Volume II, No. 3 MARCH, 1960
The first fundamental of good animal and dairy husbandry is to
grow as much grass as possible. But when local pastures are insuf-
ficient, we recommend SWEET SUNI-CITRUS PULP, an excellent
source of low cost, digestible nutrients and a proven conditioner
with the important Milk Stimulating Factor.
Without the assistance of men
like Dr. Milton Jarnigan of
the Georgia College of Agri-
culture, Dr. R. B. Becker of
the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, and Dr. E.
S. Savage of Cornell Univer-
sity, our company-the first to
manufacture the present satis-
factory type of dried citrus pulp-would have had
much harder going during the years immediately fol-
lowing our founding in 1936.
These leaders in animal and dairy husbandry imbued
us with certain everlasting fundamentals. Today we
still rely for guidance on the professors in the dairy
departments of these same colleges of agriculture.
Su",,a:iftr duc& s
HAINES CITY, FLORIDA
No matter how nutri-
tive a product may be,
if it isn't palatable cows
won't eat enough to
produce a maximum
quantity of milk. They
love SWEET SUNI-
Comely Lady of Dinsmore
Dairy was champion of all
Florida breeds. SWEET
SUNI-CITRUS PULP helps
tHEY MOO FOR MOR@
SP99~r --~---~nsr~r~ ~I II I
Volume 11, Number 3
NEW IMAGES FOR AGRICULTURE
Agriculture as a Career --~~.---~~....
College Training for Scientific Agrici
New Images for Agriculture -
Agricultural Research .....-------
The Future of the
Agricultural Extension Service....
Supply and Demand...--....--..---------
Your Job .................... ------
Farming in the Future ---...-....-. -
Editor ........ R
Editorial Assistants Don
Business Manager Ha
Circulation Assistants.......... -----.....
Faculty Advisory Committee
Dr. Earl G. Rodgers, Dr. Ralph A. E
COVER: Janice Perceful, University of Flo
visits with other cute chicks that are part
The FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
publication from the College of Agriculture
sity of Florida. It is compiled, edited, and
students of this college. It is the privilege
dent to use this publication as a medium ol
is the voice of the Florida agricultural student
Entered as second class mailing matter at the Post C
Station, Gainesville, Florida, December 8, 1938
Congress of 1879. Twenty-five cents per copy, do
lished four times during the year: November, Jan
May. Address all correspondence to Florida Coil
McCarty Hall, Gainesville, Florida.
PRINTED BY CONVENTION PRESS, JACKSO
It has been said that the only thing that doesn't
change is change itself. Progress is inevitable with
dynamic processes, and education is no exception.
Colleges of Agriculture around the country have
long concerned themselves with the problem of keep-
ing up with the times and producing graduates who
have the best possible preparation to assist them in
In past years, the concept of a college education
in agriculture was limited in most cases to training
for farming and ranching, preparation for teaching, or
other farm entered governmental employment. This
limited scope was all right in its time, but it does not
......... 4 measure up to today's requirements.
culture ....... 4 The modern concept has become so broad agricul-
tural careers include industrial agriculture in indus-
tries engaged in processing of plant and animal pro-
-----.------..---.. 5 ducts, in the manufacture and sale of equipment and
supplies for the farm, in agricultural businesses con-
5 cerned with farm management, farm credit, the mar-
keting and distribution of products of the soil, and in
...------------ 6 private and public education and business services to
S8 the farmer.
To put these words into figures, 25 million people
.....-------- 1 work or are employed as what one person has called
agribusinessmen. Seven million work on farms, 7 mil-
lion produce for and service farmers, and t1 million
oderic Magie are engaged in all forms of marketing farm products.
Arnold Trift This makes industrial agriculture the biggest busi-
id Serdynski ousness in the country, and it means there are tremen-
bara Chaplin dous opportunities for anyone interested in the field.
Porter Pierce Thus agricultural curricula are being revised in
.Skip Stem all up-to-date colleges. These revisions take slightly
......Dan Akins different forms, but all have in mind the widening
Ben Thornal scope that Agriculture has, and will have in the fu-
Harold Croft ture. To be more specific, we will cite several cases
Richard Kelly in which planning is being done today for tomorrow's
Washington State University College of Agricul-
astwood ture is offering "Agribusiness" as a new segment in
their program. Under the new program, three op-
rida Freshman, tions are open to students who enter the four-year
of the annual
course leading to a BS degree. The options are: tech-
nical agriculture, science specialization, and agricul-
is the student tural management. Physical science and economics
of the Univer- courses are included in the curricula to give their
distributed by students a broad base on which to place the more
of any ag stu-
f expression. It specialized training.
t. At Cornell University College of Agriculture, the
student is required to complete 24 hours of biological,
under an Act of physical, and social sciences. In addition, he is given
lary, March, and 20 hours of non-agricultural electives to broaden his
lege Farmer, Dan background as a well equipped college graduate.
NVILLE, FLA. (Continued on page 14)
NEW IMAGES FOR
This article has been prepared by the heads of the three divisions of Agricul-
ture at the University of Florida; teaching, research and extension. The intro-
duction is by Provost for Agriculture, Willard M. Fifield. It is hoped "New Images
in Agriculture" will give the reader a comprehensive view of tomorrow's agriculture
and the role of the University of Florida in this tremendous field.
Agriculture as a Career
WILLARD M. FIFIELD
Provost for Agriculture, University of
The big decision facing young men
and women is the choice of a lifetime
career. Some just drift into it, but those
with more intelligence and foresight plan
for it, study and work toward it. I find
SLas I travel about that relatively few
young people or their parents realize
the great opportunities afforded in Amer-
ica's tremendously diversified new agri-
cultural industry. It is an industry that's
here to stay. We must eat, and wear
clothes. it is an industry of opportunities
for a wide variety of aptitudes, talents,
scientific and managerial skills, foreign
or domestic travel, and all the attributes
of productive service to mankind.
Let your imagination play upon the
idea of "food of tomorrow!" The trends
in modern agriculture are definite, and
certainly open a wide vista for careers
ahead. The drudgery of the old farm
life is rapidly passing, with more mech-
anization, electricity, and establishment
of modern concepts of business man-
agement. But to operate tomorrow's
farm will require knowledge of chemis-
try, mechanics, biology, economics, busi-
ness principles, and many other things
like effective control of pests and nu-
trition of plants and animals because
all these things are involved in knowing
the right thing to do at the right time,
at the lowest cost. Machine design, in-
secticide formulations, fertilizer analy-
ses, medicants, feed ingredients, and
even market patterns change, but the
fundamentals do not.
So much for the farming aspects of
agriculture. These are more generally
understood. What many overlook, how-
ever, are the other aspects. The great
supply industry upon which modern
farmers depend fertilizers, insecti-
cides, seeds, feeds, farm machinery,
crates, and packaging materials this
is here to stay, too. Then in the pro-
cessing industry citrus concentrate,
College Training for
M. A. BROKER
Dean, College of Agriculture
Vast changes are occurring in agricul-
ture due to the atomic age and the popu-
lation explosion. From the technical and
economic revolutions through which we
have been passing, a new image of agri-
culture in this country is emerging. This
image views agriculture in its entirety,
and not only as production on the farm,
important as that phase of agriculture
is to our state and nation.
When our country was young, a cen-
tury or more ago, the producer on the
farm also was the marketer. He did such
processing as was necessary, and took
his product to market, where often he
exchanged or bartered it for other con-
sumption or production goods. Many of
the goods needed for production pur-
poses he manufactured for himself, and
much of the food he consumed was pro-
duced on his own farm.
Under those conditions the test of a
farmer's ability to succeed was his skills
in doing a wide variety of things. He
had neither the desire nor the opportu-
nity to become a specialist in any phase
of the production or marketing process.
He had to do all of these things with
reasonable efficiency in order to survive.
In modern day agriculture, however,
the specialist has come into his own.
There are about 7 million farmers and
workers on farms in this country. These
are the production specialists. We have
about 11 million persons engaged in
marketing, which includes processing,
storing, handling, and merchandising
specialties, and there are about 7 million
people engaged in the specialized busi-
ness of supplying farmers. Taken to-
gether, these three groups employ almost
40 percent of the total working popula-
tion of the United States.
All three of these groups are engaged
in agriculture, doing the same jobs that
were done by their forefathers a century
ago, but in a far more efficient manner.
The number of people living on farms
and engaged in the production specialty
consequently has been declining. In spite
of the declining number of farms and
farm workers, agriculture has increased
its total productivity at a rate of more
than two percent a year since 1930.
Colleges of Agriculture throughout
the country are modernizing their cur-
ricula and programs in line with this
changed situation in agriculture. In order
that agriculture may be kept productive
and made more productive in the future
to meet the needs of our rapidly expand-
ing population, it must be treated as a
science. And students in agriculture must
be trained as scientists.
(Continued on page 10)
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
meat products, prepackaged vegetables,
quick-frozen and dehydrated foods -
much is new, with solid prospects of
further improvement and innovation.
Think of the changes which can be antici-
pated with the advent of atomic power!
Finally the opportunities in teaching
and research in our high schools, uni-
versities, and governmental agricultural
agencies are greater today than ever
before. The need for highly-trained agri-
cultural scientists employed by commer-
cial companies and our government for
the foreign service is far greater than
the available supply.
The courses of study and programs of-
fered by the College of Agriculture of
the University of Florida are designed to
prepare qualified students for these op-
portunities in the New Agriculture of
Tomorrow. I urge each of you to read
the accompanying excellent articles writ-
ten by my colleagues, Dean M. A.
Brooker, Director M. O. Watkins, and
Director J. R. Beckenbach. These men
have had wide experience and know
what they are talking about. Then, if
you desire more information about ca-
reer opportunities in modern agricul-
ture, write to the Dean, College of Ag-
riculture, University of Florida.
New Images of
J. R. BECHENBACH
Florida Agricultural Ex. Stations
Progress in agriculture follows progress
in many basic scientific fields, and the
pattern is well known and has been long
established. The frontlines of agriculture
are almost unbelievably broad, since they
not only completely overlap all of the
biological sciences, but depend upon
most of the physical sciences as well.
Mathematics, chemistry, and physics all
are essential to agriculture. Much agri-
cultural research is basic biological re-
Since this is true, competent agri-
cultural researchers must keep abreast of
advances made in all sciences. The im-
aginative research man sifts the contri-
butions made, seeking for those which he
can apply to the benefit of his agri-
This has been going on for a long time
in this country. The U. S. Department of
Agriculture was established in 1862; the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
in 1887. Because of this long record of
public research by thousands of dedi-
cated scientists, the biggest and sharpest
contrast in comparing any American
industry with its Soviet counterpart lies
in agriculture. Nor is it likely that the
Russians will be able to close the gap,
even though much of our advance is
public knowledge and available to them
without painstaking, original research
cfort on their part.
Any major scientific breakthrough is
followed by a myriad of applied appli-
cations and refinements. Like a stone
dropped into a quiet pool, the resultant
progress moves out in waves until the
new knowledge is fully exploited, or until
it comes to an obstacle of continued
ignorance, which then, in turn, must be
replaced by more scientific knowledge.
A long period of time may elapse be-
tween the original scientific breakthrough
and its complete exploitation through ap-
plied research. Even more time elapses
before this is put to work on the nation's
farms. When World War II came upon us
our agricultural scientists were well out
ahead of our farmers in most fields. The
combination of patriotism, profit motive,
and labor shortage put these research
results to work, and our present sur-
pluses still reflect the contributions of
that research. The makers of agricultural
policy are still having difficulties with
these surpluses. Once progressive methods
are adopted, they are seldom voluntarily
All of these factors combine in de-
termining "the new image of agriculture".
The image of the "man with a hoe" has
completely disappeared; this new image,
a composite of the basic biological sci-
ences, modern engineering and market-
ing, and able management, denote a
rapidly maturing agriculture.
(Continued on page 10)
The Future of the
By M. O. WATKINS
Fla. Agricultural Extension Service
Before describing how the extension
Service will function in the future, let's
look briefly at what tomorrow's agricul-
ture probably will be like. We can easily
do this by projecting into the future the
trends in agriculture which are evident
Agriculture has been mechanized rap-
idly in the last quarter century. As labor
becomes more costly and scarce, this
trend should continue at an ever greater
pace in the future. Mechanization will
result in greater productivity per person.
With mechanization and increased pro-
ductivity per person, farms will continue
to become larger, more specialized, and
more expensive to operate.
As research continues to provide the
answers to agricultural problems making
possible increased efficiencies, produc-
tivity per acre or per unit will continue
These processes will increase the eco-
nomic pressures on the small, inefficient
producer. He will have to become more
efficient or seek off-the-farm employ-
ment. Part-time farming may be an in-
termediate step to leaving the farm or to
acquiring more adequate capital with
which to become more efficient.
Both vertical and horizontal integra-
tion will continue. Through integration,
more capital and more technical "know-
how" will be directed into agriculture.
(Continued on page 10)
Never was there a time when the law
of supply and demand was such an ex-
ception that some other law or rule
could set it aside and work better.
Whether the product or the service in-
volved be a farm crop, or a farm animal,
or a farm itself; or an automobile, or a
household appliance; or set of false teeth,
Pekingese dog, the rule remains the same:
"There must be demand to warrant the
Indeed, the law of supply governs the
trade, exchange and expenditure of every-
thing, goods, services, even human life
itself. Within my day I have seen crops
plowed under, farm animals destroyed,
automobile trade-ins busted up with a
sledge hammer, all because supply had
become so great and demand so low that
these products had become a burden to
In wartime, I have seen men "plowed
under" with cannon and concentration
camps, either because the waste of hu-
man flesh was worth the expenditure for
winning a cause, or because men's minds
and lusts throughout the world had be-
come maddened beyond reasoning like
a rabid dog. But the law of supply and
demand was always there working, and
running the show; whether on the battle-
field, the farm, or on the automobile
dealer's used car lot.
And the law of supply and demand
reaches out into the professions and often
is a great influence in causing young men
to decide whether they choose to go to
college and study medicine, or dentistry,
or law, or chemistry, or music, or engi-
neering, or teaching or agriculture. The
Russians sent a Sputnik into orbit and
bingo highschool seniors, throughout
the land rushed for the engineering
colleges. "How many jobs will be open
in this field when I graduate?" a young
man asks himself. Or "What is the aver-
age annual earnings of a lawyer, or a
doctor, or a preacher, or a teacher, or a
man in agriculture?" These questions all
run through a young man's mind on en-
tering college. Of course there is the
ever present "bugaboo" that each young
man must ask himself. "Do I have the
mental and physical stamina, and the
highschool background to pass the
America's new agriculture today has
much future to offer to the Future
Farmer and Four-H seniors, or even to
many young men, "city boys" not born
to the soil, agriculture in college for them
has promising possibilities.
Thirty-eight years ago a young man
studying agriculture in college was more
limited in his outlook than the present
day agricultural student. Back then, an
agricultural student could go back home
and farm with a mule, or he could de-
velop into an agricultural teacher or a
county agent, or perhaps find work at
an agricultural experiment station, and
that about uses up the field.
Today, for new agricultural jobs each
year America needs 15,000 college
graduates. The present supply is 7,000.
Increase the present supply by a hundred
per cent and there are still a thousand
jobs in agriculture left wanting. The "de-
mand" is great, the "supply" short.
Agriculture back on the farm in basic
production has completely changed with-
in my lifetime. Today's agriculture deals
with machines and not "personalities":
The tractor has replaced the mule. A
mule stopped many a lad from farming.
Today's agriculture is a business even
on the farm level and more "business ad-
ministration" should be included in our
high school and college agricultural cur-
And when a young man hasn't a farm
to return to or the finances to procure
one when he finishes college, one of the
15,000 jobs mentioned above may fit his
choosing. These jobs are scattered
through Research, Industry, Business,
Education, Services, Farming and Ranch-
ing, Conservation, and possibly other
fields not brought to mind here.
The College of Agriculture at the Uni-
versity of Florida offers curricula in
agriculture to match any young man's
by L. T. PENDARVIS
Livestock & Field Crops Specialist
Florida State Marketing Bureau
fancy: There are twenty-one of these
individual curricula "and more", I am
told. To name them, agricultural chemis-
try, agricultural economics, agricultural
engineering, agricultural extension, agron-
omy, animal husbandry and nutrition.
Bacteriology, Botany, Dairy Science,
Entomology, Food Technology and Nu-
trition, Forestry, Fruit Crops, General
Agriculture, Ornamental Horticulture,
Plant Pathology, Poultry Husbandry,
Soils, Vegetable Crops, Veterinary Sci-
ence, Vocational Agriculture, etc., are
And for every one of these degrees in
various fields, there are more than a
hundred different types of employment
awaiting the graduate.
And remember this, young man, over
the span of your lifetime, records and
statistics prove that if you finish the
eighth grade your earnings will be $116,-
000 more than the man who does not.
If you finish high school you will earn
$165,000 more. One to three years of
college you earn $190,000 more, four or
more years of college will get you
$268,000 of extra spending money.
To each his own. In the fall of 1921,
I decided to spend the rest of my life
with agriculture and allied occupations.
The reason I did this made less sense
back then than if I had the opportunity
to make the same decision today. I did
not especially like to plow with a mule,
and none of the agriculture occupations
other than actual farming had been ex-
plained to me.
But I had farming and the woods in
my background as a boy. I had made a
bird trap with sticks, baited it, returned
later to find a live bird to hold in my
hand and then let free to fly again. I
had put a cottontail rabbit home in a
hollow log with my dog and enjoyed the
thrill of watching the chase. I had bent
my back in the bean field when I would
have given my soul to have been picking
wild honeysuckle or fishing with a cane
pole instead. I had smelled the smoke of
a hardwood log heap in clearing up a
new-ground. It was then that I put these
lines on paper for the college "Alligator":
"Of all the country I've run across in
my ramblin' 'round, I'll take West Flori-
da if you'll gi' me a hoss an' a liT patch
o' ground. This with a gun and a dog is
'bout all I'd need, with me a cow and a
hawg an' a han'ful o' seed".
Over the thirty-eight years since then,
agriculture has been good to me. And
like I say, if there were a reason why I
should choose agriculture as a profession
in 1921, I could not name it then or
But the picture for the college student
in agriculture is a new one today. There
are 15,000 jobs awaiting the college
graduate in agriculture, and not a single
one of them is following a mule. "The
supply is short, the demand is great".
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
NORRIS CATTLE CD.
BREEDERS OF HIGH QUALITY
FEEDERS OF HIGH QUALITY
Box 1051, Ocala, Florida Phone MA 2-7151
SERVICE & QUALITY!! BAIRD
Years of experience in working with fertilizers HARDWARE CO.
for Florida soils assures you of the very best GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
for your crops, groves, and pastures when
you call on WEST COAST.Ro rso ewe
211 West University Ave.
... QUALITY INSECTICIDES IN STOCK o.W t/
One of our trained field men will be glad to jmii m SodetJ
discuss your fertilizer and insecticide program
"University of Florida Rings"
WEST COAST FERTILIZER CO. SOUTHERN
CALL "MAC" MAXWELL: TAMPA 4-1191 DOLOMITE
OR WRITE: BOX 1094, 35th AT 6th AVE., TAMPA, FLORIDA. PALMETTO, FLORIDA
MARCH, 1960 7
by EDWARD S. SAUNDERS
This is Spring. For seniors it is the
time to secure a job. I was in this posi-
tion last winter and since the details of
securing a job are still fresh in my mind,
I would like to share some points which
may be helpful to you.
With exams staring you in the face
and honor point averages to maintain,
time spent in the pursuit of employment
may be limited. You have spent four
years of long hours and deep concentra-
tion on courses and now that graduation
is near you may find yourself without a
systematic approach to the final exam
entitled, "Securing Your Career."
Early in life you had ambitions of
being a jet pilot, a train engineer, or a
fireman. The glamour of these fields fad-
ed and for a time there was a struggle
as to just what you wanted to become.
Your interests broadened in college and
you shaped them into a field of study.
You have explored this field throughout
college and now that graduation is near,
you are looking for a career in which
to carry on these interests and ideas.
This is not a four year course you are
looking for but a life time adventure,
so spend time planning your attack.
Only about 10 per cent of our popu-
lation are farmers. Since your major is
agriculture, you many think that this
limits your job opportunities. This is not
true. Only 10 per cent of the population
actively farm, but 40 per cent are con-
nected with agriculture.
Many of the areas related to agricul-
Ed Saunders grew up on a farm near
the Suwanee River in Hamilton County.
Early in life, he became interested in
agriculture and has continued that inter-
est ever since.
In high school, he participated in FFA
as well as other activities. He entered
the University of Florida in 1951 and
graduated with a BSA in Agronomy in
1955. He was active in Alpha Zeta, Ag.
Council and other school organizations.
The summer of his junior year he won a
Danforth Senior Fellowship.
ture have careers in line with your speci-
fic interest, therefore the first thing to
do is to find what companies and govern-
mental agencies have activities going on
in your field. The placement office and
the annual college placement manual can
be helpful in obtaining this information.
Once you have located these organiza-
tions, let them know you are interested
in their company, qualified in their field,
and would like an interview. They are
looking for initiative, and a forceful
but diplomatic letter requesting an inter-
view is a good indication. In your letter,
you can sell your personality as well as
your knowledge and experience. Remem-
ber your letter is in competition with
In your letter, you should explain what
general areas of employment you seek,
and stress how your experience and
training fulfill the requirements of the
work you seek. Concentrate on the em-
ployer's wants. In personal terms, let
him know why you feel confident you
would be successful in the position. It
may be helpful to include a one page
resume listing the following items: Job
objectives, qualifications, major field of
study, honors, business experience, mili-
tary service, extracurricular activities,
personal background, and interests. Make
it easy for him to say, "Yes, this is the
man we want to interview," and hard to
say, "No, we do not have time for this
These organizations may not have
After graduation he entered the Army
Signal Corps and spent two years in
Germany. Returning to the University
of Florida in 1957 to do graduate work
in Agronomy, Ed selected a research
project on tobacco seed beds.
During this time he married Harriet
Henry, an animal husbandry major.
In February 1960, he received a MSA
degree and is now working with Dow
Chemical Company in the capacity of a
field specialist in herbicides and chelates.
interviewers coming to your college, but
they may interview students in other
colleges on campus and will see you at
the same time. Include in your letter
such phrases as, "I notice your represent-
ative will be in the Engineering College
on April 4 and would appreciate the
opportunity of an interview at that time,"
or "I will be in Jacksonville on April 10
and would like a chance to discuss my
qualifications more thoroughly."
Once you have obtained an interview,
find out all you can about the organiza-
tion or company. You should know its
age, growth, activities, products, size,
competitors, plant locations, benefits, as
well as the opportunity for advancement.
It is often helpful to spend some time
meditating on what is important to you
in life. Do you want to meet different
people every day, or work by yourself?
Once you know your desires, see if this
organization and job can fulfill them.
Can you respect the company and be
proud to work for it?
Prepare yourself for the interview.
Anticipate some of the questions the in-
terviewer may ask such as "What ex-
perience and courses do you feel qualify
you for this job?" Have the answer ready.
If you are prepared, you have nothing
to fear. Be yourself, sell yourself, and
relax. When speaking, look your inter-
viewer in the eye. Answer directly and
frankly. Honesty is the best policy, with
yourself as well as the interviewer. If
(Continued on page 12)
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
HEART BAR RANCH
Kissimmee, Florida Phone Tllden 6-5603
NEW HAMPSHIRE REDS
"Chicks hatched 10 minutes from the airport"
MIAMI INTERNATIONAL HATCHERIES, INC.
P. O. Box 48-1005
Miami 48, Florida
College (Cont. from page 4)
The animal nutritionist must have a
good background in chemistry, especially
biochemistry. A highly specialized ani-
mal or plant breeder relies heavily upon
mathematics. And a soils specialist must
have a strong background in chemistry,
physics and bacteriology. The use of
scientific aids in many areas of agricul-
ture would rival that in almost any field.
The use of radioactive tracers in plant
breeding; the use of hormones and tran-
quilizers in fattening steers; and the use
of chemistry in insecticides, fungicides,
plant physiology, fertilizers, food tech-
nology, and many other areas are exam-
In order to meet the needs of those
preparing for careers in agricultural busi-
ness and related industries, the College
of Agriculture is modernizing its curri-
cula to cover the entire area which has
come to be known as "Agri-business."
The big segments of the economy having
to do with farm supply and the market-
ing of agricultural commodities come
within this area. Agriculture needs train-
ed persons to process and distribute agri-
cultural products, to give special services
to people who actually produce these
products and to do research and teach-
ing that will make our agricultural pro-
duction and distribution even more effi-
Recent projections place the popula-
tion of the United States at more than
two hundred million people by 1970.
The same source (U. S. News and World
Report, February 29, 1960) estimates
that the population of Florida will in-
crease by more than 50 percent in the
next 10 years to lead all other states in
the nation in percentage increase. To
meet the needs of this rapidly expanding
population, agricultural production must
continue to increase. Farming must be
completely mechanized, and farmers
must be quick to adopt the latest in
proven scientific methods.
The producer on the farm, as well as
the agricultural scientist and those per-
sons engaged in business or industry re-
lated to farming, finds that college train-
ing pays off for him too. Modern farm-
ing operations have become so complex,
and involves so much capital that the
thorough training offered at the College
of Agriculture is of great value. Farmers
with a college education put new ideas
into use quickly. Knowledge of chemis-
try, engineering, entomology, plant and
animal physiology, economics, and simi-
lar subjects helps.
College training in agriculture in the
future, then will fall into one of three
areas, i.e., technical agriculture, training
for agricultural research, and agricul-
tural business management. Surely agri-
culture offers a range of choice of op-
portunities equaled by few other areas of
New Images (Cont. from page 5)
Agricultural research brought about
this revolution. The modern farm execu-
tive is now comparable to his counter-
part in any great American industry; he
knows and believes in the wonders of
modern science and has learned that he
must put new findings to work promptly,
or he will promptly face economic ruin.
And the full partner of this modern
farmer is the scientist. His continuing
job is to secure the answer to new prob-
lems in agriculture as they appear, and
to further serve the public by insuring
the continued flow of food and fiber in
quantities sufficient to the present day
The successful farmer of the present
and future must be of blue ribbon quality
in all respects. Farming has become a
profession; it always has been the corner-
stone in the arch of civilization. A full
share of the very best of our young peo-
ple is needed in this profession.
The new image of agriculture extends
well beyond this new executive-farmer.
Bread comes to the home now vitamin
enriched and pre-sliced. This was not
always so. Many foods now come fresh-
frozen; this too, is new. These new con-
veniences have been aptly called "built-
in maid service". In modern agriculture,
more people are gainfully employed in
these new processing and handling oper-
ations than are actively engaged in farm-
ing. While the unskilled farm hand is
rapidly disappearing from the farm, the
house maid is disappearing from the
home. Both are being replaced by ma-
chines and by skilled workers. Even so,
over four out of every ten gainfully em-
ployed persons are working with food
and fiber. This re-emphasizes the funda-
mental importance of agriculture.
A tremendous revolution in agriculture
has been witnessed. It is still going on,
and our "new image" is being made
possible through research.
Extension (Cont. from page 5)
The farm that we once knew will no
longer exist. In its place will be a com-
plex business requiring large amounts of
technical information, and involving de-
cisions beyond the farm requiring good
business management. The term "Agri-
business" is most appropriate.
Those engaged in "Agri-business" who
make management decisions will need
up-to-date technical information. They
will be well qualified to use it by virtue
of their training and experience. Many
will have college degrees in agriculture
and some will have advanced degrees.
Both national and international affairs
will play an increasingly important part
in determining agriculture's destinies.
Group action on common problems will
be needed more and more.
The differences between rural and
urban people will continue to disappear
as modern communications and trans-
portation continue their advances and as
more city people own farms and more
farmers live in town.
With this brief look at the agriculture
of the future, let's see what responsi-
bilities the Agricultural Extension Serv-
ice will have and how Extension person-
nel will function in these kinds of situa-
Briefly, the Agricultural Extension Serv-
ice can be pictured as made up of sub-
ject matter specialists at the state level
and the county agricultural agents and
their assistants at the county level. Home
demonstration agents work as a team
with the agricultural agents, but the dis-
cussion here concerns agriculture only.
In addition, of course, there are admin-
istrators, supervisors, and supporting staff
whose job it is to keep the Extension
Service running smoothly.
Just as agriculture is undergoing rapid
changes, so is the Agricultural Extension
Service changing to meet the demands of
the present and future. We can expect
trends now apparent in Extension work
to be accelerated in the future. There
will continue to be specialists and county
agents and basically their responsibilities
will be the same as at present. The spe-
cialists will keep in close touch with
agricultural research whether it be from
state experiment stations, USDA, or pri-
vate industries, and will work with the
county agents, producers, and firms in
bringing about its practical application.
The specialists will be and most already
are as highly trained as their co-workers
in research. They are subject matter ex-
perts first and teachers next. Both are
County agents will continue to be
generalists. Their jobs will require that
they be highly trained in the subject
matter fields that are important to their
counties. As indicated earlier, the farm
manager of the future will need all of
the technical information he can get to
stay in business. The role of the Exten-
sion Service in getting agricultural sub-
ject matter quickly and accurately to
the manager will be even more impor-
tant in the high speed agriculture of the
future. Just as the pilot of a jet plane
needs more training than the pilot of a
piston-driven plane, so the farm man-
ager of the future will require informa-
tion on many different subjects in the
decisions he must make.
In carrying out these basic responsi-
bilities, the county agents, assisted by the
specialists, will spend more time plan-
ning Extension programs with producers.
County programs will be based on the
most important problems facing agricul-
ture. The County Agents' annual plan of
operations will be designed to aid in the
solution of the many pressing adjust-
(Continued on page 12)
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
FARMING IN THE FUTURE
"chicks of the
STractor of the Future
It's 8 a.m. on a sunny winter morning
in 1975. The farmer arrives at his fields
after breakfasting leisurely at his home
in town. His one helper is taking the
day off. He removes a plastic sheet and
mounts his new red and white sprayer-
tractor combination. Without greasing
it (because all bearings were factory
sealed), he pushes a button to start its
gas turbine engine. The low, quiet hiss
of escaping exhaust gases tells him it's
started and at full power. He pulls
down the automatic transmission lever,
moves a dial setting to "tomato spray,"
eases into the field, and starts spraying
at a 12-mile-an-hour clip in tempera-
ture controlled, shock-absorbed comfort.
His only task is to turn corners and
watch dials, since routine guiding and
adjusting are done automatically.
By noon the job is finished; he press-
es a button to automatically turn the
wheels 90 degrees and fold the platform
for highway driving. He swivels the seat
around, grasps a steering wheel, and
drives off down the highway at 50 miles
an hour, while munching a condensed
roast beef and potatoes wafer for lunch.
By nightfall, he has sprayed a neigh-
bors 100 acres some 20 miles distant.
Before the week is out, he will have
done nearly 1,000 acres with this single
Is this fanciful dreaming? Perhaps,
but within the realm of possibility, if
trends continue to go as they are.
Whatever the future of farm machin-
ery, one thing is certain. The shape and
capabilities of farm tools will be dictated
by the jobs farmers call upon them to
do. Their dimensions and their power
will be dictated, if present trends are an
indication, by the increasing need to get
more and better work done in less time
and at less cost.
Some of the trends and developments
that seem to be most likely are: gas
turbine and free piston engines, four
wheel drive units, specialized vehicles for
certain operations, and multi-purposed
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FIELD I For more than 65 years, W&T's
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SERVICE have earned the title of "the best"
for these fertilizers and pesticides.
WiJ ILSO@N W TOOMER
Plants in Jacksonville, Tampa, Cottondole, Port Everglades
FLORIDA GENERAL OFFICES JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
Extension (Cont. from page 10)
ments with which the agriculture of the
future will be faced. Many of these
problems will be broader than county,
or even state lines. Problems in the field
of marketing, for example, will include
production, handling, transportation,
wholesaling, and retailing, and will in-
volve many different disciplines in their
solution. The Extension Service will be
working with the various firms involved
in each operation. In some cases, special-
ists will work directly with some firms.
The rapid advancement of agricultural
productivity and efficiency is important
to all segments of our society. It will
become increasingly more important as
future populations crowd out agricul-
tural lands and more people depend
upon fewer acres for food. The need for
conservation of our natural resources
will be a part of the education of every
individual, with Agriculture holding the
key to soil, water, fish, and wildlife use.
The Extension educational programs of
the future must give increasing attention
to conservation needs and problems.
The Extension Service will be called
on to supply facts and technical infor-
mation to groups of producers as a basis
for their planning for joint action on
common problems. Decisions such as
whether or not a marketing agreement
will accomplish certain desired objec-
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Air Conditioned Free Parking
GRILL & HOTEL
214 W. University Avenue
'enter / .Jown "
tives will require a complete knowledge
of how such an agreement would oper-
ate and what effects it would have on
U. S. and foreign markets. The Exten-
sion Service must be ready to supply
these facts when requested and to do
so in an objective and impartial manner.
Likewise public policy issues, such as
marketing quotas, acreage allotments,
and price supports will require a know-
ledge of all sides of the issue. Public
policy education by the Extension agents
and specialists will be designed to supply
Youth programs, primarily through
4-H Club work, will continue to be an
important part of Extension work. While
the teaching of agricultural subject mat-
ter to youngsters is only a part of their
total development, it is important in
teaching them new facts, and skills, re-
source conservation, group action, and
Urban people will continue to ask for
more agricultural information as their
lawns, fruit trees, ornamentals, and gar-
dens occupy more of their time. This is
especially important in Florida where
retired people spend large sums of
money and much of their time on these
things. Some agents in urban areas will
devote full time to this work, but this
will not be at the expense of work with
The Extension Service of the future
will adapt each of its methods of com-
munication to the job at hand. For the
urban work, mass media will be a ne-
cessity. For the smaller number of pro-
ducers, personal counsel, leaflets and
mimeographs, and other methods de-
signed to convey needed facts quickly
and accurately will be used.
To sum up, Agricultural Extension
personnel of the future will be made up
of well-trained and dedicated people who
are expert in subject matter and who
are capable of helping people apply it
to their problems. The Extension Serv-
ice will devote its educational efforts to
solving the many problems with which
the agriculture of the future will be
Your Job (Cont. from page 8)
your are seeking a job in management,
know what you want to manage. Con-
vince your interviewer you can contri-
bute to the organization.
Two mistakes often made are asking
what security the company offers and
how soon you can retire. Remember that
the company is hiring you for their se-
curity and only indirectly for yours. They
expect that through your hard work and
ideas, the company will be successful.
You can obtain security only through
the success you give the company. Any-
way the interviewer will explain the re-
tirement and fringe benefits. These are
his selling points. Let him bring them
Your grades are not the all important
thing. They are history. Your earlier
grades may be poor, but since you have
been working on your major you im-
proved steadily. Your interviewer wants
to know if you can produce for his com-
pany or organization. Are you effective?
Can you use your talents? Your personal
character, imagination, initiative, and un-
derstanding are all important. When I
was interviewed for my job, grades were
never mentioned though a minimum
standard must be met to be considered.
My interviewers were more interested in
how well I could meet the public, adjust
to new situations, solve problems, and
leave a favorable impression on those
You have spent time training for a
career. Spend some time preparing your-
self to secure the career. Remember,
many jobs are won or lost in the few
minutes spent in an interview. The stu-
dent who shows evidence of profiting by
his college education and whose interests
are in keeping with the organization's
needs should have little trouble finding
excellent employment opportunities.
Make it easy for the interviewer to
say, "This is the man we want for the
job," and hard to say, "No, we cannot
use him." Work hard at getting the
right job. A career well chosen can last
If you cannot find a position in your
special field, what then? Robert Frost
wrote, "Two roads divulge in the woods.
I took the latter and that has made all
the difference." College will teach you
how to think and thus you are qualified
to follow many roads to success. The job
I found is not one for which I had
special training, but I don't know of
another one that could offer me more
opportunity or pleasure.
FERTILIZERS AND INSECTICIDES THAT ARE SUPERIOR
Factories and Offices: TAMPA and FORT PIERCE, FLORIDA
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
THE AGRICULTURAL COUNCIL
And Its Member Organizations
Welcome You to The 1960 AG Fair
BLOCK AND BRIDLE
DAIRY SCIENCE CLUB
XI SIGMA PI
POULTRY SCIENCE CLUB
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF
ALPHA TAU ALPHA
FRUIT CROPS CLUB
NEWELL ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY
SOCIETY OF MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF AG ENGINEERS
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS CLUB
The Fertilizer geared
to specific Florida needs
and soil requirements
and yet, FLORIDA FAVORITE FERTILIZER costs
no more! F.F.F. Specializes in fertilizers for all
varieties of field crops, pasture grasses
and citrus groves.
COMPLETE FIELD SERVICE effected by
fleet of 25 truck-and-trailer units
direct to point of consumption.
Phone M 2-2153 P. 0. Box 912 LAELAND, FLORIDA
Phone MUtual 2-2153 P. O. Box 912 LAKELAND, FLORIDA
YOU DON'T NEED A CLUTCH-
JUST A LIGHT FINGER TOUCH!
Hydraulic power does the actual
shifting, but it's controlled by this
handy lever under the steering
Now, for the first time
you can shift on-the-go
to any speed you want, any power you need, by
a simple touch of your finger! Ford All-Purpose
Select-O-Speed tractors give finger-tip, clutchless
shifting to any of 10 forward and 2 reverse speeds
so you can match pull-power and speed exactly,
instantly, to changing field conditions. And with
Ford's new independent PTO, you engage or dis-
engage the PTO shaft on-the-go, at any time. Come
in and test drive a Ford All-Purpose Select-O-Speed
tractor today -see what it can do for youl
jI!. liii II liii
(Cont. from page 3)
Here at the University of Florida Agricultural Col-
lege, recent changes have been made. The concept of
"agri-business" is felt to be very important. Because
of this, a new curriculum called Agricultural Business
Management was instituted last year by the Agricul-
tural Economics Department. All departments require
at least some work in economics and management
for completion of their degree.
It can be seen by these examples that Colleges of
Agriculture are doing something to adjust to Agricul-
ture's changing role in the country's economy. This
adjustment will continue, since it is obvious agricul-
tural change is not complete. It will be a race all the
way to keep up, but we feel our college, and agricul-
tural colleges over the nation, will maintain the pace.
INDEX TO ADVERTISERS
A llis Chalm ers.-....... ....... .. ..........
College Inn ......-...-... ..-....------
College Inn Barber Shop...-..-..----
Fla. State Hatcheries .--....-- ---
Florida Favorite Fertilizer ...--.......-
Ford Tractor Company...--....--------
Heart Bar Ranch .....-----....--.....---
International Harvester --.......- ----......--.
McDavid's Barber Shop--....-..... -
Miami International Hatcheries -------...
Norris Cattle Company.....-.. ....-...
Primrose G rill...-........... -.-.... -- .
Respess-Grimes Engraving Co.---......--.
Robertson Jewelers- .........----.. ----.. ..-
Southern Dolomite..-..........--..... ..-.
Southern Mill Creek Products Co....--..
Suni-Citrus Products Co... ......----- Insi
Superior Fertilizer Co ......-..........----
West Coast Fertilizer Co..-..-.....-... -
Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Co...-....--
..---...- .. 13
-.. Back Cover
- ---...-..-..-.... .. 12
-- 1 1
The College INN
Weed Killers John Bean Sprayers
MILL CREEK PRODUCTS CO.
P. 0. BOX 4297
TAMPA 7, FLORIDA
Jacksonville Orlando Miami
Prompt Courteous Service
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Ready Now for a New Decade...
)D Great D-Series Tractors
from Allis-Chalmers Research
Research and engineering at Allis-Chalmers have greatly widened the application of
new power principles for tractor users everywhere.
Tractor work becomes easier, faster, more productive whether it's used in 6-row
corn farming or tobacco a row at a time by grain growers, fruit and vegetable
growers, or cotton and rice producers.
Pictured here is the Allis-Chalmers tractor line for the sixties from the 1-row
D-10 to the big D-17 models.
In utility tractors, Allis-Chalmers has brought major new performance advance-
ments. Shuttle-Clutch operation with the D-14 Utility Tractor is a good example.
More effective power to serve more people in all areas, whatever they grow, is
the Allis-Chalmers story for 1960 and beyond.
ALLIS-CHALMERS, FARM EQUIPMENT DIVISION, MILWAUKEE 1, WISCONSIN
lu l -l F
Flail-chop "pasture" faster
...cut silage short:
New low-cost McCormick" No. 5 chopper
Take a short-cut to lower-cost forage feeding
with a new McCormick auger-blower chopper.
No other flail-type rig slices silage so short ...
makes it so quick and easy to feed your live-
stock cut-pasture in dry lots.
Two-dozen extra knives-56 in all-plus
faster rotor speed give the No. 5 over 45% more
cutting action than other flail-choppers! Exclu-
New McCormick No. 5 Direct-Throw model ;s your low-
cost chopper for daily green-chop chores. Extra-wide, cup-
shaped knives, mounted in tandem, double-cut forage into
feedable lengths, then throw it far back into the wagon.
sive tandem mounting gives knives a P4
swipe at hay stems. They're cut, recut.
augered into the high-speed blower.
Four knives and blower paddles, instead of
the usual three, chop long lengths into little
ones, and blow them into trailing wagon. Use
the No. 5 for green-chop or silage, and dozens
of other cutting and shredding jobs.
Ask your IH dealer to demonstrate a McCormick
flail-type chopper in your crop. Ask about the IH
Early Trader's Bonus that pays 6% interest on
your trade-in and/or down payment.
International Harvester Products pay for themselves in use-Farm Tractors and
Equipment. .. Twine .. Industrial Tractors Motor Trucks Construction Equip-
ment-General Office, Chicago 1, Illinois.