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Florida Citrus Commission
Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1950
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Commission members serving during the
19l9-50 fiscal year
Dodge Taylor (Chairman), Howey-in-the-Hills
J. B. Prevatt (Vice-Chairman), Tavares
L. S. Andrews, Jr., Cocoa
W. E. Bishop, Citra
R. A. Fender, Orlando
Jeff Flake, Wauchula
J. R. McDonald, Plant City
Dan L. McKinnon, Winter Garden
0. C. Hinton, Fort Pierce
John A. Snively, Jr., Winter Haven
J. B. Stephens, Lakeland
Tom Turnbull, Winter Haven
Lorin T. Bice, Lake Hamilton, appointed Nov. 2, 1949 to replace
J. B. Stephens, deceased.
L. F. Roper, Winter Garden, appointed Hay 25, 196i to replace
Dodge Taylor, deceased
J. B. Prevatt, Chairman
W. E. Bishop, Vice-Chairman
Dan L. McKinnon
0. C. Minton
R. A. Fender, Chairman
John A. Snively, Jr., Vice-Chairman
L. S. Andrews, Jr.
Lorin T. Bice
Jeff Flake, Chairman
0. C. Minton, Vice-Chairman
Lorin T. Bice
W. E. Bishop
J. R. McDonald
John A. Snively, Jr., Chairman
L. S. Andrews, Jr.
Lorin T. Bice
Robert C. Evans, General Manager
Dawson Newton, Advertising Manager
Dr. L. G. MacDotell, Research Director
Robert Stuart, Comptroller
Florida Citrus Commission
July 1, 1949 June 30, 1950
The 1949-50 season was one of the most successful in the history
of the Florida citrus industry, and was no exception to the adage that
no two citrus seasons are alike. The history of this season will record
that several factors combined to make it a truly banner year. These
factors include the first year of operation under the Florida Citrus Code
of 1949, the first year of operation for Florida Citrus Mutual, the
tremendous increase in the production and consumption of frozen concen-
trated citrus juices, the hard-hitting advertising and promotion program
of the Florida Citrus Commission and the influence on prices of the severe
freezes in competing citrus areas.
The Florida Citrus Code of 19h9 became operative for the first
season and the higher quality standards for citrus fruits and products
are generally credited as being one of the leading factors in the record
prices received by growers. It is estimated that the income of Florida
citrus growers in this season attained the all-time record level of
$175,000,000. Wholesalers, receivers and retailers were in accord in
expressing their satisfaction with the high quality of Florida citrus.
Florida Citrus Mutual, a growers' organization with membership
representing a major portion of the production, was in operation for the
first season. Its activities in establishing minimum prices and prorating
shipments from time to time were one of the important factors that con-
tributed to the very satisfactory prices received by growers.
The hard-hitting advertising and sales promotion program of the
Florida Citrus Commission, which is discussed in detail in this report,
has been attributed by many of the sales managers as being one of the
best for many years and was a big factor in stimulating sales and
expanding distribution of the Florida citrus crop.
The tremendous increase in the production, distribution and con-
sumption of frozen concentrated orange juice had a significant affect on
supply and demand conditions for oranges. Production of this product
was increased by more than one-hundred percent. This, together with the
appreciable packs of frozen grapefruit and blended juice concentrates,
firmly established the concentrate industry as one of the most important
outlets for Florida citrus fruits. And, to add a note of optimism for
the future, it is expected that this outlet will rapidly become even
more important as there is a vast potential market for the frozen con-
centrated juices. Many industry people feel that the "surface has only
In considering the factors that contributed to the success of the
1949-50 season, last, but not least by any means, were the vagaries of
mother nature in inflicting crop losses in Florida and competing pro-
ducing areas. The national supply of grapefruit was far below normal
because of the severe freeze in Texas early in 19h9 and the Florida
hurricane. The production of oranges was reduced by severe freezes in
California early in the 1949-50 season.
In the following pages there is recorded somewhat in detail the
operations of the Florida Citrus Commission for the past fiscal year.
Established in 1935, when the total production of Florida citrus fruits
was only 29,500,000 boxes, the Commission has grown with the industry.
Production in recent years has approached one-hundred million boxes and
provides approximately $2,000,000 annually for use by the Commission in
expanding the market for Florida citrus.
The Commission's activities are discussed under the following
1. GENERAL ACTIVITIES
2. ADVERTIS IG, SALES PROMOTION AND PUBLICITY
5. STATISTICAL IUFORIATION.
I. GENERAL ACTIVITIES
The Commission continued, as in the past, to engage in a wide range
of activities of interest and concern to the citrus industry. ThTatever
favorable opinion the Florida industry may have for the work of the
Commission may be attributed in part to its efforts to render every
possible service to growers, shippers and processors in many matters of
general interest. The Commission meetings have served as a forum for
discussion of many industry problems. It has been the policy to permit
any grower, shipper or processor to be heard at Commission meetings, and
to extend such assistance as may be practical, feasible, and in conformity
with the citrus laws and regulations. Some of the general activities of
the Commission are outlined below.
The Commission took action in supporting or opposing certain bills
before the national Congress which might affect the citrus industry.
Members of our Congressional delegation were urged to support a bill
which would earmark all Section 32 funds exclusively for crops other than
the basic crops and Steagall crops. These funds are used for price
support purposes under the Agricultural Marketing Act and in the past
most of the government citrus purchases have been through the Section 32
funds. The bill was passed as recommended.
At the present time consideration is being given to bill H. R. 8320
which is designed to give financial assistance to groups desiring to
build or improve terminal marketing facilities for handling perishable
Representatives of the Commission participated in a hearing held
by the Food & Drug Administration in Washington to consider the use of
pesticides and insecticides on fruits and vegetables, with the view of
establishing tolerances. Among other items, the use of arsenic on
grapefruit was considered. No decisions have been rendered.
The Commission filed a vigorous protest against the reduction of
duty on citrus fruits and products imported into the United States. This
matter is still pending and hearings are being conducted by the Committee
for Reciprocity Information at Washington.
Following the passage of the new citrus code, it was necessary for
the Commission to completely revise its rules and regulations. Public
hearings were held prior to the beginning of the season at which proposed
regulations were discussed. Upon the basis of evidence submitted at the
hearings, the proposed regulations were revised and issued on August 15,
1949. Subsequent to that time it was necessary to make revisions from
time to time as experience was gained under the operation of the new
dode. For example, upon the recommendation of a large majority of
tangerine shippers, the regulation governing tests for maturity of
tangerines was revised to change the method of sampling and testing.
Changes were also made in the labeling requirements for canned citrus
Licenses and Permits
The Commission investigated and approved 1,338 license applications
from shippers, canners, truckers, express shippers, brokers, wholesalers,
etc. Of these, 959 rere renewals and 379 were new applicants, as follows:
Type of Handler Renewals New Applicants Total
Shippers 269 22 291
Processors l3 6 49
Truckers 322 95 117
Express Shippers 233 207 440
Brokers 42 3h 76
Wholesalers 49 14 63
Fresh Juice Distributors 1 1 2
Totals 959 379 1,338
A total of 283 Special Permits were issued during the season. Most
of these permits were issued under Section 50 of the code. Of these, 122
covered interstate commercial shipments, 31 for intrastate shipments, 118
for gift package shippers and 12 for shipments to charity.
In the Spring of 1949 the Legislature adopted the Florida Citrus
Code of 19h9, which changed many of the citrus laws, particularly those
relating to maturity and the operations of processors.
Early in the 1949-50 season a large group of processors sought
injunctive relief from the provisions of the code in Federal Court.
Practically all sections of the code, except maturity and advertising
tax, were attacked. A large group of fresh fruit shippers also sought
injunctive relief as to the maturity standards, claiming that the same
were arbitrary and unreasonable and, if enforced, would deny them their
rights without due process of law. Two other attacks were made by in-
dividual processors in the State Courts. The Commission successfully
defended all of these attacks; however, final decision has been rendered
in only one case. Hearings on some of the pending litigation are scheduled
for an early date.
Cooperation with Other Producing Areas
For a number of years it has been the policy of the Commission to
work closely with representatives from other producing areas on matters
of mutual interest. This close cooperation began during the last war
when the industry was confronted vdth price controls and other war
measures and has continued. It enables a small group to present a united
front in Washington and other places on matters affecting the welfare of
the citrus industry and has proven to be quite effective in many in-
stances. The most recent instance of such cooperation was a meeting with
the Secretary of Agriculture in New York and a later meeting in Washington
urging that prompt action be taken by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant
Quarantine on shipments of Mexican oranges moving into or throughthe
United States to prevent the introduction in this country of the dreaded
citrus blackfly which is prevalent in 1iexico.
Market Survey Information
Ylith the view of assisting processors and handlers in making
accurate and intelligent appraisals of market conditions from time to
time, and in order that growers might be fully informed, the Commission
continued to subscribe to the A. C. Nielsen Company food index service
on citrus juices. This service consists of bi-monthly reports which
contain a wide range of information on citrus juices. Among the items
reported are purchase and sale prices at the retail level, inventories
in retail and -wholesale outlets, volume of sales, distribution, etc.
Most of this information is reported by geographical areas, city size,
store types, and can sizes. The data is largely obtained by audits of
The Commission also continued its contract for the reports of
Industrial Surveys Company under a cooperative Research Iarketing Act
project with the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The information con-
tained in these reports on citrus juices is somewhat similar to that
obtained from the Nielsen Company. However, they also contain full in-
formation on the movement, prices and distribution of fresh citrus fruits
by producing areas. They also include data as to purchases by family
characteristics such as income, age, number and age of children in family,
etc. These reports are received monthly and are mailed to every licensed
processor and fresh citrus shipper. The information is obtained from a
large consumer panel.
II. ADVERTISING, MERCHANDISING AND PUBLICITY
One of the most important functions of the Commission is that of
creating an ever broader use of all Florida citrus throughout the nation.
During the past season this has been accomplished through a well-rounded
program of consumer advertising and advertising to professional groups
such as doctors, dentists, home economists, nurses and others who in-
fluence consumer purchases.
The Commission's consumer advertising program is handled by Benton
& Bowles, Inc., New York. In the 1949-50 season the principal media
were magazines, newspapers, television, spot radio and tradepapers.
l.agazine Advertising. The "backbone" of the Commission's consumer
advertising program consists of color advertisements in six of the nation's
leading consumer magazines. These publications are LIFE, SATURDAY
EVENING POST, LADIES' HOME JOURNAL, BETTER HOMES AND GARDENS, LcCALL'S,
and FARM JOURNAL. Approximately one-half of the funds expended by the
Commission for consumer advertising are devoted to this media.
Though many different approaches have been used by the Commission
in its advertising messages to the public, the principal emphasis has been
on three basic selling appeals: (1) health, (2) appetite or taste, and
(3) the competitive angle. There have been other minor appeals such as
convenience, economy, etc., that have varied in importance, depending upon
the product and season.
During the early days of the Commission, when production of Florida
fruit was considerably less than one-half of today's volume, the competitive
copy appeal for oranges was stressed to a much greater extent than any
other. At that time, it was the Commission's feeling that they must cash
in on the market already established by competitive areas and educate
consumers on the fact that Florida oranges had more juice, better and
sweeter juice, at less cost.
Since research had developed the fact that grapefruit was a much
more acquired taste than oranges, the emphasis in the copy for this fruit
was placed on health. There had been very little advertising on grape-
fruit before the Commission's effort began, and there was a need to
educate all consumers to the desirability of eating more grapefruit to
avoid colds, to reduce, and for its general healthful effect.
Since the tangerine crop in the early days was quite small, and
since it had already been established as a holiday fruit, the advertising
on tangerines stressed its use around Christmas and the holidays, espe-
cially for children, to be eaten instead of rich, indigestible sweets.
As the Commission's advertising program expanded, these same appeals
have been used, year in and year out, but the emphasis has undergone
changes from season to season. For example, when Florida's orange pro-
duction passed that of California's several years ago, it was felt that
the Commission could not devote too much emphasis to competitive advan-
tages but, rather, must devote a lot more education toward the expansion
of the orange market and oranges as a classification.
Production was growing so rapidly everyone realized that if Florida
could not educate more people to use more oranges more often with its
advertising, there would soon be a severe marketing problem. Therefore,
the advertising copy appeal for the past several seasons has stressed
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more and more the health advantages of all citrus fruits. Research has
developed that the taste of oranges is universally a favorite; however,
people might not use them as frequently as we would want them to unless
-we could give them a strong enough reason for it. This strong reason
As a consequence, for all citrus products, although we continue to
use the appetite, competitive, and other minor appeals, HEALTH has been
the dominant appeal used.
Fortunately, Florida has an unusual springboard to use in connection
with the health appeal in our advertising copy. Each year, millions of
people come to Florida to play, to relax, to find restored health and
youth under the Florida sky and sun. The same sun, sky, water and soil
contribute to making Florida the largest citrus growing state in the world.
Not only do the millions who come to Florida, but millions of others, think
of Florida as being "Nature's Treasure Chest of Health and Sunshine". It
is natural, therefore, to tie the excellence and health-giving qualities
of our citrus fruits to this slogan.
For the past season the Commission's advertising has told and sold,
by word and picture, that "Florida grows more and better citrus fruits
than any place else in the world", and that the reason for this is the
same that prompts millions to seek fun, relaxation, better health or
enjoyment under the sun and about the lakes and on the beaches of Florida.
Also, that this brimming health can be brought into their homes by the
greater use of Florida citrus products, fresh or processed, to give them
a rich, abundant supply of much-needed natural vitamin C, fruit sugars,
minerals,..,all the food values so necessary to ward off colds, take away
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fatigue, keep health teeth and gums, and make for a vigorous, happy life.
And all this can be had for reasonable prices.
Newspaper Advertising, Supplementing the consumer magazine adver-
tising, there was carried forward a strong newspaper campaign in black
and white in 106 newspapers in 93 markets during the period from November
to Ilay. These markets comprise the major trading areas for Florida citrus
products. It has been the policy to limit newspaper advertising largely
to fresh citrus fruits. The newspaper advertisements are published on
the food pages on those days and in those areas that the various food
stores use for their week-end specials. These papers covered a total
number of impressions of approximately 23,000,000 per each insertion.
The lead-off ads for both oranges and grapefruit were 800 line units
in major markets with 500 line (oranges) and 360 line (grapefruit) adapts
in the minor markets. Two 300 line units with adapts in 22" line size
were scheduled for tangerines one in December at the start of the season
and the other in January during the national promotion.
A special newspaper campaign was run during April and May in a group
of 13 midwest markets. This was comprised of three ~40 line units for
grapefruit and two 500 line units for oranges.
A special 800 line Valencia orange ad was run in ten major markets
(16 papers) at the time of the April national orange promotion. A 300 line
unit covering regreening of oranges was scheduled in Mlay in 11 terminal
markets (24 papers).
Trade Paper Advertising. National advertising is not complete unless
it is merchandised direct to the markets at the consumer level in order
that the market managers may take advantage and tie in with the messages
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that are continually set for the millions of readers reached through
magazines and newspapers. With this in mind, a strong trade journal
campaign was carried out. This campaign was run from November through
August in 23 trade publications four in the grocery field, five fountain,
three hotel and restaurant, two produce and nine houseorgan type books.
The campaign was based largely upon success stories of how others have
found ways and means of selling more fruits and juices profitably. For
its work in this field the Commission was awarded first place among 300
competitors for the best in food merchandising for the year. The contest
was conducted and the award made by the Associated Business Publications.
Television and Spot Radio. A special promotion for Valencia oranges
using live television participation shows was run from April 2h through
April 28 on five local New York stations. This promotion was followed up
by a week of one-minute spot radio announcements over 27 stations in ten
major markets, from Hay 1 through Uay 7.
For seven weeks, from May 8 through June 27, a special spot radio
campaign for canned tangerine juice was run on 27 stations in ten major
markets, using three participation shows plus live and recorded one-minute
Point-of-sale Material. During the year there was distributed at
consumer level more than 2,500,000 pieces of individual advertising
material calling attention to the fact that Florida citrus products are
on sale. The point-of-sale material was carefully planned to fit the need
of the various super market, co-op, and independent stores. The pieces
were designed to portray the Florida citrus story, as well as to be a
definite sales aid for the market placing the material on display,
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In addition to point-of-sale material, the Commission mailed 105,690
pieces of educational literature and special material, of which 88,690
were mailed as a result of requests received through the mails in response
to our advertising.
The ethical advertising program of the Commission, handled by Noyes
& Sproul, Inc., of New York, is designed to educate and cultivate those
professional groups who are in a strategic position to exercise a strong
influence on consumer purchases, through their recommendations in the
interest of the consumer's personal well-being.
This professional market breaks down under the program into five
component groups: the medical, the pediatric, the dental, the hospital,
and the diet and home economic.
The medical group represents approximately 150,000 medical physicians
and 11,000 osteopathic physicians engaged in general practice. This group
also includes about 350,000 nurses. Because of their intimate relation-
ship vith their patients, and their concern for their patients' diet,
they have an extraordinary opportunity for emphasizing the value of citrus
fruits and juices, and for recommending their generous use.
A second segment of the professional market is represented by the
pediatricians. The 5,500 doctors specializing in the care of infants and
children represent a group of primary importance because of the tremendous
potential market for citrus fruits and juices among the children who come
under their direction.
The 78,000 dentists of the country constitute the third professional
division. Dentists can prove a most significant factor in stimulating
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citrus consumption if they are properly educated on the scientific
facts available in the professional literature.
The fourth sub-division of the ethical market includes the 8,100
hospitals of the country a most important market for citrus products.
The home economists of the nation approximately 36,500 of them -
comprise the fifth group included under this program.
During 19h9-50 this program utilized 9 professional publications
for the cultivation of the medical group, 3 publications to reach the
pediatricians, two journals to cover the dental profession nationally,
four publications to cultivate the hospital market, and 3 journals to
reach the home economists and nutritionists.
During the 1949-50 season, approximately $65,000 was expended for
During the 1949-50 season the Florida Citrus Commission again
expanded its merchandising division to a staff of 25 men, and for the
purpose of carrying forward a systematic plan of merchandising, divided
the United States and Canada into 13 regions. Headquarters for each
Region 1 Atlanta, Georgia
Region 2 Baltimore, Maryland
Region 3 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Region 4 New York City, New York
Region 5 Boston, Massachusetts
Region 6 Detroit, Michigan
Region 7 Cincinnati, Ohio
Region 8 Memphis, Tennessee
Region 9 Chicago, Illinois
Region 10 San Francisco, California
Region 11 Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Region 12 Ilontreal, Quebec, Canada
Region 13 State of Florida, Lakeland.
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With this expanded staff the Commission's effectiveness for further
merchandising Florida citrus was greatly increased. It is the duty of
these merchandising men to continually promote the use of Florida citrus
fruits and products. Since it is impossible for them to contact a large
number of individual retailers, they concentrate on contacting the head-
quarters of the major corporate chains, voluntary groups, the larger
wholesale units, hotel and restaurant associations, and other similar
The merchandising men made 32,250 individual calls and conducted
146 juice demonstrations at point of sale.
Through the medium of our newly established field service portable
juice bars, the Commission's merchandising force has been able to greatly
increase the sale of both fresh and processed citrus. These demonstrations
have met with tremendous enthusiasm and through the setup that was developed
by the Commission, many large food organizations have bought and established
their own juice bars to carry forward this type of merchandising. In some
instances such demonstration work has increased the volume of sales as
much as 1000%.
A further duty which our merchandising division has carried forward
has been in the form of merchandising cooperation. Many newspapers offer
their advertisers support in the form of merchandising cooperation, and
this year our staff has worked hand in hand vwth those newspapers in the
major markets in which we have placed our advertising and have received
It is impossible to estimate the many tie ups that have been arranged.
However, it can be said that during the past year many thousands of local
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mentions of Florida citrus products, with prices, have been published by
local food advertisers at their own expense. There is no way of estimating
accurately the total space devoted to Florida citrus products by chain
and independent food merchants, but it is safe to say that this space
amounts to many times the amount of space used in the Commission's campaign.
It has been largely through the work of the merchandising division that
this cooperation has been secured.
An important division of our over-all merchandising program is the
participation in conventions and allied functions directly concerned with
those organizations who are responsible for the most part for the sale
of Florida citrus products.
During the past year the Commission participated in hh shows and
functions in 19 cities, exhibiting a total of 1h9 days, with 206 dispensers
in use, dispensing a total of 2,696 gallons of juice which comprise
approximately 100,000 servings. The over-all attendance at these 4h
functions was estimated to be 667,615 people.
During the 1919-50 season the Commission filled 5,555 orders for
display material, 105,690 pieces of educational literature and special
material, and 18,601 copies of Florida citrus recipe booklets.
Publicity and Public Relations
The Commission's general publicity and public relations program is
handled by Dudley, Anderson and Yutzy of New York. This Agency has been
employed by the Commission for many years and specializes in preparing
food recipes and information for use by the food editors of newspapers,
magazines, radio and television stations. A test kitchen is maintained
in which expert home economists develop new recipes and methods of using
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citrus fruits and products. The citrus releases to the food editors are
under the name of Dorothy Ames Carter who has a high standing in this
The Agency during the past year became the first to offer color
photographs to newspapers and magazines and to work intensively with
television personalities. The mainstay of the program has been the close
contact with top editors and food nutrition writers, the women whose
names are familiar in every kitchen in the country and whose recipes are
literally Golden Rules to old and new cooks alike. Close contact is
also maintained with the staffs of the leading women's service magazines,
the people who write and edit cookbooks, and those who rite nationally
syndicated newspaper columns.
By reason of the fact that the Agency is located in New York where
the home economists of many of the large food firms are located, a good
opportunity is afforded to have Florida citrus included in their recipes,
publicity and advertising, in.a manner most favorable to Florida. The
space and time obtained for Florida citrus is of the type that cannot be
purchased. During the 1949-50 season the amount of publicity obtained
was greater than ever before the circulation count from the Agency's
actual clippings adding up to more than half a billion.
Regular monthly mailings to the various publications are timed to
their schedules months ahead. The magazine circulation during the past
season amounted to 51,199,241. To supplement the material mailed to the
food editors, representatives of the Agency have developed bonds of
friendship and confidence which produce good results through personal
telephone calls, visits, and luncheon discussions. During the Newspaper
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Food Editors Conference last year orange juice was served to the editors
in their rooms before breakfast each morning and they v.ere presented vith
special gifts of citrus fruit tied into pictures and news stories. During
the past season when a special push was made on grapefruit, the agency
sent to a carefully picked group of editors hatboxes filled with citrus
fruit, together with pictures and stories. Almost 100 percent printing
of these features resulted.
About 3 times each month, pictures and stories on Florida citrus
are sent to the newspapers and syndicated columns Associated Press,
United Press, King Features, etc. In more than one instance where our
citrus material was sent to one of these syndicates, it appeared in 500
or more of their subscribing papers. During the past year the newspaper
circulation obtained was 571,414,177. This means that during the past
year at least ten articles on Florida citrus, on the average, have appeared
in each of the country's dailies. This type of publicity is needed to
back up a well-rounded advertising program.
During 1948-49 the Agency's color photographs were used in the food
pages of Sunday supplements by three papers, this being the first year
this type of photograph was used on the food pages. In the past season
18 papers used these photographs. This same space, in color, if purchased
for advertising would cost approximately $25,000.00.
Wide publicity is obtained through the shopping papers published by
leading grocery chains, to the extent of a 5,000,000 circulation figure
for our recipes and pictures last year; through house organs and plant
publications of over 300 large companies, where there is no advertising
space for sale; through sectional, foreign language and group papers and
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magazines, for a total circulation here of over 20,000,000.
The Agency was the first to do any concerted planning vith tele-
vision performers. Its early experience and interest in the needs of
these performers puts citrus on television screens all over the country
regularly. Food ideas are worked out and passed along to the actual
stars of the shows. Frequently guest appearances are arranged for the
Con.mission's home economists and other representatives of the citrus
The home economists of the Agency are highly recognized within their
profession and attend all meetings of the professional groups, such as
the American Dietetic Association, the National Home Economics Associa-
tion, the Home Economists in Business, etc. Last year the Commission's
advertising and publicity programs were explained to the Florida Home
Economics Association and plans are being made to entertain the membership
of this group at a breakfast next Fall, to show them how to actually use
citrus products in menus.
Through our publicity, wi were able to introduce frozen concentrated
citrus juices to food editors long before it was practical to advertise
it, and to condition them to condition their readers to want this new
product. Through contacts within government bureaus, the Agency was able
to insure extensive distribution of recipe cards to schools.
The scope of the program encompasses all those avenues which lend
themselves in any degree to food news, and which lead, in the aggregate,
to higher per capital consumption of Florida citrus.
A total of $45,000 was appropriated for this activity in the 1949-50
season. Final figures are not yet available, but the actual expenditures
were less than the appropriation.
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Section 13 of the Florida Citrus Code of 1949 provides funds in an
amount up to 5 percent of the total income of the Commission for carrying
on research work. This fund amounts to approximately $100,000 annually,
One of the most outstanding accomplishments of the Commission's
Research Department was the development of the "cut-back" principle in
the production of frozen concentrated orange juice which is covered by
U. S. Patent No. 2453109, issued November 9, 1948. It is through this
principle that frozen concentrate is distributed to the consumer with
about the same flavor as freshly extracted juice. The frozen concentrate
industry in Florida this year produced approximately 21,576,000 gallons
of frozen concentrated orange juice, 1,582,000 gallons of frozen con-
centrated grapefruit juice, and 1,290,000 gallons of frozen concentrated
blended orange-grapefruit juice. The concentrate outlet is a major
factor in the utilization of Florida's orange crop and is expected to
become an important factor with the grapefruit and perhaps the tangerine
crops. Within a relatively short time frozen concentrated orange juice
became the No. 1 seller in frozen food cabinets.
Each year the National Wholesale Frozen Food Distributors, Inc.
awards a distinguished merit plaque to the firm that contributes the most
to the frozen food industry. In 1950, the plaque was awarded to the
State of Florida in recognition of the importance of frozen concentrated
citrus juices. The citation on the plaque reads as follows:
"This distinguished merit award is presented to The State of
Florida for its spirit of free enterprise in bringing the
world the boon of frozen juice concentrates a modern
example of how the vigorous competition among scientists,
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citrus growers, packers and distributors eliminates seasons
and revolutionizes food preparation methods everywhere."
The plaque was presented to Governor Fuller Warren at the 1950
Annual meeting of the Association held at Chicago. Governor Tarren in
turn presented the plaque to the Florida Citrus Commission at the Citrus
Exposition at Winter Haven, in February 1950, in recognition of the out-
standing work of its Research Department in the development of frozen
concentrated citrus juices. The plaque was accepted in behalf of the
Commission by Dr. L. G. IacDowell, Research Director, Dr. Edwin L. 11oore
and C. D. Atkins, Research fellows, who developed the cut-back principle
Following is a summary of the Research work conducted in the 1949-
50 fiscal year:
Cooperative Research with the Citrus Experiment Station,
Lake Alfred, Florida
Keeping Quality and Prevention of Decay During the Harketing of
Citrus Fruits. This project is primarily concerned with the prevention
of decay in citrus fruits caused by stem-end rots and molds. Investiga-
tion of the value of certain fungicides such as Dowicide A and Diphenyl
is in progress. The work also involves the testing of various treatments
for decay control offered to the citrus industry to determine if they
possess any merit and also to inform packing plants as to their value.
The effect of methods of handling and processing the fruit on keeping
quality and decay are also being studied. The outstanding development
of the past year has been the discovery that examine added to Dowicide
A solutions will prevent peel burn on anything except very weak fruit,
The Dowicide A-hexamine treatment followed by diphenyl wraps or packaging
in diphenyl impregnated cartons has resulted in better than 90% control
of decay over a 3 week holding period.
Relation of Fertilizer Practices to the Quality of Processed Citrus
Juices. The purpose of this project is to determine the effect of various
fertilizer practices on the quality of canned citrus juices. Fruit juices
from fruit on plots that have received various fertilizer treatments are
canned in the pilot plant at the Citrus Experiment Station. These packs
are stored at OO0F. and 800F. for periodic analytical and organoleptic
examinations. These studies should indicate any differences in the
- 22 -
keeping quality of these canned juices that could be attributed to varying
amounts of potassium, magnesium or manganese in the fertilizer applied.
To date this vork has not turned up any large differences. It will be
continued over a 3-year period.
Standardization of Processed Citrus Juices. This project involves a
study of those characteristics of processed citrus juices upon which their
consumer acceptability is based. Some of these characteristics are flavor
intensity, aroma, peel oil, Brix/acid ratio, bitter extractives and off
flavors. Various types of consumer taste panels and various scoring methods
have been utilized to determine the acceptability of processed citrus juices
upon which standardization should be based, One object is to develop a
method of procedure for conducting a nationwide consumer preference survey
on citrus juices. Some of the work involves the standardization of citrus
juices by (1) partial evaporation, (2) the addition of a concentrate or
(3) the addition of sugar. Some of this work was reported on at the 1950
meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists by Professor R. L. D. Morse
of Florida State University and will be published shortly,
Relation of Spray Practices to the Quality of Processed Citrus Juices.
This project is designed to determine the effect of various spray practices
on the quality of canned citrus juices. Fruit juices from fruit on plots
that have been sprayed with various materials are processed and stored at
different temperatures to determine any changes in flavor or keeping quality
that may occur.
Processing Equipment For Concentrated Citrus Juices. The Commission's
Research Department has assisted the industry in connection with the
designing, building and use of equipment for the processing of concentrated
citrus juices. A germicidal fruit washer for the effective removal and
destruction of microorganisms from the surface of the fruit has been designed,
built and is being used. A single-effect two stage, low-temperature thermo-
compression evaporator has been designed and built. This evaporator will
be used in the future for various research projects on concentrated citrus
juices. This evaporator design has been used by 3 manufacturers of frozen
concentrates to produce several million gallons this past season.
Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices. Frozen orange, grapefruit and
tangerine concentrates have been prepared and are stored at OOF. These
concentrates are being utilized for various investigations. Bacteriological
studies are being made during a period of one year on various packs of con-
centrates that are being stored at 00F. Studies on the cause and prevention
of the gelation of frozen concentrated grapefruit juice were undertaken.
The use of concentrates for the standardization of citrus juices prior to
canning is being investigated.
The Microbiology of Frozen Concentrated Citrus Juices. Packs of
frozen citrus concentrates which have been processed at the Citrus
Experiment Station and at several commercial plants have been stored at
00F. and are being examined at regular intervals over a period of one
year to determine the survival of various types of microorganisms.
- 23 -
Partial results of this work formed the basis for a paper read at the
1950 meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists.
The Physical and Chemical Properties of Essential Oils Produced
in Florida. Under this project the physical and chemical properties of
cold-pressed and distilled oils of orange, grapefruit, tangerine and
lime are determined. The oils are secured monthly from commercial pro-
cessing plants which use four different types of extraction equipment.
A study is being made of some of the factors that affect the chemical
properties of the expressed oils such as seasonal variations, spray
practices, fruit variety, degree of maturity and storage of fruit before
extraction. The project involves a study of the necessary production
methods so that essential oils may be secured that vill meet the U.S.P.
lMethane Fermentation of Waste Water from Citrus Canning Plants.
This project involves an investigation of the production of methane by the
bacterial fermentation of waste water from citrus processing plants. A
pilot plant has been constructed at the Florence Citrus Growers Associa-
tion canning plant at Florence Villa. Methane fermentation may result
in the production of a useful by-product from cannery waste water, and
at the same time provide for the removal of organic matter from the waste
water, which usually causes pollution and nuisances with present disposal
systems. Difficulties have been encountered in this process during the
past year that may make it necessary to destroy the sugar before sub-
jecting the waste water to the final fermentation.
Citrus Holasses. Composition of citrus molasses has been determined
by the analysis of samples secured from 13 processing plants. In addition
a study is being made of methods of production that may yield a clarified
molasses that could be standardized more readily than molasses that is
now produced commercially. Procedures that may be used for the clarifica-
tion of citrus press juice prior to concentration are also being studied.
This work is being carried on through grants to universities and
Yale University. The investigation of the vitamin content of the
various citrus juices has been completed and the results v-ill appear in
the Hay-June issue of Food Research. This work has substantiated the
fact that citrus juices are extremely rich in inositol, one of the B-
Dr. Norman Jolliffee, New York City. This work on the use of citrus
juices in obesity diets has been completed with excellent results. It
was found that citrus juices function as appetite appeasers if taken from
- 2L -
30 to 60 minutes before mealtime. Using this regime, approximately 50
obese patients were studied.
University of MIaryland, Medical School. Dr. Loring Joslin of this
school investigated the incidence of allergy towards orange juice in
babies and small children. Happily, the number of subjects shoving
allergic symptoms was so small as to be insignificant.
Pennsylvania State College. This investigation into the "quick-
energy" producing properties of orange juice is being continued. Results
to date indicate that the ingestion of orange juice does give the subject
I.assachusetts Memorial Hospital. This research on the renal metab-
olism of the constituents of orange juice has been in effect only a few
months. However, preliminary results indicate a significantly higher
potassium content of the urine after ingestion of orange juice.
As in the past, the Commission printed and distributed 20,000 copies
of the 1950 Better Fruit Program, Spray and Dust Schedule.
Section 1 of the Citrus Code provides that the Commission may use
up to 3 percent of its income for the handling of transportation matters,
hiring of rate experts, etc. For a number of years the Commission has
employed the Growers and Shippers League of Florida, Orlando, Florida, to
handle all of the transportation problems of the fresh citrus shippers and
the processors. Recently, the Commission also arranged for the League to
handle transportation problems of by-products processors producing such
commodities as cattle feed, citrus oils, and molasses.
Following is a brief report of some of the more important activities
carried on by the Growers and Shippers League of Florida for and on behalf
- 25 -
of the Florida Citrus Commission and the citrus industry, generally.
Reduced Rail Rates on Citrus Fruit. As a result of several con-
ferences and data presented to railroad officials of the Florida origin
carriers a proposal for a drastic reduction in rail rates, including a
modified form of refrigeration, without charge, was approved by the
Southern rail lines and presented to the railroads north of the Ohio and
Potomac rivers for concurrence.
These new rates were subject to carload minimum weights of 48, 000
pounds on oranges, 43,000 pounds on grapefruit, and 38,475 pounds on
tangerines and limes.
With the exception of the Illinois Central, C. & E.I., G.M.& 0., and
L. & N. railroads the northern carriers refused to concur in this adjust-
Briefly, the proposal was based on meeting the truck charge, (as
example to Chicago $1.00 per box) by reducing the rate and including free
refrigeration. Under this proposal the rate was reduced from $1.25 per
hundred pounds to $1.08 per hundred pounds to Chicago. The cost of
modified refrigeration is approximately 12 cents per box. Computing this
reduction, including refrigeration, to a per package charge represented
a reduction of 24 cents per box.
This adjustment was to a very limited territory applying only to
points served by the above mentioned railroads. As information, from the
date the reduced rates became effective to this restricted territory,
November 15, 1949, through fay 31, 1950, 1,563 cars moved to Chicago and
by computing this, using the per package reduction of 24 cents and an
average per car minimum of 500 boxes, the transportation charges on fresh
citrus fruit saved by this reduction amounts of $187,560.00 to Chicago,
only. Because of lack of information as to the carload movement to other
cities served by the four lines it is impossible to compute the entire
After the refusal of the northern delivering lines to concur in this
adjustment, representatives of the League continued to confer with the
Southern carriers in an effort to reduce these charges and there is now
docketed for consideration by the lines involved a reduction that will
bring the rates per package down to a basis of 10 cents per box less than
the charges made by truckers, excluding refrigeration.
As an example the rate per box to Chicago will become 90 cents, to
Detroit, Michigan, $1.05, and to Pittsburgh, 90 cents, excluding refrigera-
tion. It is estimated that if and when this adjustment becomes effective
it will represent a saving of $4,000,000.00 in the cost of transporting
citrus fruit from Florida to the territory east of the Mississippi river
and north of the Ohio and Potomac rivers.
Unloading Charges At New York And Philadelphia. Since receipt of the
- 26 -
Interstate Commerce Commission's decision Thich made effective unloading
charges on fresh citrus fruit at New York and Philadelphia of $1.95 per
ton, November 1, 1948, the League has endeavored to find ways and means of
over-throwing the Commission's decision and have been successful in part
to the extent that the Commission finally agreed to re-open this case for
further consideration, and hearings were held at Brooklyn, N. Y.,
September 27th to 30th, 1949. The hearing examiners have now issued a
proposed report in which they recommend that the Commission find the un-
loading charges at New York and Philadelphia to be unreasonable and should
be cancelled. Oral argument is set for July 2hth.
In the event the Interstate Commerce Commission renders a decision
sustaining the hearing examiners this will represent a saving in delivery
and sale of Florida citrus fruit in New York and Philadelphia of
$1,500, 000.00, annually.
An attempt by the Southern lines to equalize rail rates with boat
rates in November 1949, whereby the Southern lines would absorb the un-
loading charge at New York City was defeated by opposition of the
Philadelphia fresh fruit and vegetable trade.
Philadelphia insisted that if the Southern lines refused to absorb
the unloading charge at Philadelphia the same as proposed at New York it
would discriminate against the Philadelphia market, and were successful
in having the Interstate Commerce Commission suspend the absorption at
New York City, This case can be considered as a companion to the above
mentioned action in both cities and a determination by the Commission in
the event they find the charges now assessed at New York and Philadelphia
unreasonable will have the effect of closing out both cases.
Rates on Canned Citrus From Florida. The League has participated in
many conferences with the railroad officials concerning a reduction in
rates on canned citrus and these rates have been reduced substantially.
The reduction between Florida and Southwestern territory is approximately
15%, entirely within the Southern territory 25%, to Western Trunk Line
territory 10%, and to the territory north of the Ohio and Potomac rivers,
commonly known as Official territory, 15%.
Reduction In Rail Rates On Frozen Citrus Concentrate. Since the
organization of the Frozen Citrus Concentrate Transportation Advisory
Committee several conferences have been held with railroad officials con-
cerning rates on frozen citrus concentrate and the Southern and Northern
carriers have now approved a lower basis of rates which approximates 11%
reduction in these rates.
State MIotor Truck Weight Laws. In recent months several states, and
in the forefront the State of Virginia, have been vigorously enforcing
their maximum gross truck weight laws which has had a serious effect upon
the movement of citrus fruit from Florida..
In the interest of maintaining a free flow of fresh citrus fruit,
- 27 -
canned and frozen concentrate citrus fruit juices the League in cooper
with the Florida Railroad and Public Utilities Commission and several
interested organizations conferred and then met with the Virginia State
enforcement officials in an attempt to secure some relief.
The Virginia officials have refused any relief and have advised that
they will continue strict enforcement of their 50,000 lb. gross truck
The only means of relief from this situation is to have the weight
laws in each state amended and a program spear-headed by the League is
already under way to accomplish this.
Steamship Rates And Charges On Fresh Citrus Fruit. The Refrigerated
Steamship Line resumed service from Fort Pierce and Jacksonville, Florida,
to New York City in November 19h9 and published proportional rates on
citrus fruit from origins along the Indian River section through the ports
of Fort Pierce and Jacksonville, which reflected the cost of trucking
fruit from these origins to the ports.
They also published an item under which they would advance charges
for trucking costs for transporting fruit to the ports.
The rail carriers asked for suspension of the proportional rates as
well as the advancement of charges and the League appeared in support of
the boat lines.
A proposed report by the examiners in this case has been issued,
which finds that the establishment of proportional rates and advancing of
charges to truckers were not unreasonable or unlawful, sustaining the
position the League took in the proceeding. The Commission's decision is
now being awaited.
Transportation Research Program. At the request of the League the
United States Department of Agriculture set up a program to secure complete
information as to the relative merits of different types of refrigeration
used in transporting fresh citrus fruit.
Since November 1949 the Department of Agriculture has run approxi-
mately 275 tests and although no reports are available as yet preliminary
data indicates that adequate refrigeration for the transportation of
citrus fruit can be secured by using modified forms of refrigeration which
will result in substantial savings to the fresh citrus fruit shippers.
Further tests are to be conducted throughout the next season, after which
the data secured will be carefully analyzed and a bulletin released con-
taining factual evidence as to what can and cannot be accomplished under
the various types of refrigeration.
Determination Of Exempt Commodities. The Interstate Commerce Com-
mission for somewhat over a year and a half has had before it the question
of determining what constitutes exempt commodities under Section 203 (b)(6)
of the Interstate Commerce Act. The question in this proceeding is vh
or not packaging of agricultural commodities and the preparation for sa
in the fresh form made that commodity a manufactured agricultural produce
which thereby removed that commodity from the exemption under the Hotor
Carrier Act, The League has taken the position that the preparation of
citrus fruit for sale as fresh citrus did not change it into a manu-
factured commodity no matter how packaged and the examiner's proposed
report in this proceeding sustains this position. This case is now before
the entire Commission for decision. Oral argument has already been held.
In addition to the foregoing, the League has handled numerous other
transportation matters affecting the industry including obtaining suspensions
on proposed increases in railway express rates on citrus fruits and success-
fully preventing the establishment of substantially increased intrastate
rates on fertilizer.
UTILIZATION OF FLCRIDA CITRUS CROPS
TOTAL FRESH TOTAL PROCESSED
- -100,000 Boxes- -
- r- -
- -r -r -
TOTAL FRESH TOTAL PROCESSED
, -100,000 oxess - -
TOTAL FRESH TOTAL PROCESSED
- -10,000 Boxes- -- -- -
3J 3 ?
PACK OF FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTS
- - 1,000 Cases
24 No. 2 ans- -- -
FROZEN GRF. PROCESSED GRF. FROZEN BLEND(O-G)
CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE CONCENTRATE
- -10,000 Gallons- - - - -
-Tons- - -- --
SIncludes Meal, Pulp & Pellets
x Includes Orange Sections
* Includes Tangerine Blends
. r \
: .:.. .
'"::; r. :i
--.~ .. ....:.
'r i ,?