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FLORIDA CITRUS COMMISSION
Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1954
22 ~~ .r"
Commission Members Serving During
the 1953-54 Fiscal Year
O. C. Minton, Chairman
Robert C. Wooten, Vice Chairman
L. Frank Roper
Key Scales, Jr.
C. V. Griffin
Thomas B. Swann
J. J. Parrish, Jr.
J. Frank Bennett
John A. Snively, Jr.
Herschell N. Sorrells
Robert C. Wooten, Chairman
L. Frank Roper
J. J. Parrish, Jr.
John A. Snively, Jr.
C. V. Griffin
Herschell N. Sorrells
Frank Chase, Chairman
Thomas B. Swann
Herschell N. Sorrells
Key Scales, Jr.
John A. Snively, Jr.
Herschell N. Sorrells, Chairman
Thomas B. Swann
Robert C. Wooten
J. Frank Bennett
Robert C. Evans, General Manager
Paul S. Patterson, Director of Advertising
Frank D. Arn, Direct or of Merchandising
Ralph M. Henry, Director of Sales Service
Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Director of Research
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Florida Citrus Commission
July 1, 1953--June 30, 1954
During the 1953-54 season, the State of Florida became entrenched
more securely in its position as the largest producer of citrus fruits in the
world. Production of oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and limes totaled
138, 570, 000 boxes, each holding one and three-fifths bushels. This was
28,650, 000 boxes more than were produced during the 1952-53 season, and
19,210, 000 boxes more than were grown during 1951-52, which previously
held the record for production.
The Florida crop represented about 34 per cent of the world citrus
crop and 77 per cent of the U. S. crop, excluding lemons. The state's
91, 000, 000 boxes of oranges accounted for 73 per cent of the U. S. total,
while 87 per cent of the nation's grapefruit supply and 100 per cent of the
commercial varieties of tangerines and limes were grown in Florida.
Although the 1953-54 production was the largest in Florida's history,
the total on-tree value of the crop to growers ranked fourth. Based on fig-
ures compiled by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the estimated total
on-tree value of oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines, during the 1953-54 sea-
son was $137.4 million, compared to $123. 3 million in 1952-53, $175 million
in 1949-50, $167.8 million in 1945-46, and $147.4 million in 1950-51. Dur-
ing 1953-54, the Florida orange crop had an on-tree value estimated at
$110.5 million; the grapefruit crop, $19.6 million; and the tangerine crop, $7.3
While on-tree returns for oranges were considered to be satisfactory,
especially in view of the increase in the size of the crop, grapefruit returns
continued to represent just slightly more than the cost of production, for
fresh usage, and substantially below the cost of production when used for pro-
Several factors combined to bring about this situation, in the opinion
of many observers in the citrus industry. The continually increasing con-
sumer acceptance for frozen concentrated orange juice has undoubtedly taken
over a portion of the market previously enjoyed by fresh and processed grape-
fruit, especially the latter. The increase in the size of the Florida grapefruit
crop to 42,000,000 boxes---the largest in the state's history---also had an
unbalancing effect on the law of supply and demand.
Thirdly, the American public, overwhelmed by the advertising of
fresh and processed oranges carried on by public and private organizations
all over the U. S., simply did not hear as much about grapefruit, its advan-
tages and economies.
The Florida Citrus Commission continued to be the only organization
in the nation, public or private, conducting an advertising and merchandis-
ing campaign on grapefruit from coast to coast. Supplied with an extra two
cents per box advertising tax on grapefruit by the 1953 legislature, the Com-
mission was able to increase substantially its efforts on that fruit, thereby
avoiding what many believe would have been even more disastrous returns to
The legislative act increasing the assessment on grapefruit to six cents
per box also contained a clause providing that the Commission set up a fund of
$100, 000 to be used to refund brand advertisers of fresh grapefruit in the
amount of $1 for every $2 spent in advertising and merchandising. While the
deadline for filing claims has not arrived as this report is written, prelimin-
ary indications are that only a few shippers have taken advantage of the rebate
fund and less than one-third of the $100, 000 will be returned to brand adver-
Utilization of both oranges and grapefruit by processors continued to
increase during the 1953-54 season, with approximately 69 per cent of the
orange crop and 49 per cent of the grapefruit crop going into one or more
forms of canned or concentrated products. The production of frozen concen-
trated orange juice alone accounted for about 53 per cent of the total Florida
orange crop. The 48, 300, 000 boxes going into this product was greater than
the entire Florida orange crop grown in the years prior to the 1945-46 season.
There are attached to this report tables showing the production, utili-
zation, on-tree prices, and value of the orange, grapefruit, and tangerine
crops for the seasons 1943-44 through 1953-54. Other tables are included
showing the pack of the various Florida processed citrus products for the
The Commission's activities are discussed under the following head-
I. General Activities VI. School Education Program
II. Consumer Advertising VII. Research
III. Professional Advertising VIII. Transportation
IV. Merchandising IX. Statistical Tables
V. Consumer Publicity
I. GENERAL ACTIVITIES
The Commission investigated and approved 1377 license applications
from fresh fruit shippers, canners, truckers, express shippers, brokers,
etc. Of these, 1268 were renewals and 109 were new applicants. A total of
333 special permits were issued during the season, most of them under Sec-
tion 50 of the Florida Citrus Code. The Commission also issued 66 permits
for the experimental shipment of new citrus containers.
In an attempt to obtain more information on the various factors in-
volved in the maturity of citrus fruits, the Commission in December, 1953,
approved the appointment of a Quality Committee, empowering it with the
authority to employ the additional personnel necessary to make the maturity
tests and develop the data pertinent to the problem. Represented on the com-
mittee were the Commission and all segments of the Florida citrus industry.
Acting accordingly, the Commission's research department, under the direc-
tion of Dr. L. G. MacDowell, employed four technicians and began taking
samples of 133 grapefruit groves, which covered approximately 3000 acres
and ranged from Lake County on the North to Lake Placid on the South and
from east coast to west coast. A small sample of 15 tangerine groves was
also included in the study. This study continued throughout the Winter and
Spring, and the Quality Committee, headed by Commission Member John A.
Snively, Jr., chairman, recommended that the work be resumed during the
At the request of the industry, the Commission appointed three repre-
sentatives to attend a hearing in Washington, D. C., in January, 1954, which
was called by the Food and Drug Administration to consider de-certifying
F&D Dye No. Red 32 now being used to color oranges.
The Commission appropriated a total of $50, 000 from its research
funds in 1953-54 and 1954-55 to help defray the costs of a citrus tree census
to be carried out by the State Plant Board. The State Plant Board agreed to
contribute $100, 000 of the total $225, 000 cost of the project by providing per-
sonnel and equipment necessary to complete the census. Federal funds in the
amount of $62, 500 were secured from the U. S. Department of Agriculture,
with the remaining $12, 500 to come from some agency or organization in the
Florida Citrus Industry. The proposed tree census would supply the grower
with a more exact price guide, afford the Florida Citrus Experiment Station
and other research agencies a better chance of controlling and limiting dam-
age of diseases and infestations, and would furnish reliable indications of fu-
ture trends and probable production in years ahead so that industry planning
groups will have more exact data upon which to project their marketing pro-
Weekly, monthly, and quarterly reports from the Market Research
Corporation of America concerning the retail movement of processed citrus
products, were purchased in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture and the California citrus industry.
Weekly and monthly statistical reports compiled from various data
furnished by the Florida Canners Association, the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, the Growers Administrative Committee, The Federal-State Market
News Service, and the Market Research Corp. of America were published by
the Commission's statistical department and distributed to the industry.
II. CONSUMER ADVERTISING
The purpose of the Commission's advertising program was to con-
tinue its efforts to increase the consumption of citrus products and further
popularize those from Florida so that the ever increasing crop of citrus
will be marketed profitably to the American and Canadian public.
The wonderful characteristics of Florida citrus fruits offer abundant
material for presentation to the public. The Commission's advertising at-
tempts to present these characteristics in an attractive educational way, so
that oranges, grapefruit and tangerine products are accepted by all as a
regular part of their daily diet. The fact that these citrus fruits are so de-
licious to eat and at the same time healthful because they supply the daily re-
quirements of Vitamin C, provides a great opportunity for effective adver-
The problem of selling Florida citrus fruits the year around instead
of 7 months a year is brought more sharply into focus each succeeding year.
During the 1953-54 season orange concentrate was produced in larger quan-
tities than ever before, thereby taking the greatest share of the orange crop.
This meant increasing the trend towards making Florida citrus more of a
coast-to-coast year around product.
More grapefruit was grown in Florida than ever before and more of it
was consumed in fresh form than ever before. In the North Central region
of the country more fresh grapefruit was consumed from October, 1953, thru
March, 1954, than was consumed during the whole 1952-53 season.
Copy themes used:
The hand and the full big glass still played a major part in the orange
advertising for the year. As before, the importance of Vitamin C was
stressed. The fact that everyone needs a fresh supply of this important Vita-
min every day and that Florida orange juice has 3 to 5 times more Vitamin
C than other citrus juices was emphasized. The 1953-54 season saw a new
addition to the orange juice advertising. Various occasions were shown
where orange juice could be served, pointing up the fact that it is good and
good for you any time of day, whenever one feels in need of refreshment.
This was made possible by today's wide distribution of orange juice through
drug stores, vending machines and dispensers, making it possible to buy a
glass of orange juice almost anywhere at any time. These other times of
day were used in addition to promoting orange juice as a traditional break-
1953-54 was the first full year of the increased per box assessment
on grapefruit and meant additional money for advertising this under-advertised
Overweight has been and still is receiving a tremendous amount of pub-
licity in newspapers and magazines and over radio and television. All of
this publicity points up the fact that more than 25 million Americans are a
total of 600, 000, 000 pounds overweight. The grapefruit advertising during
the year concentrated on the theme of losing weight with Florida grapefruit.
The deliciousness of grapefruit and the fact that it is so good so many
ways and compared to other foods is so low in calories presents a great op-
portunity to ride the tide of publicity on losing weight.
In addition, grapefruit's importance in building up resistance to flu and
colds was stressed in a special use of newspapers called the Health Barome-
Throughout all this advertising the importance of Vitamin C was still
stressed. It was emphasized that grapefruit is one of the best daily sources
of this precious vitamin that is needed every day. This fact lent itself to
the phrase "Low in calories High in Vitamin C. "
Recognizing the seasonal nature of the fruit, the tangerine advertising
was concentrated between November and January. The copy in the adver-
tisements emphasized how easy it is to peel, segment and eat tangerines.
It was pointed out that they are fun to eat, ideal for lunch boxes after
school snacks just anytime. Throughout this advertising there was always
a sense of urgency pointing out that tangerines would not be long available.
During 1953-54 the same four media were used that were used the
previous year: magazines, newspapers, television and radio. The program,
however, was broadened considerably. There were more magazine inser-
tions and more newspapers in more markets for black and white advertising.
There were more markets getting television and radio advertising.
The Canadian advertising appropriation was increased by 65% to step
up the campaign to make that market a Florida market which it should be
by reason of its geographical location.
During the year there were 38 full color magazine advertisements in
3 publications LIFE, SATURDAY EVENING POST and LADIES' HOME
JOURNAL. There were 22 full pages, 15 half pages and 1 double page
Once again full pages in color were used on oranges, since it was
felt that this space was needed in order to tell the orange juice story and
to get over the importance of the big full glass every day. In order to gain
more frequency and to obtain more insertions, half-pages in color were
used on grapefruit and tangerines in the SATURDAY EVENING POST and
LADIES' HOME JOURNAL.
From November through June, 268 daily newspapers in 163 major mar-
kets were used to support promotions set up in conjunction with retailers.
Two of the promotions were on processed orange and grapefruit products,
the remainder on fresh fruit.
For the first time the Commission used a second color in the news-
paper crop announcement advertisements on oranges. In this advertisement
both the fruit and the juice were shown in an orange color. In spite of a
variance in the color provided by each newspaper, this advertisement was
considered a great success. Because only certain newspapers have color
available, the color announcement ad ran in 41 newspapers in 20 cities, while
the remainder of the schedule used black and white.
During January, Temples were promoted. This year the number of
markets was increased to 8 New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh,
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Detroit and Boston.
A new development was the use of the Health Barometer for Florida
grapefruit. This is a new service offered by newspapers that are members
of the Bureau of Advertising. Sales of cold remedies are charted and a
"normal" rate is established. When sales reached 50% above this normal,
the newspapers automatically inserted a Florida Grapefruit advertisement
telling how resistance to colds and flu could be built up by Grapefruit' s
Nancy Sasser's Buy-Lines, the extremely successful editorial type
shopping column rounded out the Commission's newspaper schedule. This
column enjoys high readership by women and its great strength lies in the
action taken by these women as a result of Nancy Sasser's suggestions to
them. For 26 weeks from November through the middle of May, the Florida
citrus message was carried in Buy-Lines.
Network television was purchased during 1953-54. The "Today"
morning program on NBC with 47 stations helped sell grapefruit products
twice a week for 47 weeks and orange products twice a week for 26 weeks
from 7:00 to 9:00 in the morning. From January 14 through March 4,
there was one additional grapefruit commercial each week, which meant a
total frequency of five per week for that period. Dave Garroway, one of
television's top salesmen, gave the orange commercials and combined with
Miss America on 20 and 40-second films to sell grapefruit.
In addition to "Today" a similar morning program was bought for 26
weeks on the Pacific Coast for grapefruit processed products. This program
is called "Panorama Pacific" and is televised over CBS stations in Los An-
geles, San Francisco and San Diego.
In Pittsburgh the Florida Citrus Commission carried on its once a week
sponsorship of the highly successful children's show "Happy's Party" for
the entire year.
Radio markets were expanded to 61 when the Florida Citrus Commis-
sion began its sponsorship of "Ev'ry Day" on NBC Radio network 3 times a
week. This program featured Meredith Wilson, well-known musician and
song writer and his wife who sang and played popular music. This program
ran for 13 weeks from November 18 to February 12 when it was discon-
tinued because of lack of additional funds.
Once again Nancy Sasser's Buy-Lines in Canadian Reader's Digest
was used to tell the public about the virtues of Florida Orange juice. In 11
big markets, such as Montreal, Toronto and Quebec, newspapers provided
local support. These advertisements coincided with the American news-
In addition to the above, three magazines were usedto advertise
grapefruit in full color half pages, LeSamedi, Chatelaine and Canadian
Home Journal were selected to carry this advertising.
The Florida Citrus Commission advertised in the major market trade
newspapers to tell the trade about the big promotions on citrus that were
being supported by big space newspaper advertisements in the local press,
as well as by the continual advertising in magazines, television and radio.
In addition, similar advertisements that emphasized the overall ef-
fect of the Commission's advertising ran in a number of voluntary coopera-
tive publications. All of this advertising pointed out how the retailer could
benefit from the money being spent by the Commission to push Florida citrus,
by featuring citrus in their own store ads and by displaying citrus prominently
in their stores.
Once again during 1953-54, the Commission continued its efforts to
get the retailer to realize the importance of the correct handling of frozen
concentrates. Advertisements were run in the top national grocery maga-
zines pointing up the lost business from selling thawed out concentrate.
Tips were offered to help keep concentrates at peak quality.
Summary of Expenditures
For the first time in its history the Florida Citrus Commis-
sion advertised Florida oranges in Europe. A severe frost in Spain dam-
aged that country's orange crop and affected its export business to other
The Commission budgeted $10, 000 and the money was spent in
advertising in newspapers in Belgium and Holland and in trade magazines in
West Germany as well as in the other two countries. The industry substantially
increased its shipments of oranges to Europe, and, as of the present, all
factors express satisfaction with this first European promotion of Florida
In addition to this orange advertising, the Commission ran their
grapefruit advertisement in a trade publication called "The International
Fruit World. This advertising was to tell fresh fruit distributors that
Florida was again exporting grapefruit. Inquiries were encouraged and
names sent in were then turned over to various shippers by the Commis-
During the months of January, February and March, the Com-
mission once again placed colorful billboards in Florida in behalf of the gift
fruit shippers suggesting that vacationers send citrus to their friends back
In June and July a special advertisement appeared on limes in
the PACKER and PRODUCE NEWS.
III. PROFESSIONAL ADVERTISING
Citrus fruits and juices have long been recognized as the best avail-
able source of Vitamin C, and, as such, have been designated as a basic
part of the diet for adults and children. For that reason, the various mem-
bers of the professional field---physicians, dentists, nurses, dieticians,
home economists, etc. ---have been valuable friends to the Florida citrus
industry in spreading the story of the many health benefits to be derived from
oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and limes.
In an effort to see that this important group of scientists are kept
abreast of the new discoveries concerning citrus fruit in health and disease,
the Commission has for a number of years employed the Noyes and Sproul,
Inc. agency of New York, to develop and place advertisements and publicity
in the various professional journals read by these people.
Basically, the work of Noyes and Sproul for the Florida citrus indus-
try is divided into six principal areas: 1. Clinical research; 2. Literary re-
search; 3. Professional journal advertising; 4. Informational brochures;
5. Direct mail; and 6. Public relations in the health and allied fields. A
brief discussion of each phase of the program will summarize the activities ,,_
of the Commission and its agency in this field.
The agency works with the Commission's research department in ar-
ranging various clinical research projects at leading universities, medical
schools, and hospitals. Details of three new projects launched in January,
1954, are included in the Research section of this report.
As a result of investigations started previously, three papers have
been published this year and four accepted for publication, while two await
publication. They are:
Dr. Carl T. Javert: "Stress and Habitual Abortion, appeared in
March issue of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Dr. Javert: "Repeated Abortion, appeared in April issue of same
Dr. George E. Morris: "Hypermenorrhea, appeared in Novem-
ber issue of Postgraduate Medicine.
Dr. Leo J. Cass: "Chronic Disease and Vitamin C," appearing in
August issue of Geriatrics.
Dr. Javert: "Spontaneous Abortion," accepted by Texas State Journal
Dr. Morris: "Avitaminosis C, accepted by American Practioner
Dr. Morris: "Acne, accepted by Archives of Dermatology and
Dr. Pauline B. Mack: Two papers await acceptance.
The findings from clinical research form the springboard, not only
for the Commission's public relations work in the health field, but its ethi-
cal advertising campaign, and later for its consumer campaign as well. The
budget for these studies comes from research funds directed and adminis-
tered by the Research Department.
This is a continuing project at Noyes & Sproul. The agency receives
approximately 600 professional journals and continually checks each and
every issue for the latest information about Vitamin C and citrus. This ma-
terial is routed to all concerned and forms an invaluable background for its
work for the Commission. The material of interest has seemed unusually
heavy in the past year.
PROFESSIONAL JOURNAL ADVERTISING:
Twenty-nine carefully selected journals were used to carry ten differ-
ent health messages on citrus to physicians, osteopaths, dentists, nurses,
hospital executives, dietitians and home economists throughout the country
during this past year. Among the twenty-nine journals were five national
general medical magazines, one obstetric journal, three pediatrics books,
one public health journal, two osteopathic magazines, four dental journals,
four nursing books and six journals devoted to diet and home economics.
A total of 149 single pages and 18 spreads of advertising appeared and all
were in color except those in two journals.
Circulation totalled over 1, 250, 000 in the twenty-nine journals, and
the number of impressions reached a figure of over 8, 000, 000. The Com-
mission's ethical advertising continues to be favorably commented upon by
a number of physicians and other professional persons, and commands un-
usual attention and interest.
The titles of the Commission's professional journal advertisements
which appeared this year are:
Citrus is virtually non-allergenic.
Citrus is a good anorectic agent.
Scurvy is more common than many think.
26 million overweight Americans.
Practically all 3. 5 million newborns.
Will 200, 000 newborns develop hidden scu'rvy?
Sniffles are in season.
Vitamin C is so abundant yet so often deficient.
At every age citrus supplies needed Vitamin C.
A citrus snack is a welcome "pick-up."
In this advertising, the latest research findings and other news per-
taining to vitamin C was presented in succinct form to the various profes-
Work on the second edition of "Citrus Fruits in Health and Disease"
has been going on for some months. Many magazines have been combed to
dig out the latest findings, and close to 200 references have been cited. The
manuscript is in the process of being submitted to the American Medical
Association for approval.
Reprint of the Morris paper on "Hypermenorrhea" accompanied by
a memo from Dr. MacDowell was sent to all obstetric and gynecology men
and general practicians, calling their attention to the value of citrus in
treatment. A mailing featuring Javert's findings (and referring to other
recent investigations) is now under way.
Timely citrus news, in easy-to-use form, was supplied continuously
to groups with a determining influence on the food habits of the American
people, including editors of medical and related journals, science writers,
medical columnists and those whose comments on diet, health and child
care are read in mass media and heard via radio and television.
Josephine Lowman: Register & Tribune Syndicate
- 11 -
Beulah France: General Features Corporation
Myrtle Meyer Eldred: Register & Tribune Syndicate
Helen Follett: King Features Syndicate
William Brady: National Newspaper Syndicate
Lawrence Galton: Cosmopolitan Magazine (Health column)
Lettice Lee Streett: The Bell Syndicate
Glen R. Shepherd, M. D. : United Feature Syndicate
Thomas R. Henry: North American Newspaper Alliance, Inc.
Ruth Crane: The Modern Woman, WMAL, Washington, D. C.
Dorothy Horsfall: At Home with Anne Daly, WPDQ, Jacksonville, Fla.
Ruth Kent: Wayside Inn,, WSB-TV, Atlanta, Ga.
Lee Phillip: Shopping with Miss Lee, WBBM-TV, Chicago, Ill.
Alice Lee: Welcome Home, WTTV, Bloomington, Ind.
Pat Lauderdale: Between Us Girls, WLOU, Louisville, Ky.
Amanda Lee: WBSU-TV, New Orleans, La.
Nancy Craig: WABC-TV, New York, N.Y.
Claire Mann: Glamour Secrets, WABD-TV, New York, N.Y.
In this way, the results of current research as well as background
citrus information were speeded to some 1, 000 editors and writers and
350 commentators. Increasingly wide use of the material is shown by an
increased volume of clippings, inquiries received and the gratifying response
(well above 50 per cent) from TV-radio outlets expressing a desire to re-
ceive further script material. A great deal of individualized work was done,
including arrangement of guest appearances on TV programs, stimulation of
magazine articles by "name" writers and cooperation with officials in charge
of Children's Dental Health Week observances. Special cartoon features on
the health values of citrus were supplied to more than 4, 000 daily and weekly
During March, 1954, the Commission invited 10 of the top science
writers representing national newspapers, magazines, and syndicates to
come to Florida to tour the citrus belt and see the industry's citrus packing
houses and processing plants in operation. During their stay in Florida, the
science writers attended news conferences arranged by the Commission and
its agency, at which time they heard a report from Dr. Javert on the role of
Vitamin C in preventing spontaneous and habitual abortions, and a report
from Dr. Mack on the use of Citrus juice in building fatigue resistance in
children. Wide publicity was given to the trip and the conferences through
the writers' columns and even today clippings are being received of news
stories based on the March tour.
- 12 -
The 1953-54 season saw the Commission's Merchandising Department
take perhaps the broadest and most meaningful strides since that day in June,
1936, when the Commission's first budget committee brought in a recommen-
dation that a dealer service force of eight men be employed.
One of the first steps taken during 1953-54 to increase the scope and
significance of the Merchandising Department came in September, 1953, when
the Commission authorized the employment of Frank D. Arn as Director of
Merchandising. The Commission and the industry had long felt the need for a
highly experienced merchandiser to direct the activities of this important de-
partment. Arn, a 20-year veteran employee of the Kroger Company, third
largest national chain in the U. S., was selected after interviewing more than
100 men in all parts of the nation. His presence on the Commission staff en-
abled Ralph M. Henry to shift from his dual responsibility as director of ad-
vertising and merchandising to the post of direct or of sales service, where he
is in direct charge of the Commission's field force.
The importance of a well-trained team of field representatives was
emphasized recently by a survey which showed that 70. 8 per cent of the food
buying decisions are made after the customer enters the store. With the
average modern day supermarket offering from 2700 to 3000 different items
to many hundreds of shoppers each day, the food manufacturer or supplier can
no longer expect the store's "sales" clerk to "sell" his product. This impor-
tant function must be accomplished by attractive packaging, provocative dis-
plays, and compelling printed messages right at the point of purchase.
Nature has taken care of the first of these requirements in fresh citrus,
providing colorful golden orange and yellow skins. It is the job of the Commis-
sion's field men to see that inviting mass displays of fresh and processed cit-
rus are built, maintained, and decorated with point of sale material that will
compel the customer to decide that she needs fresh oranges, grapefruit, or
tangerines, canned and frozen citrus juices.
During the 1953=54 season, the Commission employed 55 field men,
whose territories ranged from Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle on the
West Coast, to Minneapolis, Des Moines, St. Louis, and Kansas City in the
Mid-West, to Dallas, Houston, New Orleans, Birmingham, Memphis, Atlanta,
Charlotte, and Greensboro in the South, to Washington, Baltimore, Philadel-
phia, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Cincinnati, New York, Boston,
and Hartford in the East and North Central, to Montreal and Toronto in Canada.
The division of this manpower is made by plan, not chance. For in-
stance, the Northeast, with 28 per cent of the U. S. population, consumes 41
per cent of Florida's citrus production, and is served by 38 per cent of the
- 13 -
Commission's manpower. The North Central has 29.7 per cent of the popu-
lation, but consumes only 27. 5 per cent of our citrus and has 27 per cent of
the Commission field force. Twenty-two per cent of the U. S. population
lives in the South and consume 19.4 per cent of our citrus, promoted by 19
per cent of the Commission's manpower. Only 9.8 per cent of the popula-
tion lives in the Mountain and Southwest region. They consume six per cent
of our citrus and are served by 10 per cent of our merchandising strength.
The Pacific Coast accounts for 10 per cent of the population, six per cent of
the citrus consumption, and 6 per cent of the Commission's manpower.
(The 1954-55 Commission, meeting in July, authorized an increase in
the field staff from 55 men to 65 men, which will enable an even broader
coverage of several markets already being worked, and the expansion of cov-
erage in several markets not now included in Commission promotions.)
The Commission's field representatives are selected on the basis of
background and experience. Almost all are college graduates, many with
majors in merchandising, marketing, or agriculture. All are given a brief
training period at the Commission's headquarters in Lakeland immediately
after employment, and the entire field force attends at least two training
sessions annually, one in Florida and one in the field. New men work under
the direct supervision of regional or divisional managers for several weeks
before going out on their own.
During the 1953-54 season, these men made a total of 89, 000 calls on
all factors important in the task of moving Florida's fresh and processed
citrus production. Detailed reports on each call are received and recorded
at the Commission's headquarters daily. Countless thousands of displays
were erected during the course of these calls, and a total of 3, 306 demon-
strations were held, which permitted literally millions of consumers to ac-
tually sample one or more of Florida's many citrus products.
The Commission's field men are fully equipped with juice bars and
dispensers for use in these demonstrations. Twenty automatic fresh fruit
juicing machines are constantly in use and in many instances there is a
waiting list of stores which have requested an appearance of the juicer for
a special citrus promotion. The work of the Commission in demonstrating
how effective these juicers can be in moving large quantities of fresh fruit
has resulted in many of the larger retail organizations purchasing their own
Another important tool of the Commission's field man is a supply of
colorful point-of-sale display material, designed to catch the consumer's
eye and motivate a desire for Florida citrus products that will result in a
purchase. A total of 6, 712, 000 pieces of such material, including several
entirely new display ideas, were produced and distributed during the 1953-
54 season by the Commission's field representatives.
- 14 -
Through the Merchandising department of the Commission, the Florida
citrus industry was represented at 52 conventions during 1953-54, four of
them in Canada. Fourteen of the conventions were attended by groups such
as retailers, wholesalers, educators, dieticians, nurses, physicians, home
economists, restaurant operators, etc., who wield a considerable amount of
influence in assisting the movement of Florida citrus products. The other
38 conventions were national meetings held in Florida. The industry was
also represented by the Commission's dioramas and exhibits at the Leon
County Fair in Tallahassee, the Florida State Fair at Tampa, and the Florida
Citrus Exposition at Winter Haven. The Commission participated with other
Florida organizations in the sponsorship of the annual Florida day at the con-
vention of the International Apple Association in Chicago. A juice bar was
maintained in the cloakroom of the House of Representatives in Washington
for a portion of the year.
A total of 382 demonstrations were held on tangerines, with the Florida
Tangerine Cooperative participating in those held in 20 cities. At the re-
quest of the Temple orange advisory committee, a total of 426 demonstrations
were held in eight markets on this unique and popular hand-eating fruit.
In addition to its own promotions, the Commission participated in three
national citrus drives, conducted by the National Citrus Merchandising Com-
mittee, which is made up of representatives of the Florida, California, and
Texas citrus industries, plus representatives of the various chain and inde-
pendent trade organizations in the country. Special kits containing price
cards, banners, posters, and ad mats were prepared and distributed to thou-
sands of retailers cooperating.
The Commission's Merchandising department also participated in spe-
cial campaigns with such national organizations as the Morton Salt Co., the
American Dairy Association, Kraft Foods, Calavo, the Ice Cream Merchan-
dising Institute, and Eastern Air Lines.
The Commission continued to circulate its three 16 millimeter color
motion pictures: "The Sun Goes North," "The Concentrate Story," and
"Profitable Partners." As of June 30, 1954, a total of 1,204,981 men, wo-
men, and children had viewed one of the 172 copies of "The Sun Goes North,"
distributed for the Commission by the Modern Talking Picture Service, Inc.
This does not include the audiences viewing the 35 copies of the film retained
by the Commission's field men and at its headquarters in Lakeland. Two
other films were produced during the 1953-54 season and will be described
more fully in the section of this report entitled "Consumer Publicity."
The Florida citrus industry has always enjoyed an extremely cordial
relationship with the various trade factors. In recent years, this close co-
operation has been fostered greatly by a series of trade luncheons held in
20 to 25 markets from Quebec City, Canada, to Dallas, Texas. In October,
1953, the Commission invited more than 2000 top men from the trade in 21
different markets to eat with its representatives, after which staff members
presented its proposed advertising and merchandising program for the com-
ing season, placing particular emphasis on those activities planned for the
market in which the luncheon was being held.
Another function performed by the Merchandising department, through
its field representatives, is to work closely with the newspapers, radio, and
television stations carrying Florida citrus advertising. With the cooperation
of the merchandising departments of the various media, the field man is able
to secure a vast amount of citrus advertising placed and paid for by the re-
tailer. Newspapers also cooperate with the Commission by mailing to Lake-
land tearsheets of all pages carrying food advertising. From these pages,
the Commission's staff measures the lineage devoted to fresh and processed
Florida citrus products, comparing it monthly with the Commission's own ex-
penditures in newspapers. During the 1953-54 season, this comparison showed
that retailers spent a total of $775, 065 advertising Florida citrus, or $1.31 for
every $1 spent by the Commission. This compares with a figure of $1.11 re-
corded in 1952-53. The total includes only that retail advertising appearing
in the newspapers in which the Commission's advertising is carried.
Reports of the activities of the Commission's field staff are made each
week to the industry, with more than 425 officials of fresh fruit packing houses,
processors, and others in allied fields receiving the information. Contained
in this weekly report are the price ranges of Florida citrus products at the re-
tail level in 20 markets, sales techniques and relative movement of competing
fruits and juices, market trends in regard to supply and demand.
- 16 -
V. CONSUMER PUBLICITY
The Commission's consumer publicity program, conducted for the
18th year, by Dudley, Anderson and Yutzy of New York City, differs in its
scope from other activities in that it is best reported always in reverse---
it is planned, but unlike advertising, results cannot be prophesied.
One of the interesting aspects of such a publicity program, conducted
through a recognized food service agency, is the fact that approximately 95%
of its apparent influence occurs in places where the Commission either does
not or could not buy advertising or cooperation. In other words, despite the
fact that the Commission's advertising program encompasses two or three
large network TV and radio programs, about 125 daily newspapers, two
weekly supplements, and three national magazines---a sizeable schedule for
any industry---consumer publicity has kept Florida citrus in front of audiences
in more than 150 magazines, more than 3000 daily and weekly newspapers,
more than 350 local radio programs, more than 68 local television programs,
and in countless house organs, industrial and educational journals, cooking
schools, home economics classes, extension bulletins, other advertisements
and publicity releases.
The breakdown on actual circulation counts for
calendar year just ended is:
National Women's Magazines
Store Service Leaflets
Color in Sunday Supplements
Other Newspaper Releases
various media for the
This is printed circulation, the figures all verified. On the basis of
these results alone, totaling 802,456,733, this represents 14,550 circula-
tion for every dollar of the basic consumer publicity budget.
As far as publicity goes, no attempt is made to give a listening au-
dience figure or breakdown for radio or television. In most cases, it is
next to impossible to monitor these free services. Florida citrus releases
are sent weekly to more than 350 local radio food programmers, to 139 tele-
vision food programs. We know that many of them use our material; we
have proof of more than 100 locally- originated TV programs based on our re-
leases, but these figures are not included in the foregoing computation.
During the past year, one of the important special projects added to
the consumer publicity program was the employment of a TV home econo-
mist, to make guest appearances for Florida citrus on the local community
food programs. Miss Mary Crum has done this since December, appearing
in some 32 cities, and the time she has occupied would have cost more than
$25, 000 if purchased. Her trips have been planned to coincide with special
Commission promotions and in areas where special efforts are being made to
hold or gain a market---as an example, she had 22 minutes on the San Fran-
cisco NBC outlet in July.
Another project was the production of two training films devoted to
fresh grapefruit. The first was directed to the hotel and restaurant trade,
and,titled "Good as Gold, aims at telling the operator of the advantages of
grapefruit as a money-making menu item, and explains that it is not a high
labor cost item if properly handled. The second, titled "Grapefruit Glamour"
is directed to home economics classes, 4-H groups and women's clubs, and
shows delectable dishes, how easy they are to prepare, and dwells at length
on the diet theme. Both will be ready for showings this fall.
The third special project involved a week's visit to the State's citrus
industry by the food editors of ten leading national women's magazines. This
was staged the last week in February, when the weather was ideal, the groves
in bloom and heavy with fruit, and the editors saw the state from the lower
Indian River district to the west coast. Evidence of the far-reaching effects
of this activity will be coming up; from the special foods, fruit, recipes we
have worked on for the editors we know that next winter will see far more at-
tention paid to citrus than has been the case for sometime, and the coverage
will undoubtedly go on for many years.
The publicity program continued to embrace participation in the News-
paper Food Editors Conference, an important annual gathering of 150 of the
top by-line daily news writers in the country; attendance at the American
Home Economics Association Convention, the American Women in Radio and
Television Convention, the American Dietetic Association Convention, the
National Restaurant Association Convention, and the Canadian Home Econo-
mics Association Convention.
It also expanded its color service to rotogravure and news-color print-
ing papers with great success, and in this field occupied space worth more
than $100, 000 during the year.
- 18 -
VI. SCHOOL EDUCATION PROGRAM
The purpose of this program is to increase the consumption of Florida
citrus products fresh, frozen and canned so as to keep pace with citrus
The development of a sound long-range health program that has won the
endorsement and support of health, educational and parental leaders through-
out the State and Nation.
The program was removed from the "frowned-upon" category of adver-
tising promotions and introduced as a highly respected program, approved
and recommended to the schools, by working through an advisory committee
consisting of representatives from the State Department of Education, the
State Board of Health, the Florida Congress of Parents and Teachers, the
State Dental Association, the State Medical Association, the University of
Florida, the Florida State University, the State Home Demonstration Office,
and a superintendent, a principal, and a classroom teacher from their re-
spective departments of the Florida Education Association.
Immediate Target 575, 000 children enrolled in Florida schools
National Expansion of Program Elementary Schools 23, 686, 000
High Schools 6,142,000
College and Teacher
Training Institutions 2, 700, 000
Business Schools 300,000
A. Public Relations Phase Stimulate and coordinate the activities of
key individuals and organizations interested in the increased use of citrus in-
formation and products.
B. The Educational Phase The development of supplementary teach-
ing materials on the subject of citrus for education of children, parents and
teachers; and the presentation of the materials to these groups,
- 19 -
C. Action Phase Create a situation in which the consumption of citrus
becomes a definite part of each child's day.
SUMMARY OF PROGRAM ACTIVITIES TO DATE:
A. Public Relations Phase -
a. Conferences The Director of the School Program has spent much
time in conferences (approximately 250) with key health, education and
parental leaders for the purpose of introducing the Commission's
Health Program personally to each group, giving them the opportunity
to react to the plans, to ask questions, and to make suggestions as to
how the Commission's School Education Department may best work
with their groups. This kind of advance planning has and will continue
to pay dividends to the Florida citrus industry because it has estab-
lished and maintained the endorsement and support of these important
leaders in health and education. Without their continued support, the
program would be worthless.
b. Conventions The major state and national health and education
conventions afford the School Education Program Director an excel-
lent opportunity to make friends for the program and to stimulate and
coordinate the activities of key individuals and organizations inter-
ested in the increased use of citrus information and products. Through
one such meeting she is able to introduce the program to an entire
state or national representation. They in turn introduce it to their
own counties and states.
Some of the most important of the conventions attended and partici-
pated in by the director were:
National Chief State School Officers (state school superintendents and
U. S. Department of Education staff members), Florida Public Health
Association, American Public Health Association, Southern Branch
American Public Health Association, Florida Home Economics Asso-
ciation, Florida Education Association, Florida Congress of Parents
and Teachers, American School Food Service Association (state
school lunch supervisors and school lunch personnel).
c. State Board of Health Orientation Programs The Florida State
Board of Health sponsors an orientation program for all of its new
employees, and visitors from other agencies and organizations in-
terested in health, to familiarize these people with the activities
and services of the various divisions of the State Board of Health.
Approximately six orientation programs are held each year. Such a
program takes two full days. The Director of the Commission's
School Program has been included and given an equal opportunity with
the heads of the various State Board of Health Divisions to present the
Commission's School Health Program to those participating in the
orientation. This gives some indication of the status of the Commis-
sion's School Program with Florida's health leaders since no other
outside agencies are ever invited to present their respective programs.
Such a close working relationship and endorsement by the State Board
of Health has given the program a sound foundation on which to build
and has opened doors not ordinarily opened to industry.
B. The Educational Phase -
a. Materials Development Workshop June 15 to July 24, 1953
The Florida Citrus Commission under the supervision of the State De-
partment of Education, Florida State University, and the Florida State
Board of Health sponsored a six weeks materials development work-
shop at Florida State University for the purpose of developing educa-
tional materials that would point up the importance of citrus in rela-
tion to physical well being. Nine Florida teachers under the direction
of Dr. Maurice Ahrens (Director, Division of Curricular Services,
Corpus Christi, Texas, Public Schools), Miss Charlotte Stienhans
(Consultant, Elementary Education, Florida State Department of Edu-
cation), and seven consultants from the State Department of Education,
State Board of Health, and the Florida State University, developed the
materials which were then approved by the State Department of Educa-
tion Courses of Study Committee and published by the Florida Citrus
Three pieces of material were developed covering the four major areas
in public schools:
Better Breakfasts a breakfast unit for primary grades. This is
a flannel board presentation with food models, table setting, and a
teachers' guide to help the teacher plan a study unit on the impor-
tance of an adequate breakfast teaching children how to make wise
selections. Citrus fruits and juices play a prominent part in a well-
balanced and adequate breakfast.
The Citrus Story a filmstrip developed from the Florida Citrus
Commission's color films, "The Sun Goes North" and "The Con-
centrate Story." The teachers participating in the workshop ex-
pressed the need for a filmstrip that could be stopped at any point
of interest for class discussion. A teachers' guide has been de-
veloped to help the teacher plan a citrus study unit around this film-
The Nutrition Ladder This piece of material is designed for use on
the junior-senior high school grade level. It emphasizes the impor-
tance of a well-balanced and adequate diet with special emphasis on
- 21 -
Vitamin C and citrus as a rich and reliable source of this vitamin.
b. Parent-Teacher Study Courses A study course is planned to give
parent-teacher members, under the leadership of a study group leader,
an opportunity to think through, discuss together, and become informed
on problems related to the welfare, education, and advancement of
children and youth. The Director of the Commission's School Program
has conducted 21 of these four-hour study courses on the subject of
"The Essentials for Growth." Some of these studies have been county-
wide, and in other instances schools in certain areas grouped together
for one big study. The special emphasis, of course, was on the im-
portance of an adequate diet with Vitamin C and citrus at the top of the
list. These studies give the Director an opportunity to stimulate the
interest of the parents and teachers in a citrus juice program in the
c. School Lunch Workshops The school lunch division of the state de-
partment of education in every state makes available to all school lunch
personnel in the state a one-week workshop each summer. This work-
shop is usually held on the campus of a nearby university with the staff
members of the state department of education's school lunch division-and nu-
tritionists from the state board of health acting as teachers and con-
sultants, The Commission's School Program Director has been in-
vited to act as a teacher and consultant at some of these workshops. Be-
cause it affords her an excellent opportunity to introduce and sell citrus
to the schools, she participates in as many workshops as time will per-
d. Lectures, Film Showings, Panels, Forums The Director has been
guest speaker and shown films at 61 school and parent meetings, has
participated in 6 panels and 5 forums since the beginning of the school
program. These media provide excellent opportunities for her to de-
velop among school administrators, parents, teachers, school lunch
personnel and school children a better understanding of the relation of
adequate nutrition to physical well being and the important contribution
citrus makes in meeting the requirements of optimum nutrition.
e. Articles Written for Publications Articles about the Florida citrus
nutrition project were written by the School Program Director and pub-
lished in: THE NATIONAL SCHOOL FOOD SERVICE ASSOCIATION
ANNUAL REPORT, THE CITRUS STORY, THE FROSTED FOOD FIELD,
THE CITRUS MAGAZINE, THE FLORIDA PARENT-TEACHER MAGA-
ZINE, THE JOURNAL OF THE FLORIDA STATE DENTAL SOCIETY,
THE FLORIDA CITRUS INDUSTRY, and approximately 5 newspapers.
C. Action Phase -
a. Pilot Studies:
- 22 -
Dental Study This study was under the supervision of the Direc-
tor, Bureau of Dental Health, Florida State Board of Health. Eight
Florida schools in four counties Nassau, Jackson, Pasco, Palm
Beach were selected for pilot studies to determine the effects of
daily intake of citrus juice on the lips, tongue, and tissues imme-
diately surrounding the teeth. Before the introduction of orange
juice in those schools, all children (1, 609) were given dental ex-
aminations for evidence of Vitamin C deficiency. Of these chil-
dren, 947 were considered by the examining dentists to have signs
indicative of Vitamin C deficiency (red, swollen, spongy and/or
bleeding gums), All children in schools under observation received
orange juice daily (supplied free to the schools by the Florida Cit-
rus Commission) ten ounces to those with marked gingivitis and
five ounces to the remaining number. This was continued for a
period of 10 weeks, after which follow-up examinations were per-
formed. In this pilot study each of the three observers noted sig-
nificant and marked improvement in children with prominent signs
of Vitamin C deficiency, with only three children showing no signs
of improvement. The examining dentists stated "that these pre-
liminary studies do provide a secure basis for an opinion that
orange juice given to school children has a measurable beneficial
Physical and Practical Study Seventeen Florida schools urban
and rural in every area of the state were selected for this study.
The purposes fpr conducting it were to determine the most conven-
ient, economical, and desirable methods of making citrus juices
available daily to school children and to introduce the program into
the key counties of the state. These schools concerned themselves
primarily with the problems of supply, storage, consumption, dis-
pensing, labor, sanitation, cost, and the like. The findings may
be summarized as follows: children will buy orange juice in pref-
erence to less nutritious and desirable beverages if it is made
available to them at a cost not exceeding that of the other beverages
(sales of less desirable beverages dropped 50 per cent when orange
juice was introduced into the schools); orange juice can be served
in situations where the school lunch personnel and serving facili-
ties are limited; orange juice can be served satisfactorily with or
without a juice dispenser; orange juice can be served without cost
to the school on a "student-pay-basis;" the most satisfactory time
for serving juice to elementary school children is at a daily "orange
juice break" in mid-morning or mid-afternoon, whereas junior and
senior high schools find it more satisfactory to serve juice during
the luncheon hour, after physical education periods, or by making
it available in coin machines at all times; sales of juice showed a defi-
nite increase when (1) there was cooperative planning between the
principal, the school lunch manager, the faculty and the parents, (2)
nutrition education program tied in with juice sales, and (3) there
were no soft drinks or other confections available.
- 23 -
b. Juice Program At the beginning of the Commission's School Education Program
in September, 1952, there were only seven schools in Florida serving orange juice at
fairly regular intervals. There are now approximately 500 schools serving orange
juice daily. The following is a spot check of a few of these schools:
Fla. State Univ.
Ft. Pierce Elem.
and Jr. High
Beuna Vista Elem.
Lake Como Elem.
South Broward High
West Palm Beach
West Palm Beach
A special study was made at the James Madison Junior High School, Tampa, to deter-
mine the acceptability of grapefruit juice as a beverage for school children. Two manu-
ally operated dispensers with one containing orange juice and the other containing grape-
fruit juice were placed side by side in the school lunchroom. The results were as fol-
March 17 to April 1 Sold 34 gallons orange juice
16 gallons grapefruit juice
April 1 to May 1 95 gallons orange juice
16 gallons grapefruit juice
- 24 -
May 1 to May 30 Sold 51 gallons orange juice
13 gallons grapefruit juice
TOTAL 180 gallons orange juice, 45 gallons grapefruit juice
COMBINED TOTAL 225 gallons citrus juice
Mr. Gerald Wilson, Principal of this school, recommends that the Commis-
sion concentrate on the promotion of orange juice as the beverage for school
children at least until this program becomes well established. It has been
found that when a school lunch manager is expected to keep two dispensers
clean and mix two kinds of juice each day, she assumes the attitude "It is too
much trouble. For two years this school consistently sold 100 gallons of
orange juice and approximately 1500 frozen orange juice sticks each week.
Sales hit a new low during this grapefruit juice study.
Although the director has attempted to stay within the state with this program
for the first several years, she has had some requests from other states for
information and help in planning a similar program. One example of this is
the Brazosport School District, Freeport, Texas. There are nine schools in
this area with approximately 3000 students enrolled in first through third
grades. The school lunch supervisor has started a juice program whereby
these primary children get a cup of orange juice each morning. He uses Florida
frozen orange concentrate.
Several juice distributors have reported school sales up 50 per cent or better
over this time last year.
c. Eat More Citrus Contest For the past two years the School Lunch Division,
State Department of Education, has cooperated with the Commission and the
State Chamber of Commerce in promoting "Eat More Citrus" contests in the
schools. These contests encouraged school lunch managers to use citrus -
fresh, frozen, and canned as the Vitamin C food in the daily school luncheon.
Schools submitted their weekly menus for judging, and prizes were given to
the winners.. The director presented these prizes at countywide meetings
(39 counties) and used this opportunity to explain the Commission's future
plans for the schools.
d. Cooperative Planning with Other Industry Groups A special effort has
been made to keep all related industry groups such as the frozen food and
fresh fruit distributors, the Florida Canners Association, the various citrus
cooperatives, the dispenser manufacturers, the paper cup companies, etc.,
well informed of the plans and progress of the school program.
- 25 -
I. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH WITH THE CITRUS EXPERIMENT
STATION AT LAKE ALFRED
This research deals with problems of citrus fruit processing, including
canning and concentrating, and with the treatment of waste materials to yield
useful by-products; with methods of preventing decay in fresh citrus fruits;
and with fundamental studies of the changes occurring during the ripening of
A. Processing and By-Products Research
1. Standardization of Processed Citrus Juices
Further work on sugar hydrate formations in frozen grapefruit
concentrates and concentrates for limeades showed that temperature
variations (-80 to 50F. ) increased the rate of hydrate formation. Ad-
ditional packs were prepared to determine the effect of heat treat-
ment on this phenomenon.
Grapefruit juice packs having various Brix/acid ratios were
prepared for the Agricultural Marketing Service, U. S. D. A., for
consumer preference studies similar to those conducted in Indian-
apolis on canned orange juices during 1952-53,
Because of the widespread interest in dietetic foods, inves-
tigations were initiated to determine the possibilities of using
Sucaryl, a non-caloric sweetening agent, in the production of var-
ious citrus products; such as orange and grapefruit juices, frozen
concentrate for limeade, canned and frozen grapefruit sections,
and tangerine sherbet.
With assistance from personnel of the U. S. D.A. Production
and Marketing Administration, samples of frozen orange concen-
trates were collected twice each month throughout the processing
season from 23 commercial plants. Characteristics of these
samples are being determined to provide information to the citrus
processors concerning the quality of this representative sample
from the 1953-54 pack.
2. Storage Studies on Processed Citrus Juices and Concentrates
The degree of clarification and gelation in citrus concen-
trates subjected to storage temperatures above 0F. may be
lessened by partial inactivation of the pectinesterase by heat
treatment. For the purpose of obtaining processing and storage
information on heat-treated concentrates when the heat treatment
- 26 -
is applied prior to concentration or at different stages of the con-
centration process, 24 packs of heat-treated 42 Brix Pineapple
orange concentrates and Valencia orange concentrate were prepared
for storage at -8, 100, 200, 320, and 400F., and for short-term
storage at 800F. for 24 hours.
An interesting trend was observed in both the Pineapple and
Valencia orange juices heated to 1500F. that showed a greater in-
activation of pectinesterase at the 2- and 3-folds than at the 1- and
3. Clarification and Gelation in Concentrated Citrus Juices
Four-fold and 6-fold Valencia orange concentrates were pre-
pared from one lot of fruit to determine their relative stability at
storage temperatures of -80, 200, 400, and 600F. The 6-fold con-
centrates were prepared from concentrates of 81. 5, 71. 50, and
61 Brix to study the effect of the use of various amounts of cut-back
juice. Peel oil was added to a calculated level of 0. 015% by volume.
A slight taste preference was shown initially for the samples
with the most cut-back juice. The 4-fold concentrate and 6-fold con-
centrate cut-back from 81.50Brix were preferred but not differen-
tiated. Least preference was expressed for the sample that contained
only added peel oil and a very small amount of cut-back juice. As the
juices aged, preference, if any, shifted to the concentrates containing
the least amount of cut-back.
The 4-fold concentrate began to show flavor and cloud deterior-
ation and gelation after 3 weeks storage at 200F., and was commer-
cially unacceptable in one week at higher temperatures. The 6-fold
concentrates were stable for one week at 60 F., and four weeks at
400F. The 6-fold (60Brix) concentrates stored at 200F. were found
to be good after 9 months and showed only slight degradation at 1 year.
Frozen concentrates were prepared from Pineapple and Valen-
cia oranges and from Duncan grapefruit by processing juices having
a pulp content of 2 to 26% by volume. Chemical and physical changes
were measured prior to concentration, after processing, and after
storage of the concentrate at 800F., for 24 hours. Water-insoluble
solids in concentrated citrus juices made from 2 seedy varieties,
Pineapple orange and Duncan grapefruit, increased during process-
ing of the juices with pulp levels of 10 and 17% or greater, respec-
tively. No similar increase was found in concentrate made from the
relatively seedless Valencia orange. During storage, water-insoluble
solids increased in all of the concentrates. Pectinesterase did not
diminish significantly during concentration of the juices from the 2
- 27 -
orange varieties, but the activity was lowered during processing
of Duncan grapefruit juices. There was a loss of pectinesterase
activity in all-samples after storage. In general, the water-
insoluble pectin decreased and oxalate-soluble pectin increased
during processing and after storage of the concentrates. Hydroly-
sis of protopectin occurred in DuJncan grapefruit concentrates stored
at the elevated temperature, but it did not take place in the orange
concentrates. Clarification and gelation increased during process-
ing of Pineapple orange and Duncan grapefruit juices as percentages
of pulp became greater, while no change took place when Valencia
orange juices were concentrated. After storage for 24 hours at 80OF.,
extreme clarification was evident in 21 of the 24 concentrates; semi-
or solid gel formation occurred in 13 of these products.
4. Relationship of Heat Treatment to the Quality of Processed
Citrus Juices and Concentrates (In-cooperation with the Ameri-
can Can Company)
A number of very complete experiments were made to deter-
mine the influence of varying temperatures for different periods of
time on Villafranca lemon juices; and on Hamlin, Parson Brown,
Pineapple and Valencia orange juices of several concentrations.
Measurements were made of enzyme deactivation, pectin compon-
ents, survival of naturally occurring and artificially introduced micro-
organisms, glucoside content and pulp content.
Examination of 4 Valencia orange juices, extracted by differ-
ent methods, showed significant variations in juice composition. Pec-
tinesterase activity, pectin, and glucoside content, factors of impor-
tance to juice quality, were greater in those juices containing the
larger amounts of pulp or water-insoluble solids. A revised proced-
ure and technique for the extraction of pectic substances in citrus
juices prior to their determination by a previously reported color-
imetric method has been devised.
5. Color of Citrus Products
Color variations in a large number of samples of commercial
citrus products, such as frozen orange concentrates, canned single-
strength juices, and blended juices were measured using the Hunter
Color Difference Meter to provide data which after careful evaluation
may be used as the basis for future quality standards.
6. Factors Affecting the Quality of Processed Grapefruit Products
Canned grapefruit sections obtained from a commercial plant
and stored at 320, 600, 700, 800, and 900F. showed slight changes
- 28 -
in flavor, color and firmness when stored at 700F. or below, for
one year, and marked changes at 800F. and 900F. Analysis of the
types of pectin in these products showed that hydrolysis of proto-
pectin occurred and progressed more rapidly at the higher temper-
atures of storage.
7. Oxidizing Enzymes in Citrus Products
Packs of Duncan grapefruit, Hamlin, Pineapple and Valencia
orange concentrates were prepared to determine various factors in
the development of "castor-oil" or "cardboard" flavors in citrus con-
centrates. This off-flavor developed in all of the products packed
when air was whipped into the concentrate by means of a Waring Blen-
dor, even when the products were stored at temperatures below 0F.
Furthermore, when a crude peroxidase extract was added to some of
the concentrates, the same off-flavor was obtained. These results
support the hypothesis that oxidation is a factor in the development of
this type of off-flavor.
8. Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices and Tangerine
The diacetyl test, for the detection in citrus juices of indicated
micro-biological activity, has found increased application as a bacter-
iological control procedure in citrus concentrate plants. Of the 23
concentrate plants operating this season, 15 used the diacetyl test to
Sorbic acid added to tangerine puree sherbet base in concen-
trations of 0. 025, 0. 05 and 0.1% by weight preserved the puree for
42 days at 80 F. Sorbic acid tends to be more bactericidal to slime
and gun forming bacteria than to yeast in that the former organisms
die off first in puree containing this acid.
9. Production and Use of Activated Citrus Sludge
The data collected on the treatment of citrus wastes by the
activated sludge process was statistically analyzed, and the follow-
ing conclusions drawn: (1) When properly executed, activated sludge
offers an excellent means of treating citrus wastes. (2) Inorganic
nutrients added to the raw waste are not necessary. (3) The reduc-
tion in total and organic (volatile) solids is not a good indicator of the
efficiency of treatment of citrus waste. The B.. 0D. more nearly re-
flects changes taking place in the waste during treatment.
Equipment for the production of citrus sludge on a somewhat
larger scale was employed to investigate the use of dried citrus
sludge as a vitamin supplement in animal feeds. The dried sludge
was found to contain 15. 75% protein and vitamins in the following
amounts, expressed in micrograms per gram: vitamin B, 2 ZD0
niacin 35. 0; riboflavin 9.4; pyridoxin 5. 0; pantothenic acid 20.0;
and thiamin 5. 0.
10. Inositol in Citrus Fruits
Preliminary investigations in the occurrence of inositol in
citrus fruits and its ultimate recovery as a by-product have been
carried out. During these studies a small amount of crystalline in-
ositol of reasonably good purity was recently isolated from 55Brix
orange concentrate. As far as known, the isolation of this substance
from orange juice has been accomplished only once before with a yield
of only one-fifth of that obtained in this laboratory.
B. Citrus Fruit Decay Studies
1. Chemical Treatments for the Prevention of Fruit Decay
The incidence of postharvest decay in citrus fruits during 1953-
54 was somewhat lower than the previous season. Average total loss
in untreated control lots of oranges used in experimental work through-
out the entire season was 3.5%, 17.4% and 31.2% for 1, 2, and 3
weeks holding periods, respectively. These are accumulated totals
for a holding temperature of 700F. Corresponding figures for 600F.
holding were 1.1%, 9. 5% and 26. 6%. The Dowicide A-Hexamine
treatment still appeared to be the most practical method of protect-
ing citrus fruits from stem-end rot and Penicillium mold decay, and
research were directed mainly to improving its effectiveness. U.S.
Patent 2, 674, 537, entitled "Preservation of Citrus Fruits, was
issued on April 6, 1954, covering this treatment.
Attention was also given to a study of the use of ammonium bi-
carbonate vapors in reducing decay both by itself and in combination
with Dowicide A-Hexamine. During the season a total of 135 experi-
ments were performed and 138, 000 citrus fruits, principally oranges
and tangerines, were used. In addition to this, forty 1-3/5 bushel
boxes of oranges were prepared for a series of shipping tests to
New York City.
Experiments were carried out sing 37 other chemicals. None
was found to be of value.
A rather surprising result occurred when oranges were merely
washed when received from the grove, before placing in the coloring
room or before a standing period of 48 hours when degreening was
not necessary, and processing finished without any fungicidal treatment.
- 30 -
There was less decay (significant at the 5% level) than in the check
lots. For 700F. holding for 2 weeks decay was reduced 17%; for
600F. holding for the same period it was more striking and amounted
to 49%. Both stem-end rot and mold were affected by this procedure.
There was also a significant reduction of 43% in stem-end skin break-
down in degreened oranges handled in this manner.
A newer and simpler method of application of the Dowicide A-
Hexamine fungicidal solution which shows great promise was de-
veloped towards the end of the season. A series of 14 experiments
were carried out in which the Dowicide A-Hexamine was flooded on
the fruit as it passed over the washer brushes of the packinghouse
machine; the rest of the processing followed as usual. This method
requires very little extra equipment, is adaptable to most packing-
house lines, and has shown excellent decay control. Exceptional re-
sults are to be noted when oranges treated in this manner are packed
in plain fiberboard cartons.
The value of the Dowicide A-Hexamine rinse-off treatment of
oranges held in cold storage was again demonstrated. Average de-
cay control after 8 weeks at 400F. was 82% and after 12 weeks it was
77%. One large scale experiment was also performed to again check
the effect of treating oranges with Dowicide A-Hexamine and packing
them in diphenyl cartons. After 4 weeks at 600F. total loss from de-
cay in check lots was 33. 3% and in treated lots 0. 7% or 98% decay
control. This method is recommended for overseas shipments in
which loss from decay is frequently very high.
2. Commercial Use of Dowicide A-Hexamine for Decay Control
As in former seasons, technical assistance was given to com-
mercial packinghouses using Dowicide A-Hexamine for the purpose
of preventing decay and improving the marketing quality of their
fruit. Frequent checks on the concentrations of the treating solution
were made and samples for holding tests were taken to determine
the effectiveness of the method in each house. Towards the end of
the season, advice was also given to a number of houses planning to
use the treatment next season. During the season, 8 commercial
packinghouses used Dowicide A-Hexamine in their processing lines
and report favorable results in the marketing of their fruit.
C. Study on Chemical Changes in Fruits During Maturation
The sugars in the juices of oranges and grapefruit were quali-
tatively identified as glucose, fructose, and sucrose. No other
sugars were found.
Juices of Hamlin, Pineapple, and Valencia orange, Duncan and
- 31 -
Marsh grapefruit and Dancy tangerine were obtained at regular pick-
ing intervals and analyzed for their concentration of these sugars.
Glucose and sucrose in the juice of all fruits tested increased contin-
uously as the fruit ripened. The increase of sucrose in both grape-
fruit varieties was relatively small as compared to that in the oranges
or tangerines. The fructose concentration of Pineapple and Hamlin
oranges as well as Dancy tangerines decreased as the picking season
advanced, but that of both grapefruit varieties showed a slight in-
crease. In Valencia oranges the change in fructose content was very
slight, varying from 2. 35 to 2. 59% throughout the season between Jan-
uary and June. The fructose concentration is highest in Pineapple
orange averaging 2. 96% for the season and lowest in tangerine aver-
aging only 1.48%.
The organic acids of Marsh and Duncan grapefruit were studied.
Citric acid is by far the most predominant acid in both varieties, com-
posing-92 to 97% of the total acids. Malic and oxalic acids occurred
in small quantities. The concentration of citric acid showed a contin-
uous decrease between September and November, while that of malic
acid increased. The ratio between citric and malic acids also de-
creased during the same period.
Determination of the Amounts of the Dye F. D. & C. Red 32 on Color-
Added Oranges and Products Made from Color-added Oranges
The amount of dye on color-added oranges, in juice extracted
on commercial extractors from color-added fruits, and in marmalade
and candied peel made from such fruits were quantitatively determined.
The dye was separated chromatographically from the natural pigments
and measured on a Beckman model B spectrophotometer. The follow-
ing concentrations of dye were found in various products: whole fruit,
3. 5 to 7. 0 ppm; peel alone, 20 to 35 ppm; juice, .04 to .07 ppm;
marmalade, 1. 8 ppm; and candied peel, 7. 5 ppm.
D. Maturity Survey
Through the cooperation of the Citrus and Vegetable Inspection
Division of the Florida Department of Agriculture, four experienced
senior inspectors were put in the field from November 15, 1953, to
April 1, 1954, to collect representative samples of pink and red
grapefruit and relatively fewer samples of tangerines.
Included in the survey were 61 groves of pink seedless grape-
fruit totalling 1105 acres; 7 groves of pink seeded grapefruit total-
ling 66 acres; 81 groves of ruby grapefruit totalling 1702 acres; and
15 groves of tangerines totalling 173 acres. In all, 5450 samples
- 32 -
II. NUTRITIONAL RESEARCH
A. Vitamin C and Acne
Additional research on this subject was placed with Dr. Samuel A.
Bluefarb, Chicago, who is studying 200 cases of adolescents afflicted
with acne. The pioneering work of Dr. George Morris, Boston, on
50 cases is being published in the near future. While complete results
are not yet available, it would appear that there are grounds for cau-
tious optimism for including vitamin C in the treatment of this embar-
B. Effect of Citrus Juices on Tooth Enamel
This work is being carried out by Dr. Joseph A. Volker, Dean of
the School of Dentistry, University of Alabama. Since the previous
year's research had shown that the daily ingestion of 8 ounces of orange
juice had no deleterious effect on dental enamel, this year' s work was
expanded to include orange juice, grapefruit juice and a popular cola
beverage consumed at levels of 6, 12, 18 and 24 ounces daily. At the
present writing there are indications that all three beverages can cause
some dental erosion in some subjects at the higher levels of ingestion.
C. Use of Citrus Juices in the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer
A research project was initiated with Dr. Frank C. Val Dez, Chicago,
to study the use of citrus juices in the treatment of peptic ulcers. The
work is in progress, but no data are yet available.
Several scientific papers have been published as the result of pre-
viously supported research. Among the most significant of these are
a series by Dr. Carl T. Javert, Cornell Medical College on the use of
vitamin C and citrus juices to prevent miscarriages in nutritionally de-
During the past year, 22, 000 copies of the 1954 Better Fruit Program,
Spray and Dust Schedule were printed and distributed.
- 33 -
As Florida's citrus production continues to increase, the problem of
moving our fresh and processed products to far-flung markets grows more
complex. New questions arise almost daily to confront the fresh fruit ship-
per and processor---questions which often times may mean the difference
between a profit-and a loss during periods of severe competition and close
To help in solving the many problems affecting transportation, the Com-
mission has continued to retain the services of the Growers and Shippers Lea-
gue of Florida as a representative of the citrus industry at large before the In-
terstate Commerce Commission and other Federal and State agencies con-
The Commission is confident that savings amounting to hundreds of thou-
sands of dollars have been effected through this service. Listed below are
some of the specific problems encountered during the 1953-54 fiscal year by
the Growers and Shippers League, their outcome or present status.
INCREASED REFRIGERATION On August 28, 1953, the railroads of the
CHARGES, I. C. C. DOCKET United States petitioned the Interstate Com-
31342: merce Commission for permission to in-
crease refrigeration charges governed by
Section 2 of the Perishable Protective Tariff, the per car stated charge Sec-
tion, by 31,6 per cent, and to increase Section 4 charges, or the per ton ice
charges by amounts varying from 4. 35 per cent to 82. 2 per cent. The fresh
citrus industry and frozen concentrate producers are interested mainly in the
Section 2 refrigeration charges, and based on the shipments by rail during the
1952-53 season, it is estimated that the proposed increases, if allowed, would
increase the charges for refrigeration services on fresh citrus fruit over
$563, 000, and in excess of $193, 000 on frozen citrus concentrate.
In order to most effectively prosecute this proceeding before the Inter-
state Commerce Commission it has been found necessary to retain a cost
analyst and this has been done on a national basis, several organizations
throughout the country pro-rating the expense of the employment of such cost
analyst for the purpose of analyzing the cost data presented by the railroads.
To further assist in the handling of this case, we are fortunate in that we have
been able to secure as a consultant for the Florida interests a former examiner
of the Interstate Commerce Commission, who heard most of the refrigeration
cases on which the present refrigeration charges are based.
The initial hearing in this proceeding was held in Washington, Decem-
ber, 1953. A further hearing was held in Washington beginning February 9,
- 34 -
and regional hearings were held in Orland?; Harlingen, Texas, and San Fran-
cisco, California, beginning with the Orlando hearing on March 16, at which
hearing testimony was presented for and on behalf of the Florida citrus indus-
try, which showed that the figures presented by the railroads purporting to
justify the increases requested contained many errors. The carriers are cor-
recting their exhibits and a further hearing in this proceeding is now set for
Washington, beginning July 13, but because of the vast amount of computation
necessarily required because of the errors found, it is expected that the hear-
ings will be postponed until fall.
UNLOADING CHARGES ON Since 1947 the League for and on behalf of
FRESH FRUITS AND VEGE- the Florida citrus industry has been opposing
TABLES AT NEW YORK AND the assessment of unloading charges on fresh
PHILADELPHIA: citrus fruits at New York and Philadelphia.
These charges were reduced from $1.95 per
ton to $1. 05 per ton in 1952. This was a reduction of approximately $25. 00
per car, resulting in a saving of unloading fresh citrus fruit in the two cities
of over $300, 000 based on the number of cars sold through auction in the 1952
Since it is impossible for the railroads to make delivery of the lading to
the receiver required to be done under the line-hall rate without unloading the
car, the League has maintained the position that no charge can be made for
unloading, and all interested parties to this proceeding joined in an appeal to
the Federal District Court, Southern District, and in September, 1953, the
District Court ruled by a two to one majority in favor of the Interstate Com-
merce Commission, which maintained the unloading charges in the tariff. Sub-
sequently, an appeal was taken to the U. S. Supreme Court, which Court in
June handed down its decision sending the case back to the Interstate Com-
merce Commission for further hearing in line with the views expressed by the
Court in this case. Three members of the Supreme Court expressed the view
that no charge could legally be made.
RAIL RATES ON FRESH CITRUS For the past three years negotiations have
FRUIT TO SOUTHWESTERN AND been carried on with western railroads in
WESTERN TRUNK LINE TERRI- an effort to secure reductions in rail
TORY: rates on fresh citrus fruit to destinations
west of the Mississippi River. The car-
riers in the west have consistently refused to revise rates on fresh citrus
fruit, but on June 8th the rail carriers in the southwest approved for publica-
tion a reduction which will approximate 17 per cent, and the carriers in the
so-called Western Trunk Line territory approved a reduction in approximately
the same amount to Kansas City, Mo., Minneapolis, St. Paul and Minnesota
Transfer, taking no action as yet with respect to the level of rates in the bal-
ance of Western Trunk Line territory. Rates on oranges to a point such as
Houston, Texas, will be reduced approximately 38 cents per hundred pounds.
Date of publication of this lower level of rates has not been announced.
- 35 -
LEASE AND INTERCHANGE The order of the Interstate Commerce Com-
OF MOTOR CARRIER EQUIP- mission in this proceeding involving the
MENT, EX PARTE MC-43: leasing of motor equipment included among
other provisions a requirement that a lease
be made for not less than 30 days. This order, scheduled to become effec-
tive on September 1, 1953, would have had the effect of eliminating trip leas-
ing southbound of motor vehicles which had been used in transporting fresh
citrus fruit in the northbound movement from Florida.
This regulation would cause an economic waste of transportation if the
trucks were compelled to return empty and would increase the cost of opera-
tion to such an extent, many would have to go out of business impairing the
transportation requirements of the citrus industry.
The League continued to work with the Florida Congressional delegation
and with the Interstate Commerce Commission in an effort to have the effec-
tive date of these leasing rules postponed. On November 30, 1953, the Inter-
state Commerce Commission issued an order postponing the effective date of
the 30-day lease provision to March 1, 1955, and reopened the proceeding for
further hearing. Hearings were convened in Washington, D. C. June 14 runn-
ing continuously through July 1.
TRIP LEASING LEGISLA- Legislation specifically prohibiting the In-
TION, H. R. 3203: terstate Commerce Commission from is-
suing any rules or regulations governing
the leasing of motor carrier equipment was proposed by the League and in-
troduced in the House of Representatives under House Resolution 3203, and
was supported by the produce industry throughout the country, and was passed
by the House of Representatives by a large majority.
Hearings have been held before a Sub-Committee of the Senate Commit-
tee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, but to this date the Bill has not
REDUCED MINIMUM WEIGHTS Considerable damage was being exper-
ON CITRUS TRUIT: ienced by citrus shippers in loading
oranges packed in the 4/5 bushel con-
tainer or bags to 48, 000 pound minimum, and grapefruit packaged in bags, to
a 43, 000 pound minimum. This problem was taken up with representatives
of the railroads and the tariffs have now been amended to provide for a
40, 000 minimum on oranges when the fruit is packaged in the 4/5 bushel con-
tainer or a container of a lesser capacity, and the same minimum will apply
to grapefruit when packaged in bags, but when packaged in the 4/5 bushel con-
tainer, grapefruit must be loaded to a 43, 000 pound minimum.
PROPOSED SEA-LAND The McLean Trucking Company of Winston
SERVICE: Salem, N. C. is attempting to purchase
the operating rights of S. C. Loveland
- 36 -
Company, who operate steamship and barge service between all points on the
Atlantic coast. If the McLean Trucking Company is successful in securing
these operating rights, they propose to put into operation specially designed
ships capable of transporting approximately 250 semi-trailers between the
points of Jacksonville, Florida, Savannah, Georgia, and Wilmington, North
Carolina, to northern ports such as New York City and Providence, R.I.
The McLean Trucking Company's proposed operation was endorsed by the
Transportation Advisory Committees of the fresh and processed citrus in-
dustry, and the League appeared at the hearings in support of the McLean ap-
plication. This type of service would provide a low cost transportation for the
fresh and processed citrus industry.
MOTOR CERTIFICATES OF Since 1950, many conferences have been
PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND held with representatives of motor common
NECESSITY: carriers in an effort to secure adequate
motor carrier transportation service for
the frozen citrus concentrate industry of Florida. During the last year appli-
cations were reviewed by the Frozen Citrus Concentrate Transportation Ad-
visory Committee with regard to supporting such applicants before the I. C. C.
and nine of these applications were endorsed. Hearings were held in Tampa,
Florida, beginning January 18 and subsequent hearings were held in Washing-
ton, D. C. Briefs are due to be filed with the I. C. C. by July 19.
FLORIDA CITRUS FOOD As a result of the rate research program
PRODUCTS TARIFF: inaugurated early in 1953, recommenda-
tions were made to the Florida origin rail-
roads, suggesting the publication of a Florida Citrus Food Products Tariff,
which would contain rates on single-strength juice and frozen citrus concen-
trate from all origins in Florida to all destinations in the United States, and
eastern Canada, with the exception of the Trans-Continental Freight Bureau
territory, i. e.: the Pacific coast states.
The suggestion was accepted by the Florida rail carriers and by all
southern railroads and the proposal is now before other railroad rate juris-
dictions for action.
When this tariff is finally published, it will require that only one pub-
lication be referred to determine the rate that will apply from any shipping
point in Florida, to any destination in the United States, exclusing western
Canada and the Pacific coast. At the present, it is necessary to refer to 47
MOTOR TRUCK During the past year the League as a re-
APPLICATIONS: suit of action taken by the Transportation
Advisory Council or the Frozen Citrus
Concentrate Transportation Advisory Committee of the Florida Canners As-
sociation, has appeared and testified in support of the following truck appli-
- 37 -
cations for certificates of public convenience and necessity to transport either
canned citrus juices or frozen citrus products:
Alterman Transport Lines, Hyder Truck Lines, Harper Motor Lines,
Refrigerated Transport Lines, McLean Trucking Company, Byrd Mptor
Lines, Mead Truck Lines, Service Trucking Company, Barnes Food Ex-
press, Penn-Dixie Lines, and Belford Trucking Company.
GENERAL: Many other matters relative to the transportation needs of
the citrus industry have been engaged in during the past year,
including the Ex Parte 175, Increased Freight Rates, and Ex Parte 185, In-
creased Express Rates, both proceedings before the Interstate Commerce
Commission. Opposition was presented to the Senate Committee on Inter-
state and Foreign Commerce on Senate Bill 1461, commonly known as the
"Quick Freight Rate Increase Bill." Most of the objectional features have
been stricken, but no action has as yet been taken by the Senate Committee
on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Negotiations have been carried on to
secure more expeditious railroad schedules, particularly to adjust the sche-
dule to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
In order to efficiently render a service to the Florida citrus industry
the League continues to be represented on several important national commi-
tees, including the Transportation Advisory Committee U. S.D. A., National
Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Claims Committee, the National Container Com-
mittee, the Refrigerator Car Committee, Southeast Shippers Advisory Board,
Florida Trucking Association, Southern Traffic League, and the Council of
Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Trade Association Executives.
- 38 -
UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA CITRUS CROPS
(000's Bxs)(000*s Bxs
PER BOX PROCESSED
(a) Difference between "Total Production" and actual utilization
PACK OF FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTS
- -1,000 Cases,
24/2 's- --
1953-54 L1 4,332
1953-54 /1 65,531
1949-50 163,212 2
1952-53 223,000 2
55-54 /Z 288,00ooo0 2
Includes meal, pulp and pellets
x Includes Tangerine Juice and Tangerine Blends
xx Includes Orange Sections
N.A. Data not available at date of stencil release
- -Tons- - -- -
(SOURCE: FLORIDA CANNERS'