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Florida Citrus Conmission
Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1952
Commission Members Serving During
the 1951-52 Fiscal Year
W. F. Robinson (Chairman)
L. F. Roper (Vice-Chairman)
0. C. Minton
Key Scales, Jr.
J. R. McDonald
C. V. IIcClurg
U. Arthur Davis
Warren T. Zeuch
Robert C. Wooten
ADVERTISING COTI TTEE:
0. C. Minton, Chairman
Warren T. Zeuch
W. Arthur Davis
L. F. Roper
RESEARCH COI ITTEE:
Frank Chase, Chairman
Robert C. Wooten
Key Scales, Jr.
L. F. Roper
C. V. McClurg, Chairman
0. C. Mlinton
L. F. Roper
J. R. McDonald
W. Arthur Davis, Chairman
Key Scales, Jr.
Robert C. VTooten
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Robert C. Evans, General Manager
Ralph Henry, Advertising Manager
Dr. L. G. MacDowell, Research Director
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Florida Citrus Cormission
July 1, 1951 June 30, 1952
Year after year the marketing of larger crops continues to
be the foremost problem of the Florida citrus industry. In the
fiscal year just closed the production reached a new high of
119,660,000 boxes, which represented an increase of 14,080,000
boxes over the preceding year and 31,700,000 boxes more than
two years ago. With the exception of about three million box-
es of seeded grapefruit, the entire production was marketed
despite the fact that at the beginning of the year inventories
of canned citrus products were excessive.
The marketing of a greatly increased volume of fruit in
this year resulted in a reduction of approximately 43 percent
in the on-tree dollar returns to growers from the preceding
About 50 percent of the increased volume of fruit in the
1951-52 season was marketed in fresh form and the remainder
was utilized by processors.
A continuation of the fantastic increases in the sales
volume of frozen concentrated orange juice was one of the major
factors that enabled the industry to market the entire orange
crop of 78,900,000 boxes. National sales of this product in
1951-52 amounted to 42,000,000 gallons which was 75 per cent
above the preceding year. The Florida pack of this product
in 1951-52 was 4h,050,000 gallons which represented an in-
crease of h4 percent over the preceding year. Processors
utilized 40 percent of the Florida orange crop in the produc-
tion of this product.
The increase in the advertising tax by the 1951 Legisla-
ture and the increased production provided funds that enabled
the Commission to greatly expand its advertising and merchan-
dising program. This comprehensive program was generally
credited by the industry as being one of the important factors
in moving the large crops.
There are attached to this report tables showing the pro-
duction, utilization and packs of citrus products for 1951-52
and prior years.
The Commission's activities are discussed under the fol-
I. CEIIERAL ACTIVITIES
II, ADVERTISING, MERCHANDISING AND PUBLICITY
V. STATISTICAL TABLES
I. GENERAL ACTIVITIES
The Commission investigated and approved 1,280 license
applications from shippers, canners, truckers, express ship-
pers, brokers, etc. Of these, 1,077 were renewals and 203
were new applicants, as follows:
Type of Handler Renewals New Applicants Total
Shippers 254 20 274
Canners 32 1 33
Truckers 262 39 301
Express Shippers I00 113 513
Brokers 63 14 77
Wholesalers 56 13 69
Miscellaneous 10 3 13
Totals 1,077 203 1,280
A total of 209 Special Permits were issued during the
season. Most of these permits were issued under Section 50
of the Florida Citrus Code.
During the year the Commission appointed a Committee to
make a study of the grade specifications for fresh citrus
fruits with the view of improving the quality of the fruit
shipped under the various grades. The Committee recommended
certain changes to improve the grades and the Commission re-
quested the U.S. Department of Agriculture to make the new
specifications effective at the beginning of the 1952-53 sea-
The Commission approved new pack and count arrangements
for Temple oranges packed in wirebound boxes. This will
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become effective at the beginning of the 1952-53 season and
is designed to eliminate much confusion in the buying trade on
the various packs.
A Committee was appointed by the Commission to carry on
experimental work in the 1952-53 season on new sizes for
oranges and grapefruit. In the case of oranges, the new
sizes would reduce the size classifications from nine to five.
During the past fiscal year the Commission made a
strong effort to obtain better identification of Florida
citrus products in order to obtain more benefit from the ad-
vertising and merchandising programs. A substantial number
of shippers and canners cooperated in this move by changing
their labels to include the word FLORIDA or to show it more
The market survey information which has been made avail-
able to shippers and canners for the past several years was
continued during the past year. The Commission purchased the
Industrial Surveys service. This consisted of weekly reports
showing the volume and prices of consumer purchases of full-
strength canned juices and concentrates, and monthly reports
covering both fresh and canned citrus.
In January 1952, the Florida Citrus Museum at Winter Haven
was opened to the public. Under a statute adopted by the 1951
Legislature the Commission is charged with the responsibility
of operating the museum. This was handled by a Committee con-
sisting of Commission members that worked with various other
agencies in planning the opening and operation of the museum.
It is expected that this will eventually be one of the out-
standing attractions in the State.
II. ADVERTISING, MERCHANDISING AND PUBLICITY
During the 1951-52 fiscal year a total of 12,87h,002.00
was expended for advertising and display material. Most of
this involved consumer advertising which was handled by the
J. Walter Thompson Company of New York. The ethical or medical
advertising accounted for $106,000.00 of the advertising expendi-
tures. This program was handled for the Commission by Noyes &
Sproul, Inc., New York.
During this year the industry was faced with the problem
of moving the largest citrus crop ever produced in Florida. In
addition, the industry began the year with excessive inventories
of canned citrus products. It was evident that a hard-hitting,
intensive advertising and merchandising program would be neces-
sary. The approach which was used to accomplish this task was,
to persuade more people to drink more citrus juice and use more
citrus products in more ways more often.
The "hand and glass" symbol was again used throughout
the orange campaign. Each advertisement encouraged the use
of more orange juice in any of three forms -- fresh, full
strength canned, or frozen concentrate. By combining the
three products in one advertisement, we were able to obtain
much wider coverage and get more mileage per dollar for the
advertising funds available. In the grapefruit advertising,
many new and different ways of using these products were fea-
tured. Tangerines were advertised as a "Holiday Fruit", easy
to peel with the zipper skin.
The national per capital consumption of citrus juices for
1950 was 1.4 ounces per day. If this consumption rate could
be raised to 2 ounces, the current production would be approxi-
mately sixty million boxes short of requirements. For this
reason, the program was designed to obtain greater use by pre-
sent consumers of citrus rather than to concentrate on obtain-
ing new users.
Media were selected with the view of obtaining complete
coverage of all of the markets in which our products are being
distributed, with intensified coverage in the large markets
where our distribution is heavy. This involved consideration
of the fact that a large part of our production is marketed
in canned or frozen form on a national basis, while fresh fruit
is marketed largely east of the Mississippi River.
Magazine advertising was selected as the basic medium
for national coverage. The Saturday Evening Post, Life, and
Ladies Home Journal were used. Approximately 26.2 percent of
the consumer advertising funds were used for this medium. This
was supported by black and white newspaper advertising in Flo-
rida's principal markets. In the 40 cities that receive 75 per-
cent of Florida's fresh citrus, a schedule of 10,000 lines
was used. In the next 70 markets the schedule was 6,500 lines,
and in the "fringe" markets, the schedule was 2,500 lines. This
newspaper program accounted for 25.4 percent of the consumer
advertising expenditures. The newspaper campaign was carried
in a total of 138 cities, using 241 local papers, with a circu-
lation of over 37 million.
An accurate record was kept of citrus advertising by re-
tailers in the newspapers used by the Commission and it was de-
termined that for every dollar expended by the Commission the
food merchant spent 76.4 cents in the same publications.
In order to strengthen the coverage, Sunday magazines
or supplements were used in 44 markets. These markets were
east of the Mississippi River and the expenditure amounted to
4.9 percent of the consumer advertising budget.
The magazine and newspaper coverage was supported by the
use of radio and television. Radio commercials and spot an-
nouncements were used during a 26-week period in 21 of the top
markets. In addition, radio spots were used for some special
promotions including an intensified schedule in Memphis and
Louisville during a pound-selling test campaign. Radio ad-
vertising accounted for 9.6 percent of consumer advertising
Television was used in 11 of the top markets throughout
the year. In addition to the regular spot announcements and
participation show programs, two television network shows were
used. During the summer of 1951, when the industry was faced
with the problem of moving large inventories of canned citrus
products, the "Doodles WTeaver" show was purchased. This show
was carried on 38 NBC stations. During the fresh fruit sea-
son when market prices were low and marketing assistance was
needed by the industry, the Dave Garroway show "Today" was
used for a period of 14 weeks on 31 NBC stations. The total
expenditure for television advertising accounted for 24.9 per-
cent of the consumer advertising budget.
About 2.2 percent of the consumer advertising budget was
invested in a trade paper campaign. These advertisements sug-
gested better ways of displaying and merchandising citrus fruits
and offered our colorful display material to the various food
outlets. About $35, 000 was spent in black and white news-
paper advertising in the Canadian markets.
The advertising schedules were planned to give all the
support possible to the promotions arranged by the National
Citrus Merchandising Committee. Excellent cooperation was re-
ceived from the retail organizations, which was helpful in
moving the large crops.
A special billboard campaign was conducted in Florida
urging visitors to ship a box of citrus to friends back home.
Sixty-two billboards were used.
The 1951 Legislature established Temple oranges as a
separate classification and a separate advertising and promo-
tion campaign was conducted for this fruit in New York and
A series of 17 trade luncheons were held in the major
markets of the United States and Canada. The key men in all
leading organizations were invited and a complete outline of
our advertising and merchandising program was presented. It
is felt that a closer relationship between the trade factors
in the markets and the citrus industry was obtained as a re-
sult of these meetings.
The Commission continued the program of advertising in
the professional publications of the medical, dental, dietetic,
nursing and other groups. Approximately 0106,000 was expended
in this campaign. In addition, a public relations program was
conducted and an attractive booklet was prepared and mailed
to all U.S. dentists.
The purpose of the ethical advertising program is to
drive home to these professional people the full realization
of the nutritional and therapeutic virtues of citrus products
in order to obtain their active support through their recom-
mendation of the liberal use of citrus products by the many
people with whom they come in contact.
The program this year was a departure from past programs
in that four basic advertisements were circulated to all
groups. In the past different messages were disseminated to
the five groups comprising the ethical market. The four ad-
vertisements summarized the latest findings with respect to
(1) the fact that frozen citrus is the nutritive equal of
fresh citrus; (2) that citrus is virtually non-allergenic;
(3) that citrus is a good anoretic agent; and (4) that scurvy
occurs more commonly than many think. It is believed that
this program was helpful in making known the need for and
value of citrus for all age groups, in health and disease.
The group reached by this program includes 150,000 medi-
cal men and women, 11,000 osteopaths, $,500 pediatricians,
350,000 nurses. 80,000 dentists, 36,500 home economists and
The medical group comprises the hard core of the ethical
market and has received the greatest attention, During the
year 47 medical journals and all of the official State Society
journals, have carried a total of 292 full page advertisements
in color and in black and white. In addition, the pediatricians,
specializing in the care of infants and young children, have
been cultivated through the use of three pediatric journals
carrying 18 double-page spreads.
The nurses were reached with 12 full pages in color in
the two leading nursing publications. A total of 19 pages in
color, in 5 home economic and dietetic publications, were used
to reach the home economists. To reach the dentists, two of
the leading dental publications were used, carrying 16 pages
in color. In addition, a booklet on the values of citrus,
"Citrus Fruit and Dental Health", was mailed to each of the
In conjunction with the ethical advertising program, the
Noyes & Sproul agency conducted a public relations program for
the Commission. This involved the issuance of news releases
on late citrus findings at fairly regular intervals to about
700 editors of professional journals and writers, editors and
commentators in the fields of science and medicine.
The ethical agency works with the Commission's Research
Department in arranging for various clinical research projects.
Eight of these studies were in progress during the year and
it is the information developed from these studies that is
used as the core of the public relations program.
As the production of Florida citrus increases, thereby
intensifying the marketing problems, the merchandising work
of the Commission is being viewed by many in the industry as
one of the more important factors in moving the large crops.
.During the past year the Commission maintained a staff of
35 merchandising representatives, which was an increase of five
over the previous year. At the end of the year the staff
was increased to 4o men. These are high-type young men, mostly
from Florida, who are doing an excellent job of promoting and
merchandising Florida citrus fruits and products.
These men, stationed throughout Florida's marketing ter-
ritory, continued to concentrate upon the larger food outlets
including chains, independent and cooperative groups with mul-
tiple outlets, and supermarkets, where one call may result in
promotions being staged in a large number of stores.
During the past year these merchandising men made over
50,000 calls on executives, store managers and other personnel
of the food outlets.
All of the men are equipped with an attractive juice
bar, a dispenser, plastoramas, copies of our films and other
equipment needed in their work. There is available in each
district a film projector and an automatic orange juicer.
In the 1951-52 fiscal year these men conducted 667 store
demonstrations which compares with 302 last year. These
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demonstrations were operated 1,503 work days. In all cases
the product being displayed was sampled to the store's cus-
tomers. The merchandising men planned and built the various
displays used by the stores in the promotions.
Upon recommendation of the Temple Orange Advisory Com-
mittee, the Commission arranged for 180 demonstrations on
Temple oranges. The Committee had determined that the best
way to spend the advertising funds available from Temple
oranges would be through a concentrated advertising and demon-
stration program in two cities -- New York and Cleveland.
Thirty demonstrations per week for six weeks were conducted
at a cost of approximately ,7,200, and the results were most
During the year the merchandising men showed the Com-
mission's films to 185 audiences, including produce distrib-
utors, chain headquarters, voluntary groups, advertising
agencies and newspapers and other groups allied with the
One of the most important duties of a merchandising man
is to persuade retailers to tie-in their retail advertising
with the Commission's advertising program. As previously
indicated, an accurate record of tie-in advertising was
maintained by the Commission this past year and it v:as de-
termined that for every dollar expended by the Commission
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in black and white newspaper advertising, retailers spent
76.4 cents for advertising in the same publications.
During the past year more than 5 1/2 million pieces
of the Commission's colorful display materialwere distributed
to outlets selling citrus fruits and products. This compares
with approximately 4 million pieces distributed last year.
;'ost of this material was shipped to the food outlets on
orders received from the merchandising men.
Each of the merchandising men prepares a weekly report
summarizing conditions in the territory covered and these
reports are consolidated at the Lakeland office and mailed
to approximately 500 shippers, canners and growers. Lany
complimentary reports have been received from the Florida
Sales Managers concerning these weekly reports.
The Commission continued its program of participating
in many of the large conventions, particularly those allied
with the food field. In the 1951-52 year there was partici-
pation in 52 conventions in 25 cities, including two in Can-
ada. These included American Hospital Association, American
Dietetic Association, School Food Service Association, Super-
market Institute, National Restaurant Association, Biennial
Nursing Association and the National Association of Retail
Grocers. Approximately 3500 gallons of juice was dispensed
to l1.0,000 people attending the conventions.
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The Commission had an exhibit at the Leon County Fair
in Tallahassee and supplied a large juice bar at the three
horse race tracks at Miami, which had an attendance of about
2,500,000 people. In addition, two juice bars were maintain-
ed throughout the year in the Cloak rooms of the House of
Representatives in Washington, D. C.
Perhaps one of the most interesting developments during
the past year was the use of the automatic orange juicing
machines. The Commission's merchandising men began two or
three years ago using a few of these machines in connection
with demonstrations. The large food outlets were greatly im-
pressed with the increase in sales and at the present time
they are using several hundred of these machines for juicing
oranges for sale in quart and half-gallon jars. The sale of
this juice has had little affect on the sale of fresh oranges
or canned orange juice.
The use of the juice machines makes it possible to re-
move weak or unattractive fruit from displays for juicing;
fresh orange displays can be kept more attractive, thus en-
couraging impulse buying. The purchase of the fresh juice
in jars appeals to many people who prefer fresh juice but
who do not want to be bothered with juicing the fruit.
The Commission purchased a number of these automatic
juice machines in the past year and are using them to encour-
age other food outlets to buy one or more of the machines
for regular use.
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Although the Commission purchased 120 copies of its new-
est film "The Sun Goes North", it was necessary to purchase
an additional 50 copies to meet the demand for the film,
Despite the fact that the type of audience and territory was
limited, the agency handling distribution of the film for
the Commission reported that practically all copies are
booked far in advance and that it is one of the most popular
films in its library.
The Commission continued the services of Dudley, Ander-
son and Yutzy of New York for handling its consumer publicity
program. One of the principal activities of the agency is
to prepare timely citrus material for the food editors of
the various media; namely, newspapers, magazines, radio and
television. Tell-written stories, recipe information and
photographs are regularly supplied to these editors and re-
sult in a vast amount of publicity for citrus.
On a basis of the material printed, as revealed by clip-
pings, not including those reached by schools, radio or tele-
vision activities, 711,655,966 reader impressions were record-
ed this past year for Florida citrus news, or a circulation
of 12,939 for each dollar expended on the program.
Basis for much of the news which goes to the various
food editors is the test kitchen at the agency's headquarters,
staffed by experienced home economists who are constantly
seeking new uses for citrus fruits and citrus products,
and new ways in which to present standard uses.
The agency's home economics department is the source of
all the regular releases on Florida citrus, in the form of
pictures and stories, which go out all over the country every
month in the year. Picture ideas are furnished to the big
magazines which make their own art work. Black and white
pictures are supplied to smaller magazines, to 1,700 daily
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and 2,000 weekly newspapers, and to television programs.
Color pictures are furnished to locally edited Sunday sup-
plements. Food and props are supplied for many television
programs and for demonstrations.
Through publicity, it is possible to put special em-
phasis on market opportunities or problems within a few
days. Last Harch when the large grapefruit crop was moving
slowly, a special bulletin to food editors brought their
support; almost every major paper in the big markets served
by Florida carried special articles on the subject; one of
the best known syndicated food columnists devoted an entire
week's columns to Florida grapefruit and its versatility;
more than a score of radio and television programs were
given to the subject.
During the past year the metropolitan newspapers' sup-
plements used Florida color citrus photographs, occupying
space which, if purchased, would cost about $108,000.00.
The Commission was successful in obtaining use of citrus
material on 74 television programs and 357 radio programs.
During 1951-52, circulation figures on the printed
material, represented by actual clippings, were as follows:
Daily and weekly newspapers 600,163,552; magazines 108,829, 814
and Company publications 2,661,600.
The Commission, through the agency, planned and arranged
a breakfast at the Annual Newspaper Food Editors Confer-
ence in Chicago last fall, at which two recent research pro-
jects of the Commission were explained by the doctors who
had conducted them. One of these projects was the use of
citrus in a reducing diet and a great deal of favorable pub-
licity was obtained from the food editors.
The Commission, through the agency, developed some quan-
tity recipes for citrus which are now being distributed to
schools, restaurants, hotels and institutions.
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Following is a report of the activities of the Research
Department during the past year:
I. CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION AT LAKE ALFRED, FLORIDA.
During the past fiscal year the cooperative agreement
with this agency of the University of Florida was continued.
This cooperative work was concerned primarily with problems
of citrus processing, with particular attention to frozen
concentrated orange juice and canning methods, problems of
treatment and disposal of citrus waste materials by methods
that may yield useful by-products, and problems of decay
A. Processing and By-Products Research.
1. Standardization of Processed Citrus Juices.
For the purpose of studying the formation of
sucrose or glucose hydrates in the preparation of
frozen concentrated citrus juices, various packs of
grapefruit concentrates were prepared. Examination
of these products after four months storage indi-
cate that the formation of glucose hydrate in fro-
zen concentrated grapefruit juice would probably
be more of a problem than the formation of sucrose
hydrate. Various packs of the concentrate were
prepared with variables for later study. This
study is directed toward the preparation of a high
quality frozen concentrated grapefruit juice.
A paper, "Factors Affecting the Consumer Cost
of Frozen Orange Concentrate", was prepared and
presented at the 1951 Annual Meeting of the Flo-
rida State Horticultural Society.
In the 1950-51 season canned orange juice
packs with varying Brix to acid ratios were packed
for consumer acceptance studies. The 64 packs
have been evaluated by the U.S.D.A.'s Bureau of
Agricultural Economics and by Florida State Uni-
versity. Preliminary reports indicate that the
consumers tested were unable to distinguish be-
tween juices of a rather wide range of values.
This finding is contrary to present opinion.
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2. Processing Equipment for Concentrated Citrus Juices.
Last year a single-stage evaporator, significantly
different in design from existing units, was built, in-
stalled and used for the concentration of citrus juices.
The information on this evaporator was summarized and
presented at the 1951 meeting of the Florida State
3. Storage Studies on Concentrated Citrus Juices.
Frozen concentrates that had been stored at various
temperatures for 18 months were transferred to a house-
hold refrigerator maintained at approximately 50F. to
determine the effect of initial storage temperature on
the stability of concentrate when it is subsequently
stored at higher temperatures.
The percentage retention of ascorbic acid in re-
constituted juices prepared from concentrates stored
at various temperatures for 15 to 18 months after stor-
age at 500F. for two days was found to be not less than
90 percent. The results of this study were presented
at the Second Annual Citrus Processors Meeting held at
the Citrus Experiment Station in October, 1951.
Packs of frozen concentrate from various varie-
ties of oranges and grapefruit have been prepared and
stored at varying temperatures for subsequent storage
at 200F. at periodic intervals, for study. This will
simulate conditions often found in the transportation
and warehousing of frozen concentrates.
4. Gelation and Clarification in Concentrated Citrus
Two papers -- one on the measurement of clarifica-
tion and the other on the determination of pulp con-
tent in citrus juices -- were presented at the 1951
meeting of the Florida State Horticultural Society.
5. Relation of Heat Treatment to the Quality of Pro-
cessed Citrus Juices and Concentrates. (In co-
operation with the American Can Company)
Extensive studies were made on the relation of
heat treatment to the quality of citrus juice and
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concentrates and the results were published in a paper,
"Effect of Insoluble Solids and Particle Size of Pulp
on the Pectinesterase Activity in Orange Juice", in
the Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural
Society for 1951.
6. Factors Affecting the Flavor of Frozen Concen-
trated Citrus Juices.
Tangerines were dissected to yield juice, juice
sacs, seeds, albedo and flavedo. The juice and the
additive parts were blended together and in some cases
heated to bring out more fully any off-flavor that oc-
curred. Preliminary tests indicated that a small quan-
tity of peel when added to the juice resulted in a
mixture that substantially increased the palatability
of the juice. Relatively large amounts of rag and
juice sacs when added to the juice did not appear to
affect the flavor. Small quantities of seeds blended
with the juice imparted extreme off-flavor to the
juice. Flavor studies were also made on other varie-
7. The Iicrobiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus
Studies were made on the artificial infection of
oranges with acid-tolerant bacteria to determine the
effect on the flavor of single-strength orange juice.
The paper covering this work, entitled "Studies on the
Artificial Infection of Oranges rvth Acid Tolerant
Bacteria", was published in the Proceedings of the Flo-
rida State Horticultural Society for 1951.
A rapid method for determining the number of micro-
organisms in citrus juices by direct microscopic count-
ing of cells is in the process of being organized for
presentation and publication.
8. Citrus Juice Dispensers.
The Commission initiated a research program to
find out what dispensers were available to use, to
test these dispensers, and to determine the character-
istics a dispenser should have to maintain the maximum
quality of the juice or concentrate to be vended. The
results of this investigation showed that at least 12
dispensers were available at the present time or in
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the near future for commercial use and that most of the
dispensers would do a satisfactory job with frequent
and thorough cleaning of the dispenser. A paper present-
ing information on this evaluation and use of citrus
juice dispensers has been sent to the editor of Quick
9. Methane Fermentation of Waste Waters from Citrus
The pilot plant at Winter Haven for producing Methane
from waste waters of citrus processing plants has con-
tinued in operation during the past year. Some of the
problems incurred last year were solved. Continuous
experimentation has been conducted and it is believed
that with more time the pilot plant operation can be
improved considerably. This work has been written up
B. Citrus Fruit Decay Studies.
1. Chemical Treatments for the Prevention of Fruit De-
Work along this line was continued during 1951-52
with the object of improving the marketing quality of
Florida citrus fruit. The emphasis was put on both
experimental studies at the Citrus Experiment Station
and commercial application of the Dowicide A Hexamine
method for the prevention of fruit decay. The number
of experiments carried out was 131 and the total number
of individual fruits inspected was 151,188.
Aside from the principal investigation on the Dowi-
cide A Hexamine method, 37 other treatments of citrus
fruits were tested in cooperation with various commer-
cial concerns. Io exceptional new method for prevent-
ing decay was discovered.
2. Decay Control with Dowicide A Hexamine Treatment.
The main objective of experimental work during 1951-
52 was to improve the effectiveness of Dowicide A -
Hexamine in controlling decay. Experiments were con-
ducted with various substances added to Dowicide A -
Hexamine solution. Experiments were conducted with
fruit both before entering and after entering the color-
ing-room and involved a number of varieties of oranges,
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with particular attention to Hamlin oranges. The work
shows that increased decay control results from a pre-
liminary treatment with Dowicide A Hexamine before
coloring. Experiments on tangerines indicate that a
Dowicide A Hexamine treatment properly applied and
combined with some degree of refrigeration thereafter
would give good decay protection.
3. Commercial Use of Dowicide A Hexamine for Decay
During the past season the Dowicide A Hexamine
treatment was used by 11 commercial packinghouses for
control of decay in grapefruit, oranges, tangerines and
Temple oranges. Other packers who expressed the desire
to use the treatment but were not equipped to do so will
install it at the beginning of the 1952-53 season.
The total number of boxes of fruit (1-3/5 bu.)
treated this season was about 1,129,075 of which
130,000 boxes were treated preliminary to cold storage.
The average results of 44 holding tests on samples of
oranges taken from the above houses showed a reduction
of decay from 21.6 percent in check lots to 4.5 percent
in those treated with Dowicide A Hexamine. The com-
mercial houses have been given technical advice in re-
gard to both installation and maintenance of the treat-
h. Studies on Fruit Pitting and Skin Breakdown.
In the early part of this season there was a high in-
cidence of fruit pitting in early oranges and grape-
fruit. This type of pitting developed in the coloring-
room. Observations and experiments showed that fruit
picked when wet, especially during rainy periods, had a
high percentage of pitting; for example, Hamlin oranges
picked wet had 47 percent of pitted fruits, those
picked dry had none. Washing fruit picked wet before
placing in the coloring-room increased pitting from 45
percent to 85 percent, but had no effect on fruit picked
dry. On the other hand, artificially wetting oranges
without washing just before placing in the coloring-room
did not cause pitting to develop. It was concluded from
this study that the turgidity of the fruit when picked
wet and possibly the scouring action of sand under these
conditions were responsible for pitting and not the
water per se.
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II. NUTRITIONAL RESEARCH.
Several new nutritional research projects were initi-
ated through grants to universities. These included (1) a
study by Dr. Joseph H. Volker, University of Alabama, School
of Dentistry, to determine the effect on the teeth of the
daily ingestion of generous quantities of orange juice;
(2) an investigation by Dr. Leo J. Cass, Boston, Massachu-
setts, of the basic demands of the chronically ill, includ-
ing arthritic patients, for vitamin C; and (3) a study by
Dr. George E. Morris,.Boston, Massachusetts, of the effect
of large doses of vitamin C on adolescent acne.
Results obtained on previous grants are being pub-
lished by the respective universities, and are being used
effectively in the Commission's ethical advertising and
public relations programs. For example, the work of Dr.
Carl T. Javert at Cornell University Medical College, on the
relationship of vitamin C and spontaneous abortion is being
published in a series of papers and in monograph form. It
is felt that the results of this investigation will have a
tremendous effect on the medical profession.
During the past year, 20,000 copies of the 1952 Bet-
ter Fruit Program, Spray and Dust Schedule were printed and
During the past year the Commission continued the employment
of the Growers and Shippers League of Florida to handle trans-
portation problems. Through this agency, the Commission has ef-
fected savings of several million dollars in transportation charges
for the industry.
Increased Railroad Rates and Charges.
Early in January, 1951 the railroads requested an increase of
six percent in freight rates, observing a six cent maximum on
fresh citrus fruit. The Interstate Commerce Commission authorized
a two percent increase, with a two cent maximum, which rates be-
came effective April 4, 1951.
Using Cleveland, Ohio as an average rate point, increasing
that rate two cents, and applying this rate against 13,913 cars,
which were shipped from Florida between the date of April 8 and
August 25, the total freight charges would be $7,679,976.00. If
the Interstate Commerce Commission had authorized an increase of
6 percent, observing 6 cents as maximum, as requested by the
railroads, the freight charges on the same number of cars would
have been $7,947,105.00. The difference represents a saving in
freight rates on fresh citrus during the period April 4 to
August 28, 1951 of $267,129.00.
The carriers in the meantime amended their petition request-
ing a 15 percent increase, observing a 15 cent maximum, but the
Interstate Commerce Commission authorized an increase of 6 per-
cent 6 cent maximum, which rates became effective August 28 and
have been in effect until May 2, 1952, at which time increases of
15 percent 12 cent maximum per cwt., were published.
Using the 6 percent 6 cent maximum, and based on 39,263
cars, which were shipped from the beginning of the season to May 2,
1952, the total freight charges, based on Cleveland as an average
rate point, would be $23,427,025.60, and if the Ccmmission had
authorized the full 15 percent 15 cent maximum requested by the
carriers, the freight charges, based on the same number of cars,
would have been $24,023,187.20, or a saving to the fresh citrus
industry of Florida of $1,596,161.60.
The carriers also requested a 15 percent increase in re-
frigeration charges, which was denied, principally because of
the opposition presented by the Commission through the league.
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If the 15 percent increase in refrigeration charges had
been approved, and using Cleveland, Ohio as an average desti-
nation, it would have meant an increase of $13.59 per car for
standard refrigeration, and 09.13 per car for modified refrig-
eration Rule No. 251.
During the 1950-51 season there were 44,757 carload ship-
ments of fresh citrus fruit. If 25 percent of this number of
cars moved under standard refrigeration, the increase of $13.59
per car would have totaled $151,379.00, as additional charges,
and if 25 percent of the 1950-51 movement was shipped under
Rule 251, at an increase of $9.13 per car, the total additional
charges would have been $101,699.00, or a total increase in
refrigeration charges on fresh citrus fruit of $253,078.00.
Frozen citrus concentrate refrigeration charges are
based on 150 percent of standard refrigeration, and using
Cleveland, Ohio as an average point of shipment, a 15 percent
increase would have amounted to ,20.39 per car, and estimating
that 3,000 cars would be shipped during the year it would have
meant that the increased cost for refrigeration services viould
have been 061,170.00 per year.
Rates on Frozen Citrus Concentrate.
In the Interstate Commerce Commission's order in Ex Parte
175 the railroads were specifically directed to observe a maxi-
mum increase per cwt. on fresh citrus fruit and single strength
canned juice, but were not ordered to observe that maximum on
frozen citrus concentrate.
After considerable negotiation the railroads published
the 6 cent maximum, effective December 1, 1951, but during
the period August 28 to December 1, 1951, the 6 percent in-
crease was in effect.
Upon receipt of the last order of the Interstate Commerce
Commission authorizing 15 percent increase, and tfe ":riff in-
creasing freight rates, effective Hay 2, 1952, the r-,g'eu ap-
pealed to the railroads to observe tqo 1I2 ce:nt mnAirL .m on
frozen citrus concentrate, because of thie ccrmpebttiva situa-
tion between fresh citrus fruit, single strength canned juices,
and frozen citrus concentrate.
The Traffic Executives of the ra.ilrTads m.'t in Chicago
IMay 21, and approved publication of the 12 cent maxianumz which
will represent a saving of from 036.00 to $70.00 per car, but
using 150.00 as an average on an annual movement of approxi-
mately 3,000 cars this would represent an estimated saving in
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the shipment of frozen citrus concentrate of approximately
$150,000.00 per year.
Unloading Charges New York and Philadelphia, I. & S. 5500.
Carriers having been collecting l-.95 per ton for unload-
ing citrus fruit at New York and Philadelphia since November 1,
1948 Interstate Commerce Commission's decision May 7th, released
May 23rd, orders charges reduced to $1.05 per ton, or a reduc-
tion of 90 cents per ton. Based on ll,619 cars sold through
auction and unloaded at New York and Philadelphia during the
1950-51 season, and based on an average carload of 23 tons,
reduction amounts to approximately '302,613.00 annually.
Charges in the amount of $1.50 per ton were filed to be-
come effective June 1, 1947, but were not applied until Novem-
ber 1, 1948, as result of action by the League and others in
securing suspension. Unloads during 19L7-48 season to vhich
the charge would have applied, were 16,300 cars, and if sus-
pension had not been granted the amount the railroads would
have collected would be 0562,350.00 on cars sold through auc-
Reduced Rates on Canned Citrus.
Rates on single strength canned citrus juice were reduced
into the South and Southwestern territories, Official terri-
tory and Western Trunk Line territory, which ranged from 10
cents to 18 cents per cvro., and using Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
as a specific point, 'the rate was reduced from '1.19 to .1.06
or 13 cents, and based on per carload minimum of 60,000 pounds,
this would represent a reduction of ';78.00 per car.
The Trans-Continental roads have not been convinced that
they should equalize the westbound rates with the eastbound
rates, and approval has now been given by the Florida Citrus
Commission to the Growers and Shippers League of Florida to
proceed to take a formal complaint to the Interstate Commerce
Commission in an attempt to secure this adjustment. The dif-
ference amounts to 10 cents per cwt., or approximately 660.00
Reduced Rates on Frozen Citrus.Concentrate.
Reductions have been secured within Southern territory,
Official, Southwestern and Trans-Continental Freight Associa-
tion territories as the result of negotiations by the League
with representatives of the railroads. Within the South, to
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Official, to Western Trunk Line and Southwestern territories
reduction was generally about 13 cents per cwt., and based
on the reported average carload minimum of 80,000 pounds,
this would represent a reduction of $112,00 per carload.
Rates to Trans-Continental territory on frozen citrus
concentrate were reduced, effective March 15, 1952, by 39 cents
per cwt., and using an average carload minimum weight of
80,000 pounds this represents a reduction of $312.00 per car.
Increased Express Rates.
On January 11, 1951 the Railway Express Agency filed a
petition with the Interstate Commerce Commission to cancel
all package rates and place express fruit shipments on an
increased Second Class rate basis, subject to a minimum charge
of I2.00, which would have resulted in an average increase in
rates applying on gift package shipment of 134 percent over
the rates resulting from the I. & S. 5800 proceeding. This
action was strongly protested by the Growers and Shippers
League of Florida in behalf of the Florida Citrus Commission.
After hearings, the Interstate Commerce Commission final-
ly granted an increase of 221 cents per shipment, or 22 cents
per 100 pounds, with $1.50 minimum charge, which rates became
effective November 15, 1951. Based on the 1950-51 season's
volume of express shipments the estimated charges proposed by
the Railway Express Agency would have amounted to 1l2, 251,158.00
and the estimated charges as authorized amount to $5,963,097.00,
or an estimated saving of 06,288,061.00.
On behalf of the citrus industry the League, representing
the Commission, has entered into many other activities involv-
ing transportation and has continued its work toward securing
a Uniformity in State Truck Weight Laws; sufficient refrigera-
tor cars to handle the traffic; operating authorities for truck
lines transporting frozen citrus fruit juice concentrate; and
has continued to cooperate with the United States Department
of Agriculture in running temperature tests under various
methods of refrigeration to determine what type of service is
the most suitable, economical, and efficient.
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UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA CITRUS CROPS
PER BOX PROCESSED
(Dollars) (000's Bxs,
ON-TREE HOME VALUE OF
PRICE CONSUMP- ALL SALES
PER BOX TION ON TREE
(a) Differenoe between "Total
Production" and actual utilization represented by
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PACK OF FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTS
- -1,000 Cases,
- -1,000 Gallons- -
Includes meal, pulp, and pellets
Includes Tangerine Juice and Tangerine Blends
Includes Orange Sections
SOURCE: Reports of Florida Canners' Association,
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