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Florida Citrus Commission
Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1953
Commission members Serving During
the 1952-53 Fiscal Year
L.F. Roper, (Chairman)
Robert C. Wooten, (Vice
Key Scales, Jr.
W. Arthur Davis
J. Frank Bennett
J.J. Parrish, Jr.
O.C. Minton, Chairman
Robert C. Wooten
W. Arthur Davis
C.V. McClurg, Chairman
Robert C. Wooten
W. Arthur Davis
Frank Chase, Chairman
J. Frank Bennett
W. Arthur Davis
Key Scales, Jr.
J.J. Parrish, Jr.
W. Arthur Davis, Chairman
Key Scales, Jr.
J.J. Parrish, Jr.
J. J. Parrish, Jr., Chairman
J. Frank Bennett
Robert C. Wooten
Robert C. Evans, General iIanager
Ralph IM. Henry, Director, Merchandising and Advertising
Paul S. Patterson, Advertising Manager
Dr. L.G. MacDowell, Research Director
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Florida Citrus Commission
July 1, 1952--June 30, 1953
Production of citrus fruits in Florida during the 1952-53
fiscal year declined from the record crop totaling 119,360,000 boxes
the previous season to 110,520,000 boxes with the result that prices
generally satisfactory to all phases of the industry were experienced,
On-tree returns to the grower, estimated on the basis of data compiled
by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, showed increases from $59.6
million to $95.9 million on oranges $17.3 million to $25.8 million
on grapefruit, and $5.2 million to $5.7 million on tangerines.
Several factors were responsible for the increased returns.
Foremost, perhaps, was the decrease in the size of the crop. While
the Department of Agriculture made an initial estimate of 81 million
boxes of oranges in October, 1952, a reduction of 4 million boxes
from this figure, made in December, 1952, had an immediate effect on
the economic picture at all levels--on-tree, FOB packing house, auc-
tion market, and at all points of the processing industry. Subsequent
reductions in the crop made the supply-demand picture even more favor-
able as the season progressed.
Another factor contributing to the satisfactory price situ-
ation was the condition of processed inventories as the 1952-53 season
began. Supplies of canned and concentrated juices and salad packs
were normal enabling processors to proceed at full speed, especially
as it became known that the season's crop of fruit would be smaller
than had been anticipated.
One additional factor responsible for increased returns
to growers was the continually increasing consumer demand for frozen
concentrated orange juice. Early in January, 1953, the weekly report
of the Market Research Corp. of America indicated that consumers were
purchasing in excess of one million gallons of the frozen product
each week. This situation continued, almost without exception, and
producers were hard put to keep pace with the demand, despite a re-
cord total of approximately 46,500,000 gallons frozen during the 1952-
While actual returns from advertising and merchandising are
difficult to measure in terms of dollars and cents, the Commission's
programs in both fields had an undeniable impact among the forces
which acted to bring increased profits to grower, shipper, and pro-
cessor. No other organization or agency in the entire citrus world
has attempted to carry on such a promotional program on grapefruit
and grapefruit products as has the Commission. Without this support,
the plight of the grapefruit grower today might conceivably be dis-
astrous. Directed chiefly at increasing the per capital consumption
of all citrus products, the Commission's program has enabled the in-
dustry to maintain demand reasonably in balance with supply despite
a 275 per cent increase in the Florida citrus crop since the Commis-
sion was established in 1935.
The trend of the industry to process more and more of the
available supply of fruit continued, and about 63 per cent of the 1952-
53 orange crop and 47 per cent of the grapefruit crop went into one
or more forms of processed products. The production of frozen orange
concentrate alone accounted for approximately 45 per cent of the total
Florida orange crop.
Several events transpired during the 1952-53 fiscal year
which offer great promise for the Florida citrus industry. Among them
were the development of "Florida 5-to-l concentrate,"' the inauguration
of the Florida Citrus Commission's school education program, and the
action of the 1953 Florida State Legislature in providing an increase
in the advertising tax on grapefruit from four cents per box to six
cents per box. The details and significance of these events will be
discussed more fully at other points in this report.
A final subject which might well be mentioned at this point
is the increased interest in the work of the Florida Citrus Commission
being shown by the various industry factors. During the 1952-53 fis-
cal year, committees of growers, fresh fruit shippers, single strength
canners, and concentrators were appointed to confer with the Commission
as it began preparation for its advertising and merchandising program
for the 1953-54 season. The Commission welcomes this increased parti-
cipation by the industry and hopes that it will continue in the future.
There are attached to this report tables showing the prod-
uction, utilization, on-tree prices, and value of the orange, grape-
fruit, and tangerine crops for the seasons 1942-43 through 1952-53*
Other tables are included showing the pack of the various Florida cit-
rus products for the same period.
The Commission's activities are discussed under the
I. General Activities VI. School Education Program
II. Consumer Advertising VII. Research
III. Professional Advertising VIII. Transportation
IV. Merchandising IX. Statistical Tables
V. Consumer Publicity
I. GENERAL ACTIVITIES
The Commission investigated and approved 1292 license appli-
cations from fresh fruit shippers, canners, truckers, express shippers,
brokers, etc. Of these, 1,056 were renewals and 236 were new applicants,
A total of 250 special permits were issued during the season, most of
them under Section 50 of the Florida Citrus Code. The Commission also
issued 77 permits for the experimental shipment of new citrus containers.
The Florida State Legislature, which met during April and
May, 1953, passed several measures affecting the citrus industry. In-
cluded was an amendment to the Florida Citrus Code permitting the
Commission to grant special permits for the experimental shipment of
a new "Florida 5-to-l frozen orange concentrate." This revision of the
code permits concentrators, upon application to the commission, to re-
ceive permits to ship frozen orange concentrate having a Brix rating
of 58 to 60 degrees, as opposed to the 1l.5 to 43.5 degrees Brix set
forth in the code for the standard 3-to-1 concentrate. Proponents of
the higher Brix contended that the new product is more stable than the
old, while retaining the same true fresh orange flavor. The amendment
provided that the new product should be packed only in institutional
size containers. Under the law, persons or firms receiving permits for
the shipment of the new product must make detailed reports to the
Commission on its distribution and sale.
A second measure passed by the 1953 State Legislature in-
creased the tax collected on each box of grapefruit utilized from
four cents to six cents per box, and provided that a rebate fund of
$100,000 be set up for the next two years to refund brand advertisers
of fresh grapefruit only on the basis of $1 for every $2 spent in
advertising individual brands,
The legislature also revised the maturity requirements on
grapefruit, lowering them one-half point after Jan. 1 each year.
A measure affecting gift fruit shippers was enacted which
provided that gift fruit shippers engaging in that business exclusively
and using only their own fruit and/or fruit purchased from a licensed
handler may secure a citrus fruit dealer's license without posting
A final measure passed by the legislature affecting citrus
allowed the Commission 10 days in which to make legal publication of
new or revised regulations instead of the five days permitted pre-
The Commission continued to operate the Florida Citrus Museum
at Winter Haven, which was visited by thousands of tourists to the
state in the 1952-53 season.
Permissive use of the five new orange sizes was continued
for the 1952-53 season by the Commission as experimentation with the
new arrangement on early and mid-season oranges and grapefruit
A special committee was appointed to study citrus containers
currently in use, and upon recommendation of the industry after sev-
eral hearings on the subject, it was decided that the 20-pound bag
should be eliminated from the list of permitted containers. Standard
dimensions for all containers were established.
The Commission requested that the U. S. Department of
Agriculture issue a separate estimate on the Florida Temple orange crop
each month, beginning with the 1953-54 season. This request was
New regulations designed to eliminate a multiplicity of count
and pack arrangements on Temple oranges went into effect at the begin-
ning of the 1952-53 season, and, after a slight adjustment at the re-
quest of the industry, were used to great advantage by shippers and
receivers of Temple oranges.
New grade standards on oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines,
developed by the cooperative effort of the Commission and the U. S.
Department of Agriculture during the 1951-52 season, went into effect
as Federal and State standards at the beginning of the 1952-53 season.
Weekly, monthly, and quarterly reports from the Market
Research Corp. of America concerning the retail movement of processed
citrus products, were purchased in cooperation with the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture and the California citrus industry.
Weekly and monthly statistical reports compiled from various
data furnished by the Florida Canners Association, the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, the Growers Administrative Committee, the Market
Research Corp. of America, and the Federal-State Market News Service
were published by the Commissionts Statistical Department and distri-
buted to the industry.
At the request of the Florida Tangerine Cooperative, the
Commission appropriated funds to defray the cost of a trip to Japan
by Dr. A. F. Camp to determine if Japanese Citrus Canker is present
in that country.
xr. ** f.
II. CONSUMER ADVERTISING
The 1952-1953 fiscal year which ended June 30, 1953, saw the ad-
vertising program of the Florida Citrus Commission expanded and made more
Throughout the 1952-1953 campaign, two basic objectives guided all
the thinking and planning done by the Commission's staff and the Com-
mission's advertising agency, the J. Walter Thompson Company.
Briefly stated, these objectives are:
1. To increase per capital consumption of oranges, grape-
fruit, tangerines, and limes in the United States and
Uith virtually all American families consuming some
citrus fruits and with Florida accounting for over
70% of U. S. citrus production, the job is to get
people to eat and drink citrus products more often
and in larger servings.
2. To increase the preference for Florida's citrus pro-
The attainment of these objectives is beneficial to the entire
citrus industry of Florida, including growers, shippers, and processors.
Furthermore, a large-scale national effort to increase total consumption
is a task that no individual shipper or processor is undertaking or could
afford to undertake. In view of the increase in production from plant-
ings that are not yet of bearing age, an increase in per capital consump-
tion is of paramount importance
By treating the fresh, frozen, or canned products in each
advertisement, it is possible to secure repetition of the main ad-
vertising theme. For example: each orange advertisement emphasizes
the importance of Vitamin C and most of the grapefruit advertising
emphasizes the low calories in this fruit and its value in reducing
diets. These ideas are repeated over and over in each advertisement
whether it be in magazines, newspapers, on radio, or television and the
reader or listener makes his own choice as to the form in which the pro-
duct is purchased.
It is not an objective of the Commission's advertising to attempt
to switch readers from buying fresh fruit instead of processed or vice
versa, but to increase the total demand and allow free competition be-
tween the several forms of product and the many brands. The Commission's
advertising must be aimed not at the competition between fresh fruit and
processed fruit but rather that from bottled beverages, other fruits, and
The effectiveness of advertising is obviously increased if it
is able to go with the trends in consuming habits. At the present time,
vitamins and reducing are important to millions in America. The orange
advertising endeavors to capitalize on the former and the grapefruit ad-
vertising on the latter; thus relating itself to numerous newspaper and
magazine articles and subjects that are being discussed and thought about
by a large section of the public.
Florida Citrus Fruits all have extraordinary advertising points--
deliciousness, healthfulness, convenience, value in fighting flf',t in
reducing diets, etc. The Commission's advertising seeks to present these
characteristics in an interesting and convincing way and repeat them so
often that they become accepted by an increasing share of the growing
The 1952-1953 season has stressed a further expansion of
Floridats markets for processed citrus products. Today over 60% of
Florida's citrus crop is sold the year around from coast-to-coast either
frozen or canned. This trend is tending to minimize the winter peak and
summer valley in Florida's citrus marketing and advertising.
Specifically, Florida's advertising has moved toward these goals:
For the third successive year, Florida orange advertising has
.:-* featured "A:Full;Big Glass6t of Florida Orange Juice for the
Vitamin.C You Need -- One Vitamin Your Bbdy Cannot Store Up."
SWherever.:,possible color hapsbeen used to accentuate appetite
United States per capital orange juice consumption is now 1.5
ounces per person per day. Just a half ounce more would re-
quire another 60 million boxes of fruit.
"So Good So Many Ways" was the underlying theme of Florida's
advertising to get grapefruit served more ways, more often.
Florida grapefruit advertising has told housewives new, in-
teresting, but simple ways to serve Florida's "Bracer Fruit."
And this season, riding a wave of national publicity, Florida
grapefruit's important part in reducing diets has been featured,
particularly to women.
Grapefruit's importance in resistance-building during flu and
cold seasons has also been stressed.
The season is "Short But Sweet," so goes the advertising theme
for tangerines with its emphasis on holiday sales. Color has
played an important part in making tangerine advertising
Florida Tells Its Story Many Ways
With more and more of Florida's customers West of the Mississippi,
(particularly consumers of processed fruit) national advertising through
magazines has become increasingly important. About 1/3 of the Commission's
appropriations in 1952-1953 was spent this way.
Daily newspapers, television, and radio were used in Florida's
major markets during the fresh fruit season. Local advertising was kept
in step with movement of the crop to-give the extra support needed when
shipments were heaviest.
The Canadian market, growing more important to Florida every year,
received an increased share of the advertising pressure.
A continuing schedule of advertising was placed in the nation's
leading publications going to food retailers telling them the importance
of properly handling Florida's frozen concentrates.
In major markets local food dealer publications backed up the
Commission's field merchandising staff in securing retailers' cooperation
during the fresh fruit season.
I MAGAZINES - - -- Budget: $704,300 30%
Thirteen color pages were placed in Life and The Saturday
Evening Post and six half-pages in color in The Ladies' Home
These three growing magazines have given the Florida Citrus
Commissions advertising a broad base, reaching virtually every
community in the United States, and providing the finest color
reproduction of Florida's citrus products.
II DAILY & SUNDAY NEWSPAPERS Budget: $703,700 30%
219 daily newspapers in 145 markets used primarily during
the fresh fruit season. Color was added in local Sunday News-
paper magazine early in the season.
Newspapers have reached Florida's best customers families in
large urban areas.
Large advertisements scheduled on food shopping days provided
the Commission's field force with a powerful tool to enlist
promotional effort from major food chain stores and independent
III TELEVISION - - Budget: $434,600 18%
Television with sight-and-sound demonstration is a "natural"
for Florida's citrus products.
In eleven major markets, starting with New York City, the
Florida Citrus Commission participated in popular homemaker
programs with well-known food experts like Josephine Mc
As a test in the growing children's market, "Happy's Party,"
a Saturday morning television program for children was placed
for 30 weeks on a network consisting of New York, Detroit,
Pittsburgh, and Washington. The response to this advertising
was good and the experience will be valuable as the Com-
mission's program in this field is expanded. Due to lack of
funds, the program was discontinued except in Pittsburgh.
Early in 1953, the Commission secured the exclusive tele-
vision advertising rights for Miss America for Florida fresh
and processed citrus. Filmed commercials with her endorse-
ment of Florida fresh grapefruit and canned juice and sections
were placed adjacent to popular evening television programs
in 30 major markets.
IV RADIO -- - - ---- Budget: $270,000 11%
Despite television's recent acclaim, radio, when used properly
offers an advertiser many opportunities to reach large audiences
inexpensively. During the fresh fruit season, spot announce-
ments for Florida fruits were carried by 56 leading stations in
17 of Florijals.fresh fruit markets.
For extra advertising pressure in Southern markets, a 15-minute
program featuring the popular Crusaderst Gospel Quartet was
scheduled three times a week in 22 important cities.
V CANADA -- ------- -- -- Budget: $51,500 2%
Canada was told about Florida Citrus in the Nancy Sasser Shopp-
ing Column of Canadian Reader's Digest. In 8 big centers like
Montreal and Toronto, newspapers provided extra selling power.
During 1952-1953 the special Temple advertising program, in-
stituted the previous year in New York City and Cleveland, was carried
forward with the addition of the New York Suburban Market, Philadelphia,
A special "hypodermic" campaign in five top markets was also
scheduled for grapefruit when a sagging market threatened.
In June, a highly successful promotion was built around pro-
cessed citrus products for outdoor eating. It was supported by news-
paper advertising in 135 cities.
The Commission's field merchandising staff has effectively
used the Commission's advertising program* in its own promotional.work.
III, PROFESSIONAL ADVERTISING
Florida citrus fruits and juices, in addition to being good
to the taste, are also good in a health sense. Physicians have long
recognized citrus as the best source of natural Vitamin C and have
prescribed it for their patients, Research scientists, however, are
working constantly in an attempt to learn the many other attributes
found in citrus which may be beneficial to health, and it has been the
objective of the Commission to keep the medical, dental, and nutritional
professions aware of these findings.
The Noyes and Sproul, Inc., agency of New York, has been
employed to keep abreast of the new discoveries and place advertisements
and publicity in the various professional journals advising the readers
of this work.
Basically, the work of Noyes and Sproul for the Commission
is divided into five different phases: 1. clinical research; 2. lite-
rary research; 3. advertising in medical and ancillary professional
journals; 4. informational brochures; and 5. public relations. A
brief discussion of each phase of the program will summarize the act-
ivities of the Commission and its agency in this field.
The agency works with the Commission's research department
in arranging various clinical research projects at leading universities
and medical schools. Further details on this phase of the program
may be found in the report of the Commissionts research department in
All leading professional journals are continually checked
for the latest information on Vitamin C and citrus. Pertinent material
is made available to the proper persons concerned and forms an in-
valuable background for the agency's work in behalf of the Commission.
ADVERTISING IN MEDICAL AND ANCILLARY JOURNALS:
During the 1952-53 season, the Commission's professional
advertising was inserted in five national general medical journals for
a total of 37 pages, one obstetrical journal for six pages, three ped-
iatrics journals for 18 t-o-page spreads, one public health journal
for five pages, two osteopathic journals for 12 pages, three dental
journals for 17 pages, three hospital journals for 18 pages, four
nursing books for 22 pages, and five home economics journals for 30
pages, for a total of 183 pages.
At a cost of less than $90,000 the following market was
PROFESSIONAL MARKET "INFLUENCE MARKET"
150,000 Physicians L6,000,000 Patients
5,500 Pediatricians 9,000,000 "
11,000 Osteopaths 8,000,000 "
75,000 Dentists 35,000,000 "
8,000 Hospitals 56,000,000 "
350,000 Nurses 26,200,000 "
80,000 Home Economists 35,000,000 Consumers
679,500 Persons in Professional 215,200,000 "influence" contacts
Copy in these professional journals centered around the
"Practically All the 305 Million Newborns Can Be Started on Citrus
"Will 200,000 Newborns Develop Hidden Scurvy?"'
"'26 Million Overweight Americans"
"Citrus Can Help to Speed Recovery in 10 Million Surgical Cases"
"New Findings About Citrus and Vitamin C"
The Commission continued the distribution of its booklets
printed several years ago and entitled "Citrus Fruits and Dental Health,"
"Citrus Fruits and The Nationts Health," and "Citrus Fruits In Health
and Disease." Supplies of the latter two publications were exhausted
and provisions were made for the last named booklet to be revised in
the 195.3-54 season.
Information on the role played by citrus and Vitamin C in
the health of the nation is distributed by the agency to more than 1,000
columnists, science writers, science editors for syndicates, newspapers,
magazines, and wire services, state and city health department bulletins,
and medical, dental, hospital, drug, and ancillary journals who receive
the material and use it at no cost to the Commission. In this manner,
the lay reader is reached with the news of citrus research and how it
effects personal health. Through these influential persons and their
important outlets,, it is believed that many millions of readers are
Important among the outstanding accomplishments from a
public relations point of view during the 1952-53 season were the
1. J. D. Ratcliff's article on "Rh Factor" in the October,
1952 issue of Woman's Home Companion.
2. John Goetters story on Javertts Findings on the "Rh Factor",
carried by King Featureq Syndicate on January 27, 1953, and appearing
in 300 newspapers.
3. Science Digest report on Ratcliff's Woman's Home Companion
article, appearing in the issue of January, 1953.
4. Josephine Lowman's columns on Vitamin C in school lunches,
diet deficiencies, etc., distributed by the Register and Tribune
5. Dr. Edward P. Jordan's columns, "The Doctor Says," syndi-
cated by Scripps-Howard.
6. Article on "Stability of Frozen Juice in the Refrigerator"
appearing in the Better Homes and Gardens magazine.
7. Dr. George R. Cowgill's article in the June, 1953, issue
of Lifetime Living, entitled "You Need More Vitamins." Dr. Cowgill
is Professor of Nutrition at Yale University.
The agency also developed charts for three different age
levels for dissemination through educational channels. Prepared in
collaboration with experienced educational authorities, these charts
were publicized in 200 educational journals on a national scale and
in a brief period of time 300 different requests for varying amounts
of the charts were received.
One of the activities of the Florida Citrus Commission which
has gained tremendously in popularity with the industry and the various
trade factors in recent years is the work of the field merchandising
representatives. Recognizing the benefits accruing from this operation,
the commission in January, 1953, authorized the field staff to be in-
creased to h4 men, and in June, 1953, the need for further expansion
was noted and the employment of 11 more men was authorized, bringing
the force to a strength of 55$
The organizational set-up of the field force, outside of the
Lakeland headquarters, provides for two divisional managers, one in
New York and the other in Cincinnati, and 12 regional managers. Field
representatives are maintained in Los Angeles, California, Seattle,
Washington, Montreal and Toronto, Canada, and in all of the major citrus
markets east of the Rocky Mountains. The largest concentration of
manpower of course lies in the states east of the Mississippi River,
where the majority of Floridals citrus products are sold.
The Commission attempts to obtain as many members of its field
staff as possible from Florida. At present, 25 field representatives
are Florida natives, most of them graduates of Florida universities.
New members of the staff are given a week of special training upon
their employment and then are placed under the direct supervision of
an experienced regional manager before being sent out on their own.
Divisional meetings are held each year, in addition to an annual meet-
ing of the entire field force held in Lakeland in the Fall, prior to
the beginning of the new citrus season.
With an estimated 72 per cent of the business in retail food
stores today being of the self-service type, the Commission's field
force must take the place of the food store clerk by erecting displays
of fresh and processed citrus that will instill in the customer a
desire to place our products in her shopping basket. The field force
must be in constant touch with the retail outlet, arranging for the
erection of displays, conducting product demonstrations, and seeing
that the retail merchant is taking full advantage of the assistance
offered him by the Florida citrus industry.
In the 1952-53 fiscal year, the Commission's field represent-
atives made 81,741 calls on the various trade factors, erecting count-
less thousands of displays of fresh and processed citrus and conducting
2091 demonstrations. The Commission's field men are fully equipped
with juice bars and dispensers for use in these demonstrations. Our
20 automatic fresh fruit juicing machines are constantly in use and
in many instances there is a waiting list of stores which have requested
an appearance of the juicer for a special citrus promotion. The work
of the Commission in demonstrating how effective the juicers can be in
moving large quantities of fresh fruit has resulted in many of the
larger retail organizations purchasing their own machines.
Another important tool of the Commission's field man is a
supply of colorful point-of-sale display material, designed to catch
the consumer's eye and motivate a desire for our products that will
result in a purchase, In the modern-day merchandising scheme, much
of the sales effort is geared to impulse buying at point of purchase.
More than 5,500,000 pieces of display material were produced and dis-
tributed by the Commission to take advantage of that trend.
During the 1952-53 season, the Commission's field staff
carried on a special promotion on tangerines, in cooperation with the
Florida Tangerine Cooperative, in seven mid-western markets, resulting
in an increase of more than 66 per cent in tangerine sales. A total
of 176 store demonstrations were held during the special campaign.
The Commission's Temple orange advisory committee has con-
sistently favored the store demonstration technique in promoting this
unique and popular hand-eating fruit. A special Temple orange campaign
was conducted by the field force in New York, Philadelphia, Cleveland,
and Chicago, which included special local media advertising and 395
When it became apparent that grapefruit would require an
extra promotional effort in February, 1953, the Commission appropriated
$25,000 to conduct a special campaign in five cities--Boston, Buffalo,
Albany, Detroit, and Pittsburgh. Emphasis in the 148 store demonstrations
held was placed on Duncan Seeded grapefruit, but all grapefruit pro-
ducts benefited from the extra effort.
In addition to its own promotions, the Commission participated
in five national citrus drives, conducted by the National Citrus Mer-
chandising Committee, which is made up of representatives from the
Florida, California, and Texas citrus industries, plus representatives
from the various trade organizations in the country. Hundreds of
thousands of special kits were prepared and distributed.in support of
these promotions. Another 20,000 special kits of display material
were prepared for promotions with different chain organizations over
and above the national drives.
The Florida citrus industry has always enjoyed an extremely
cordial relationship with the various trade factors. In recent years,
this close cooperation has been fostered greatly by a series of trade
luncheons held in the individual markets from Quebec City, Canada, to
San Antonio, Texas. The Commission invited more than 1550 top men from
the trade to eat with them in 25 major markets during the 1952-53 sea-
son, at which time the Commission's staff presented at firsthand its
proposed program of advertising and merchandising for each particular
market for the coming season. Acceptance of this activity by the trade
has been highly satisfactory, and the Commission believes the returns
from the personal contact have been great.
The Commission's moving pictures--The Sun Goes North, The
Concentrate Story, and Profitable Partners---have received hundreds of
showings before trade and consumer groups during the past season and
the 15 projectors used by the field men are kept constantly in use.
Another activity of the Commission's field staff is to work
closely with the newspapers carrying the Florida citrus advertising
schedule. Most of these newspapers have merchandising staffs of their
own, who spend a portion of their time calling on retail merchants
urging them to use the display material offered by the Commission and
assisting them in tieing in their own newspaper advertising with that
of the Commission. These newspapers furnish the Commission with tear-
sheets of all retailer-paid advertising placed on Florida citrus pro-
ducts, and the Commission staff in Lakeland keeps a record of the
lineage and the cost. During the 1952-53 season, these records reveal-
ed that retailers spent an estimated total of $643,836 advertising
'lorida citrus, or $1.11 for every $1 spent by the Commission in its
own newspaper advertising program.
The Commission carries its program to many groups which have
influence in spreading the usage of Florida citrus by the use of
dioramas depicting the various phases of the industry. A total of 41
conventions of physicians, dentists, home economists, dieticians and
retail and restaurant organizations were attended during the 1952-53
fiscal year. In addition exhibits were maintained at the Florida State
Fair in Tampa and the Leon County Fair in Tallahassee. The Commission
also participated in the 58th annual convention of the International
Apple Association held in St. Louis in August, 1952, where more than
750 persons were present. The Commission's float in President Eisen-
hower's Inaugural Parade in Washington in January, 1953, received a
beautiful trophy for the best float from the many entered. Notables
in the major and minor league baseball world, in Florida for their
annual Spring training, were entertained at Tampa at the Governor's
Reports of the activities of the Commission's field staff
are made each week to the industry, with more than 425 officials of
fresh fruit packing houses, processors, and others in allied fields
receiving the information. 1he Commission's field men actually are
the eyes and ears of the industry at the retail level, keeping a close
watch on the factors of supply and demand, reporting on the sales
techniques and relative movement of competing fruits and juices, and
acting generally as a liaison agent between the trade and the Florida
The value of this activity cannot be overestimated. This
conclusion is assured by the many fine comments received from the in-
dustry and the retailers, wholesalers, and distributors in the mar-
kets. The constant and increasing demand for the services of the
field staff offer great promise for the future of the merchandising
activities of the Commission.
V. CONSUMER PUBLICITY PROGRAM
For the 17th consecutive year, the Commission continued the
services of Dudley, Anderson, and Yutzy, Inc., of New York, to handle
its consumer publicity program. This program consists of furnishing
newspapers, magazines, television and radio stations with material on
the use and preparation of fresh and processed citrus. The various
media accept this material readily and print or send it out over the
air waves as a public service to their readers and listeners, at no
cost to the Commission for the space and mechanical production nec-
A circulation count of 774,685,399, based on actual clippings
of printed material returned, was accounted for during 1952-1953. This
means that for every dollar expended through this program, 1l,085 reader
impressions have been made.
This figure represents the coverage obtained for Florida
citrus news in national and sectional magazines, newspapers, supple-
ments, house organs and company publications, and does not take into
account the vast influence of similar activities in radio and tele-
vision and other educational outlets which cannot be counted with any
Since the inception of this program, the goal has been to
obtain as much so-called "free" space and time as possible, and to in-
sure news about Florida in those publications where advertising either
cannot be purchased or sensibly afforded -- such as school journals,
company magazines, cookbooks, religious publications, store leaflets,
the hundreds of small town daily and weekly newspapers.
Jhile it is impossible to ever accurately compare or evaluate
closely the value of such space (since there are no actual rates for
editorial columns), it is well known that editorial features get much
higher readership than any other magazine or newspaper content. Space
occupied by the color food pictures alone featuring Florida citrus,
which have been placed in daily and Sunday newspapers by Dudley, Anderson,
and Yutzy during the year, would cost over $300,000.
The agency's home economics department is the nucleus of the
food publicity operation, and its test kitchen is the source of new
ideas for presentation of Florida citrus menu uses. These ideas must
be sound to merit the attention of the food editors of national magazines,
newspaper syndicates, cookbooks, etc., and the fact that they rate
high is attested to by the circulation achieved for our features in the
following important fields:
National Women's Magazines..... 87,247,585
Store-Sold Magazines ........... 2,739,175
Farm Publications.............. 31,159,241
Restaurant Magazines .............. 280,186
Store Service Leaflets............1,513;061
House Organs....... ... ............. 130,825
Color in Sunday Supplements..... 26,2l9,057
ITeekly Newspapers................ 12,119,444
Newspaper Syndicates........... 236,641,208
Other Newspaper Releases....... 354,605,717
In addition to the printed word, Florida citrus publicity
has been just as active and rewarding in radio and television. Scripts
go weekly to 387 radio stations and to nearly 100 TV programs. We
have actual proof of more than 100 entire programs devoted to Florida
citrus "free" through our television service during the year.
The Florida Citrus Commission entertained the 150 by-line
writers attending the 1952 Newspaper Food Editors Conference in New
York at a "Florida Fresh-Up" hospitality suite, a project which has
become an annual feature of our program for its value and influence
throughout the year. In the interests of Florida citrus, account re-
presentatives attended also the conventions of the American Women in
Radio and Television in Atlanta, Ga.; the American Dietetic Association
in Minneapolis; the Home Economics Convention in Kansas City.
In view of increasing competition, personal visits have be-
come more necessary, and because of this, trips were made to nearly 20
cities most important in the Florida market picture, during which over
150 writers, broadcasters, cooking demonstrators, etc. were contacted.
VI. SCHOOL EDUCATION PROGRAM
The seed for this highly promising activity was sown in Hardee,
DeSoto, and Charlotte counties during the 1951-1952 season when an ex-
periment was begun under the direction of Dr. Robert E. Rice, Public
Health Officer of those counties. The study by Dr. Rice was started
after definite evidence of Vitamin C deficiency was discovered in the
school children of that area. The Commission cooperated by assisting in
getting the program underway and heard a report from Dr. Rice at its
July, 1952, meeting that preliminary surveys indicated a 40 per cent im-
provement in the health condition of the children participating in the
Accordingly, at its September, 1952, meeting the Commission
authorized the employment of Irs. Helen Stewart, of Jacksonville, as
director of a school education program, and set up a budget item of $15,000
for its activities in the 1952-1953 fiscal year.
The purpose of the program was to increase consumption of citrus
products so as to keep pace with citrus production. The device used was
the development of a sound long range educational health program that
could be expected to win the endorsement and support of health, educational,
and parental leaders throughout the state and, ultimately, the nation.
Mrs. Stewart, well known in Florida school and Parent-Teacher
Association circles, embarked on a three-point program designed to:
1. Stimulate and coordinate the activities of key individuals and or-
ganizations interested in the increased use of citrus information and
products; 2. Integrate supplementary teaching aids on the subject of
citrus in the school curriculum; and 3. Create a situation in which the
consumption of citrus becomes a definite part of each child's day.
The response from educational and health officials in the state
was immediate and a State Advisory Committee was formed consisting of the
State Supervisor of Home Economics; the Nutritionist, State Health De-
partment; Head of the State Dental Bureau; Supervisor of State School
Lunch Education; President of the Florida Congress of Parents and Teachers;
and representatives from the State Dietetics Association, the State Dental
Association, the State Medical Association, and a representative of school
principals in the state.
By working through the State Advisory Committee, the program
was removed from the "frowned upon" category of advertising promotions
and introduced as a highly respected program approved and recommended
to the schools. All plans made by the committee were submitted to the
State Department of Education and the State Board of Health before being
introduced into the schools.
Twenty Florida schools were selected for voluntary pilot studies
on the basis of geographic location, size and type of community, age and
grade level of children. Eight of these pilot schools were primarily .
concerned with the medical and nutritional aspects of the program. Dental
examinations were made before introduction of the citrus juice program.
The Florida Citrus Commission provided these schools with dispensers,
paper cups, orange juice, and cup disposals for a ten weeks study. There
were approximately 2,000-children involved.
All of the children received five ounces of orange juice daily.
The children showing Vitamin C deficiencies received ten ounces. Dental
examinations were also made at the conclusion of the ten weeks time so
that the outcome would be a basis for showing, statistically, the bene-
fits to be derived from increased Vitamin C intake in the daily diet.
The other twelve pilot schools were concerned primarily with
the physical and practical aspects of the program concerning them-
selves, mainly, with the problems of supply, storage, consumption, dis-
pensing, labor, sanitation, cost, etc.
In schools where an educational program was conducted in con-
junction with juice sales -- the sales doubled or tripled. In two
schools in the same city: the one in which there was no educational
program sold five gallons per week -- the one in which an educational
program was conducted sold 120 gallons in a week. The latter school
was the smallest school.
Purposes of the pilot studies were: 1. To evaluate current
methods and develop new ways of serving citrus in the schools; 2. To
evaluate the health status of children receiving citrus; 3. To intro-
duce the program into the key counties of the State, giving each county
its own personal experience with the program, thereby creating interest
and friends for future program plans.
Good, educationally sound nutrition materials were needed for
classroom use for all grade levels to familiarize the children with
the importance of citrus in their daily diets. These children will in
this way form food habits that will follow them throughout their lives.
.These materials were developed in cooperation with the State Department
of Education and Florida State University. They will be presented to the
State Courses of Study Committee for approval for use in the public schools.
While results of the medical and nutritional study have not as
yet been made public, preliminary indications are that the percentage
of improvement in the children receiving orange juice daily was highly
satisfactory, and the Commission has been urged by medical and dental
officials associated with the primary tests to continue a similar study
in the 1953-195h season.
A resume of the activities of the school education program
was presented to members of the Florida Canners Association in May and
that organization later endorsed the objectives of the undertaking whole-
The Commission feels that its school program is progressing
well ahead of schedule. Already more than 200 Florida schools have
indicated a desire to have a dispenser program operated for their students.
in the 1953-1954 season. Information on the program has also reached
other states and at least two have requested that an attempt be made
to institute a similar educational and nutritional study in their school
I. COOPERATIVE RESEARCHhWITH THE CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION AT
This cooperative research is concerned primarily with problems
of citrus processing, with particular attention to frozen concentrated
orange juice and canning methods; problems of treatment and disposal
of citrus waste materials by methods that may yield useful by-products;
and problems of decay control.
A. Processing and By-Products Research
The plant for processing citrus juices was operated during
the citrus season from November 1, 1952, to June 30, 1953,
using 1,897 boxes of fruit in processing 329 packs, including
frozen and heat-treated concentrates and single-strength canned
1. Standardization of Processed Citrus Juices.
Exploratory packs of frozen grapefruit concentrates
and limeades containing various amounts of sucrose and
dextrose were examined monthly for sugar hydrate forma-
tions during storage at -80F. It was sound that amount
and ratio of added sugars, heat treatment, seeding, type
of container and length of storage all played an im-
portant role in sugar hydrate formation.
Frozen concentrates, made from 9 different lots of
Temple oranges, had the characteristics of good quality
orange concentrate but lacked the typical Temple flavor.
It was found that the addition of Temple peel oil to the
concentrate was necessary to restore to the product the
distinctive Temple flavor.
Results of consumer discrimination studies on canned
orange juice with various Brix/acid ratios, packed during
the 1950-51 season, were reported in the publication
"Taste Tests on Canned Orange Juices", Bureau of Agricul-
tural Economics, U.S.D.A., Washington, D.C., June 1953,
and "Selected Studies of Consumer Preferences for Canned
Orange Juices", Dr. Richard L. D. Morse, Florida State
University, Tallahassee, Florida. In order that further
consumer preference studies could be made, 6 packs of
canned Valencia orange juice, with Brix/acid ratio ranging
from 12 to 22, were processed.
2. Storage Studies on Concentrated Citrus Juices.
Twenty-two packs of Hamlin, Pineapple, and Valencia
oranges, Dancy tangerines, and Duncan and Marsh grape-
fruit concentrates of varying pulp contents stored at
-80, 00, and 100F. were examined. Besides studying the
storage characteristics of the concentrated juices at
these temperatures, samples were transferred from these
temperatures at periodic intervals to 200F. to determine
the subsequent storage life of the concentrates at that
temperature. In general, during subsequent storage at
20F., the degree of clarification in the concentrates
showed a relationship to the previous storage tempera-
ture and to the pulp content of the concentrate.
Packs of single-strength Pineapple and Valencia
orange and Dancy tangerine juices were prepared and stored
at 32 600, 70 80 and 900F. to study effect of temp-
erature of storage on quality of these products.
Since preliminary investigations had shown that the
addition to canned orange juice of chelating agents, such
as phytic acid, calcium phytate, and Versene, delayed
slightly the developmenttof off-flavor that occurs during
storage, several packs of orange and tangerine juices con-
taining phytic acid were again processed and stored for
future flavor evaluations.
3. Clarification and Gelation in Concentrated Citrus Juices.
Concentrates of various folds, ranging from 180 to 780Brix,
prepared during the 1951-52 season from Duncan grapefruit and
Valencia oranges were examined to determine the effect of con-
centration on the rate and degree of clarification which may
occur in a concentrate because of enzymic action. The greatest
rate of clarification occurred in Duncan grapefruit concentrates
in the range of 18 to 41 Brix. Stability to clarification
for three months storage at 40F. was obtained only when con-
centration was above 60Brix. In the Valencia orange concen-
trates clarification occurred at the greatest rate in the range
of 180 to 51 Brix. Only those products concentrated above 70
Brix were stable during three months storage at 40F.
The pectic substances in various citrus concentrates were
determined using a previously developed rapid colorimetric
method based on the carbazole-galacturonic acid-sulfuric acid
reaction. The data obtained provided some indication of the re-
lationship between the pectic content of concentrates and such
factors as pulp content, juice extraction pressure, and fruit
variety and maturity. Whenever the pulp content of a concen-
trate was increased, the water-soluble and the total pectin in-
4. Relationship of Heat Treatment to the Quality of Processed
Citrus Juices and Concentrates. (In cooperation with the
American Can Company)
Heat treatment is a means by which a citrus pro-
cessor can stabilize frozen concentrate and prevent
flocculation in a reconstituted citrus juice. Time-
temperature relationships for the heat inactivation of
pectinesterase in single-strength citrus juices at dif-
ferent pH levels were determined.
Packs of 42 Brix concentrates, prepared from Parson
Brown, Pineapple and Valencia orange juices and Dancy
tangerine juice, in which juices to the evaporator were
heated in six seconds so that approximately 0, 50, 90, and
100% of the pectinesterase was inactivated, were made. A
study to show the distribution of pectinesterase activity
and pectin in various component parts of citrus fruits has
been completed. The retention of pectinesterase in Val-
encia orange and Duncan grapefruit juices when stored at
800, 400, and -80F. decreased with increased storage tem-
5. Frozen Tangerine Concentrate.
Packs of frozen tangerine concentrates were processed
to determine some of the factors significant to quality.
Products of good quality were prepared using mature fruit
and proper processing procedures. Product stability to
enzymic changes was determined in part by the juice-fin-
ishing procedure used.
The pectinesterase activity in the tangerine concen-
trates was found to be considerably less than that in
orange concentrates. An increase in the pulp content re-
sulted in an increase in pectinesterase activity.
Stability of tangerine concentrate to clarification
became greater as the concentration was increased from 10.6
to 68 Brix. Clarification did not occur in a 680Brix
tangerine concentrate after storage at 600F. for three
6, Citrus Juice Dispensers.
Improvements, sufficient to warrant retesting, were
made by the manufacturers of four of the eight types of
counter-top juice dispensers originally tested. In ex-
amining these dispensers, some of the improvements noted
were more sanitary juice valves, better design of outer
cases and juice bowls, in ease of dissembling for cleaning,
more rugged design of moving parts, and in directing the
warm air from the compressor away from refrigerated portions
of the equipment. The quality of reconstituted orange con-
centrate was satisfactorily maintained in all of the dis-
pensers that were retested.
7. The Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices.
A rapid colorimetric method was perfected for the de-
tection of spoilage in citrus juices and concentrates caused
by the growth of acid-tolerant bacteria, such as Lacto-
bacillus or Leuconostoc. Detection of the growth of spoilage
bacteria in citrus juices during concentration by this
chemical method was shown to be more reliable than organo-
leptic methods and as reliable as a direct microscopic
count method. The method was used in some commercial con-
centrate plants to prevent loss of product because of
bacterial spoilage during processing.
8. Methane Fermentation of Waste Waters from Citrus Pro-
The experimental work on the investigation of citrus
waste treatment by means of anaerobic digestion has been
completed. A summary of the data has been written and was
presented at the Eighth Industrial Waste Conference at
Purdue University on Iay 6, 1953.
The opinion has been reached that the methane fer-
mentation of liquid citrus wastes, because of the in-
herent nature of this material, has become a rather com-
plex operation and its application therefore rather narrow.
The results obtained recently on a completely aerobic
treatment along the lines of activated sludge have shown
considerable promise, and methane fermentation of excess
sludge from such an aerobic treatment should be quite
In other attempts to recover valuable materials
from citrus waste, experiments have been initiated to
isolate inositol, to recovero(-cellulose and to prepare
an orange vinegar.
B. Citrus Fruit Decay Studies
1. Chemical Treatments for the Prevention of Fruit Decay.
Decay continues to be one of the major problems in
the marketing of fresh citrus fruits. Holding tests on
oranges at 70 F. over the entire 1952-53 season have shown
average losses of 3.1, 20.4, and 38.4% for one, two and
three weeks respectively from the time of harvest. This
was for fruits receiving the usual packinghouse handling
but receiving no decay preventive treatment. As in pre-
vious fruit seasons practically all decay was due to stem-
end rots and Penicillium molds. Experimental work in decay
control was concerned principally with improving the
Dowicide A-Hexamine treatment which has proved to be one
of the most practical methods for decay control. In this
work 135 experiments were performed and during the season
over 150,000 citrus fruits were under observation. Aside
from research, commercial packinghouses using the Dowicide
A-Hexamine method were given technical help.
Experiments were carried out with a number of other
chemicals and methods to determine their possible value
in preventing decay. Of lh of these, 11 were found to be
ineffective, 2 showed possibilities and 1, vapors of am-
monium bicarbonate, exhibited marked properties in con-
C. Studies on Chemical Changes in Citrus Fruits During
Exploratory studies were made on the changes of some chem-
ical constituents of citrus fruits during maturation in an
attempt to determine whether these changes may be used as
criteria of maturity and to obtain fundamental data on the
chemical changes of Florida citrus fruits through their maturing
The chemical constituents selected for study were the
organic acids, the amino acids, and the pectic substances of
Valencia oranges and the naringin of Ruby Red and Marsh grape-
II. NUTRITIONAL RESEARCH
Nutritional research projects in progress during the year in-
cluded a study of the effect on the teeth of the daily ingestion of gene-
rous quantities of orange juice. Preliminary reports indicate that no
deleterious effects were noted at the level of 8 ounces of orange juice
A project to determine the effects of large doses of Vitamin C
on adolescent acne has shown promising results.
Research on the use of high levels of Vitamin C to ameliorate
conditions in the chronically ill population has developed several in-
teresting leads and has shown that this elderly group benefits from the
A number of scientific papers on these subjects are expected
to appear in medical journals shortly.
During the past year, 25,000 copies of the 1953 Better Fruit
Program, Spray, and Dust Schedule and 5,000 inserts on the use of con-
centrated spray materials, were printed and distributed.
As Florida's citrus production continues to increase, the
problem of moving our fresh and processed products to far-flung
markets grows more complex. New questions arise almost daily to con-
front the fresh fruit shipper and processor---questions which often
times may mean the difference between a profit and a loss during periods
of severe competition and close operating margins.
To help in solving the many problems affecting transportation,
the Commission has continued to retain the services of the Growers
and Shippers League of Florida as a representative of the citrus industry
at large before the Interstate Commerce Commission and other federal and
state agencies concerned.
The Commission is confident that savings amounting to hundreds
of thousands of dollars have been effected through this service. Listed
below are some of the specific problems encountered during the 1952-53
fiscal year by the Growers and Shippers League, their outcome or present
UNLOADING CHARGES ON FRESH CITRUS
AT NEW YORK AND PHILADELPHIA:
This has been a problem that has been before this industry since
1947. We have from the beginning contended that an unloading charge at
New York and Philadelphia could not be lawfully made if such charge was
an addition to the line haul rate. After a series of hearings and oral
argument before the Interstate Commerce Commission, railroads were author-
ized to publish charges of $1.95 per ton for unloading of fresh citrus
fruit by the carriers at New York and Philadelphia, which charges became
effective November 1, 1948.
Upon petition and further hearing before the I..C.C., these charges
were reduced, effective July 3, 1952, from $1.95 per ton to $1.05 per
ton, or a reduction of approximately $25.00 per car, representing a
saving to the fresh citrus industry, based on unloads in New York and
Philadelphia of 15,217 carloads sold through the auctions in the 1952
season of $326,687.20.
While this is a substantial reduction, in the opinion of the
interested parties it is a charge in addition to the line haul rate,
which cannot lawfully be made, and accordingly the League for and on
behalf of the Florida Citrus Commission filed a complaint in the Federal
Court in Orlando seeking to set aside the I.C.C. Order allowing these
charges to become effective, which case was argued at Jacksonville, June
This Court action is to set aside the present charge of $1.05
per ton, or $25.20 per car, and involves as a total $383,368.40, which
total amount is based on the unloads of fresh citrus fruit from Florida
to the two markets for the 1952 season. We areawaiting the Court's de-
INCREASED FREIGHT RATES,
1951- EX PARTE 175.
The rail carriers in 1951 petitioned the Interstate Commerce
Commission for authority to increase freight rates and charges 156, ob-
serving as maximum 15 cents per hundred weight on fresh citrus fruit.
The I.C.C. allowed the carriers to increase their rates, subject, however,
to an expiration date of February 28, 195h.
In March 1953 the carriers petitioned the I.C.C. to allow
these increases to become a permanent part of the rate structure. We
appeared before the I.C.C. in opposition to allowing this rate increase
to become permanent, and oral argument was set for Washington, D. C.,
EX PARTE 185- INCREASED
The Railway Express Agency petitioned the Interstate Commerce
Commission, January 30, 1953, for authority to increase express rates
and charges 25% and to establish a minimum charge of $2.30 per shipment.
If granted, this increase would seriously affect the Florida
gift fruit shipping business and we appeared for and on behalf of the
Florida Citrus Commission and the Florida Express Fruit Shippers Asso-
ciation in opposition to allowing the Railway Express Agency to increase
their rates and charges to this extent at hearings in Chicago, which
began May hth, and which were concluded at hearings beginning in Wash-
ington, D. C., May 25th. Oral argument before the Commission was set
for June 29th, 1953.
The Interstate Commerce Commission in 1948 proposed to make
effective rules and regulations governing the lease and interchange of
motor carrier equipment, which, if permitted to become effective would
seriously curtail the truck movement of fresh citrus fruit from Florida
and would be an economic waste of transportation would bring about
higher transportation costs, and since certified or permitted carriers
cannot perform the flexible service required and do not have the proper
equipment, and since the railroads do not have enough equipment, should
they be required to transport the entire production of Florida citrus
fruit, the industry would be confronted with a serious shortage of trans-
The Interstate Commerce Commission, after this matter had been
carried to the Supreme Court, the Court ruling in favor of the I.C.C.
released its Order setting September 1, 1953, as the date for these
rules and regulations to become effective.
In the meantime, however, all of the national farm organizations,
including the Growers and Shippers League of Florida, submitted pro-
posed amendments to the Interstate Commerce Act to the House and Senate,
which would expressly prohibit the Interstate Commerce Commission from
issuing any rule or regulation that would prescribe the length of time
that any lease had to be in effect. The House of Representatives
approved H.R. 3203 that would amend the Interstate Commerce Act in this
manner, but no action was taken upon the legislation in the Senate. The
I.C.C. has since postponed the effective date of its order until -arch
RATES ON FRESH CITRUS
TO SOUTHWESTERN AND
WESTERN TRUNK LINE
The Southern lines have for the past two years been attempting
to have the Western railroads agree to a reduction amounting to about
17 percent on the rates on fresh citrus fruit to Southwestern and Western
Trunk Line territories. The Western railroads have not agreed to this
reduction and consequently 95 percent of the fresh citrus movement has
been by motor truck into the Southwestern territory and approximately 65
percent has moved by truck into Western Trunk Line territory. Proposals
suggesting this reduction are still before the Western railroads.
Many shippers found that the 48,000 pound minimum weight
applying on oranges packed in 4/5 bushel boxes to Official territory was
causing a great deal of damage and that fruit when packaged in bags could
not be loaded to this minimum carload weight.
After several conferences with Traffic Officials of the origin
lines a 40,000 pound minimum was proposed on oranges when packaged in
containers of 4/5 bushel capacity or less, which proposal has now been
approved by the Southern lines and is before the Official territory
carriers for their concurrence.
TRUCK SERVICE ON
The rapid growth of the frozen citrus concentrate industry
has posed a real problem in securing adequate and efficient trans-
portation service and particularly equipment that could maintain low
temperature refrigeration. Since 1950 a continuous effort on the part
of this industry has been made to secure needed motor truck transporta-
When frozen citrus concentrate was first produced,there were
only a limited number of motor truck lines that could offer the services
needed. Several new carriers desirous of transporting frozen citrus con-
centrate applied to the Interstate Commerce Commission for Certificates
of Public Convenience and Necessity, and these carriers have been supported
by the frozen citrus concentrate industry as represented by the Growers
and Shippers League. The I.C.C. has granted several certificates, but
there are still a number of truck lines operating under temporary authori-
ties and hearings in connection with those carriers' applications will be
held during the year, but it will be sometime before the motor trans-
portation needs of the industry are satisfactorily met.
The number of refrigerator cars available to serve the perish-
able industry in Florida and throughout the country has not kept pace
with the increased volume of production of commodities available for
shipment, and in fact, over a period of years the total number of re-
frigerator cars has continued to decline. This has been one of the
principal causes for the recurrent car shortages experienced in Florida.
In an attempt to relieve this situation during this past season,
several conferences have been held with officials of the Fruit Growers
Express, which serves this territory, as well as with officials of other
car lines and also interested rail carriers, urging them to increase the
supply of refrigerator cars available for the movement of our commodit-
ies. We have also had several conferences with Commissioner James K.
Knudson, Administrator, Defense Transport Administration, seeking to
have Feestablished the refrigerator'_car pool, which wouldrmake:.avail-
able to our shippers cars belonging to other car lines when the need
arose for additional cars in Florida. While the car line officials have
not indicated too great an interest in ordering new cars, we are con-
tinuing to impress upon them. the:;necessity..fr -replacing:.the.,older cats and.
increasing the total number of cars available for loading.
The railroads have recognized the need for supplying refrigera-
tor cars that can provide low temperature refrigeration and have de-
veloped a mechanical refrigerator car. The urgency of the situation has
been continuously put forth to the railroads for an expansion of their
fleet of mechanically refrigerated cars and at the present time the Fruit
Growers Express Company has 175 cars in service and another 100 on order,
The need for this type of equipment has been discussed with Western rail-
roads at several conferences and the Western lines are now building mech-
anically refrigerated cars and it is expected that by the end of 195h this
fleet will approximate somewhat over 500 cars.
On request of the Florida Canners Association, through the
Growers and Shippers League, the Commission approved the employment of
a rate analyst in January, 1953, to attempt to straighten out a very
serious and complicated rate situation. As the work progressed, it was
decided that since rates to many destinations would have to be computed,
it would be desirable and of great benefit to the processors if a memo-
randum tariff of rates was prepared. This memorandum has been completed
and is Vailable to all members of the Florida Canners Association,
There were many other problems affecting the transportation
of fresh and processed citrus fruit, as well as citrus by-products during
the 1952-53 season, including such items as icing charges on stop-off
shipments of frozen citrus concentrate; canned citrus rates to Official
territory; loading canned citrus in box cars; truck rules and rates on
frozen concentrate shipments; uniform tariff for storage in transit
charges; proper classification of citrus oil recovered from operation of
feed mills; truck rates on citrus oil, and truck service on citrus mo-
The Commission, through the League and its Secretary-Manager
and Traffic Manager, continues to be represented on several State and
National Committees, such as the Transportation Advisory Committee,
appointed under the Research and Marketing Act by the Secretary of Agri-
culture; National Fruit and Vegetable Claims Committee; Council of Fruit
& Vegetable Association Executives; National Container Committee; Re-
frigerator Car Committee; Southeast Shippers Advisory Board; Florida
Highway Users Conference and the Florida Trucking Association.
UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA CITRUS CROPS
ON-TREE HOME VALUE OF
PRICE CONSUMP- ALL SALES
PROCESSED PER BOX TION ON TREE'
(000's Bxs)(VDollars)(cOOs Bxs)(MIillions
(a) Difference between "Total Production" and actual utilization represented by
PACK OF FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTS
FRUIT ORANGE BLENDED TANGERINE
JUICE JUICE JUICE JUICE
- - -1,000 Cases,24/2*s- -
CITRUS (Other than
- - - -
- -1,000 Gallons- -
- -Tons- - -- -
Includes meal, pulp, and pellets
Includes Tangerine Juice and Tangerine Blends
Includes Orange Sections
Data not available at date of stencil release
(SOURCE: FLORIDA CANNERS'