listed below are some of the
more important citrus problems encountered during the 1956-57 season
by the Growers and Shippers League, their disposition or status:

Reduction in Rail Rates on Fresh Citrus Fruits to Points in Official

Following a request from an official of one of the Florida origin
rail lines for a conference with fresh citrus fruit shippers to discuss what
the rail lines might do in order to secure more traffic to the rails, a num-
ber of conferences with shippers and rail line officials and also a number
of meetings of the fresh citrus fruit shippers were held. It was the opinion
of the shippers that reductions in rail rates more in line with competitive
truck rates must be established if the rail lines expected to secure addi-
tional citrus tonnage. After additional conferences with shippers and ne-
gotiations with the rail lines, the Growers and Shippers League of Florida,
on behalf of the Florida Citrus Commission and in connection with the In-
dian River Citrus League, filed a shippers' proposal to reduce rail rates
on fresh citrus fruit from Florida to points in Official Territory to a basis
which in the opinion of the shippers would enable the rail lines to partici-
pate to a greater extent in the movement of fresh citrus from Florida.

Hearing on this proposal was held before the General Freight Com-
mittee of the Southern Railroads on December 4, 1956, after which the
proposal was approved by the Southern Rail Lines and sent to the Eastern

- 45 -

Railroads for their action. The rail lines in Illinois Freight Association
Territory approved the rates proposed and after securing permission from
the Interstate Commerce Commission for short notice publication, these
rates became effective to Illinois Freight Association Territory on March
20, 1957. Traffic officials of the Eastern Railroads were urged to support
this proposal when it was to be considered by their traffic committees. In
April, 1957, a public hearing was held before the General Freight Traffic
Committee of the Eastern Railroads in Chicago, at which representatives
of the fresh citrus fruit shippers and the League appeared in support of
this proposal. The General Freight Traffic Committee, however, recom-
mended that the proposal be declined with the exception of an adjustment
in the rates to New York City and to New England. The proposal was then
referred to the Traffic Executive Committee of the Eastern Railroads which
Committee approved the reduction at their July 25th meeting.

Reduction in Rail Rates on Fresh Citrus Fruits to Cleveland, Detroit,
Buffalo and Pittsburgh

A proposal to reduce the rail rates on fresh citrus fruit to Cleveland,
Detroit and Buffalo to bring these rates more in line with the rates to Chicago
had been approved by the Southern Rail Lines but objections to the proposal
had been filed by some of the Eastern Railroads. An amendment had also
been made to the proposal to adjust the rate to Pittsburgh at the same time
that rates to the other destinations were adjusted. Hearing on this proposal
was held before the Executive Committee of the Eastern Railroads in New
York on October 18, 1956, which was attended by representatives of the
fresh citrus shippers and also of the League in support of the proposal. The
Traffic Executives finally approved the proposal and lower rates to Cleve-
land, Detroit, Buffalo and Pittsburgh were made effective December 10,

Unloading Charges on Fresh Fruit at New York and Philadelphia

After many years of hearings before the Interstate Commerce Com-
mission and the Federal Courts, including the U.S. Supreme Court, the
Interstate Commerce Commission ordered the unloading charges on fresh
fruits at New York and Philadelphia cancelled. The rail lines petitioned
for reconsideration and re-argument of this decision but the petition was
denied and the charges were finally cancelled effective October 17, 1956.
The Eastern carriers in the meantime had filed a proposal to increase the
line-haul rates on shipments going to the piers at New York and auction sta-
tions in Philadelphia by the same amount as the unloading charge which the
Commission had ordered cancelled. This attempt to secure the same rev-
enue through a different method of rate publication was approved by the
Eastern Railroads but was denied by the General Freight Committee of the
Southern Lines. Upon appeal of this decision to the Executive Committee
of the Southern Railroads, this Committee at first refused to approve these
increases in charges but later agreed to the increase. Members of the

- 46 -

Executive Committee were urged to reconsider their decision approving
the increase and the matter is still pending before that Committee. Other
rate jurisdictions, including Trans-Continental, have refused to go along
with the proposal to increase the line-haul rates on fruits and vegetables
to the stations in New York and Philadelphia at which the unloading charges
formerly applied.

I.C.C. Docket 31342 Refrigeration Case

In this proceeding, the railroads throughout the country requested
an increase in refrigeration charges of 30 percent. The Interstate Com-
merce Commission, however, after three years of hearings granted the
railroads an increase of only 15 percent, which increases were published
to become effective April 17, 1956. A complaint was filed with the U. S.
District Court at Tallahassee, Florida, in an effort to secure an injunc-
tion to keep these rates from going into effect. However, the District
Court deferred ruling upon this complaint until after a Three-Judge Court
had been convened and the issue presented before that court on June 12,
1956. After this hearing, the Three-Judge Court ruled in favor of the In-
terstate Commerce Commission and dismissed the suit. This decision of
the U. S. District Court was appealed to the Supreme Court of the United
States, but in March, 1957, the Supreme Court refused to take jurisdiction
in the case and this litigation was brought to an end.

15 Percent Increase in Charges for Mechanical Refrigeration

In the Refrigeration Case, I. C. C. Docket 31342, the Interstate
Commerce Commission found that no justification had been presented for an
increase in mechanical refrigeration charges. Following this decision, the
rail lines and refrigerator car. lines prepared data showing the cost to them
of performing this type of service. An examination of the figures prepared
by the rail lines indicated that certain costs were included which were not
proper for the compilation of the cost of mechanical refrigeration service.
Objections to the use of these costs were filed with the rail lines and the
suggestion was made that the Interstate Commerce Commission be re-
quested to conduct an investigation into the actual cost for providing me-
chanical refrigeration service and the charges which should be made there-
for. This suggestion was turned down by the rail lines and a 15 percent in-
crease in charges for mechanical refrigeration service was published to
become effective September 10, 1956. The League filed a petition for sus-
pension of these increased charges but the Interstate Commerce Commis-
sion decided that the charges could be put into effect. This matter was fur-
ther handled with the Transportation Advisory Council of the Florida Can-
ners Association and the Council authorized a complaint to be filed with the
Interstate Commerce Commission against the present level of the charges
for the mechanical refrigeration service. This complaint is now being pre-
pared and will be filed shortly.

- 47 -

Ex Parte 206 Increased Freight Rates, 1956

In October, 1956, the Eastern and Western Railroads filed a peti-
tion with the Interstate Commerce Commission for authority to increase
freight rates and charges 15 percent within Eastern and Western Terri-
tories and between all territories, subject to a maximum increase of 19
cents per hundred pounds on fresh fruits and canned and frozen citrus pro-
ducts. The Southern Railroads announced that they would not participate
in this petition at that time. On November 6, 1956, the Eastern and West-
ern Railroads filed a petition for an interim emergency increase of 7 per-
cent, with a maximum of 8-1/2 cents per 100 pounds on fresh, canned and
frozen citrus products to apply within Eastern and Western Territories
and between all territories. On November 14, 1956, the Southern Carriers
filed a petition for an emergency increase of 7 percent with no maximum
increases. The Interstate Commerce Commission set the petition of the
Eastern and Western Carriers for an emergency increase for hearing in
Kansas City, Missouri, on November 27, 1956, and the petition of the
Southern Carriers for the 7 percent emergency increase for hearing in
Washington, D. C., on January 7, 1957. The League was represented at
the Kansas City hearing by its Executive Vice-President and its Attorney,
Mr. M. W. Wells, who appeared in opposition to the proposed increases.
The Interstate Commerce Commission in its interim order in this proceed-
ing granted increases of 7 percent in the East, 5 percent in the West, and
5 percent between all territories, with a maximum of 7 cents per 100 pounds
on fresh fruits, canned and frozen citrus products, effective December 28,
1956. There was no increase authorized in refrigeration charges under this
order. At the Washington hearing on the Southern Railroad petition held
January 7 through 10, 1957, the League appeared in opposition to this phase
of the increase case. Also in January, the Eastern and Western Carriers
amended their petition so that the over-all increase sought was 22 percent,
with a maximum of 27 cents on fresh, canned and frozen citrus products
within Eastern and Western Territories and between all territories. This
latter increase was to include the interim increase previously authorized
by the Interstate Commerce Commission.

In February, 1957, the Interstate Commerce Commission released
its order granting the Southern Railroad an increase of 5 percent with a
maximum of 7 cents per 100 pounds on fresh, canned and frozen citrus
products within the South and between the South and other territories. This
increase was made effective on February 23, 1957. In February, 1957, the
Southern Railroads amended their petition for an increase to bring the
amount they were asking for up to 15 percent with no maximums, and to in-
clude the interim 5 percent increase already granted by the Interstate Com-
merce Commission.

Under the procedure set by the Interstate Commerce Commission in
this case, verified statements in opposition to the increases sought by the
rail lines were filed by the League on behalf of the Florida citrus industry.

- 48 -

Hearing on these increases sought by the Eastern and Western, as well as
the Southern Carriers, was held in Washington, D. C., beginning April 8,
1957. The League's Attorney, Mr. M. W. Wells, and Secretary-Traffic
Manager, Mr. Thomas E. Haile, attended this hearing for cross examina-
tion of the railroad witnesses. Oral argument in this case was held before
the entire Commission beginning June 3, 1957. The matter is now before
the Commission and we are awaiting a final decision in this proceeding.

Reduction in Rail Rates on Canned Citrus Products

After extended negotiations and hearings with the rail lines, re-
duced rail rates on canned citrus products within Southern Territory and
between Southern Territory on the one hand and Southwestern, Western
Trunk Line and Illinois Territory on the other, subject to carload mini-
mum weight of 36, 000 pounds and 60, 000 pounds, were published effective
November 27, 1956. The same scale published to the other territories was
not acceptable to the Eastern Railroads for application between Southern
and Official Territories, as the Eastern Railroads felt that the scale pro-
posed was too high for the movement of the commodity involved between
Southern and Official Territories. The Eastern Railroads proposed a lower
scale of rates for application between Official and Southern Territories but
the Southern Railroads were not agreeable to this lower basis. Further
negotiations and conferences were held between railroad representatives
throughout the country and the canned goods shippers and receivers in all
territories, the result of which was the approval by the Southern Lines of
the compromise scale suggested by the Eastern Railroads. These lower
scales, subject to carload minimum weight of 36, 00 and 60, 000 pounds,
were published to become effective June 7, 1957, and in spite of petitions
for suspension filed against these rates, they did become effective as sche-
duled. As the result of the publication of these reduced rail rates, it is
now a relatively simple matter to check rates on canned citrus products
from Florida to points in the United States. The Memorandum Tariff which
the League prepared showing rail rates on canned citrus products from
Florida to all destinations in the United States to which carload shipments
are made has been revised to show these new rail rates and will help the
canned goods shippers in their rate quotations.

Proposed Amendments to Exempt Agricultural Commodities

As the result of a United States Supreme Court decision declaring
that commodities which maintained a continuing substantial identity after
being processed were exempt commodities under the motor carrier pro-
vision of the Interstate Commerce Act, a Federal Court in the State of
Washington ruled that frozen fruits and vegetables were exempt commo-
dities while a Federal Court in Texas decided that a number of commodi-
ties which previously had been considered manufactured were, under the
Supreme Court definition, now considered exempt and trucks transporting
these commodities were not subject to regulations by the Interstate

- 49 -

Commerce Commission. except as to matters of safety and hours of ser-
vice. Because of the large number of commodities which the courts in
recent cases have found to be exempt, the Interstate Commerce Commis-
sion, the transportation industry, and many shippers have become greatly
concerned with the effect of these exemptions on the transportation system
of the country and also on the commodities, particularly the highly perish-
able commodities, which may be moved in exempt trucks. In an effort
to limit the exemption of motor trucks, the Interstate Commerce Commis-
sion prepared a bill which was introduced in the current session of Con-
gress as H. R. 5823, which would specifically exclude live poultry and fro-
zen foods from the list of exempt commodities and would also restrict all
exempt commodities to be applicable only from the point of production to
a point where such commodities first pass out of the actual possession and
control of the producer. This Bill would prevent commodities being con-
sidered exempt as soon as they entered the channel of trade or channel of

The Transportation Advisory Council of the Florida Canners Asso-
ciation considered the question of whether or not they thought it desirable
for frozen citrus products and chilled citrus products to be considered ex-
empt. After considerable discussion and thought, the Council approved a
resolution recommending that chilled, frozen and canned citrus products
be considered not exempt. The National Association of Frozen Food Pack-
ers also adopted a resolution that frozen foods should not be considered
exempt commodities.

In view of the position taken by the Florida citrus industry and the
need for attempting to secure a reasonable amendment to the Truck Ex-
emption Provision of the Interstate Commerce Act, under which both the
fresh fruit and the processed products would be assured of adequate trans-
portation, the League's Executive Vice-President and Attorney met with
representatives of the rail lines, truck lines, and farm, produce, and
canned and frozen food stuffs organizations in an effort to draw up a pro-
posed amendment to the Interstate Commerce Act which would be accep-
table to most of the shippers and transportation interests. These con-
ferences resulted in the drawing up of a bill which would maintain the ex-
emption of fresh fruits and vegetables in their natural state and would
bring back under regulation many of the commodities which have been de-
clared exempt by court action. This proposed bill and the position taken
on the question by the League was submitted to the members of the Florida
Canners Association for their approval and, by a large majority, the can-
ners approved the position taken by the League on this matter. This Bill
has been submitted to Congress by Senator Smathers as S.2553, and it is
anticipated that hearings will be held on this Bill as soon as possible.

50 -

Repeal of Federal Excise Taxes on Transportation and Communications

The House Sub-Committee on Excise Taxes in December, 1956,
considered the cancellation of the 3 percent Transportation Tax on freight
and the 10 percent tax on communications. The League's Executive Vice-
President worked with national associations in the preparation of state-
ments to be submitted to the House Sub-Committee Hearing and also ap-
peared before the House Sub-Committee at the hearing in favor of the re-
peal of these taxes. While the repeal of these taxes was not recommended
by the House Sub-Committee at that time, there are indications that there
is a strong sentiment for the repeal of these taxes and the matter will un-
questionably be brought up again at a later date.

Truck Authority on Chilled Citrus Products

In an effort to secure adequate truck transportation for the move-
ment of chilled citrus products from Florida, the League filed a petition
with the Interstate Commerce Commission asking for modification or
clarification of outstanding motor truck certificates so that truck lines
authorized to transport frozen foods or frozen citrus products would also
be authorized to transport the chilled citrus products. This matter was
before the Interstate Commerce Commission for a considerable length of
time before the Commission finally denied the petition. At the same time,
however, the Commission granted temporary operating authority to num-
erous truck lines which were seeking to transport the chilled citrus pro-
ducts. In its order on the applications of these truck lines, Division 1 of
the Interstate Commerce Commission granted the various truck lines
authority to transport the chilled citrus products in order to provide a
complete transportation service to the Florida shippers.

Among the other subjects handled by the Growers and Shippers
League of Florida during the past year were:

Conferences with origin and Canadian Rail Lines for the publication
of through rail rates on canned and frozen citrus products to points in Can-
ada. This subject was delayed pending the settlement of canned citrus
rates to Official Territory and is now again being actively considered by
the rail lines.

Opposition to a proposal of the fibreboard container industry to re-
quire the use of diphenyl pads in corrugated cartons of citrus fruit. This
proposal was withdrawn before being placed on the public docket.

Conferences were held between canned and frozen citrus products
shippers and members of the staff of the Florida Railroad and Public Utili-
ties Commission and also Interstate Commerce Commission field men re-
garding the proper interpretation of private operation of trucks in the
transportation of canned and frozen citrus products from Florida.

- 51 -

Filing with the Interstate Commerce Commission of a petition for
suspension of a 7 percent increase in railway express charges on fresh
citrus fruit which was published by the Express Agency to become effec-
tive July 16, 1956. The Interstate Commerce Commission denied this
petition for suspension and the rates were increased as published. Also
in December, 1956, the Railway Express Agency filed an application for
short notice publication of a 4 percent increase in express rates on fresh
citrus fruits. The League opposed this application for short notice publi-
cation and the application was denied. A petition for suspension was also
filed against the 4 percent increase in express charges scheduled to be-
come effective December 16, 1956; and, although the petition for suspen-
sion was denied, the effective date was postponed until December 27, 1956,
following the big Christmas rush of gift fruit shipments.

The League continued to handle with the rail lines for the publica-
tion of reduced rates on fresh citrus fruit to Southwest and Western Trunk
Line Territories and these rates were published effective December 26,

The proceeding involving the cancellation of certain routings of
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Company and Southern Railway System to
points in the South and to Trunk Line and New England Territories has
been continued on the docket of the Interstate Commerce Commission from
time to time and hearings have not yet been held.

The League has attended several hearings before the Interstate Com-
merce Commission on the application of some truck lines for operating
authority to transport canned citrus or chilled or frozen citrus products to
certain territories where additional truck service was needed.

The League has also continued to work with the origin rail lines in
the adjustment of rates on citrus pomace to points in Trunk Line and New
England Territories based on a 60,000 pound minimum and also the re-
establishment of rail rates on citrus pomace to points in IFA and CFA Ter-
rito rie s.

The Steamship Conferences operating from Florida Gulf Ports an-
nounced a 10 percent increase in ocean freight rates effective February 1,
1957. Conferences were held with representatives of the Steamship lines
in an effort to prevent the increases from becoming effective and a hearing
was held with the Conference in New Orleans in December, 1956, but the
Steamship companies insisted that because of increased costs of operation
the increases were necessary, and these increases did become effective
on February 1, 1957.

- 52 -



- Y,"-- i v


(000's Bxs)

(000's Bxs)


(000's Bxs)


(000's Bxs)



1946-47 (a)
1956-57 /1

1946-47 (a)
1947-48 (a)
1951-52 (a)
1953-54 (a)
1956-57 /1

1946-47 (a)
1947-48 (a)
1950-51 (a)
1951-52 (a)
1953-54 (a)
1954-55 (a)
1955-56 (a)
1956-57 /1















/1 Preliminary

(a) Difference between "Total Production" and actual utilization represented by
Economic Abandonment.

- 54 -








- .10
- .02
- .05
- .10
- .14


Date Due



1945-46 2,407
1946-47 5,098
1947-48 3,158
1948-49 4,238
1949-50 3,379
1950-51 4,628
1951-52 3,405
1952-53 3,814
1953-54 4,332
1954-55 6,068
1955-56 4,759
1956-57 4,516







Due Returned

- 1,000 Cases, 24/2's -- -




(Other than









1,000 Gallons - - -- -




- -- -- Tons - --




/1 Includes meal, pulp and pellets
x Includes Tangerine Juice and Tangerine Blends
xx Includes Orange Sections
55 -



/C 3 -