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Florida Citrus Commission
Fiscal. Year Ended June 30, 1951
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Commission lMembers Serving During
the 1950-51 Fiscal Year
W. F. Robinson (Chairman), Leesburg
0. C. Ilinton (Vice-Chairman), Fort Pierce
L. F. Roper, Winter Garden
7:. E. Bishop, Citra
Nash LeGette, Leesburg
J. R. McDonald, Plant City
C. V. llcClurg, Lakeland
EW. Arthur Davis, Frostproof
"'arren T. Zeuch, Vero Beach
Frank Chase, Windermere
Robert C. Wooten, Tampa
Harry Tooke, Sanford
W. E. Bishop, Chairman
Warren T. Zeuch, Vice-Chairman
0. C. Minton
L. F. Roper
Frank Chase, Chairman
Robert C. !'ooten, Vice-Chairman
V. Arthur Davis
0. C. Miinton
L. F. Roper
Robert C. Wooten, Chairman
C. V. McClurg
L. F. Roper
Robert C. Evans, General MIanager
Dawyson Newton, Advertising Manager
Dr. L. G. MfacDowell, Research Director
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Florida Citrus Commission
July 1, 1950 June 30, 1951
The highlights of the 1950-51 season included (1) the
record production of 106,000,000 boxes of oranges, grapefruit
and tangerines, (2) the record pack of processed citrus
products, and (3) the amendments to the Citrus Code which in-
cluded an increase in the advertising tax, certain changes in
maturity requirements and the establishment of Temple
oranges as a separate classification for advertising purposes.
It was a year of generally satisfactory prices to growers for
a crop that was of excellent quality. Probably one of the
most significant events was the severe freeze in Texas which
will have an important bearing in the marketing of Florida
citrus for the next several years.
The big surprise of the year was the unusually heavy
production which was not generally realized until the final
months of the season when approximately eight million boxes
of oranges and grapefruit were added to the government estimate.
Most of the additional fruit was utilized by processors. This
resulted in a record pack of citrus products and had a detrimental
effect on market prices for such products.
The pack of frozen concentrated orange juice this year
was about 42 percent higher than in 1949-50 and the pack of
other citrus products was approximately 30 percent higher. One
factor contributing to the larger packs was a much higher juice
yield from the fruit than in former years.
Tables at the end of this report show production, utiliza-
tion and packs of citrus products for 1950-51 and prior years.
The Commission's activities for the year are discussed un-
der the following headings:
1. GENERAL ACTIVITIES
2. ADVERTISING, i.'RCTUIDISI1IG AND PUBLICITY
I. GENERAL ACTIVITIES
The Commission played an active role in developing amend-
ments to the 19h9 Citrus Code. A Legislative Committee was
appointed and numerous meetings were held with industry
representatives to determine the changes that should be made.
All proposed changes were carefully considered and everyone
interested had an opportunity to be heard. This resulted in a
proposal to the Legislature that was backed by all segments of
the industry and it was promptly enacted into law.
The Commission investigated and approved 1,375 license
applications from shippers, canners, truckers, express shippers,
brokers, etc. Of these, 1,085 were renewals and 290 new appli-
cants, as follows:
Type of Handler Renewals Applicants Total
Shippers 261 15 276
Processors 41 2 43
Truckers 323 76 399
Express Shippers 325 145 470
Brokers 60 30 90
Wholesalers 65 19 84
Fresh Juice Distributors 10 3 13
Totals 1,085 290 1,375
A total of 200 Special Permits were issued during the season.
I.ost of these permits were issued under Section 50 of the Code,
Of these, 132 covered interstate commercial shipments, 9 for
intrastate shipments, 43 for gift package shippers, 9 for charity
shipments and 7 for experimental shipments.
The Commission continued to supply fresh fruit shippers and
processors vith a wealth of market survey information obtained
under contracts with the A. C. Nielsen Company and the Industrial
Surveys Company. The disposition of Florida's citrus production
of over 100 million boxes presented a marketing problem that re-
quired the collection and coordination of all available data
concerning monthly volume of sales of each of the citrus products
by areas and store types; retailers cost and sales prices; dis-
tribution by geographical areas, city sizes, store types, and
much other relevant information. This information was made
available to all shippers and processors.
The Commission continued a policy of long standing to assist
the industry in every way possible with problems of general in-
terest. On numerous occasions growers and handlers presented
problems and solicited the aid of the Commission in obtaining
action that would be beneficial to the industry.
The 1951 Legislature adopted legislation which establishes
a Florida Citrus Museum and empowers and directs the Commission
to develop, operate and maintain such museum in cooperation with
other industry agencies. The Commission appointed a Museum Com-
mittee to work on this project and at the end of the fiscal year
the Committee had held several meetings and adopted preliminary
plans for the establishment and operation of the museum. It is
believed that when this project is completed it will be one of
Florida's outstanding attractions.
During the past year the Commission maintained a represen-
tative at Washington, D. C., who worked closely with Florida's
Congressional delegates and governmental agencies on various
matters of interest to the citrus industry, including purchases
of citrus products for the armed services and school lunch pro-
grams, price ceilings, wage stabilization board rulings, in-
creased exports of citrus under the export subsidy and other
programs and priority assistance to Florida citrus supply firms.
This work will become even more important as the economy shifts
from civilian to defense production with the inevitable controls,
regulations and shortages of materials.
II. ADVERTISING, IERCHI.NDISING AND PUBLICITY
The advertising of Florida citrus fruits is one of the
most important functions of the Commission. Early in the
year the Commission changed its consumer advertising agency
to J. 1Jalter Thompson Company of New York and the program that
was carried out in the 1950-51 season met with the enthusiastic
approval of the Commission and the industry in general.
The Commission continued its advertising to professional
groups, such as doctors, dentists, home economists, nutritionists,
nurses and others who influence consumer purchases. This
program was handled by Noyes & Sproul, Inc., New York.
The objectives of the advertising of the Florida Citrus
Commission are first to increase the demand for oranges, grape-
fruit, tangerines and limes by increasing per capital con-
sumption and second, to further develop the preference for
citrus fruits from Florida. The per capital consumption of
citrus fruit is 1.h3 ounces (juice equivalent) per day. If this
could be increased to only 2 ounces it would require 60 million
more boxes to supply the demand.
Stated simply, the advertising is working toward these
goals by acquainting the public with the deliciousness and
healthfulness of Florida citrus fruits and the many attractive
ways in which they may be served.
Our market consists of men and women of all ages and in-
come groups. Geographically the principal markets for fresh
citrus lie roughly in the area east of the Hississippi, whereas
that for processed products is coast to coast. WTe sell Florida
citrus in some form the year round with extra effort required
during the winter months when our fresh fruit is added to the
For these reasons two-thirds of the total advertising appro-
priation this year was spent in local media, that is, black-
and-white copy in daily newspapers, color pages in Sunday news-
papers and local radio and television in the principal eastern
markets. The balance was spent in color pages in the two leading
national magazines, LIFE and THE SATURDAY EVENING POST. These
were used on a staggered schedule that called for a full-color
page in one magazine or the other every two weeks throughout
This year's advertisements reflect changes in policy that
should increase their effectiveness. Heretofore it has been
felt advisable to have not only separate campaigns on oranges,
grapefruit and tangerines, but special advertisements featuring
each fruit, fresh and also processed. This year a method was
found whereby the characteristics of each fruit could be ad-
vertised in the best possible way with illustrated panels at
the bottom of each advertisement indicating that it might be
purchased either fresh, canned or concentrated. Thus, it has been
possible to get a greater frequency and reiteration of the basic
attributes of each product than ever before.
Each orange advertisement, for example, carried the head-
line "Drink this much Florida orange juice every day!" Each
pictured a large glass of orange juice being measured by the
thumb and finger of a hand together with the adjacent caption
"a full big glass". The text pointed out the importance to
health of Vitamin C, "one vitamin your body doesn't store up,"
so a fresh supply is needed daily and Florida orange juice is
rich in Vitamin C. This headline, illustration and text, to-
gether with other elements, were repeated in every orange adver-
The grapefruit and tangerine advertising also emphasized
the importance of Vitamin C and the advertisements were
illustrated with recipes showing fruits served halved, in salads
and desserts or as juice.
In selecting the markets for local advertising a thorough
study was made of the distribution of each of the fresh citrus
fruits to determine the total sales in each marketing area and
the share supplied by Florida.
In an effort to develop so-called "fringe markets" local
advertising was used in Iontreal and Toronto, Canada and in a few
markets west of the Mississippi.
The 1951 State Legislature increased the advertising assess-
ment on oranges to 30 per box and that of grapefruit to h0.
The tangerine assessment remains at 50 per box. The assessment on
Temple oranges was increased to 50 per box.
The allocation of funds for consumer advertising was as
Full-page, full-color advertisements alternating in LIFE and
THE SATURDAY EVENING POST every two weeks throughout the year,
to further Florida's first objective, increased citrus consump-
These two family magazines with a weekly combined circula-
tion of over 9,000,000 copies have more than 2/3 of their cir-
culation East of the Mississippi in Florida's primary citrus
Their high reproduction standards have given Florida citrus
top quality color advertising to capitalize on the appetite
appeal of Florida Citrus Fruit.
LOCAL SUNDAY NEWSPAPERS ;128,000
Providing full-color Sunday newspaper advertising in America's
most densely populated marketing areas, THIS 1JEEK and AMRICAN
rEiI:LY (Eastern Editions) were added to the schedule to secure
extra peak season advertising power in Florida's best markets.
THIS TIEEK covered 23 of these prime markets; AMERICAN fEEKLY 18.
Each publication carried a full page in color for oranges,
grapefruit and tangerines.
LOCAL DAILY NEWSPAPERS "'450,000
To move fruit locally during the fresh fruit season daily
newspapers in 94 selected markets were used.
1,000-line new crop arrival advertisements started the
orange and grapefruit campaigns in late November and were followed
by regular 500 and 600 line insertions into April; a total of
4,360-lines for oranges, 3,075 for grapefruit.
These campaigns were extended to move Valencia Oranges in
8 major markets in May and June and in h major markets for late-
season grapefruit during the same period.
Tangerines received a total of 1,370 lines with a 500-line
announcement advertisement just before Christmas and additional
advertisements in January and February.
A special 1,000-line merchandising campaign to move Valencia
oranges in 11 Western and Southwestern markets ran during April
Throughout the season newspapers worked closely with the
Commission's field staff to provide valuable merchandising
support among local retailers.
LOCAL RADIO $1l6,000
From late October until late April local radio stations in
Florida's eleven top markets carried the Florida Citrus story.
Ranging from hl individual commercials a week in New
York to 5 in Cincinnati, spot announcements or participationn"
in popular local programs provided heavy reminder advertising
for oranges, grapefruit and tangerines.
A two-week spot announcement drive for tangerines was run
in Denver, Portland (Oregon) and Seattle in February.
LOCAL TELEVISION d149,000
Advertising's newest medium is "a natural" for Florida
Citrus, providing means of demonstrating recipes, showing con-
centrate's convenience and registering the tremendous taste
appeal of all Florida's citrus products.
Starting with homemaker television programs in New York,
Chicago and Baltimore to run from late October to mid-April, the
schedule was expanded to continue these programs through the
summer of 1951 and in April similar participationn" in 7 more
top markets were added.
TRADE ADVERTISING $62,000
A heavy schedule of full-page 2-color advertisements in
the nation's leading grocery, fountain, hotel and restaurant
magazines told their readers how Florida Citrus advertising
benefited their business, suggested ways to capitalize on it.
In the produce newspapers advertisements were run at high
spots during the season.
The total budget for consumer advertising was 1, 610,000.
The so-called ethical advertising program that is,
advertising to professional groups concerned with the health
and diet of the public at large recognizes the tremendous
influence that members of these groups have on the buying
and dietary habits of the ultimate consumer.
Such professional men and women enjoy unique prestige with
the public; their advice in matters pertaining to health and
diet is continuously solicited; and their potential ability for
stimulating public buying is incalculable.
By educating these specialists to a full realization of
the nutritional and therapeutic virtues of citrus products, the
ethical program undertakes to enlist their active support,
through their recommendation of the liberal use of citrus products
by those with whom they come in contact.
In the ethical program, we break down this market into five
basic groups, with special appeals in our advertising for each
(1) The physicians (medical and osteopathic), with special
emphasis on the pediatricians.
(2) The nurses.
(3) The dentists.
(4) The hospitals.
($) The home economists.
(1) The physician group comprises approximately 150,000 medi-
cal men and 11,000 osteopaths, engaged in general practice. They
represent the hard core of the ethical market, and naturally have
received the greatest attention. During the year, h5 medical
journals (including the Journal of the American Medical Association,
and all of the official State society journals) have carried a
total of 288 full-page advertisements, in color and in black and
In addition, the 5500 pediatricians specializing in the
care of infants and young children have been aggressively culti-
vated through the use of three pediatric journals, carrying a total
of 18 double spreads in color during the year.
(2) In the second market group are some 350,000 nurses -
on private duty, in hospitals, or in public health nursing ser-
vice. Their close relationship vith their patients, and their
often controlling influence over their patients' diets, gives
them exceptional opportunities for stimulating the purchase of
citrus products. Our ethical program has been reaching them
with 12 full pages in color during the year, divided between the
two leading nursing publications.
(3) The 80,000 dentists of the country have taken on a
vastly increasing degree of importance for the citrus industry
during recent years. Newer knowledge on the need for adequate
Vitamin C intake, if full oral health is to be assured, has
led to the publication of many articles in the dental literature,
and aroused far more interest in dietary problems than has been
evidenced in years past. Our ethical program aims to intensify
this interest, and to capitalize on it to the maximum. The t-wo
leading dental publications carried a total of 20 pages in color,
under this program.
(4) Hospitals are very large present and potential buyers
of citrus products a specialized "consumer'! group, dominated
by professional criteria. The advertising appeal to these 8100
hospitals has to retain a balance between scientific nutritional
considerations, and more practical buying and serving factors -
a type of dual approach that has been employed in the 30 pages
in color used this year, distributed over 5 leading hospital pub-
(5) Home Economists some 36,500 of them in the country -
come into very influential contact with millions of consumers,
and their informed good will toward citrus products can be re-
flected very directly in increasing sales. The program this year
utilized a total of 20 pages in color, in h home economic and
The total budget for the ethical advertising program in the
1950-51 year was ,102,197.78.
In addition to this journal space schedule, a special mail-
ing was released to all dentists, emphasizing the value of
citrus products in relation to dental and oral health as a
special rebuttal to an article by Dr. Henry Hicks which appeared
in the Journal of the American Dental Association, disparaging
their liberal use.
Also, a complete Informational Book projected for, distribu-
tion to dentists (a companion piece to the Medical and Home
Economic Informational Books) has been authorized and it is
planned to mail this booklet to all dentists in the Fall of 1951.
Our ethical advertising agency also initiated and prosecuted
under the guidance of our Research Director, several clinical
research projects during the year. These projects are discussed
in the section of this report relating to Research.
In order to properly merchandise the national advertising
campaign which is being conducted by the Commission, a staff of
thirty merchandising men is maintained. This is an increase
of five men over last year's staff.
These merchandising men are stationed at strategic regional
headquarter cities throughout Florida's marketing territory as
follows: Atlanta (one man), Charlotte (one man), Baltimore (one
man), Washington, D.C. (one man), Philadelphia (two men),
Buffalo (one man), New York City (five men), Boston (two men),
Detroit (two men), Pittsburgh (one man), Cleveland (one man),
Cincinnati (two men), IMemphis (one man), Chicago (four men),
St. Louis (one man), San Francisco (one man), Toronto, Canada
(one man), Montreal, Canada (one man), Lakeland) Florida (one man).
The duties of our merchandising men are to contact all of
the leading retail organizations, receivers, brokers, Tholesalers,
drug chains, restaurant organizations, and institutions and do
anything within their power to sell these organizations on tying-
in with our national advertising campaign in order to sell more
Florida citrus products.
1We have used several different methods of operation with the
various organizations. Each one of these methods has special
merits, and they have all been helpful in increasing the consump-
tion of Florida citrus products.
During the past year our thirty merchandising men made
LS,68h retail calls. In addition to this, they held 302 store
demonstrations and spent 110 manpower days in national conven-
Our store demonstration program has been very successful
and has been the means of building up much good will with the
retail trade. For this demonstration work, each man is equipped
with a portable juice bar, a juice dispenser, and in many cases
we have been able to secure the use of an automatic orange
juicing machine. These demonstrations have been the means of
acquainting the retail trade with the goodness of Florida citrus
juices and have also been very influential in convincing the
food organizations vith which we have worked that it is profitable
to purchase and maintain this equipment on a permanent basis.
Our men work very closely with the large corporate chain
organizations throughout the country arranging promotions and
distributing point-of-sale display material through the headquar-
ter offices of these outlets. By following this pattern of opera-
tion, we can, in many cases, cover several hundred retail stores
with one call.
One of the most important phases of our operation is to
work very closely with the newspapers and publications which are
carrying our advertising. Through these publications we are
able to secure much tie-in advertising from retailers in their
weekly food ads. This tie-in advertising probably accounts for
a much larger expenditure of money than the cost of the entire
Florida Citrus Commission campaign.
In order to have men who are properly equipped for this
merchandising work, we carefully screen our applicants and have
attempted to hire only men with a citrus or merchandising back-
ground. A great many of these men are graduates of our Florida
colleges, majoring in either agriculture or in marketing.
Special training courses are held at the beginning of
each season in order to acquaint these men with our program
and bring them up-to-date on all of the proposed advertising
and merchandising plans for the ensuing year.
Regional meetings are held throughout the year to acquaint
the men with the progress being made and with any new develop-
ments or plans which have been formulated.
In addition to a portable juice bar and dispenser, each
man is equipped with an adequate supply of point-of-sale display
material, several three-dimensional plastoramas, a complete and
workable sales manual, and other necessary equipment to carry
out his work.
Contact reports are mailed to the Lakeland office each
day, and a weekly analysis of the market situation in each
area is sent in at the beginning of each week. This analysis is
published and mailed to approximately 500 Florida shippers,
packers and processors.
Bulletins are mailed to our field service men at regular
intervals informing them of advertising activities and special
events as they occur in Florida and giving them instructions
regarding their field operations.
During the course of each year appropriate point-of-sale
display materials are produced and shipped to our men for dis-
tribution through the corporate chains and other retail organi-
zations. During the past year, we distributed through our
merchandising staff 3,9h7,982 pieces of such material.
As another means of distributing material, we have includ-
ed coupons in practically all of our trade paper advertising.
As a result of this coupon schedule, we have received 1,059 or-
ders from retail grocers, 279 from fountains and drug stores,
and 162 from hotels and restaurants, or a total of 1,500 orders.
During the past year we have received through this office
6,178 requests for display material, 2,578 of which have been
from our merchandising staff. Expenditures for display material
in the past year amounted to $111,000.00.
During the 1950-51 season the Commission participated in
58 conventions in 25 cities. Thirty-seven of these conventions
were of a national scope and most of them were related to or
involved food products. Some of the conventions were the
National Association of Retail Grocers, The Super Market Institute,
American Medical Association, National Dietetic Association,
National Home Economists Association, National Hotel & Restau-
rant Association, United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association.
Our juice dispensers were in use 228 days at these conven-
tions and h,377 gallons of citrus juice was served to approximate-
ly 130,000 people. At the national conventions contacts were made
primarily with key personnel representing large organizations
and groups of professional people.
In addition to the above convention activities, we had
exhibits at the Florida State Fair in Tampa, the Leon County Fair
in Tallahassee, and at the three horse race tracks in Miami and
vicinity at which there was a total attendance of 2,445,000
people. A large percentage of this attendance was out-of-state
The Commission furnished a juice bar and frozen concentrate
to the House of Representatives and to the Senate at the meeting
of the State Legislature. Two juice bars are being maintained
in the Cloak Room of the House of Representatives in Washington,
using frozen orange concentrate.
During the past year, we have produced two 16mm color
motion picture films which are being used by our merchandising
staff. The first film produced, "The Concentrate Story", has
been in use for approximately nine months, and during that
period this film has been shown to many of the key factors in
the frozen food field. This has been very helpful in bringing
the story of frozen concentrated orange juice to the people in
the northern markets. Another film, "The Sun Goes North", has
just been completed. This is an industry film and shows all
phases of the citrus operation through the growing, fertilization,
picking, packing, processing, and marketing. It is planned to
show this film to approximately one million persons in the
coming year. It will be most helpful in bringing the Florida
message to the housewife and the many thousands of people who are
using citrus fruits and juices.
At the present time ve are in the process of producing a
merchandising film which will be available for our merchandising
staff during the coming year.
During the past year six of our merchandising men were
assigned to the "fringe" markets of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas
and Nebraska to carry on a special campaign. The results of
this campaign were excellent, and a substantial volume of both
oranges and grapefruit was sold in this area as a result of our
The over-all acceptance of our merchandising work from the
different trade factors throughout the northern markets has been
excellent during the past season. Many requests have been
received for store demonstration work which we have been unable
to fill due to budgetary and manpower limitations. Hfe know
that our relationship with the retail factors is on a sound basis
and that much good will and prestige for the entire citrus
industry has been built through the operation of our merchandising
We insist that these men carry on their work in an honorable
business-like manner, and we expect them to be true representatives
of the large industry which they represent.
The Commission continued the services of Dudley, Anderson
and Yutzy of New York for handling its consumer publicity program.
This agency has handled the Commission's publicity since 1935.
During the past year a number of new features were added
to the program, including attendance and participation in
new groups of influence in the food field, and more attention to
the specific benefits of Florida citrus.
On the basis of tallied circulation from newspaper and
magazine clippings only -- not counting the millions reached
through other channels, such as radio, television, conventions,
school work and demonstrations -- the program reached well over
10,000 people for every dollar expended.
The pen name of Dorothy Ames Carter, who has been the spokes-
man for Florida citrus all over the country for fifteen years,
covers the activity of a large staff, including a test kitchen,
home economists, writers, researchers and other specialists.
Because the recipes which are developed are carefully tested, the
food news which is sent to the food editors is timely and relia-
ble, and a reputation which has been built with editors over the
years has paid off in the responsive use of the pictures and
stories supplied to them.
There follow several pages showing actual clippings from
newspaper releases, including an explanation of the distribution
of this material. These releases go out in a number of different
ways -- through the agency's own direct release of pictures, mats
and stories to 1,702 daily and 7,41l weekly newspapers; through
placement of pictures and stories with national press syndicates,
such as ASSOCIATED PRESS, :T,., KING FEATURES, etc., who return
millions in circulation through special stories for the big
metropolitan papers and through circulation of the eye-catching
and impressive Kodachrome pictures the agency supplies to Sunday
supplements. Newspaper circulation during the year totaled
In the magazine field, most of the agency's work is carried
out on a personal, exclusive basis -- necessary in view of the
pride which each of the big national monthlies' staff feels for
its own originality. The agency's home economists work out new
uses of citrus fruits and products, devise clever recipes, and
these are made available to the food editors of the national maga-
zines for inclusion in their own by-line articles. Proof of the
acceptance of the suggestions and background material supplied to
them is found in the circulation of 62,001,516 in this field.
There are regular mailings of pictures and stories to the smaller
sectional and farm magazines, and in this important group of
local interest publications -- which cannot be covered by other
means of citrus advertising a circulation of 18,828,381 was
Another 2,423,393 readers were reached through timely
citrus news printed in important industrial magazines and house
organs of big companies whose publications are more avidly read
than national magazines because of their local origin.
Aside from these printed releases, a minimum of two radio
scripts each month is sent to the food news commentators of 379
radio stations all over the country, and during the past year a
similar service was inaugurated for television performers.
Pictures which may be used on regular programs or as guides for
live action are sent to 107 men and women conducting food shows
on tiny stations and big networks. I1hile it is not possible to
count the radio or television audience reached by these regular
releases, it is known that the combined audience of the commenta-
tors is well over 50,000,000 people daily. In addition to these
services which are regularly supplied, our home economists often
prepare special dishes to be used on television shows and members
of the agency's staff frequently appear as guests on both radio
and television shows.
In November 1950 representatives of the agency attended
meetings of the National 4-H Clubs and the National County
Demonstration Agents in Chicago. Hundreds of leaflets contain-
ing citrus recipes and information were given out, and many new
contacts were established with these very responsive groups of
local thought-leaders and example-setters from every state in the
Union. In October the Commission gave a breakfast for the Florida
Home Economics Association in St. Petersburg, at which time it
was demonstrated to the group of about 200 food specialists how
we publicize citrus nationally, and how they can better do it in
-Florida. During the year, two demonstrations were staged at the
Quartermaster Subsistence School in Chicago, teaching Army officers
who will in turn teach mess sergeants the variety of ways in which
citrus fits into menus.
In addition to the foregoing activities, the Commission,
through the agency, again participated in the National Newspaper
Food Editors Conference last fall, an event attended by 150 of
the leading by-line food editors in the country; the American
Dietetic Association convention in Washington, D. C., last fall;
the American Home Economics Association convention in Cleveland
Rounding out this picture of consumer publicity is the
continuing flow of Florida citrus news to 3,500 home economists
for other food industries, hospitals, school and hotel dieticians,
nutritionists and teachers, public utilities cooking schools,
recipe book writers, and other varied outlets. By utilizing
all of these important, helpful contacts there has been a con-
siderable gain in the distribution of printed materials, in the
interest of the general public in Florida citrus products, and
in the national awareness of the vital place of citrus in every-
one's diet, as evidenced by the increased editorial use of
Florida news reaching a total printed circulation figure of
660,83,2h2 for the past year.
FORT WAYNE, IND,
Circ. D. B1.292
APR 16 1951
This time of year foods shkuA -
be as light and bright as spring
Itself, and one of the best ingredi-
ents you'll find for achieving such _
results are the juicy, extra-sweet
oranges now coming into market
These are the big easy-to
onio. oranges prized for their
ce and flavor. and since their
season is not too long they should
be enjoyed to the full during the
next few weeks. When you buy
oranges for juice, get enough
extras so that you can use them
l- cookinci. 'n
Thia Orange Chiffon Pie is one
that requires little cooking. You
can make the recipe up either as I
a pie, or as individual tarts. .
llorida Chiffon Pie
1 envelpeunlvo e sting 0
% cup sugar
1 tablespoon flour
% teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon grated Florida
2 tablespoons Florida lime Juice
1 cup heavy cream, whipped, or
i cup thoroughly chilled
evaporated milk. whipped -I .'
1 9-inch *Chocolate Crumb
Crust or 9 baked tart shells
orange juice in saucepan. Blend t *i
sugar, flour and salt; add to sof- .
tened gelatine: mix thoroughly.
Place over medium heat; stir con-
stantly until gelatine is dissolved
and mixture is slightly thickened. .
remove from heat; add orange
rind and remaining % cup orange
juice, and lime juice. Chill until e hef
the mixture is slightly thicker
than the consistency of unbeaten
egg white. Fold into whipped M Ore
cream or whipped evaporated
milk. Turn Into pie crust or tart SPRINGTIME HEADJNER-Oraniges are isats thi e
shells and chill until firm. If de- to give her family the full benelt of there del pefruils Se
sired, garnish with whipped cream, cracker crust is one way to please everyo ne
Florida orange sections and Grapefr, LD' E D
shaved chocolate. Yield: One nine- dropned J.' an *celln 551.
SBy NANCY DORBI
Tangerines may be thin-skinned but they have what it
takes to sell themselves in the Winter market. Their bright
color catches the eye and tempts the shopper to buy, and the
fruit makes a friend. Once tasted, the tangerine becomes a
favorite for the fruit bowl and lunch box. December and
e January are the peak months for
the fruit, so make haste and ry
batch of tangerine marmalade
or are .... h HERE, AND
r .. ON THE NEXT
Slice the tangerine a very PAGE ARE
Discarding only the seeds. Sli
O lemons wafer thin and cut AIDI
slice into quarters, removing SAMPLES OF
Turn the prepared fruits i STO I E AN
...epa..; cover with cold w STOR I E S AND
Bring to a fast boil; cover; re
the heat and cook more slowl PICT U S S H
t"l the peel is easily pierce P I CT UR E U CH
pleasure the fruit, peel and If
there should be four cups. I AS WE RELEASE
add boiling water to make up A WE RE L ASE
Stir in the sugar and T
bring the mixture to a fast TO MORE THAN
and boil steadily, stirring od
until the juice jells. Two 700 DA LY
will hang from the side of a ,700 DA LY
when the jellying point is rea
At once ladle into hot sten EWS A
glasses (8 oz.) and cover NEWSPAPERS
paraffin. When cold, label
store in a cool place.
To serve with toast, pane ALL OVER THE
and waffles there is
a.e. t. nrinA. COUNTRY, EVERY
Thers elpoii n rer
iandn Tiri ..ss MONTH IN THE
Inia1 3in misus
Tield: Three cups (about)
Peel, seed and cut the tan. YEAR.
and lemon pulp into small
removing a of the memb ,...
There's no reason why foods on your reducing diet can't be
Here, by adding a little star of cranberry jelly (and only 10 cal
you have an eye-appealing dessert. Or sprinkle half a teaspo
(10 calories) over the grapefruit and slip under the broiler D
to eat, and good for you, too.
Thn Clppbsi Frem
FEB 2 3 19i
Grapefruit Alaska! It's Glamorous Dessert
THE EVENING BULLETIN, PHILADELPHIA, FRIDAY, APRIL 27, 1951
Orange Glaze Gives Meat Loaf Spring Lift
PERHAPS you have never su-
pected It .. but those wonder-
ful Valencia oranges in market
now can do marvels In giving a
fresh fillip of flavor in cooking
as wellasto salad. NEW YORI
They are so big so juicy
.. .so sweet at this time of year. MONDAY,
A tiny bit-say about one-quarter "
teaspoon, scant measure, of their
grated rind will "do something"
for carrots when you add It with
a little butter' and honey in cook-
Ing. Cut the carrots In long slim
stripe, gauge the water In which
they are to be rapidly cooked .
ao that It will boil away at thevery .
moment the carrots are tender.
They'll seem like a new vegetable
and are decidedly right fo serving
with veal chops or pork.
Use the grated rind and the Juice
(tstralned) to flavor the butter
idng on your plainest cake and it
will turn out to be not nearly so
plain as you think. VALENCIA ORANGE JUICE GLAZE does a
Try a little of the orange uie a plain meat lo into the realm where expert
In the water when you cook pin-
ach. UM lme ot the fine Valen- until orange juice is used-meat (350 F.I for I
cla orange juice together with loa: sugar, co-rnet
melted vttaminiled margarine or GLAZED FLORIDA ORANGE pnch of salt
butter to baste chicken the next LAZEDin the remal j i
time you mother or roast one. MEAT LOAF orange juice.
Add about % cupful of juice, the (Ylelds 8 ervingls) thickened. a
skin ao one orange cut Into thin loan with ,hal
allvers and cup of cherry to the 1 pound smoked ham. ground hot In top of d
pan In which duck cooks. Ua It 1 pound veal shoulder, ground the loaf gaIm
this way when the duck Is about 2 eggs, well beaten studded orange
three-quartera done, pouring off 2% cps orange juice the remalnln
excem fat before adding the tepoon salt small bowl.
orange Juice mixture.
Use the juice o he oranges. teaspoon pepper
pluI a little of the grated rind, In- 1 cup fine dry bread crumbs
stead of water the next time you 6 tablespoons sugar
make pie crust for a fruit or chlf- 1 tablespoon cornstarch
fon pie. Use it for the liquid when
you make baking powder biscults Have the meat put through
for Sunday morning breakfast. grinder only once. Combine the
There are so many things that ground ham, veal, eggs and one tortdA gpe t
this orange Juice helps we could cup of the orange juice, salt, pep- | lorida i.i
go on and on. But perhaps none per and bread crumbs and mix I dla su a
would be more Interesting and re- together thoroughly. Shape into cranberry Jelly, oe
warding than this little trick for a neat loaf on a greased shallow and cocoanut feo
glesia a common, everyday- pan. Bake in a moderate oven oooktall with
By LmA C. WELS
tabrt Foed CMltant)
AYS, bhihdays and
H parties just naturally
an for festive foods. Thd
time to serve them when they
are bound to cause excitement
S M sIpecl ocmaslon Is im
A smas quLacl demeri
that flls the bill is this grsmaIlt;
Alashk. Thi Is a switch on a
demrr Intead of uding
-a foundation of
^^Ts^ ^a grepefrap t hal
rapefrult In of wondi
K HERALD TRIBUNEs now, reasonabm
O Nutritious that it's
JANUARY 1, 1961 fr ue under
p, n Lre-packaged o tal'
the other froase
trchared at t w e
jiar and hll
The rest of the
while the thabl
of the meain
t.d star: chf
catg vanil ulaf;
Iln shu cm ct-
nthe te nsewr b
t in card symbols, with tangerine seetlons
& new kind of ambrosia. OUves and seafood
graefrlt make a Interstig cookt ti
grapefruit task* an Interesting Cocktail
62 Clb eatlanta journal
Even If you can't go south you
can enjoy nome of Florida's fair-
este offerings in the orim of the
big juicy grapefruit now being
shipped to almost every section
of the country.
Everyone will love grapefruit ii
you make. t easy to get the suc-
culent frult out of the shell. To
properly prepare it, cut the fruit
In half; remove core. Cut around
each section, loosening fruit from
membrane. Do not cut around en-
tire outer edge of fruit. Here's
how to do the four variations
Sprinkle grapefruit half with
one tablespoon sugar and a dash
of cinnamon, mace or nutmeg. if
desired: dot with one teaspoon
butter. Place grapefruit on broiler
rack three inches from heat. Broil
slowly IS to 20 minutes or until
grapefruit is slightly brown and
heated through. Grapefruit may
also be baked in a moderately hot
even (400 degrees F.) 15 to 10
minutes. Serve hot.
Grapefruit Salad Bowl
Follow directions for preparing
grapefruit halves. Remove sections
from half; reserve. Cut out mem-
brane remaining in shell to make
Salad Bowl." Combine grape-
fruit sections with diced celery
and chicken, shrimp or tuna.
Moisten with mayonnaise. Refill
bhells with aled and gamish with
Slice seedless grapes in half.
Arrange seven or eight halves In
center of grapefruit to represent
bunch of grapes as illustrated in
Cut slice of cranberry jelly with
small star-shaped cookie cutter.
Place cranberry star in center of
I ___ -
--Buffets-For Easy Entert
By PRUDENCE PENNY
UAY your holiday enter.
Staining be as little work
and as much fun as If it were
-ImPnnr .nrl. ^ -N.
Grapefruit cobbler is topped with biscuit-dough flowers
C" IS FOR CITRUS
-- Also for the main vitamin
in citrus fruits, so plentiful
now. Use them all in desserts
fet parties more often nex
FLORIDA PARTY PUNCH
I Cap wser
e to 10 Frisi gefrlit
1 qi. glaserle
Feride g freit slr
Bll together the sugar and
water for 5 minutes. Leit
cooL Squeee grapefruit (ToM
squeeze the large Floridab
grapefruit, cut Into quarter.
lengthwise, then, using reg
ular juicer or reamer, squetes
out juice from each quarter.
pressing cut side against point
of reamer. To squeeze small
fruit, simply cut into halves
to squeeze as you would an
Pour fresh grapefruit Juice
through coarse mesh strainer.
to remove any seeds. Combine
sugar syrup, fresh grapefruit
and gingerale and pour over
Ice In punch bowL Top punch
with grapefruit slices decor-
ated with cloves. Makes 24
C TRUS fruits make news in
March with the introduc-
tion of the so-called "summer"
crop into our New York markets.
But fresh or canned as put up
by many Florida growers--
grapefruit, oranges and lemons
give the tang and the flavor so
needed daily for vitaminsCand
A and to whet the lagging pre-
spring family appetites. These
recipes have been tested m our
Home Institute kitchens for
2No. 2 cansZ apefitusectiom
H cup packed brown sugar
4 cup flour
2 tablespoons butter
1% cups sifted all-purpose
2 teaspoons sugar
2 teaspoons double-actmg
5, teaspoon alt
Y4 cup shortemnn
S cup milk
Place grapefruit sections and
fruit syrup m bottom of shallow
baking dish (11 7x 1in mches)
and sprinkle with brown sugar
and flour; dot with butter. Place
in moderate oven (375F.) for 10
minutes. While fruit is heating,
make a bicun dough of remain-
ing ingredients as follows: Sift
together flour, sugar, baking
powder and salt into a miing
bowl and cut in shortemng until
mixture resembles coarse meal.
Add milk gradually, stirring into
a soft dough. Roll out on floured
baking board H inch thick. Cut
into 6 stars and 6 rounds with
cookie cutters, pressing raiins
in top to resemble flower centers.
Lay cut-out dough on top of hot
fruit and continue baking about
30 minutes, or until dough is
done. Serve with orange-flavored
hard auce. Yield: 6 portions.
H cup powdered sugar
t cup white wine
1 cup water
H cup orange juice
i cup granulated sugar
i cup pistachio nuts
I cup white grapes, halved
Juice of 1 lemon
Peel oranges, removing white
tissue; slice very thin oeawise.
Sprinkle with powdered sugar
and add white wine. Cook water.
orange juice and granulated
sugar to a fairly thick syrup,
about 15 mmutes. Add pistachio
nuts. grapes, and lemon juice to
syrup. Chill. Add oranges and
juice and chill for several hours.
Serve in large bowl with plenty
of syrup so oranges will flot.
Yield; 6 portions.
t ItJi l Bwl
1 grapefruit, peeled
3 oranges, peeled
I dozen ripe olives
I Bermuda onion
1 head of lettuce
i pound Roquefort cheese
1 recipe French dressing
1 clove garlic, minced
Peel grapefruit, removing
white membrane and separate
into sections in bottom of salad
bowl. Add thin slices of orange,
cut hormzontally. Add npe olives
and rings of Bermuda onion.
Pile into lettuce cups and serve
with dressing made of roquefort
cheese combined with the French
dressing. Garlic may be added if
desired. Yield: 6 portions.
HAllET JEu AuNDE g
S brimming oer. The
fferiags are specally wel-
come after the period earlier
In the spring. when the varl.
ety and quantity in his stallS
were both somewhat cur-
tailed. Good desserts rang-
tog from orange segments ia
a simple sauce to a more
elaborate posge-cake ring
with ice cream and straw-
berries, tempt appetites wit
Juicy Valencia orsages-
those with few seeds, smooth
or alghUy pebbled an and
deep hue-are nto an unusual-
ly generous supply that will
continue through next month.
LIte-season oranges always
seem superior in flavor, fra-
grasee and Juice content to
those of the first of autumn.
The California ad Florida
harvests overlap this year,
which accounts for heavy
shipments. Besides this, the
S1951 crop is running suhbtan-
tially above average.
Fla." Vislisses -s Wa s etsse wish slspiei sassi. C"t eslabs
domags .10609-0Q.6 2 esbhsepassss .s1seed peel. Isp seae
sad sse ..psiaps J,`'s~.m
HERE ARE SHOWN SOME
OF OUR PICTURES AS
THEY APPEARED IN THE
NEW YORK TIMES,
HERALD TRIBUNE, AND
ypri 9 'J sa
Orangegg A Day Helps Keep
rin erangegg is suen a nurntous iaea tnat it's a good suggestion
for any member of the family, any hour of the day, contaninig as it
does eight ounces of Florida orange juice, full of Vitamin C and low
in calories, and one egg, an excellent source of protein fod values
and economical now. Beat one egg well: add eight ounces of chilled
orange juice (use the juicy fresh Florida oranges, now coming into
markets, or frozen or canned orange juice) and beat well again. It's.
an ingenious way to insure getting an egg a day, and with eggs plenti-
ful, it's an inexpensive meal-in-a-glass.
AS THESE ARE
SENT EACH MONTH
TO A SELECTED
LIST OF OVER
AND SMALL DAILY
Bright Spot During Dark Months
<-"^rjf '- ^
Sno" and cold n wiathl-r ny I bl th: outlook for the next few months.
but even tin snow, 1n1111 takes heart wht he looks southward and sees
the bounty of sunny i"onldi citrus fi-Ults now Iavailhbl-. This year's
crop is an excellent i11n', and there a-r plenty o oranges, granefruit
and tangerine to nior than nasuIt a daily qlunta of flavorful Vitalin
C for everry nirenbr of the fantil First, thnern should always be
morning gla ,ss of oran juice nor a half gIapefruit. Grapefruit halves
are good for filst or last course at luniehon orn dinner, and by varying
the toppings, they can be served often without monotony. Oranges.
grapefruit and tangerines, the little kid-glove fruit, can be used in sal-
ads, fruit rups. anid tin lend new fnior to vegetables, inmets :and lish.
Florida Cake Goes To Camp
Tangy Florida grapefruit halves,
dressed to fit the occasion, will
prove a perfect addition to late
winter meals, particularly since-
they pack a punch of Vitannin-C
goodness, so mportanitduring
these months in warding off colds.
Us,. green or red jelly cut in in-
teresting shapes-a heart for Feb-
ruary birthdays; a shamrock for
St. Patrick's Day, with huckleberry
leaves around the edge of the
grlpefruit half; your favorite pre-
serves; shredded coconut and tan-
gerine sections for an ambrosia-
like first course; or flaked seafood
and sliced olives for an appetizer.
Grapefruit is a particularly good
buy during February. when nspcial
shipments are being nmad to stnresn
in all parts of the country.
Made to ship safely; stay fresh idinitel and It please any
private anywhere, Florida Crlam (Cake with orangeC juIl in its butter
goes to camp. This season's big juicr Valenlcia orangnis ;irn ideal to use
for such recipes.
Florida Cream Cake
:1 egg whites 12 cup Fllrlda orlrnge juice
1's cups sugiur 2 cups sifted all-purpose flour
I cup heavy cream :3 tasmpnon baking powder
1'1 teaspoons grated Florida i' teaspion salt
reat egg whites until stiff; gradually I, 1, s' cup of .he sunar and
beat until very stiff. Whip cream with I' cup of thle sutr; fold
into beaten egg whites. Add rind and oiannge juice. Sift together four,
remalinng I cup sugir, baking powder annd salt; fnild into Olatne-
crean mixturr. Turn into 8-inch spring form pan lind w-th waxed
paper or a 9x5x3: inch loaf pan. Ilake in a slow oven (:t25'F.) 1 hour
and 25 minutes.
12 THE KNOXVILLE JOURNAL
Friday, December 29, 1950
CITRUS DISHES-If you received a crate of citrus fruits for Christmas, you will find
that they have many uses as a flavoring for both dessert and meat dishes. An orange
chiffon pie is an ideal party dessert, and tangerines make an attractive garnish for a
slice of baked ham. Broiled grapefruit halves may be served for either the first course
or dessert at dinner.
YOUR FOOD PROBLEMS By Edith Barber
Fruit Used In Many Holiday Dishes
Oranges, Grapefruit, whipped evaporated mclk or cream !in i sh It i* no- as me.
Tangerines Served may be used. This pie Is lovely t,. that .i z pprnoiO. atou tor
In Shell Or Cooked to look at as well as to taute and .... or Jls ..und. brtlie
makes an ideal party dessert. W ,rasiU isa Onrav .
In olden days, the Christmas Most of the grapefruit will be ro's asne
celebration began a day or two served in the shell water t iis kac. or ak. ea der a-
before Dec. 25, and feasting went chilled. It should be sectioned, of % eu. lukewarm orrnn Ju.
on until Twelfth Night, which is course, so that it will be easy cS u asotl.. rho
Jan. 6, also known as Three to eat. We may broil the halves % u s r, f u o asa
Kings' Day. When families and occasionally for use either as a I tbeo" on it
friends journeyed any distance by first course or as a dessert at din- 1 ., w ie n bOsle
horseback or coach, they made ner. Then it will be sweetened I tablipn meited butt.,
real visits and dotted with butter before it V. 'mun'r
Nowadays, we celebrate Christ- is put under the broiler to brown 0 honest hltn, hoen roada, st and
mas and New Year's in style and lightly and heat thoroughly. The "rai e1 ta. l.n.
let it go at that. Perhaps, how- tangerines may be eaten out of oran uic. *ad let .t.nd 5 to e10 nut.
ever. we will continue to enjoy hand as they are so easy to peel Str until reat to hor uhly dI.nled.
some of the foods which came to and they make an attractive gar- and tlr untU malted, Pour over cup
us as tokens of remembrance. This nish when they are baked and lus'r sad sIt In mlelna bow Cool to
luk.w.rm Slr in .a1-t mrlxur Add
wi et e i you wee served in the shell. You will like ts,, d 3 cu. four and beat wou Add
will certainly be true if you were t I' b U
lucky enough to have a box or them around si of baked ham. nn our to ke a t doa
lucky enough to have a box or flo ur o a foutred oa, acnd
crate of citrus fruit.. There may IlaA oeio m n0.0 cnIor 0tU s0t0 tnd 5 tl.
be a variety with grapefruit from uilOp ,aanod aa SteS 1/3 a ; tha d.ouh ltrsor"ta.
Florida or perhaps from Texas, /a cup ura I sollxtS-nche. Brush wih I mntd butt..
oranges from Florida or Caior t;b'5OO" o ansd rnkIs wrrlIt !' uunt c..n.m-n.
VC te.sfon ult c0rr0. errteo nuts anod rteln. .on
nia, and tangerines which are at tbloon a nrd ons rind or Plly 1. ll p on road baknl
m b ersato a.sn e ombn s.ule C t, b-o o o beoe a ond tb lra
their best just now In Florida. As h %*%; !*. u ._ TS-. .0 c1.. SS on.S !SSS
T bP tP ad., tAL OF 0H01 tPRES ItOV bulb..
convenient as we find the frozen though hUtd a.rd ik. ra l n Turn ch elie rtly on
orange concentrates, we still en- Y-I I Sd bs It ,, 1 roctc untI doubl 'ln bI ..
.mup.h1 sake I. modanele, hot ,.n tb" r.k
joy the freshly squeezed juice. soatn d h %lain in % up cold _ases Nu a minute* whtlI ct ll wMs. tr.t
Suln In -upes eBend r. madr wth nsUonm' *u..r *Ian, cadc
Orange juice has so many uses and -It. Add to uostesd jaslasu and ts l cu d conotsonot' cr
as a flavoring, both for dessert mLb tuasolry. Pa e ovr medium haot aold taoott water. Osnmtb wtth
and ur Oosstsntlt unUS eslUne LI do.- adataonnI Olton. nlitut and nut, Ybebd:
and for a number of meat dishes. solved and mixture i thickened. Rnnov. i lo-lnh .ris.
One of the simplest and most r0m5 hot. Add onot.rlnd ad c m. Ln. a aasa*eoA IOLL.
popular desserts is an orange pud- cht = unui thr.an oaI l uly t didte
ding for which the fresh frult ls A.-l the C5oNi r ,%n o unba- tr tnn --` e""" tOe I 0
T 00 4, To sa dob.h = To IPm to ecsd
sectioned, drenched with a soft wrhlh:'di s-- tba'd Zi. o n d smt..ee CA tt
custard and topped with a me. c,"trr lb and chill untl itas. O *e..onwo oar, whn ledrl to ai .
I lth whipd crm *Db)OJ n warm psee untl double in bu-m .
ringue. Then. there is our favo- 0b0o1lat YIlad: Ons s-iondh apn d s .bty ,tsro 00m0 d iounb. into
rite chiffon pie hr which thej- m"u *eoti han." PIaa On bold. sh0t andI .S, ,os
rI doubn. Let until don O n bulk.
to lait wa hoortnM ao mad. r-
dd. Or took t rup Tork atll.e
TYPICAL OF THERE THESE CLIPPINGS IVE ss........t.
up ornI a bl0t ch In buotor.
**lal srt. and the rlw dirnlt
USE MADE OF AMOUS BY-L I NESR IA -Ln' K.J' .^-.!;
00 ths Ins. Oith our sotestn bl
tc; flour mahtur- n low a ped.
il *nood t nnulr toh ate eds.
Mnta. lhane nineare onse. hO en
COST OF MATS, MAI LING,
iton atte tho milk ho sxdn *dd d.
Iodr to ba remamb d to
APR I NPT I NG m..at NhV .. mtour a
ma t. at ne tt0 alrlIioc 5 be t
.no m.t...m dod .o. auld.
ebla cad ns an Onelded blab
COST OF MATS, MAITLING, nnt sa oor)tabodut
PR I NT I NG las t to. crnat lWm. hoet Chr
It. d ton-o ha t- o c ateen
Following is a report of the activities of the Research
Department during the past year.
I. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH UITHI THE CITRUS EXPERIMENT STATION,
LAKE ALFRED, FLORIDA
A. Processing and By-Products Research
During the 1950-51 citrus season the pilot plant utilized
2,686 boxes of fruit.
1. Standardization of Processed Citrus Juices.
Canned orange juice packs with various Brix to acid
ratios were packed again this year. The sixty-four
packs produced will be used for consumer acceptance
studies to be conducted and evaluated by the U.S.D.A.
Bureau of Agricultural Economics and the Florida State
In cooperation vith the American Can Company several
packs of canned and concentrated juices free of peel oil
2. Processing Equipment for Concentrated Citrus Juices.
A single-stage evaporator, significantly different in
design from existing units, was built, installed and used
for the concentration of citrus juices.
An 8000 lb./hr. evaporator designed on information
obtained from this pilot plant experimental unit has been
in operation in the industry for four months and is giv-
ing satisfactory results.
3. Storage Studies on Concentrated Citrus Juices.
Storage studies extending over a period of one year
on six packs of frozen citrus concentrates were completed.
These packs of Hamlin, Pineapple and Valencia orange,
Duncan and Marsh Grapefruit, and Dancy tangerine con-
centrates were stored for twelve months at -80, 100, 200,
320 and 400F.
Results obtained indicate that for the protection of
quality frozen citrus concentrate should be stored at 00F.
or lower from the time the product is manufactured un-
til it is used by the consumer.
h. Elation and Clarification in Concentrated Citrus
Investigations of both the theoretical and practical
factors involved in the gelation and clarification of
concentrated citrus juices were continued.
Some of the practical factors investigated were fruit
variety, quantity of pulp in the concentrate, degree of
concentration, and storage temperature.
To obtain an indication of the effect of the use of
freeze-damaged fruit on gelation and clarification, mature
fruit was picked, frozen, and then processed. Packs were
made using Pineapple and Valencia oranges and Duncan
grapefruit. All concentrates made from frozen fruit
showed a greater degree of gelation than that made from
the control lots of fruit that were not frozen.
Methods for the determination of gelatin, clarifi-
cation, pectin, pulp, and pectinesterase activity in con-
centrated citrus juices were investigated and compared as
to accuracy and the possibility of practical application
in quality control laboratories of processing plants.
5. Relation of Heat Treatment to the Quality of Processed
Concentrated Citrus Juices.*
Research was initiated on the application of heat to
citrus juices or concentrates as a possible means of
eliminating enzymatic and microbiological changes during
either processing or storage of citrus concentrates. The
following phases of the problem are being investigated
(1) the processing time and temperature relationships
necessary to prevent enzymatic and microbiological changes
while at the same time avoiding development of undesirable
flavors, (2) storage studies at various temperatures, and
(3) heat treatment of peel oil-free juice and its concen-
tration at various temperatures. The following variations
in heat treatment procedures are being used: (1) heat
treatment of raw citrus juice prior to concentration,
(2) of the cut-back juice, and (3) of the concentrated
citrus juices, including juices concentrated to various
*In cooperation smith American Can Company
Observations made on packs this season indicate that
the amount of pulp influences the time and temperature
necessary for enzyme inactivation. It was also found
that "cooked" flavors are more noticeable in heat-
treated concentrates than in concentrates made from
juice heated prior to concentration.
Several tubular heat exchange units were built
and used for the heat treatment of single-strength or
concentrated juices processed for this investigation.
6. Methane Fermentation of Waste Later from Citrus
Considerable progress was made on the study of the
methane fermentation of diluted citrus juices by
anaerobic bacteria. Factors found to inhibit this type
of fermentation and thus prevent its successful applica-
tion to waste water from citrus processing plants were
studied, and it was noted that peel oil was an effective
It is now believed that a two-stage waste treatment
shows the most promise; the first stage being aerobic,
and the second stage an anaerobic methane fermentation.
A continuous system of this type was operated quite
successfully on a laboratory scale for over six months.
Reduction in B.O.D. of the liquid on passing through the
system varied between 88 and 98 percent.
7. The Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices.
A study was made of the acid-tolerant bacteria in
citrus juices. Seven species of bacteria were found to
be capable of growing in orange juice having a pH of 4.0
or lower, one species growing at a pH as low as 3.2.
Studies of the effect of sugar and acidity on the ability
of the seven organisms to grow in citrus juices indicate
that these two factors are additive.
Pathogenicity studies in which oranges on trees were
inoculated with four species show that the organisms are
able to multiply within the fruit prior to harvesting,
provided the acidity of the juice is not too great. In
some instances this multiplication is evidenced by a visi-
ble deterioration of the fruit while in others there are
no external symptoms to indicate that the organisms are
growing in the fruit.
8. Coliform Organisms in Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices.
!7ork was limited to a survey in cooperation with some
of the processors of frozen concentrate. A total of one
hundred forty-seven cultures were examined.
B. Decay Control Studies
1. Chemical Treatments for the Prevention of Fruit Decay.
Eighty-four experiments were performed and in addition
sixty-four holding tests made on fruits treated in com-
morcial packinghouses. The total number of individual
oranges, grapefruit and tangerines under observation was
14,3h0o. The average amount of decay in check lots stored
at 700F. was h0.0 per cent three weeks from the picking
date. This is approximately the same as for previous
seasons and is indicative of the loss caused by decay.
IWhile the principal line of vork was concerned with
the Dowicide A-Hexamine method developed in these investi-
gations, eleven other chemical treatments were tested.
Of these, eight were found to have no value in controlling
decay in citrus fruits. Three other compounds, Dowicides
C, B and D, combined in each case vith Hexamine to prevent
peel burn, reduced decay in oranges to the extent of 81,
6h and 23 percent respectively, after two weeks' storage.
Although Dowicides B and C appear to give practical results,
they show no particular advantage over Dowicide A and there
are some experimental difficulties connected with their
2. Dowicide A-Hexamine Dipping Treatment.
It was previously reported that peel burn in citrus
fruits caused by Dowicide A could be prevented by adding
Examine to the Dowicide A solutions. It was further
shown in a series of experiments that stem-end rot and
mold decay could be controlled by the use of Dow.icide
A-Hexamine solutions. Throughout the past season this
series of experiments was repeated with almost identical
results. Again, no case of Dowicide A chemical peel
burn was encountered. Solutions containing 2.0 percent
of Dowicide A gave better decay control than 1.5 percent,
and treatment at 1000 F. gave better results than treat-
ment at 80F. However, uhen oranges treated with the
weaker solution at 800F. were packed in Phenodor X (diphenyl)
treated cartons, the most effective control of decay was
Experiments performed toward the end of last season
and repeated this season have brought out the important
information that decay control by the Dowicide A-Hexamine
method is much more effective at lower storage tempera-
tures. In one series of experiments at 600, 700, 800, and
900F. storage the percentages of decay control for a two-
weeks period were 100, 89, 75 and 35, respectively.
The combination of the Dowicide A-Hexamine dip with
diphenyl containers, above mentioned, is a further im-
provement which has resulted on the average of decay
control amounting to 88 percent for a three-week period.
The addition of various materials to the Doricide
A-Hexamine solution to improve fungicidal action has
indicated that sodium chloride and sodium acetate may be
3. Commercial Use of the Dowicide Hexamine MLethod.
Through the cooperation of the Haines City Growers
Association it was possible to evaluate this method
under commercial operation. The favorable results ob-
tained there indicate that the Dowicide A-Hexamine treat-
ment will be of great value to the citrus industry. Up
to June 15 a total of 904,708 boxes of fruit were run.
Holding tests on oranges stored at 700F. for two weeks
showed an average decay control of 86 percent, when the
operation was properly carried out. In grapefruit samples,
decay was reduced from 6.1 percent to 1.7 percent.
In oranges receiving the Dowicide A-Hexamine treat-
ment and packed for shipment in diphenyl cartons at the
Haines City plant, decay control was 96 percent for two
weeks at 700F.
Details have been worked out for the use of the
treatment in commercial packinghouses and the method
has been recommended for such use. An adequate supply
of the Dowicide A and Hexamine has been assured by the
chemical companies concerned, and arrangements have been
made with a centrally located chemical house to furnish
the Dowicide A-Hexamine mixture in concentrated solution
for convenience in preparing the fungicidal dip.
II. NUTRITIONAL RESEARCH
During the 190-51 fiscal year, nutritional research
projects were continued at universities and medical schools.
1. Yale Nutritional Laboratories, Yale University
Under Drs. Cowgill and Krehl, the nutritional signifi-
cance of inositol is being investigated. Previous research
at this institution established the fact that citrus fruits
are a rich source of this material.
2. Dr. Norman Jolliffe, Private Clinic, New York City
This work, on the use of citrus juices in reducing
diets, was completed last year. The results were pub-
lished in Postgraduate Medicine and reprints distributed
to the medical profession during the past season.
3. University of Maryland Hedical School
This project on the incidence of allergy to orange juice
among small children was also previously completed. The
results are now being published in the September issue of
Pediatrics and reprints will be distributed.
h. Ellen H. Richards Institute, Pennsylvania State College
This investigation into the "quick-energy" properties of
orange juice was completed. The results are now being tabula-
ted and will be published shortly.
5. Massachusetts Memorial Hospital, Boston
Drs. Burnett and Relman of this institution carried
out research on the renal metabolism of citrus juices, and
their possible alkalinizing effect. Their final report will
be forthcoming shortly.
6. Columbia University
This work under Dr. C. G. King, on the optimum intake of
Vitamin C in experimental animals is being continued through-
out the present fiscal year. It is hoped that new light will
be thrown on long term sub-optimal Vitamin C intakes.
7, Johns Hopkins Hospital
The first year's grant to this agency was completed with
the publication in December 1950 of "The Prevalence of Scurvy
at Autopsy During the First Two Years of Age" in the Bulletin
of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The results, which showed an
unsuspected high level (18%) of scurvy in children in this
age bracket, are being disseminated. The present grant-in-
aid is being used to study the relationship of Vitamin C
deficiency to protein metabolism, and some of the newer vita-
mins (folic acid) and hormones (ACTI and cortisone).
8. Cornell University Medical College
This work under Dr. Carl T. Javert on the relationship
of Vitamin C and abortion was completed, and should result
in four or five published papers.
As usual, 20,000 copies of the 1951 Better Fruit Program,
Spray and Dust Schedule, were printed and distributed. Due
to the improved and simplified format of the Schedule, it
met with such acceptance that 2,000 additional copies had to
The Citrus Code authorizes the Commission to use up to 3
percent of its income for the handling of transportation matters,
hiring of rate experts, etc. During the past year the Commission
continued the employment of the Growers and Shippers League of
Florida, to handle all of the transportation problems of the fresh
fruit shippers and processors.
There follows a report on several rate reductions obtained
and on other transportation matters handled by the League for the
Commission on behalf of the industry.
Reduced Rates on Fresh Citrus Fruit. The average reduction
in rates on fresh citrusfruit to Official territory, which is the
territory lying east of Chicago and north of the Potomac and Ohio
Rivers, was 19 cents per cwt. Rate reductions into Southern
territory, which is that territory lying south of the Potomac
and Ohio Rivers and east of the Hississippi River, averaged
approximately 12 cents per cwt.
The Southern carriers have approved a reduction into the
territory west of the Mississippi River, which averages approxi-
mately 35 cents per cwt. This reduction has not as yet been
approved by the TWestern railroads, but is still before them for
To analyze the situation the unloads to one hundred cities
have been used to determine a percentage distribution into these
territories by rail, and it shows that 89 percent is shipped to
Official, 8 percent within the south, and 3 percent to western
territory. There was a total of approximately 46,432 carload
rail shipments during the 1950-51 season. Using 89% of the rail
shipments gives a total of 41,324 cars to Official territory,
less 15,000 cars estimated that are shipped to New York City and
New England states, as the reduced rates do not apply to that
destination, and taking the average rate reduction of 19 cents per
cwt. or ;.91.20 per car, it indicates a saving as a result of these
rate reductions of $2,866,594h.0.
Into Southern territory, using the 8 percent distribution
figure, it is estimated that 3,715 cars were shipped last season,
and based on an average reduction of 12 cents per cwt., or 0;37.50
per car, represents a saving as a result of the reduced rates of
The Southern origin lines have approved a reduction averaging
35 cents per cwt. into the territory lying west of the IIississippi
River. This reduction has not as yet been approved by the W!estern
railroads, but if such a reduction is approved, based on a carload
minimum of 48,000 pounds would represent an average per car saving
of 0168.00. Using 3 percent as the distribution by rail into
Tlestern territory, 1,393 cars were shipped and based on the proposed
reduction a saving to the Florida citrus industry of ;234,024.00
The total savings this year as a result of reductions into
Official territory and to Southern territory on fresh citrus is
Canned Citrus Reductions. Reductions in rates on single
strength canned citrus have been accomplished but the total savings
as a result of these reductions cannot be computed as figures per-
taining to the distribution by rail into the various territories
are not available.
A few examples, however, will set forth what the reduction
has amounted to and in using Richmond, Virginia, the rate was re-
duced 17 cents and based on a 36,000 pound minimum weight per car,
which is the tariff minimum weight per car, the reduction is
$61.20; however, the average carload minimum weight as testified
to by canner witnesses at hearings is 55,000 pounds and the saving
per car, using that minimum weight, is $93.50 per car.
The reductions to other cities varies and as an example, to
Birmingham, Alabama, the reduction was 35 cents per cwt., Columbia,
South Carolina, 23 cents per cwt., Yiashington, D.C., and Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, 13 cents per cwt., and to Buffalo, New York, 22 cents
Frozen Citrus Concentrate. Reduced rates on frozen citrus
concentrate average approximately 14 cents per cwt., and these
reductions were established into Official, Southern, 7Vestern and
Southwestern Trunk Line territories. Based on a tariff minimum
weight of 36,000 pounds per car, the reduced rates represent a
saving of $50.40 per car, but as the average loading for all frozen
citrus concentrate shipped by rail is 66,000 pounds, the average
saving per car, based on this weight, is ,92.40.
The railroads have now approved a reduction in rates on
frozen citrus concentrate to the Pacific Coast territory, which
have not as yet been published, but which represents a reduction
of 39 cents per cwt. The present rate is ('2.29 and it will be
reduced to $;1.90,
Reduction in Rates on Tangerines to Pacific and Canadian
Northwest Territory. Conferences have been held with representa-
tives of the Southern railroads in an effort to reduce the rates
on tangerines to the Pacific northwest and western Canadian
points and these lines have now agreed to docket a proposal which
will reduce the rail rates from 1.93 to ,1.73.
Increased Freight Rates, 1951. The rail carriers filed
petitions January 16, 1951, which were amended March 28th, in
which they request the Interstate Commerce Commission to authorize
an increase in rail rates and charges of 15 percent on all commodi-
ties, observing on fresh citrus fruit a maximum increase of 15
cents per hundred pounds. The hold-down of 15 cents per hundred
pounds has not been requested to apply on canned citrus and frozen
citrus concentrate. Hearings and oral argument have been conclud-
ed in this proceeding, in which the League participated and strong-
ly opposed carriers' request on the grounds that it would again
divert this traffic to the trucks, and cited what has occurred
during the past several years, and the frantic efforts of the rail
carriers to recapture tonnage lost to competitive modes of trans-
portation, and what had been accomplished as the result of several
drastic rate reductions.
Under the carriers' proposal it would increase our average
rate on fresh citrus fruit from 105.3 cents per cwt. to 112.6
cents per cwt., and over-all would represent an estimated increase
of $3,639,620.00 to the fresh citrus shipments alone.
Unloading Charges on Fresh Citrus Fruit New York and
Philadelphia. This subject, which has been a matter of proceed-
ings before the Interstate Commerce Commission for nearly four
years, has been re-opened by the Interstate Commerce Commission
and hearings were held in New York, June 4, 1951.
The assessment of an unloading charge at Philadelphia and
New York of approximately 0;0.00 per car points up the interest
the fresh citrus industry has in this proceeding, and everything
possible has been done to prove to the Interstate Commerce'Commis-
sion that these charges should not legally be assessed. Ve ex-
pect a decision by the Commission in the very near future.
Express Charges on Citrus Fruit from Florida. In May, 1950,
the Railway Express Agency filed tariffs increasing the charges
for express shipments of citrus fruit from Florida. We were
successful in having the Interstate Commerce Commission suspend
these increased charges.
The over-all increase requested by the Agency was approximately
58 percent, which would have meant an increase in charges, based
upon the 1949-50 volume of shipments, of N2,098,858.
As a result of our opposition, the Express Agency was granted
an increase of only 10 percent in their charges, which became effec-
tive on March 1, 1951. Thus, the majority of the shipments during
the 1950-51 season were not subject to any increase, while the
annual saving, based on the volume shipped by express during the
1949-50 season, would approximate 01,737,491.
In January of this year, the Railway Express Agency petitioned
the Commission for the cancellation of the present tariff apply-
ing on citrus fruit from Florida and the establishment of rates on
an even higher basis than that formerly proposed. Based on the
estimated number of express fruit shipments during the 1950-51 sea-
son, the charges proposed to be made effective would result in an
increase in total express charges to the Florida shippers of approxi-
mately $7,000,000 over the charges which were in effect after
March 1, 1951.
The tremendous increases in rates proposed by the Agency
would to a large extent, force most of the express shippers out
of business insofar as shipments by Railway Express are con-
cerned. Hearings in this proceeding have been concluded and
oral argument and filing of briefs before the Interstate Commerce
Commission will follow.
Miscellaneous Activities. The industry has been vitally
concerned with many other matters which the League has been
actively handling. This includes the Uniform Truck Weight Laws;
sufficient refrigerator cars to handle the traffic; railway
track clearances in the State of Florida; lease and interchange
of motor vehicles; operating authorities for truck lines hauling
frozen citrus fruit juice concentrate; and cooperation with the
U. S. Department of Agriculture in transportation temperature
The League, through its Secretary-Manager, is serving on
several important national committees, viz.: Shippers Advisory
Committee to Defense Transport Administrator; Vice Chairman,
Transportation Advisory Committee appointed under authority of
the Research and Marketing Act, United States Department of
Agriculture; Chairman of the National Container Committee, and a
member of the United Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Association
Refrigerator Car Committee and the National Fresh Fruit and Vege-
table Claims Committee.
UTILIZATION OF FLORIDA CITRUS CROPS
SEASON TION SALES
1946-47 (a) 53,700
1950-51 /1 67,300
19 4-45 22,300
1946-47 (a) 29,000
1947-48 (a) 33,000
1950-51 1 33,200
ON-TREE ON-TREE HOME
PRICE PRICE CONSUfP-
PER BOX PROCESSED PER BOX TION
(DolTars)(1,000 Bxs)(Dollars)(1,000 Bxs
(a) Difference between "Total Production" and actual utilization represented by
PACK OF FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTS
1950-51 LI 4,628
BLENDED TANGERINE CITRUS (Other than
JUICE JUICE SALAD Concentrate)
Cases, 24 No. 2 Cans- - -- -
30,972 r /
-1,000 Gallons- - -
aarr rlr lr- e r~
-,, --- r- r
72 Includes meal, pulp
x Includes Tangerine Juice and
xx Includes Orange Sections