Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075981/00006
 Material Information
Title: Annual report - Florida Citrus Commission
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Commission
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee?
Creation Date: 1955
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Numbering Peculiarities: Report year ends June 30.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000863394
oclc - 01327786
notis - AEG0106
lccn - 50063588
System ID: UF00075981:00006

Full Text



F6 56r
1 95/ 56


Commission Members Serving During
the 1955-56 Fiscal Year

Robert C. Wooten, Chairman
Herschell Sorrells, Vice-Chairman
Frank Chase
J. P. Garber
C, V. Griffin
J. R. Graves
Alfred A. McKethan
J, J. Parrish, Jr.
Key Scales
Thomas B. Swann
Harry Tooke
Marvin Walker


Thomas B. Swann, Chairman
Key Scales
Marvin Walker
C. ,V. Griffin
Herschell Sorrells
J. R. Graves


Herschell Sorrells, Chairman
J. P. Garber
Key Scales
J. J. Parrish, Jr.
Marvin Walker

Dade City
Avon Park
Howey-in- the -Hills
Winter Haven
Lake Wales


Frank Chase, Chairman
Key Scales
J. R, Graves
Alfred A. McKethan
Marvin Walker


Herschell Sorrells, Chairman
Key Scales
Marvin Walker
Thomas B. Swann
J. R. Graves


Robert C. Evans, General Manager
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Paul S. Patterson, Director of Advertising
Frank D. Arn, Director of Merchandising
Ralph M. Henry, Director of Sales Service
Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research
James T. Hopkins, Director of Industry Relations
Ted L. Hodson, Manager, Special Promotibns
John E. O'Reilly, Production Manager
Warren E. Savant, Statistician
Clyde P. May, Assistant to Director of Advertising
Helen M. Stewart, School Program Director

Florida Citrus Commission

Annual Report

July 1, 1955--June 30, 1956


The 1955-56 Florida citrus season, in terms of on-tree value, was
the best on record in the history of the Florida citrus industry. On-tree
value for the entire 1955-56 citrus crop was approximately $196, 000, 000,
some $20, 000, 000 higher than the previous high season of 1949-50, and
$51,000,000 above the 1954-55 season. Because total citrus production
for the 1955-56 season was only four percent greater than the preceding
season, the 35 percent increase in grower return must be attributed to
higher prices paid to Florida growers for oranges and tangerines.

Average on-tree prices for oranges during the 1955-56 season
through all methods of sales was $1. 83 per box, the highest since the 1949-
50 season when prices averaged $2. 14 per box. On-tree prices for tan-
gerines averaged $1, 87 per box, considerably above prices received during
the post-war years; and, with the exception of two war years, the highest
of any recorded season.

Grower return for grapefruit, however, was in discord with the gen-
erally favorable aspects of the past season. Seeded grapefruit returned to
the grower an average of only 30 cents per box on the tree, considerably be-
low the estimated average production cost of 42 cents as reported by the
Florida State Marketing Bureau. Seedless varieties fared somewhat better,
averaging 81 cents per box. The average price for all varieties of grape-
fruit through all methods of sales was 57 cents per box, or 15 cents per box
above the estimated cost of production.

Processors continued this season, as they have for the past several
seasons, to be the largest utilizers of Florida citrus. Utilization by pro-
cessors during the past season reached 83 million boxes, or 62 percent of
the total citrus crop. Frozen orange concentrate continued to lead the field,
utilizing 49. 1 million boxes of oranges or 54 percent of the orange crop and
37 percent of the total Florida citrus production.

Florida held its position during 1955-56 as the largest producing area
of citrus fruits in the world. The production of oranges, grapefruit, tan-
gerines, and limes in Florida totaled 134. 3 million boxes, of 1-3/5 bushels,
which represented about 33 percent of the world citrus crop and 74 percent
of the U.S. crop, excluding lemons.

The state's 90, 800, 000 boxes of oranges accounted for 69 percent
of the U. S. orange crop while 85 percent of the nation's grapefruit supply
and 100 percent of the commercial varieties of tangerines and limes were
grown in Florida.

More detailed information on prices, crop values, utilization, and
production is included in the statistical tables which appear at the end of
this report.

The Commission's activities are discussed under the following

I. General Activities

II. Consumer Advertising

III. Professional Advertising

IV. Merchandising

VI. School Education Program

VII. Research

VIII. Transportation

IX. Statistical Tables

V. Consumer Publicity


The discovery of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Florida during the
1955-56 season has been of important consequence to the citrus industry.
As an agency of the state government, the Florida Citrus Commission was
among the first to extend its fullest cooperation to the State Plant Board
and the United States Department of Agriculture in any area of the fight for
eradication into which the structure of the Commission could be applied.
In the early stages of the eradication program, the Commission made
available to the State Budget Commission a loan of $500, 000 for use in
carrying on the program until a special session of the legislature could be
formed to appropriate the necessary funds.

In other activities, the Florida Citrus Commission's standards for
Chilled Orange Juice were challenged in Circuit Court by Golden Gift, Inc.
of DeLand. Through proceedings in court, Golden Gift was granted an in-
junction against the Commission, and the Commissioner of Agriculture,
which precluded enforcement of chilled juice regulations on that firm. The
case has been subsequently appealed to the Florida Supreme Court by the
Commission, and is now pending the decision of that court.

During the past several years, various states of the Union have at-
tempted to place beverage taxes on citrus juices, particularly on reconsti-
tuted frozen orange juice. The Commission, having once gained a favor-
able precedent in defeating these attempts, has made it a policy to lend as-
sistance to the industry in challenging such levies whenever they are pro-
posed. The State of Tennessee, during the past season, ruled that recon-
stituted frozen orange juice was subject to the beverage taxes of that state.
The Commission, through its attorney, obtained a favorable ruling from
officials of the Tennessee state government which exempted citrus juices
from the beverage tax on the basis that orange juice is a food; that, as such,
it does not fall within the category of either a beverage or a soft drink.

In an effort to help secure a first-hand survey of the freeze damage to
the citrus industry in Spain, the Commission agreed to assume one-half of
the expense incurred in sending Dr. A. F. Camp, Director of the Florida
Citrus Experiment Station, to conduct this survey. Immediately following
his return from the Spanish citrus areas, Dr. Camp submitted a compre-
hensive report which is expected to be of great assistance in the export
planning of the Florida citrus industry during the next two or three years.

Under the provisions of an act of the State Legislature in 1954, the
Commission was required to set aside $100, 000 each year for four years as

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a rebate fund for shippers who conduct brand advertising of fresh Florida
grapefruit. During the past year, the Commission returned the sum of
$35, 931. 38 to three shippers as rebates under this program.

In an effort to improve the quality of frozen grapefruit concentrate,
the Commission established higher quality standards to be applicable in
the process of this product. These standards include minimum require-
ments for fresh fruit used in the manufacture of grapefruit concentrate, as
well as higher requirements for the finished product. Although adopted by
the industry on a voluntary basis for the 1955-56 season, the new standards
became mandatory for all processors on September 1, 1956.

Construction of the Florida Citrus Commission's new headquarters
office and warehouse building was commenced this year. Completion and oc-
cupancy of the new structure is expected during the month of September, 1956.



On June 2, 1955, after hearing presentations from five important
advertising agencies, the Commission appointed Benton & Bowles as its
advertising agency. The new agency's recommended advertising program
as accepted by the Commission, encompassed the following:

Marketing Objectives for Citrus

The primary marketing objectives for 1955-56 were the development
and expansion of the market for Florida citrus fruits and products.

Basic Advertising Points

In order to create maximum consumer buying influence, all citrus
products were advertised individually and competitively with each advertise-
ment tailored to appeal to a specific buying impulse. The unique consumer
benefits of each product were exploited; and, in addition, broad qualities
common to all forms of citrus were tied in to the copy. Advertising copy
themes were frequently featured in store display material so as to tie the
advertising in at the point-of-sale.

All fresh fruit was given intensive advertising support in those mar-
kets where unload reports show that 85% of our fruit is sold.

All processed products were given advertising support on a national

Where Commission Advertising Appeared

While an important goal was year-round continuity of citrus advertis-
ing, special promotional periods were designated for each citrus product,
based on seasonal supply and consumer purchasing habits.

Advertising on a particular product was intensified within the sales
event period and major merchandising effort directed toward gaining retail
promotion of that product at the store level.

Television was selected as the basic medium because it has demon-
strated itself as a most powerful advertising tool. By the skillful use of
television spots, the kind of flexibility was provided to carry out the basic
concept of individual product advertising, as well as the geographical and
seasonal emphasis necessary. Spot television within the budget provided
maximum television exposure of Florida citrus selling messages through-
out the various markets. These television spots in 67 markets reached
over 72% of all the homes in the United States on an average of 4. 7 times per


month and with total gross impressions in four weeks of 124, 000, 000, at
the low cost of 97 per thousand. Approximately 50% of the budget was
utilized for television activities.

Radio spots were effectively used to provide coverage of small town
and farm families beyond the reach of our television advertising and also
to intensify our effort in the major market centers. Six percent of the bud-
get was earmarked for radio for all products.

National magazines with their wide coverage, dual audience, and
color printing were used to effectively broaden the national market for
processed products with the help of eye and appetite appeal. Magazines
also served to intensify the specific product merchandising events through-
out the year. About 12% of the budget was allocated to magazines.

Sunday newspapers (color supplements) provided appetite appeal for
the various citrus products, as well as fresh citrus fruits, and stepped up
merchandising effort at the local level. About 12% of the budget was used
for Sunday newspaper supplement ads.

With seasonal supply, the most vital factor in fresh fruit, daily news-
papers were used to generate immediate action on the part of the consumer;
to announce the arrival of fruit in individual markets; and as a powerful in-
centive to enlist more retail tie-in advertising support. Approximately 9%
of the budget went into black and.white advertising.


One of the most important elements in the overall marketing strategy
was to further coordinate specific product merchandising activity with the
consumer advertising for maximum retail effectiveness. The "Calendar of
Florida Citrus Promotions" giving advance information on all the promo-
tional drives became the working schedule and guide for the Commission's
65-man team of merchandising representatives, and in turn, for the re-
tailers. With this systematic, organized year-round program, four to six
weeks in advance of a scheduled event, all trade levels were contacted; the
advertising program presented; and retail cooperation enlisted for each pro-

Tie-in advertising, displays, demonstrations, and the placement of
in-store material were arranged by the field organization and coordinated
to appear at the same time as the consumer advertising for each product.

All merchandising events were announced to the trade through advance
brochures. Individual kits of point-of-sale material were prepared for each
promotion using the product advertising theme and "playing-back" to the con-
sumer the specific buying impulse she has heard and seen through Florida
citrus advertising.


Key Copy Points

As outlined previously in this report, the recommended advertising
concept was to establish a specific buying advantage for each product. In-
herent in each of the citrus products are specific benefits and consumer
advantages peculiar to it alone. All copy in print, on radio, and TV told
the consumer of these individual product advantages, and encouraged her
to make her own buying decision.

In print advertising on fresh fruit, copy also informed the consumer
of the seasonal nature of these products, setting up an urgency to buy,

As a device to gain greater TV and radio listener reaction, a tuneful
jingle "sung" by an intriguing, animated cartoon figure, "Flora, The Flor-
ida Orange" was utilized as a lead-in to all orange commercials.

With diet, energy, health and beauty as our important selling story
on grapefruit, the use of Miss America was most appropriate. She "sold"
these specific advantages of grapefruit in a believable and authentic fashion.

The 1955-56 Media Program:

Television Spots

A total of 67 markets, 116 stations carried Florida citrus television
advertising on all products, Over 450 Florida citrus selling messages were
provided each week next to some of the highest rated television shows on the
air. Spots were scheduled monthly for specific products to maintain con-
tinuity and with emphasis in accordance withthe "Calendar of Florida Citrus
Promotions. "

Daily Newspapers

Number of

Fresh Oranges 114
Fresh Grapefruit 111
Temple Oranges 8 (special Markets)
Tangerines 61
"Cold" Campaign (Fresh Grapefruit
and Canned Grapefruit Juice) 27



Being completely national in their circulation pattern, these two
publications were selected for advertising processed products, par-
ticularly during the periods of peak sales opportunities. With LIFE Mag-
azine estimated readership at 26,450,000, and the POST at 14,050,000,
this schedule provided additional Florida citrus messages, amounting to

Sunday Newspapers (Color Supplements)


Twenty-one different insertions in these leading publications pro-
vided strong local print coverage for each of our products. These supple-
ments are distributed in 109 key cities.

Radio Spots

Eight one-minute daytime and nighttime spots per week were broad-
cast on the Mutual Broadcasting System Network from September 20, 1955,
through April 27, 1956.

Trade Paper Advertising

The use of dominant dramatic monthly space in two leading grocery
publications, CHAIN STORE AGE and PROGRESSIVE GROCER, was con-
sistent with our basic strategy. These ads announced forthcoming promo-
tions and served to further point-up the coordinated advertising and mer-
chandising activity for Florida citrus.

During the fresh fruit season, two leading product publications were
added to announce our promotional efforts on Oranges, Grapefruit, and

Canadian Advertising

Recognizing the potential growth and development of this.market, a
total budget of $125, 000 was established for Canada. Our program there
paralleled as nearly as possible our U.S. effort, the chief exception be-
ing that radio was substituted for television in Canada.

Agency Service Organization

Benton & Bowles established a branch office in Lakeland when
they were appointed to handle the account. This office is in charge of
an agency vice-president who resides in Lakeland and coordinates the
agency's activities with those of the Commission staff.


A breakdown of the total advertising budget for 1955-56 follows
on the next page.





Production and General**



Production and General**



Production and General**


$ 1,422,350.00


$ 1,584,000.00

$ 1,139,250.00


$ 1,290,000.00

$ 102,250.00


$ 126,000.00
( 4. 2%)

$ 3,000,000.00

*Media used include television spots, newspapers, magazines,
Sunday supplements, radio spots, and outdoor billboards

**Artwork, cuts, mats, films, and other mechanical costs



For the past nine years, the Commission has provided for a pro-
gram of advertising directed toward the medical, dental, and other pro-
fessions concerned with the problem of health, This program has been
developed and executed by Noyes & Sproul, Inc., an agency which spe-
cializes in professional advertising.

In recent years, the appropriation for this field has averaged
$100,000 per season. In balancing the Commission's budget for the 1955-
56 season, this item was reduced to $30, 000. As a result, the frequency
and scope of our advertising in this field was drastically limited.


Journal Advertising

Instead of the 29 professional journals used last year, only 12
could be scheduled this year; and, instead of the 164 insertions of adver-
tisements in the previous year, this year's total amounted to 39 insertions.
All 39 were single pages, of which 18 were in color and 21 were black and

The professional journals were carefully selected to afford both
general coverage of physicians and dentists (nurses were omitted) plus
intensified coverage of certain important specialty groups. For these
purposes, the following journals were employed:

4 national general medical
1 obstetric
2 pediatric
1 public health
1 osteopathic
3 dental

Total circulation of these journals amounted to about 730, 000, and
total advertising impressions were 2, 665, 000.

Advertising messages addressed to physicians and dentists in these
journals highlighted specific needs for and uses of citrus based on recent
research findings; in addition, a special message to physicians called at-
tention to the availability of the second edition of the medical information
booklet.. Headlines of these advertisements were as follows:



From coast to coast ... adolescents need help
to avoid vitamin C deficiency

Citrus may help your acne patients

New a condensation of latest research findings
on clinical aspects of vitamin C


Orally speaking, citrus is safe and sound

Sages say: Citrus so satisfactory

Direct Mail Advertising

Only one direct mail effort was possible within the limitations of
this year's budget. This mailing consisted of a reprint of Dr. Samuel M.
Bluefarb's paper entitled "The Management of Acne Vulgaris in the 12 to
17 Year Age Group" which was published in the February issue of Post-
graduate Medicine. This was mailed to all general practitioners under
65 years of age and dermatologists to alert both of these groups to the
proved value of a high citrus intake in the medical management of this
frequently encountered condition.

Citrus Fruits in Health and Disease

Under the above title, the second edition of the medical informa-
tion booklet was completed. Considerable time was spent working with
the American Medical Association in order to make certain the content of
the booklet conforms to their concepts of allowable claims for citrus
fruits. In many instances, it was necessary for Noyes & Sproul repre-
sentatives to visit the A. M. A. offices in Chicago with files of published
reference data for perusal by their officials to clear some of the claims
we felt were of importance to establishing new and substantiated uses for
citrus. The end-result of this policy was the final approval of the copy
with the essential claims retained, plus formal action by the Council to
permit inclusion of the statement which appears on page 2 of the booklet:

"The nutritional statements made in this booklet have been
reviewed by the Council on Foods and Nutrition of the Am-
erican Medical Association and found to be consistent with
established medical opinion. "

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Over thirty thousand copies of this booklet are to be mailed during the
summer to the most influential groups of medical practioners and edu-
cators, under an appropriation set up in next year's budget for this pur-

Comments from professional people who have had an opportunity
to review advance copies of the new medical booklet are highly compli-
mentary and indicate that the effort and expense which was put into its
preparation will be more than repaid by the influence it will have on the
medical profession.


No new clinical research projects have been started this year. The
acne study by Dr. Samuel M. Bluefarb was published in the February, 1956
issue of Postgraduate Medicine under the title, "The Management of Acne
Vulgaris in the 12 to 17 Year Age Group."

The Val Dez study relating to the effects of citrus in the manage-
ment of peptic ulcer patients is awaiting acceptance for publication. It has
been submitted to Journal of the American Medical Association. The
Thomas and Volker study on dental aspects of citrus ingestion has been
completed and revised, and the investigators have submitted their final
manuscript for approval by the agency and by Dr. MacDowell.


As in the past when Noyes & Sproul were handling the health and
medical aspects of our public relations program, they have, wherever
possible, continued this year doing high-level missionary work on the
Commission's behalf with opinion-moulders such as medical and dental
educators and editors as well as influential officials of professional asso-
ciations particularly the American Medical Association and the American
Dental Association.

In all contacts throughout the professional fields, they found an in-
creasing awareness of the importance of nutrition as a positive contribu-
tion to health, plus an eagerness for more knowledge of the role of nutri-
tion in the treatment of disease. They also found on the part of official
organizations, such as the A.M. A. and the A.D. A., a sincere desire to
cooperate in disseminating nutritional information of practical value to the
various members of the health teams.

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One of the important activities of the Florida Citrus Commission dur-
ing the 1955-56 season has been the work of the Merchandising Department.
The benefits of this program over the years have been recognized by all fac-
tors in the citrus industry, and every attempt has been made to expand this
program as much as possible within the budgetary limitations. Sixty-two
men have been employed during the past season. They are located in im-
portant marketing areas throughout the United States and Canada to carry on
an intensive merchandising program with all segments of the trade in their
respective areas.

Many of these men are employed in Florida and take up residence in
the market to which they are assigned. At least 40% of the present staff are
graduates from one of the Florida universities. Because a well trained man
is more efficient, a great amount of time and effort has been spent to see
that each merchandising man is well trained for the work which he will be
doing. Special training is given to each man at the time of employment, and
he is then placed under the supervision of a Regional Manager until he is
thoroughly acquainted with the work.

In order that close supervision can be given to all field men, the
country has been divided into four divisions. A Division Manager is in
charge of each one of these divisions, and a Regional Manager is in charge
of the operation in each principal market. Merchandising Representatives
work under the supervision of their Regional Manager.

The Eastern Division consists of the Atlantic Coast area and Eastern
Canada. The Central Division covers the central part of the United States
and Central Canada. The Western Division consists of the midwestern area
of the United States and Canada, and the Southern Division consists of all the
Southern States from Oklahoma and Texas Eastward. The men on the West
Coast of the United States and Canada are under the direct supervision of the
Lakeland office.

A large percentage of Florida citrus products is distributed east of
the Mississippi River. Because of this, our heaviest concentration of man
power lies in this area; however, with the present staff, we have sufficient
man power to give adequate coverage to all principal markets throughout the
United States and Canada.

Divisional meetings are held at least twice each year to keep our
staff well informed and up to date regarding new and better methods of mer-
chandising. Information is channeled to the field throughout the year re-
garding activities in Florida in order that field representatives can give the

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citrus industry proper representation with the different trade factors in the
marketing areas.

A very large percentage of the retail food business today is being
handled through the self-service type super market. In this type of store,
it is essential that a product be prominently displayed if it is to attract
customer attention. One of the principal duties of the merchandising staff
of the Florida Citrus Commission is to work closely with retail stores
building attractive displays, utilizing the Commission's point-of-sale ma-
terial, so that customers will be attracted to our products when they enter
the store.

In addition to display work, a comprehensive demonstration and
prize-award program has been conducted in all major markets. The field
staff seeks to keep all segments of the trade properly informed regarding
the Commission's advertising and merchandising programs so that theymay
take full advantage of the assistance which is being offered to them by the
Florida citrus industry.

During the 1955-56 season, Commission representatives made
108, 527 calls, accumulating a total distance of 1,313,954 miles. They con-
ducted 1, 518 live demonstrations in which products were sampled to cus-
tomers in retail stores. In addition to these live demonstrations, 4, 040
events were held in which customers received prize-awards at the conclu-
sion of a promotional period. These prize-awards consisted of Florida
treasure chests, tangerine bowls, and pitcher and glass sets. This type of
promotional activity has proven to be most successful in that it can be ex-
tended to many more stores than possible through live demonstration pro-
grams. Results indicate that with this extended coverage, sales at retail
level can be increased by a very large percentage. This type of program
has indicated that, for best results, the customer's attention must be at-
tracted to the product when she enters the retail market.

The Florida Citrus Commission has made available for distribution,
through its merchandising men, a full line of colorful point-of-sale display
material. This material is designed to catch the customer's eye and create
a desire for Florida citrus products when properly installed in a retail store.
During the 1955-56 season, a total of 6, 995, 602 pieces of display material
were distributed to retail organizations throughout the United States and
Canada. To accomplish better distribution and usage of this material, ar-
rangements have been implemented for packaging it in kits at the Lakeland
warehouse. Through this method of distribution, practically all of the ma-
terial reaches the retail store and is used as directed by the headquarters
office. In total, 258, 510 merchandising kits were distributed during the cur-
rent season.

During the course of the year, several additional events or promo-
tions have been participated in by the merchandising staff. They are as

- 13 -

Citrus Queen Activities

During the past season, the Florida Citrus Commission has em-
ployed the full time services of a Florida Citrus Queen. Several excellent
promotions have been arranged whereby the Citrus Queen has appeared in
the retail markets in connection with stofewide promotions. In addition to
her appearances in retail markets, she has appeared on many radio and
television programs in the market in which the promotion was being con-
ducted; and, through her activities and participation, unusual interest has
been created in citrus promotions. The reception in every market in which
she has appeared has been excellent, and it is conceded that she has been
very helpful in promoting Florida citrus products during the past season. The
Citrus Queen program has also been extremely effective as a good public re-
lations tool, affording a closer association between the Commission and the

Tangerine Promotion

Our field staff, working in cooperation with the staff of the Florida
Tangerine Cooperative, has conducted an intensive, hard-hitting campaign
at the peak of the tangerine season. This program has been well accepted
by retail organizations in all of the principal markets. Special point-of-sale
display material was provided by the Florida Tangerine Cooperative to be
used in conjunction with the Florida Citrus Commission material. Through
the combined efforts of the two organizations, it is felt that the use of tan-
gerines has been greatly expanded and that a better price was received for
growers in Florida. A total of 3, 600 promotional events were held in con-
nection with this program.

Temple Orange Promotion

Intensive merchandising activities were conducted in several of the
larger markets to tie in with and support the advertising campaign on Temple
oranges. Special point-of-sale display material was produced by the Florida
Citrus Commission for this campaign.

National Citrus Merchandising Promotions

Three major promotions were conducted in connection with the pro-
gram formulated by the National Citrus Merchandising Committee. This
committee is made up of representatives from the Florida, California, and
Texas citrus industries. Special point-of-sale display material kits were
prepared and distributed in support of these promotions, and excellent co-
operation was received from all trade factors.

- 14 -

Trade Luncheons

A cordial relationship with the different trade factors is very essen-
tial in order to secure best results from the advertising and merchandising
programs. Such close relationship has been greatly fostered during the
past years by a series of trade luncheons held in principal markets in the
United States and Canada. During the past season, the Commission enter-
tained more than 1, 500 leading trade interests during a series of sixteen
luncheons. A complete outline of the advertising and merchandising sup-
port for the individual market was presented to the guests at each of these

European Program

At the beginning of this fiscal year, an appropriation was set up for
advertising and merchandising in the European markets. One of the Com-
mission's top merchandising men, with ten years' experience, was selected
to represent the Florida citrus industry in this foreign market. During the
season he distributed 239,400 pieces of point-of-sale display material and
participated in six foreign fairs, with a total attendance of 2,000, 000 people.
Nearly 10% of this number sampled Florida orange or grapefruit juice. In
addition to these activities, he conducted many showings of the industry
film, "The Sun Goes North. He also participated in several in-store de-
monstrations. The merchandising program for the foreign market is, in
general, very similar to that which is being conducted in the States.

Test Market Promotions

During the current fiscal year, special test market promotions
were conducted in four cities under the sponsorship of the Commission's
advertising agency. Two of these promotions were on fresh grapefruit and
two on frozen grapefruit concentrate. The merchandising staff of the Flor-
ida Citrus Commission assisted with the promotional activities by conduct-
ing store demonstrations, building outstanding displays in all retail stores,
and installing point-of-sale display material.


The Florida Citrus Commission carries its program to many groups
throughout the United States and Canada by participation in large national
conventions. During the past year, the Commission has participated in a
total of 73 conventions. Of these, exhibit space was purchased in 20 national
conventions in the following fields: Grocery 12; Hotel and Restaurant 4;
Medical and Hospital 1; Dietetic 1; Home Economics 1; Educational 1.

- 15

Fifty-three conventions were held in the State of Florida in which
no space was purchased, but a worthwhile public relations job was ac-
complished by supplying Florida orange juice for delegates attending these

Florida Products Festival

The Me rchandising Department of the Florida Citrus Commission
has, during the current season, worked in cooperation with the Florida De-
velopment Commission on its annual Festival of Florida Products. This is
a well-planned promotion to promote Florida citrus products along with all
other products produced within the State of Florida. Excellent cooperation
was received from all the retail organizations operating within the state.

Avocado and Lime Commission

The Merchandising Department has also worked in close cooperation
with the newly organized Florida Avocado and Lime Commission. Special
point-of-sale display material for the promotion of limes has been produced
by the Florida Avocado and Lime Commission and distributed by the mer-
chandising staff of the Florida Citrus Commission, along with the regular
line of lime material.

Media Relations

The field staff of the Florida Citrus Commission associates closely
with newspapers carrying Florida citrus advertising. Many of these news-
papers maintain merchandising representatives of their own who spend a
portion of their time calling on retail merchants, urging them to use the dis-
play material offered by the Commission; and assisting them in the coordina-
tion of their own newspaper advertising with that of the Florida Citrus Com-

This same type of activity is conducted with radio and television sta-
tions carrying the Florida citrus program.


To the retail grocer, the Florida citrus representative is Mr. Flor-
ida. They look to him for up-to-date information regarding crop conditions,
crop quality, and all details of the Florida citrus industry's advertising and
merchandising programs. Each merchandising representative is equipped
with knowledge to supply the grocer with this information.

All Commission field men submit a weekly report at the end of each
week's activities. This report covers movement and acceptance of Florida

-16 -

citrus products and movement of competing products. He also reports
prices of Florida citrus products at the retail level and prices of competi-
tive items. These reports are combined and mailed to some 450 shippers,
packers, and other factors in the citrus-industry and allied fields.

The activities of a Florida citrus merchandising man cover many
different fields. He is the eyes and ears of the citrus industry in the par-
ticular market in which he works. He endeavors to see that our products
are attractively displayed in the retail stores. He seeks to carry on a cam-
paign which will increase movement of Florida citrus products in all forms
at the retail level. He strives to be of service to the retail merchant in
connection with his merchandising program. He is in the field as a repre-
sentative of the Florida citrus industry to serve all trade factors. Judging
from the comments which have been received from retailers, wholesalers,
and distributors in many different markets, the Florida citrus merchandis-
ing man is carrying out his part of the program effectively. In the final an-
alysis, the merchandising staff of the Florida Citrus Commission can be de-
pended on to continue to do everything within its limitations to assure that
Florida citrus products are prominently available to Mrs. Housewife when
she enters the retail store.

- 17 -


Florida citrus products continued to gain in the quantity of editorial
space allotted to them by newspapers and magazines and on radio and tele-
vision programs because of the continuing effectiveness of our consumer
publicity program which has been handled by Dudley, Anderson and Yutzy
for the past 19 years.

The 1954 and 1955 editor tours of Florida's citrus industry reaped
splendid rewards this past winter during the peak of the fresh fruit season.
Well-informed magazine editors and syndicate food writers pictured for their
readers the health values and excellent uses of Florida citrus, obviously
drawing on their personal experiences.

Personal contacts with newspaper food editors were continued through-
out the year, including participation in the annual Newspaper Food Editor's
Conference on behalf of the Commission. Further advances have been made
in the radio and television fields by Peggy Ware, Dudley, Anderson and
Yutzy's traveling home economist. A new stream-lined radio service de-
signed to keep abreast with the ever-modernizing media has been designed,
with the purpose of keeping citrus in the foreground on women's and home
service programs. Many new and vital contacts have been made by Miss
Ware in connection with her personal appearances, including a successful
trip to the U.S. Northwest and Canada, where she attended the Canadian
Home Economics Association convention in Vancouver, creating additional
good will for the Florida Citrus Commission in this great potential market.

Dudley, Anderson and Yutzy home economists and staff members have
attended various conventions and meetings representing the Florida Citrus
Commission, among them the American Home Economics Association conven-
tion, the Institutional Food Editors Conference in Chicago, the National Res-
taurant Association convention, the American Dietetic Association conven-
tion, etc. Contacts made at such events focus the attention of food authori-
ties on citrus and result in the free inclusion of our products in their ma-

Seasonal Florida citrus products are photographed in color and
black and white and new recipes are constantly being developed in the test
kitchen so that we may continue to offer newspaper food editors and con-
sumers new ways of using citrus fruit to good advantage. Our color photo-
graph service has continued to grow in quantity, reputation, and usage.
New color pictures are enthusiastically received not only by the locally-
edited Sunday gravure sections but by all the daily newspapers now using

-18 -

full color. Older pictures find continuing life and good reproduction in the
pages of cook books, regional secondary and dealer magazines, and house

"Good as Gold, "Grapefruit Glamour, and "Eat to Beat the Birth-
days, 16 mm. color films made for the Commission by Dudley, Anderson
and Yutzy, continue to be active and, recognizing the potential of the film
and television fields for educating consumers in the proper use and health
values of citrus, two short TV films, one on grapefruit sectioning, the other
on frozen orange concentrate, have been made for inclusion in a series to be
distributed nationally by Dudley, Anderson and Yutzy. These public service
films are well received by TV programmers, and the viewing audience, and
represent valuable time that cannot be purchased.

Aware of the vast possibilities for citrus by creating interest through
restaurant and institutional trade, Dudley, Anderson and Yutzy now has on
the staff a person with wide experience in this field and much already has
been gained in the short time that concentrated attention has been given to it.

By stressing the importance and benefits of Florida citrus at every
opportunity to food and science writers and to the consumer through direct
outlets, the citrus story is told in many ways. It is gratifying that leaders
in the food world now come to us for nutritional and background information
on the Florida citrus and vitamin C story, as well as for recipe type ma-
terial. Through the many avenues stemming from these sources, citrus is
promoted on a community and national level.

There is no single yardstick to measure our success in achieving
results in the competitive media fields but some degree of it can be seen in
the following figures, tallied from actual reports and clippings, which indi-
cate the cumulative circulation attained by articles featuring citrus fruits
and products during the past fiscal year:

National Women's Magazines 112, 718, 562
Store-Sold Magazines 60, 514,760
Farm and Sectional Magazines 40, 972,290
Restaurant and Institutional Publications 829, 543
Store Service Leaflets 3,809,150
House Organs 1,141,200
Color in Sunday Supplements and Daily Pages 60,897,235
Weekly Newspapers 19,623,284
Newspaper Syndicates 241,742, 600
Daily Newspapers 397, 902, 396

Television shows featuring citrus 135
Radio tapes featuring citrus 94

- 19 -



Since September, 1952, the Commission has pursued the great cit-
rus consuming potential of our state and nation's children through a planned
school program designed to increase the consumption of Florida citrus pro-
ducts. To accomplish this end, a separate school services department was
established, and an advisory committee appointed, composed of educators
and public health officials interested in sound food habits among school chil-
dren. The progress of this program is most encouraging.

Program Pattern

The following is the pattern followed to increase the consumption of
Florida citrus products in the schools:

Pilot Studies The first three years were used to evaluate current
methods and develop new ways of serving citrus in the schools; to
evaluate the health status of children receiving citrus; to encourage
the trade to make orange juice dispensers available to the schools
on a loan basis; to encourage the schools to include more citrus pro-
ducts in their daily menus; and to make orange juice available every

Nutrition Education Educators and public health officials express
concern over the nutritional habits of children and the relation of
these habits to the general health of the school child. One of the
greatest nutritional problems is the lack of an adequate intake of
vitamin C each day in the average child's diet especially teen-

The school program has taken advantage of this interest and has
cooperated with the educators and public health officials in helping
to promote sound food habits among school children. State, county,
and national school administrators meetings and workshops have
been used for citrus demonstrations and presentations.

Supplementary Teaching Aids To aid the teacher in keeping the
citrus health story before the school children and their parents,
wall charts, films, film strips, teacher guides, simple leaflets,
and recipe books have been developed and distributed to teachers
requesting citrus materials.

- 20 -

Public Relations From the very beginning of the school program
in 1952, a special effort has been made with many of the top level
educators, public health officials, nutritionists, and school lunch
supervisors of the majority of the 48 states in order to develop
friends for the Commission's school program. This was done
through correspondence, summer school workshops, supplemen-
tary teaching aids, state and national conventions, conferences,
and citrus demonstrations. Radio and television health programs
on which the School Program Director was invited to participate
with pediatricians, nutritionists, parents, and dentists were help-
ful in getting the citrus health story before the community at large.

Summary of School Program Progress

Immediate Target Florida Schools The immediate target of the
Commission's School Program was to reach, enthuse, and sell
Florida schools on the idea of making orange juice available to all
school children every day. The Florida schools have been thor-
oughly indoctrinated on the importance of citrus fruits and juices in
the school child's daily diet. A great majority of the Florida schools
are now making orange juice available to the teachers and students
each day. The following is a summary of the Florida orange juice

Number of automatic orange juice dispensers installed 334
Number of counter type orange juice dispensers placed 103
Number of other type orange juice programs (pitcher) 74
Approximate number of automatic dispensers to be
installed by fall 140

Total Florida Orange Juice Programs 651

Average orange juice sales per dispenser per day:

200 half-pint cartons

The following tables represent findings in four schools in each of
five different areas in Florida, showing sales of orange juice dur-
ing May, 1956 (1/2 pint units)

Tampa Area Total
Week Ending: May 5 May 12 May 19 May 26 Units
(1/2 pts)
Memorial Jr. High School 1,753 1,563 1,933 2,067 7,316
Plant Sr. High School 2,131 1,585 2,198 2,468 8,382
Oak Grove High School 669 1,026 1,057 1,104 3,856
Tarpon Springs High School 894 1,180 1,589 1,847 5,510

- 21 -

Miami Area

Week Ending:

May 5 May 12 May 19

May 26- (1/2 pts)

Hialeah High School
North Miami Sr. H. S.
Dorsey Jr. H. S.
Citrus Grove Elemen-
tary School







2,883 2,156

Orlando Area

Mt. Dora High School
Apopka Memorial H. S.
Robert E. Lee Jr.
High School-Orlando
Edgewater High School-






1,645 2,398



Tallahassee Area

Elizabeth Cobb Jr. H.S.
Kate Sullivan Elem.
Leon High School
Caroline Brevard Elem.


St. Petersburg Area

Southward Elementary-
Belleair Elementary -
Northward Elementary -
St. Petersburg
West Central Elementary
St. Petersburg





1,054 1,041







National School Program Expansion

Every effort is being continued toward an eventual effective expan-
sion of the school program outside the state of Florida. It is expected that
Florida citrus juice programs are now nearing the operational phase in

- 22 -





















Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, North Carolina, Indiana, Kentucky, and

States in which the juice program has been approved in theory, but in
which plans have not reached the operational phase, include Louisiana, Texas,
Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania,

It must be emphasized that expansion of the program on a nationwide
scale is confronted with certain handicaps, two of which are the important ele-
ments of distribution, and the support of the trade in making dispensing facili-
ties available, The solution to both problems would appear to be based on the
continued expansion of the citrus industry, and must therefore be geared to
develop only with commercial progress.

In spite of the difficulties encountered by the school program outside
of the State of Florida, it is conceivable that development in this field will
make possible a large degree of national expansion within the next few years.


-23 -



This research deals with problems of citrus fruit processing, in-
cluding canning and concentrating, and with the treatment of waste ma-
terials to yield useful by-products; with methods of preventing decay in
fresh citrus fruits; with fundamental studies of the changes occurring
during the ripening of citrus fruits; and with the maturity of red and pink
grapefruit and Navel oranges.

A. Processing and By-Products Research

Standardization of Citrus Products

Determinations were made on some of the physical and
chemical qualities of 215 samples of commercial frozen con-
centrated orange juices collected bi-monthly during the 1954-
55 season from 24 Florida plants. There was no gelation of
consumer significance in any of the samples. Total glyco-
sides ranged from 60 mg. /100 ml. to 120 mg. /100 ml. in the
reconstituted juices. Water-insoluble solids, indicative of ex-
tracting and finishing procedures, ranged from 77 to 325 mg./
100 ml. of juice.

Storage Studies on Concentrated Citrus Juices

Two year storage studies were completed on 24 packs of fro-
zen concentrated orange juices stored at different temperatures.
The best protection against clarification was observed when the
single-strength juice was heated and the least protection when
the 4-fold concentrate was heated. As the temperature of stor-
age was lowered, a longer time was necessary for an equal de-
gree of clarification.

Commercial and experimental packs of frozen orange and
frozen grapefruit concentrates were examined for changes after
one year of storage at -80F. In general, pectinesterase activity
decreased and water-soluble pectin increased. Total glycosides
did not change.

Clarification and Gelation in Concentrated Citrus Juices

An investigation of the relationship of pectinesterase ac-
tivity and water-soluble pectin in frozen orange concentrates

- 24 -

to the storage life of such products was made. Commercial
samples of frozen orange concentrates containing relatively
high and low amounts of pectin together with low, average,
above-average and high pectinesterase activities were used,
Samples were removed from -80F. storage and placed in stor-
age at 400F. The concentrates with a high content of pectin
and low pectinesterase activity required 50. 5 days at 400F. to
show a definite degree of clarification, whereas those with a
high content of pectin and high enzymic activity showed defi-
nite clarification in 3. 5 days. Concentrates containing a high
content of pectin and average pectinesterase activity developed
definite clarification in 12 days. Similar concentrates but
with low pectin content with high, average, and low activity of
pectinesterase showed definite clarification in 1.5, 4, and 10.5
days, respectively. Results indicated that as the water-soluble
pectin was destroyed and insoluble pectates and pectinates were
formed, the cloud decreased. Suspended particles of water in-
solubles such as chromatophores and cellular tissue separated
during storage due to loss of pectin. In concentrates with simi-
lar pectinesterase activity, the content of water-soluble pectin
determined the storage life of the product. Thus it has been
shown that stability of frozen orange concentrates, as indicated
by cloud retention during storage, is dependent upon both the
quantity of water-soluble pectin in the product and the pectines-
terase activity, and that one without the other is not a complete
index of product stability. Frozen orange concentrates with low
pectinesterase activity and high content of water-soluble pectin
are the most stable; low pectinesterase activity in such products
may be obtained by heat treatment of orange juice or concentrate
during processing.

The effect of temperature and degree of concentration on the
inactivation of pectinesterase and on retention of cloud in Valen-
cia orange and Duncan grapefruit juices and concentrates was
determined using a plate-type heat exchanger. Complete inac-
tivation of pectinesterase occurred in the 1- and 2-fold orange
juices at 1950F. and in the 3-fold product at 2050F. A temper-
ature of 1950F. was necessary to completely inactivate the en-
zyme in the 1-, 2-, and 3-fold grapefruit products.

Factors Affecting Quality of Processed Grapefruit Products

Ten experimental packs of frozen concentrated grapefruit
juices were prepared to determine factors affecting their quality.
The raw juices were heated to 1950F. ; concentrated to approxi-
mately 50Brix in the pilot plant evaporator, and then cut-back
to 380Brix with unheated juices. Pectinesterase activity in the
juices before heating ranged from 8.7 to 37.4 units and after

- 25 -

heating from 0. 3 to 1.6 units. Water-insoluble solids in the
reconstituted concentrates ranged from 53 to 152 mg. /100g.
Water-soluble pectin in the reconstituted juices varied from
28. 5 to 53.7 mg. /100g, There was no significant loss of
cloud nor any gelation found after storage of the grapefruit
concentrates at 400F. for 48 hours.

Additional canned grapefruit sections were collected from
two commercial plants every two weeks throughout the 1954-
55 processing season to further investigate the relationship
between time of packing and quality. These samples were
stored at 320F. until the collection of samples was completed,
and then stored at 900F. and examined and analyzed at periodic
intervals. Results indicated a tendency for samples having low
acid content and high pH to have better stability to browning
than fruit packed at the same date with high acid and low pH.
Packing date during the season did not appear to be as impor-
tant to this quality factor as the acidity and pH relationship.

Packs of canned grapefruit sections were processed in a
commercial plant in continuation of an investigation on the ef-
fect of fertilizer and spray practices on the quality of canned
grapefruit sections. When grapefruit was picked on the same
day from trees which had received different amounts of potash,
the firmness and quality of the canned grapefruit sections de-
creased with an increase in the amount of potash used in the fer-
tilizer; also, the firmness of the canned sections was better
when fruit which had been sprayed with lead arsenate was used.
The initial color and flavor of the canned grapefruit sections
were not affected to any significant extent by the different cul-
tural practices.

The bitterness in processed grapefruit products was reduced
by the enzymic hydrolysis of naringin by a glycosidase, which
occurs as an impurity in Pectinol. Pilot plant investigations
are being made.

Examination of sugar-added frozen grapefruit concentrates
after storage for two years at -80F. for sugar hydrate forma-
tion showed that heat treatment of the product only lessens the
possibility of chance seeding and does not have any other inhibi-
tory effect on this formation.

Oxidized Flavors in Citrus Products

Studies were continued on the cause and prevention of off-
flavors in frozen citrus concentrates. Cardboard, tallowy and

- 26 -

castor oil flavors were produced in frozen Hamlin and Pine-
apple orange concentrates and in grapefruit concentrates by
the incorporation of air into these products prior to freezing.
These "oxidized" flavors were not initially present but de-
veloped in the products during storage at -80F., and the ten-
dency for these flavors to change in character or disappear dur-
ing storage was again noted. Oxidized flavors have developed
at a faster rate and to a greater intensity in some of the Marsh
grapefruit concentrates than in those made from Duncan grape-
fruit. Valencia orange oil was added to portions of a 550Brix
Hamlin orange concentrate, processed in December, 1955, so
that the oil levels in the reconstituted juices would be 0. 010,
0.015 and 0. 020% by volume; air was incorporated into these
products and control packs were also prepared without air in-
corporation or the addition of peel oil. These concentrates
were frozen and stored at -80F. Periodic examinations through
May 24, 1956, showed that oxidized flavor of extreme intensity
developed in the control pack containing air, but did not occur
in any of the products to which the orange oil was added.

Of the 215 samples of frozen orange concentrates which were
collected during the 1954-55 season, only five samples or 2,4%
were graded poor in flavor; two were graded poor because of
buttermilk-type off-flavor and three because of citrus "oxidized"
flavors. Two hundred and ten samples or 97.6% were of accep-
table quality, of which 112 samples were graded good and 98
samples were graded fair in quality. In general, these samples
were judged to be better in flavor than that of 221 samples of
commercial frozen orange concentrate collected during the 1953-
54 season.

Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices

Diacetyl tests were made on 215 samples of commercial fro-
zen concentrated orange juices collected during the 1954-55 sea-
son. The values ranged from 0. 1 to 3. 2 ppm, with an average
value of 0. 65 ppm. Only two of the 215 samples were of poor
quality because of buttermilk-type off-flavor; these samples had
diacetyl values of 3.1 and 3.2 ppm.

Diacetyl tests made on the component parts of oranges indi-
cated that acetylmethylcarbinol was present in small amounts
in both the flavedo and juice of fresh oranges.

The microbiological examination of unstabilized chilled
orange juices during storage in wax cartons at 400F. indicated
that microbial growth in this product is variable. The total

- 27 -

count increased from 79, 000 to 99, 000 per ml. during the
storage of one batch of Hamlin orange juice for 21 days; in
chilled Valencia orange juice the count increased from 39, 500
to 1,000,000 per ml. during 21 days of storage. However, a
decrease in count from 3,600 to 2,500 per ml. occurred in
chilled Pineapple orange juice after 14 days of storage. When
a batch of Valencia orange concentrate was reconstituted,
cooled and stored at 400F. for 23 days, an increase in count
from 400 to 39,200 per ml. occurred. Fermentation was not
evident in any of the samples during the storage periods of
two to three weeks.

Thirteen cultures of streptococci were isolated from 24
samples of commercial frozen concentrated orange juices.
Characteristics of five of the cultures did not correspond ex-
actly to any description. Eight of the cultures were found to
be similar to known species and were allocated as follows:
one culture as Streptococcus faecalis; five cultures as Strep.
lactis; two cultures as Strep. liquefaciens. The fact that
streptococci were isolated from over-mature fruit and from
fruit damaged by cold weather indicates that their occurrence
in orange concentrates might be more indicative of the matur-
ity or quality of the fruit used rather than any indication of
sanitary significance.

Production and Use of Activated Citrus Sludge

The production of activated citrus sludge was continued us-
ing the laboratory activated sludge treatment system. It was
demonstrated that supplementary nutrients are not necessary
in the treatment of citrus wastes once a healthy sludge has been
established. Cobaltous chloride was added to the raw waste to
determine if cobalt would increase the vitamin B12 content of
the excess sludge produced by the system.

A modified method for the determination of the chemical
oxygen demand of a waste has been developed, which is rapid
and sufficiently accurate.


A study of procedures for the separation and purification of
some of the major constituents of citrus peel was continued,
and the occurrence of inositol in citrus fruits and its recovery
as a useful by-product was further investigated.

Clarified grapefruit, lime, and orange juices and concen-
trates were prepared and the use of these products as a bever-
age base is being investigated.

S28 -

A study of the distribution of pectic constituents in samples
of commercial orange marmalade bases was made to deter-
mine causes of pre-gelation in the product, and a method for
the rapid determination of water-insoluble solids in citrus
juices and concentrates was developed.

B. Chemical Changes in Citrus Fruits During Maturation

The use of the Hunter Color Difference Meter to study the
internal color of Ruby Red and Pink Seedless grapefruit was
continued to determine further the effect of rootstock and sea-
sonal variation on color. The pigments responsible for the
color were also separated and determined quantitatively. All
samples showed a consistent seasonal decline in the color
of the cross section of the fruit and when sections of the fruit
used were removed and macerated, the color measurement of
the blended samples gave results similar to those obtained on
the cross section samples.

Three pigments of colored grapefruit were identified as
lycopene, beta carotene, and zeta carotene by their absorp-
tion maxima. A fourth pigment has not been identified. Sam-
ples from all groves showed consistent seasonal decline of
lycopene content and the beta carotene increased from Septem-
ber to the middle of the season and remained relatively un-
changed thereafter. Fruits from sour orange rootstock, which
were lower in lycopene, contained significantly more beta caro-
tene than those on rough lemon during October, November, and

C. Citrus Fruit Decay Studies

The incidence of post-harvest decay in Florida citrus fruits
in 1955-56 was somewhat lower than in previous seasons but
was still the cause of considerable loss. The average loss
from decay in oranges as indicated by control lots in a series
of 42 experiments performed throughout the season was 15.2%
and 26. 2% for fruit held at 700F. for two and three weeks,re-
spectively. The corresponding figures for oranges held at 600F.
were 6.4% and 17.4%. To combat this loss, investigations on
the Dowicide A-Hexamine treatment were continued with the ob-
ject of increasing its efficiency. An important reason for plac-
ing emphasis on this method was due to the action of the U. S.
Food and Drug Administration approving its use in the post-
harvest treatment of citrus fruits. However, the possibility
of finding another treatment for control of decay was not lost
sight of and a number (21) of other fungicides and procedures

- 29 -

were investigated. In the experimental work, 112 experi-
ments were performed in which 153, 254 fruits were used.

Experimental work with Dowicide A-Hexamine was di-
rected towards improving its effectiveness as follows:
(1) modification of the method of application; (2) addition
of other chemicals to the standard Dowicide A-Hexamine
solution; (3) varying the storage temperature after treat-
ment; (4) combination with other treatments. Better decay
control and less peel injury occurred when ammonium bi-
carbonate was incorporated in "pads" and placed in the
fiberboard cartons above and below the fruit than when the
entire amount was placed below the fruit. The investiga-
tion of the value of Dowicide A-Hexamine treatment in the
cold storage of oranges was continued.

The Dowicide A-Hexamine treatment was used by eight
commercial packing houses during part or all of the past

D. Maturity Survey

Representative groves of red and pink grapefruit and of
Navel oranges were sampled at two week intervals from Sep-
tember 15, 1955, to March 15, 1956. Approximately 1865
acres of red grapefruit, 978 acres of pink grapefruit, and
410 acres of Navel oranges were included in the sampling.

The grapefruit samples consisted of 6 fruit each of sizes
54, 70 and 96 from about each ten acres of grove. The Na-
vel orange samples consisted of 12 fruit each of sizes 96, 150
and 200 per approximate ten acres of grove.

In the laboratory these samples were analyzed for juice
content, percent acid, total soluble solids, and in the case of
grapefruit, twelve groves were followed for changes in fruit
color (reported elsewhere).

Fertilizer, spray and production records were obtained
on each grove, and in June, leaf samples were collected
from all groves. In addition, through the courtesy of the
Southern Dolomite Company, pH, soil calcium and soil mag-
nesium determinations were made on fifty of the groves.

E. Spray and Dust Schedules

Twenty-two thousand Better Fruit Program Spray and
Dust Schedules were printed and distributed.

-30 -


Columbia University

Research on the growth, reproduction and longevity of guinea
pigs fed on different levels of ascorbic acid was continued under
the leadership of Professor Clara Mae Taylor, Nutrition Labora-
tory, Teachers College. In general, it can be said that the females
on the higher levels of ascorbic acid produced more young, particu-
larly live young, and the average survival of the live young was
much better.

Texas State College for Women

At this institution, Doctor Pauline Beery Mack is studying the ef-
fect of supplementing the diet of school children with daily portions
of orange juice. One half of 156 grade school children are receiving
six ounces of orange juice daily and the remaining half are receiving
12 ounces. Another group is serving as a control, i. e., they are re-
ceiving no supplementary orange juice.

Before and after the feeding tests, all the children receive a most
complete medical, mental and dental examination, including blood
analyses, x-rays, and electro -cardiograms.

Preliminary results based on feeding for one semester indicate
improved hemoglobin counts, faster growth, and improved gum con-
ditions in the children receiving the orange juice.

- 31 -


As is the case in any successful industrial endeavor, the compli-
cated procedure of moving products to market has become extremely
important to the Florida citrus industry. As production increases, so
also increase the problems encountered in the transportation of our
fresh and processed products to markets throughout the world.

New and more complex transportation problems have become al-
most a matter of routine to the Florida citrus shipper and processor;
problems that may spell the difference between seasonal success or
profit losses.

To assist in solving these problems affecting transportation, the
Commission continued to retain the service of the Growers and Ship-
pers League of Florida. The League, as a representative of the citrus
industry at large, has been most effective in carrying citrus transpor-
tation problems before the Interstate Commerce Commission and other
federal and state agencies embodied with the authority to regulate trans-

Through this service to the citrus industry, the League has been in-
strumental in effecting savings amounting to hundreds of thousands of
dollars. Listed below are some of the more important citrus problems
encountered during the 1955-56 season by the Growers and Shippers League,
their disposition or status:

I. C. C. Docket 31342, Refrigeration Case

The railroads in 1952 petitioned the Interstate Commerce Commis-
sion for authority to increase refrigeration charges 30%. Hearings were
held in Washington, D. C.; Orlando, Florida; Harlingen, Texas; San
Francisco, California; and Highland Park, Illinois. The Commission's
decision was issued January 30, 1956, authorizing the railroads to in-
crease refrigeration charges 15% and specifically withheld authority to in-
crease mechanical refrigeration charges.

The League for account of the Florida Citrus Commission and the
Florida Canners' Association filed a petition with the Interstate Com-
merce Commission requesting reconsideration, which was denied, and
the railroads published their tariff increasing refrigeration charges April
17, 1956, by 15%.

A complaint was filed with the U. S. District Court for the Northern
District of Florida at Tallahassee to secure a temporary injunction. Hearing

- 32 -

was held before Judge DeVane on April 12th. The Judge recommended
that the Interstate Commerce Commission postpone the effective date of
its order until he could assemble a three-judge court to pass upon the
merits of the complaint and deferred ruling upon a request for a tempo-
rary restraining order or temporary injunction, and advised at that time
that a three-judge court would be assembled and a further hearing was held
June 12th. Argument was presented to the Court on that date but no deci-
sion has been submitted by the Court.

Unloading Charges On Fresh Fruits and Vegetables At New York
and Philadelphia

Upon further hearing and reconsideration, the Interstate Commerce
Commission decided June 28, 1956, that unloading charges on fresh fruits
and vegetables at New York and Philadelphia were not shown to be just and
reasonable and has ordered the carriers to cancel such charges on or be-
fore August 16, 1956. The Commission's decision is dated June 28th, but
its order was not served until July 24th.

This proceeding began in 1947 and has been constantly opposed. Many
hearings have been held before the Interstate Commerce Commission. Com-
plaint was filed with the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of
Florida and was taken to the U. S. Supreme Court. The Supreme Court re-
manded the case to the Interstate Commerce Commission.

The charges originally published were in the amount of $1.95 per ton
for unloading fresh citrus fruit; were reduced as result of further proceed-
ings before the Interstate Commerce Commission to $1.05 per ton; and the
$1.05 per ton is now ordered cancelled, which amounts to approximately
$25. 00 per car. Based on the auction sales of fresh citrus fruit from
Florida at New York and Philadelphia last season, it will amount to a re-
duction in transportation charges of approximately $300, 000 per season.

Rate Reductions:

(a) Fresh Citrus Fruit:

Proposals approved by Southern railroads reducing rates to South-
western and Western Trunk Line territories on fresh citrus fruit from
Florida have been approved and we are awaiting publication. As an example,
the rates from Lake Wales to Houston, Texas, on oranges will be reduced
from $1. 18 to 97, which is 1 under the rates that were reduced October
7, 1954, from $1.55 to $1. 18.

Truck competitive rate adjustment to Detroit, Cleveland, and
Buffalo, approved by Southern Freight Association, is still under consid-
eration by the Northern lines. This will reduce the rate to Cleveland from

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Lake Wales approximately 16.

Negotiations are being carried on with the Florida origin lines
for a downward revision in the rates on fresh citrus fruit from Florida
to Official and New England territory.

(b) Rates on Frozen Citrus Concentrate:

The railroads approved and published,effective July 17th, a 10%
reduction in rates on frozen citrus concentrate from Florida to all terri-
tories with the exception of Trans-Continental and Canada. This pro-
posal was originally proposed by the Seaboard Air Line Railroad and op-
posed before the Southern, Southwestern, Western Trunk Line and Offi-
cial territories by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, but that railroad
prior to publication concurred in the reduced rates.

The lower level of rates will reflect a saving in transportation
charges on frozen citrus concentrate industry from Florida of $600, 000

Senate Bill 898

Senate Bill 898,introduced by Senator Smathers of Florida, was
passed by the Senate and House of Representatives and signed by Presi-
dent Eisenhower on August 6th. This amendment to the Interstate Com-
merce Act expressly prohibits the Interstate Commerce Commission
from issuing any rule or regulation as to the duration of a truck lease.

Adjustment in Rail Rates On Canned Citrus

Because of reductions made on rail rates applicable on canned
goods within Official Territory subject to carload minimum weight of
36, 000 and 60, 000 pounds, combination rates applicable on the move-
ment of canned citrus from Florida to many points in Official Territory
were lower than the through rate applicable on this type of movement. As
a result, it became necessary to check innumerable combinations and
compare the resulting combination rate with the through rate in order to
determine the lowest applicable rate. This became an almost impossible
situation because of the extremely large number of combination rates
which had to be checked out;and, in order to relieve this situation, the
origin rail lines were asked to consider the possibility of publishing as
through rates the level of rates which had been published within Official
Territory. This suggestion was turned down by the origin rail lines and
another suggestion was made to them that there be published between
Southern and Official Territory a dual minimum scale of rates which had
been proposed for application between Southern and Southwestern and

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between Southern and Western Trunk Line Territories. This proposal was
also declined by the origin rail lines.

The Southwestern and Western Trunk Line rail carriers proposed
to cancel the present exception rating on canned goods applicable between
points in Southwestern and Western Trunk Line Territories and between
those Territories and Southern Territory. Hearings on these proposals
were held in St. Louis on June 10, 1955, and in Chicago on September 15,
1955. At both hearings the proposal as docketed was opposed by canned
goods shippers throughout the country, including representatives of the
Florida Canners' Association, and alternative dual minimum rate scales
subject to carload minimum weights of 36, 000 and 60, 000 pounds were sug-
gested by the shippers. After more hearings with the rail carriers, these
proposals were finally approved for application within and between South-
western and Western Trunk Line Territories and also between Southwestern
and Western Trunk Line Territories on the one hand and Southern Territory
on the other. The approval of the Shippers' proposed dual minimum scales
was later amended to provide that there would be no increase in these rates
under the Ex Parte 196 increases. While these scales have been approved
by the Western Railroads, the Southern Lines have not yet acted upon these

The Southern Rail lines have been studying possible revision in the
rail rates on canned goods from, to, and within Southern Territory, and in
March, 1956, filed SFA Submittal A26127 which proposed to establish dual
minimum rates on canned goods from, to, and within Southern Territory.
Hearing on this Submittal was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on April 11, 1956,
at which time canned goods shippers throughout the country and representa-
tives of the Florida Canners' Association opposed the proposed level of rates
as being unrealistic. They submitted, as a substitute for the rail proposal,
a dual minimum scale of rates applicable within the Southern Territory and
between Southern and Official Territory similar to the rail rates applicable
within Official Territory and between Southern and Western Trunk Line Ter-
ritory, and between Southern and Southwestern Territory, which had beenap-
proved by Western carriers. In June, 1956, the Southern Rail Lines an-
nounced the approval of the Western scale of rates on canned goods for appli-
cation between Southern Territory and Southwestern, Western Trunk Line
and Official Territories, and the approval of the Official Territory scale of
rates within Southern Territory. This action by the Southern Rail lines must
be approved by the rate jurisdictions in other territories before these rates
can be made effective. The result of this adjustment, if approved, will be a
reduction in the rail rates on canned citrus from Florida to all points in the
country east of the Rocky Mountains, subject to carload minimum weights of
36, 000 and 60, 000 pounds, and will eliminate the necessity of combination
rates on canned citrus to destinations in Official Territory.

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Ex Parte 196 Increased Freight Rates, 1956

In December, 1955, the rail carriers throughout the country filed
with the Interstate Commerce Commission a petition to increase all freight
rates and charges 7% and asked for a shortened procedure in handling this
request in order that the rates might be made effective February 25, 1956.
The League filed a verified statement in opposition to these proposed in-
creases and our Attorney, Mr. M. W. Wells, participated in the cross-
examination of carrier witnesses at a hearing in Washington, D. C., be-
ginning February 13. This was followed by oral argument before the Com-
mission beginning February 20. In its decision on this case, the Interstate
Commerce Commission allowed the railroads a 6% increase in their rates
and charges subject to a maximum increase of 6 per one hundred pounds
on fresh fruits and vegetables and canned goods with no increases authorized
on refrigeration charges nor on the unloading charges of fresh fruits and
vegetables at New York and Philadelphia. These increases were published
effective March 7, 1956. Since the Interstate Commerce Commission pre-
scribed a maximum increase of 6 per hundred pounds on fresh and canned
fruits and vegetables, but did not prescribe a maximum increase on frozen
fruits, vegetables, and juices, the railroads were requested to voluntarily
establish a 6 maximum on the frozen commodities. This proposal was ap-
proved by the rail lines; and, effective March 4, 1956, the 6 maximum in-
crease was made applicable on frozen fruits, vegetables, and juices.

Ex Parte 175 Increased Freight Rates, 1951

In April, 1955, the rail carriers throughout the country filed with
the Interstate Commerce Commission a petition requesting that the increases
in rail rates and charges authorized in Ex Parte 175, and which had been
made subject to expiration date by the Interstate Commerce Commission, be
made permanent parts of the rate structure. A verified statement in opposi-
tion was filed by the League and a hearing for cross-examination of both car-
rier and shipper witnesses was held in Washington, D. C., September 26th
through 29th, 1955. In spite of widespread opposition to these increases being
made permanent, the Interstate Commerce Commission did remove the ex-
piration date of these increases; and effective December 1, 1955, these in-
creases became a permanent part of the rail rates and charges.

Cancellation Of ACL-Southern Railway Route to East

In October, 1955, we were advised that the Atlantic Coast Line Rail-
road Company was planning to cancel the joint ACL-Southern Railway Routes
via Jacksonville and Savannah to certain cities in Virginia and to points in
Trunk Line and New England Territories from certain branch lines of the At-
lantic Coast Line Railroad in Florida. This matter was discussed by the

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Executive and Traffic Committees of the League and because of the adverse
effect this proposed cancellation of route would have on the movement of
commodities out of Florida, the League was authorized to oppose this pro-
posed cancellation. When this proposal was considered by the Southern Rail
lines, it was disapproved by the General Freight Committee and also by the
Executive Committee of the Southern Freight Association. Efforts were al-
so made to settle this matter through arbitration but this also failed. Sup-
plements to various tariffs proposing the cancellation of this routing were
filed and petitions for suspension of these supplements were filed by the
Southern Railway. Supplements affecting the movement of canned citrus and
frozen citrus concentrate from certain points in Florida were filed to be-
come effective June 10, 1956, and other supplements affecting the citrus
pomace final syrup from certain Florida origins were filed to become effec-
tive June 11, 1956. The League filed a petition for suspension of these sup-
plements involving our commodities, and the Interstate Commerce Commis-
sion suspended the supplement affecting canned citrus and frozen concentrate
in I. & S. Docket No, 6572. It also ordered an investigation into the proposed
cancellation of the citrus pomace final syrup supplement in I. C. C. Docket
No. 31986. The supplement to the Citrus Fruit Tariff was filed to become
effective July 20, 1956. A petition for suspension of this supplement was also
filed with the Interstate Commerce Commission and while the Commission did
not suspend the supplement, it did place it under investigation in Docket 31986.
Hearing on these two dockets was originally set at Washington, D. C. on
July 17, 1956, but has since been postponed until September 18, 1956. The
League will participate in these hearings in opposition to the proposed cancel-
lation of the joint ACL-Southern Routes.

Truck Authority For Chilled Citrus Products

With the increased production of chilled citrus juices and chilled cit-
rus salads, the question arose as to the authority needed by truck lines to
transport this type of commodity. In 1954, the Interstate Commerce Com-
mission ruled in a case that authority to transport frozen citrus products or
frozen foods was sufficient to cover the transportation of chilled citrus juice.
In March, 1955, Watkins Motor Lines filed a petition requesting a determina-
tion and interpretation of its certificate authorizing the transportation of fro-
zen citrus products in order to set a precedent for the transportation of
chilled citrus juices under this authority. The League intervened in support
of this petition. In September, 1955, the Interstate Commerce Commission
ruled that authority to transport frozen citrus products or frozen foods did
cover authority to transport the described chilled citrus juices.

In spite of these rulings by the Interstate Commerce Commission,
many of the motor carriers filed applications to transport chilled citrus
juices and chilled citrus salad under various descriptions. In an effort to

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eliminate as much of this confusion as possible, and also to arrive at some
description that would cover the various types of citrus products being pro-
duced in Florida, and which might be conceivably produced in the future, a
meeting of shippers and truck line representatives was held in December,
1955, to discuss this problem in detail. As a result of this and later con-
ferences, the League filed a petition with the Interstate Commerce Commis-
sion for Modification of Certificates of Irregular Route Motor Common Car-
riers of Frozen Foods, Frozen Citrus Products, and Frozen Citrus Juice
Concentrates in which the Commission was asked to enter upon an investiga-
tion as to the appropriate description to be used in certificates for the trans-
portation of these products. It was suggested that the description of "Pro-
cessed Food Products Containing Citrus Products and Requiring Vehicles
Equipped with Mechanical Refrigeration" be used, or a similar commodity
description. This proceeding has been designated as I. C. C. Docket No.
MC-C-1930, and various truck lines serving the Florida citrus industry
have intervened in support of this petition. To date, however, no hearing
has been set.

Truck Rate Increases On Canned and Frozen Citrus Products

In November, 1955, the truck lines in the South filed proposals to
increase truck rates on all commodities from, to, and within Southern Ter-
ritory by 10%. At a hearing before the Southern Motor Carrier Rate Con-
ference in Atlanta, Georgia, on November 29, 1955, the League and repre-
sentatives of the canned citrus and frozen citrus concentrate shippers ap-
peared in opposition to this increase. In December, 1955, the truck lines
announced approval of a 7% increase in rates after the railroads filed their
petition for a 7% increase in Ex Parte 196. Tariffs publishing the 7% in-
crease were published to become effective March 12, 1956, but as the re-
sult of the Interstate Commerce Commission's decision granting the rail
lines a 6% increase, the truck lines amended their increase to 6%, and
tariffs were published from Florida including the 6% increase effective on
March 26, 1956. The truck lines followed the example set by the rail car-
riers in establishing a 6 per one hundred pound maximum on frozen citrus
concentrate;and effective March 4, 1956, made this 6# per one hundred
poutd maximum effective on truck shipments.

As the result of the approval by the rail lines of a 10% reduction in
rates on frozen citrus concentrate from Florida, the truck lines serving
the Florida frozen concentrate industry have approved, effective July 21,
1956, the removal of the 6 maximum on shipments of frozen citrus concen-
trate to all territories, except to the East, to which territory the 6 maxi-
mum will still apply. However, several of the truck lines have announced
independent action on publishing different levels of rates subject to mini-
mum weights other than the present 27, 000 pound truck load minimum. These
proposals are still to be acted upon and we are unable at this time to report
the final outcome.

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Proposed 15% Increase In Charge For Mechanical Refrigeration

Following the decision of the Interstate Commerce Commission in
Docket 31342, the Refrigeration Case, in which the Commission authorized
a 15% increase in refrigeration charges, except those applicable on me-
chanical refrigeration, the National Perishable Freight Committee, in Feb-
ruary, 1956, filed a proposal to also increase the mechanical refrigera-
tion charges by 15%. A public hearing on this proposal was held in Chicago
on March 5, at which the League and other representatives of the Florida
frozen concentrate industry appeared in opposition to the proposal. On
March 28, 1956, the Executive Committee of the Southern Freight Associa-
tion also held a public hearing on this proposal and League's attorney, Max-
well W. Wells, and League's Traffic Manager, Tom Haile, appeared be-
fore the Executive Committee opposing the increase. As the result of this
hearing, the Executive Committee of the Southern Freight Association ad-
vised that no action should be taken on this increase until further study by
the Executive Committee. On June 15, 1956, the Traffic Committee of the
National Association of Frozen Food Packers and League's Executive Vice-
President met with the National Perishable Freight Committee in Chicago to
discuss figures which the rail lines have compiled showing the cost to the
rail lines of performing mechanical refrigeration service. These figures as
furnished by the rail lines and car lines purportedly show that the cost of
providing mechanical refrigeration service is greatly in excess of the revenue
derived from the present charges for this service. However, these figures
are now being analyzed in an effort to determine what factors have been used
in building up these costs.

The following matters were also handled:

Exemption of Frozen Fruits and Vegetables

Proposed Increases in Express Charges on Gift Fruit Shipments

Elimination of Waxed Fibreboard Carton on Rail Shipments of
Chilled Citrus Juice

Reduction in Rail Rates on Citrus Pomace, Carload Minimum
Weight 60,000 pounds

Consolidated Truck Authorities Case

10% Increase in Ocean Freight Rates

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