VOLUME 11 NUMBER 1
d EMBE R~N959
DEAN BROKER GREETS PRESIDENT REITZ
The Thankful Heart
If human hearts know shame,
Ah, then truly it must be
That this one blushes crimson.
To consider how these misered fists
Seize Heaven's every gift
As though it were deserved ...
To think how this vain self,
In all its utter thanklessness,
Takes Life and Love
As its due heritage ...
Makes unproved claim
To Sight and Sound
And Touch and Taste "Praying Hands"
And all of Life's endowments .. Albrecht Drer
To reflect how this ungrateful mind
Dares trifle even its mean talents into dust ...
Dares squander even one small skill,
And play the profligate with Time ..
To know this petty creature that I am
Dares taking Beauty for its own,
Makes property of all the stars,
The sun, the earth, the very universe,
Deems Art its rightful slave
And Poetry its handmaid .
To know with what effrontery it deigns
To pilfer particles of Wisdom's fund
And make them playthings .
Make keys of friendships, coin of Truth,
And mold of Faith a luckpiece ...
To ponder this ..
To ponder this, and recognize too well
One's proud and selfish image there,
Reflected so in gross ingratitude .
Ah, then it is this heart must blush
And beat its tardy thanks-
Its sincere and humble thanks .
For this beggar's bag of blessings!
,$ JOHN DEERE
Copyright John Deere Moline Illinois M OLINE, ILLINOIS
Pres. Reitz Completes Study in Burma .------
Hillsborough "Career Days" -----.-----.....
The Most Important Weeks of My Life -----.
Ag. Barbecue .--...... ...
Hendricks to Represent U. S.
at First W orld Ag. Fair ...............-....
Conner Addresses First Ag. Convocation ----
Changes in Retail Food Business ...-----......
Agri News .... ...........-............. ---------
Managing Editor ....
Editorial Assistants -
Business Manager ...-.
Circulation Manager .
.---- -..- Ar
..----..---..- ... Donald
.-..- ..-....- .. Harold
--.-. -- Por
ANOTHER SCHOOL YEAR is in progress, another football
season is in full swing, and another fall issue of the College
Farmer is off the press. If you are a past reader of the
Farmer, welcome back! If this is the first time, we know
you will enjoy our paper. More and better are on the way.
The editor uses this column to express his feelings on
just about anything he wishes. First on the list is the
grand style in which the College of Agriculture has started
ber, 1959 this year. Instrumental in accomplishing this was the Ag
Convocation and in spite of the Hub's coffee (or maybe
because of it), the auditorium was filled to capacity. Its
main purpose of bringing a closer relationship between
students and staff was fulfilled. We thank the Ag Council
also Alien Poole and his hard-working committee of stu-
2 dents and faculty for a job well done. Another fine project
of the Ag Council was the annual Ag Barbeque, held
2 October 30, in conjunction with the Little International
3 Livestock Judging Show.
While on the subject of the Ag Council, we think a
-..-... 4 few words are in order to explain the organization to those
who are not acquainted with it. The Student Agricultural
Council is composed of the president or other officer of
.....- 4 each department club and the student government rep-
5 resentatives of the College of Agriculture. Its purpose is
to promote harmony and understanding between ag stu-
-- 6 dents and faculty, and to inspire student interest and en-
8 thusiasm in the College. With Bernard Lester at the
.. 8 wheel this fall, the Council is well on its way to doing
Two Ag College Fighting Gators deserve special praise.
Danny Royal, hailing from the state to our north, is a
ric Magie Junior in Poultry. Doug Partin, from Kissimmee also in
his third year, is studying Animal Husbandry.
nold Tritt The President of the University, Dr. Reitz, who has
Surdynski a special tie to all of us here in the Ag College, is back
SChaplin from Burma and his trip around the world. As an agri-
cultural specialist, the President gave much help to
ard Kelly countries in the Far East in the field of Ag Education. A
Stephens story in this issue tells of his adventures.
Faculty Advisory Committee
Chairman, Prof. J. R. Greenman
Dr. Earl G. Rodgers, Dr. Ralph A. Eastwood
COVER: Dean Marvin A. Brooker, dean of the College of
Ag., is shown welcoming back University Pres. J. Wayne
Reitz from his round the world trip.
The FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER is the student
publication from the College of Agriculture of the Univer-
sity of Florida. It is compiled, edited, and distributed by
students of this college. It is the privilege of any ag stu-
dent to use this publication as a medium of expression. It
is the voice of the Florida agricultural student.
Entered as second class mailing matter at the Post Office at University
Station, Gainesville, Florida, December 8, 1938 under an Act of
Congress of 1879. Twenty-five cents per copy, dollar a year. Pub-
lished four times during the year: November, January, March, and
May. Address all correspondence to Florida College Farmer, Dan
McCarty Hall, Gainesville, Florida.
PRINTED BY CONVENTION PRESS, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
Also taking a journey this summer, not so extended in
miles, but just as rewarding and full of experiences, was
Richard Kelly, one of our Ag students. Dick was the
recipient of the Danforth Summer fellowship and, with
other outstanding Ag seniors from the United States, spent
four weeks in Missouri and Minnesota studying various
phases of agriculture. Dick relates his trip in this issue.
With all these happenings, it can be seen that we are
off to a good start. We have set a pace for ourselves; let's
maintain it. Support the College in its endeavors, be
proud of the fact that your interests are in agriculture, and
let's show the College of Agriculture takes a back seat to
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
MARCH 18-19-20, 1960
Volume 11, Number 1
Completes Ford Foundation
Study in Burma
This summer another in a long list of
honors was bestowed upon a former
professor in the Department of Agri-
cultural Economics and Provost of Agri-
culture, who is now President of the
University, Dr. J. Wayne Reitz.
His wide background in agriculture
served as the basis of his selection as a
consultant to survey the needs of higher
education of Burmese Agriculture for the
Ford Foundation. He visited the Rangoon
and Mandalay Colleges of Agriculture,
reviewing their methods and making sug-
gestions for long-range development to
bring about a comprehensive agricultural
program. During the month and a half
spent there, he also visited several inter-
mediate agricultural schools. Dr. Reitz
and his wife departed on the three-month
journey July 15, which eventually took
them around the globe.
The first phase of the trip took them
to Hawaii where they saw the Universi-
ty of Hawaii facilities. From Hawaii they
flew to Manila in the Philippines and
met various college officials interested in
his intended mission.
The extent of the University of
Florida's influence was brought out to
him by an experience at the Central
Luzon College of Agriculture. Of this
incident, President Reitz says; "while in
Luzon I went to the Central Luzon
College of Agriculture. I had not given
them advanced warning, but someone
had wired them of my arrival. To my
dismay they called a special convocation.
Without note or preparation, I found
myself addressing about 2,000 people.
They put on a real show and used four
different people to welcome and intro-
Perhaps the most touching part was
right after the convocation. The Presi-
dent and I were standing outside with a
large group of students, when over the
loud speaker system heard all over the
campus came the music of our Alma
Mater. A member of the faculty who
took his master's degree at Florida had a
record and had arranged to have it
played. Then as we drove off, in a vol-
ume one could hear for a half mile, came
"We Are the Boys from Old Florida."
The next leg of the journey took Presi-
dent Reitz to Burma via Hong Kong.
In Hong Kong several days were de-
voted to shopping and sightseeing. The
first place visited in Burma was Ran-
goon, the capital and headquarters in
that area for the Ford Foundation. Soon,
however, Dr. Reitz moved to Mandalay,
where he was to spend the majority of
his time studying Burma's agricultural
While staying in Mandalay, the Reitz's
were part of a colony of University of
Florida staff members. A contract be-
tween the University of Mandalay and
the University of Florida for exchange
of professors and graduate students
is responsible for this gathering of Florida
faculty. Among staff members in Man-
dalay at this time are: John Henry Davis,
Botany Department; Dick Edwards, Ge-
ology; and R. C. Williamson, Physics.
Another interesting experience for
President Reitz was an elephant ride
through a teak forest. It was only after-
wards that he learned that the elephant
previously had killed a man.
Dr. Reitz's work in Burma was com-
pleted August 16. From Rangoon, a fast
and comfortable British Comet took
President and Mrs. Reitz to New Delhi,
India. There he went into conferences
to discuss Indian agriculture with vari-
ous officials. On August 21 he and Mrs.
Reitz left New Delhi and flew to Beirut,
Lebanon. From there they made several
trips to Jerusalem and other cities in
From Beirut the flew across the Medi-
terranean Sea to Rome. Their journey
nearing its end, they stayed only a few
days before moving to Zurich, Switzer-
land. From the land of mountains and
watches, the Reitz's traveled to Paris and
took in the attractions of that city.
The last of foreign lands was seen in
London as the preparations for the last
leg of this wonderful trip were com-
pleted. Though very happy with the trip,
both Dr. and Mrs. Reitz were glad to
be back in Gatorland by Homecoming.
One of the most impressive things
Reitz noticed while traveling was the
number of former students of the Uni-
versity of Florida who greeted and enter-
tained them in the various countries. We
all should recognize and be proud of this
world-wide spread of the University's
Opportunities in agriculture were pre-
sented to Hillsborough County high
schools October 26 to November 5, as
part of the annual "Career Day" pro-
During the eight days more than
15,000 students viewed exhibits, some of
which were sponsored by the School of
Agriculture and Gamma Delta Sigma,
honorary agriculture fraternity.
Many of these high school students
talked with Ag. professors about the
varied jobs graduates find in agriculture.
Booths were displayed to show specific
scientific careers in agriculture and bro-
chures were distributed.
One point stressed was the opportuni-
ties for women.
R. E. Choates, professor of Ag. engi-
neering, was chairman of the Gamma
Sigma Delta program and display. He
stated that participation in programs of
this kind was one way the college of
agriculture could combat decreasing en-
This decreasing enrollment, he said, is
caused in part by out-dated ideas the
general public has of agriculture. Choates
said the typical farming operation is not
carried on with a 'team of mules and the
almanac', but with the efficiency and
know how of an up-to-date industry.
He told students in order to keep tech-
nology progressing, many research and
extension experts would be needed and
on the production side, men with busi-
ness and managerial skills will be in de-
mand as farm size increases and farm
Professor Choates announced Gamma
Sigma Delta plans to participate in other
Career Day programs in the state.
The Most Important Weeks
of My Life
by Richard Kelly
Would you like an opportunity to
spend four weeks learning how your
college training can be applied in today's
business world and life? A Danforth
Fellowship offers it to you, and it is com-
pletely paid for by the William H. Dan-
Last spring I was challenged by the
1958 Danforth winner, Emory Weather-
ly, to apply for the fellowship. At that
time, about all I knew was expenses
would be paid for four weeks, two in St.
Louis, Missouri and two at Camp Mini-
Little did I realize that the trip would
be the most exciting, educational, and
influential weeks of my life.
The fellowship was started in 1929
by William H. Danforth, founder of the
Ralston Purina Company. This was one
of his many projects to benefit the youth
of the world. The purpose of the fellow-
ship is to render guidance and assistance
in attaining a fuller life-mentally,
physically, socially, and spiritually.
Each year the fellowship is awarded
to a junior in the College of Agriculture.
I began to meet the 35 other delegates
soon after arriving at Washington Uni-
versity in St. Louis. It was a privilege
to associate with the outstanding students
from other universities, not only from
the United States, but Canada and
The first Purina representative we
met was Earl A. Sindecuse, director of
public relations. He gave us a short
briefing on the next four weeks. Then
the group had a role call of the states
and to make it more interesting he
passed out our first check. "Sindy" as
we called him, was our leader for the
remaining trip, during which time the
phrase, "Follow Me Men" became
famous. We followed not knowing what
would be next.
PURINA FARM LIFE
The first three days of our visit was at
the Purina Research Farm near Gray
Summit, Mo. Most people expect to see
a big fancy farm, but the 778 acre farm
looks like an ordinary American farm.
We saw experiments being carried out
with all types of animals and birds. Here
is the testing grounds for Purina feeds.
We were told the history of the farm,
the reasons behind feed research and the
improvements that have been made.
They stress the four-square program
of good breeding, sound management,
careful sanitation, and proper feeding.
This program was explained to us in
our visits to the different units of the
Time on the farm was not all devoted
to work. The first afternoon we played
a softball game. The East vs. the West
(East won). The next night the Dan-
forth All-Stars lost to the Purina Farm
hands in an exciting 22-21 battle.
BACK TO ST. LOUIS
Every morning at 6 o'clock the rise
and shine call sounded. Our white shirts,
ties, and notebooks made us look like
businessmen as we boarded the trolley.
But what businessmen would be singing
at 7:15 a.m. and giving up their seats
to girls. Destination was Purina's main
office on Checkerboard Square.
Checkerboard Square held for us a
series of lectures on the fundamental
nutritional requirements of animal in-
cluding-proteins and amino acids,
carbohydrates, fat-soluble vitamins and
hormones, and minerals.
Other lectures were on laboratory
methods used in nutritional research;
Ralston cereals; selection, training, pro-
motion, and morale of Purina personnel;
and how to get the job you want. These
talks were interspersed with numerous
tours of Purina's facilities.
One day was spent touring Barnes
Hospital and Washington University
Medical School. Another day the group
toured the Gardner Advertising Agency.
Here we learned about commercial ad-
vertising for newspapers, magazines, bill-
boards, television, and other medias of
Other trips included the St. Louis
produce market, American Central Fruit
Auction Co., St. Louis Merchants Ex-
change, and C & S Marketing Co., St.
Louis Zoo and the Art Museum, Jeffer-
son and Lindberg memorials, and a river
The group visited the St. Louis Metro-
politan opera twice. The first time to see
the opera "Carmen", and then watched
the musical "Call Me Madam" on the
second visit. On our two free nights we
cruised up the Mississippi on the "Admi-
ral" and saw "South Pacific".
Visits to the Busch Stadium were ex-
citing to me. Here I saw Stan Musial,
Willie Mays, Richie Ashburn and many
of the other great baseball players. The
Cardinals played consistent ball in every
game we saw. They lost all of them.
ON THE SAND DUNES
We traveled by train from St. Louis to
Milwaukee. Here we boarded a clipper
ship and crossed Lake Michigan, arriv-
ing in Muskegon, Mich. the next morn-
ing. The remaining 30 miles were trav-
eled by bus.
Bordered by the blue waters of Lake
Michigan on the West and Stony Lake
on the eastern side, amid the Michigan
sand dunes and woods lies Camp Mini-
The camp is sponsored by the
American Youth Foundation, a non-
profit and non-denominational organi-
zation. It stresses the Four Fold Way-I
Dare You, "To be your own self at your
very best all the time".
(Continued on Page 4)
Pie Throwing Contest
The annual Agriculture Barbecue,
sponsored by the Agriculture Council;
and the Little International Livestock
show, sponsored by the Block and Bridle
Club, were held in conjunction this year
for the first time.
The event was October 30th at the
University Livestock Pavilion and ap-
proximately 300 attended the affair. This
barbecue is given each year for the bene-
fit of incoming freshmen who plan to
major in some field of agriculture. Im-
mediately following the supper the live-
stock show began.
Master of ceremonies was Bernard
Lester, president of the Agriculture
Council. Judges were Tom Braddock, of
Jacksonville, judging the cattle and Lem
Goode of Raleigh, North Carolina, judg-
ing the sheep and swine.
Ringmen for the show were Danny
Cowart and Wayne Wade.
The students showing the animals were
all pledges of the Block and Bridle Club.
Each pledge was assigned an animal one
month prior to the livestock show. Judg-
ing was on the basis of how well each
pledge had prepared his or her animal
for the show ring.
In the sheep showing: first place-
Diego Gandera, second place-Rodolto
Kiessner, third place-Lino Oseguada.
In the swine showing: first place-Tom
Chaires III, second place-Al Acquirre,
third place-Dewey Burnsed.
In group one of the cattle showing:
first place- Enrique Sosa, second place-
Jim Yaun, third place-Thelma Ann
In group two of the cattle showing:
first place-M. T. Cabezas, second place-
Vladimir Cruz, third place-Tirso Celedon.
The Grand Champion of the show was
shown by Enrique Sosa, and the Re-
serve Champion was shown by Tirso
Between showings of the livestock,
two shows were presented. The first was
a lively wood cutting contest which was
won in a breeze by Bill Henley, a mecha-
nized agriculture major, who chopped his
way through a huge log twice in a re-
cord one minute and five-tenths seconds.
Second place was Robert Standburg and
close behind him was Mack Anderson.
The second show, and the one most
of the crowd came to see, was a pie
throwing contest between professors and
students. What really made it interesting
was the professors had no pies!
They were allowed to form any de-
fense they could, and everything from
garbage can lids to fire extinguishers
Paul M. Hendrick
Paul M. Hendrick
Selected for First
World Ag. Fair
Paul M. Hendrick, Jasper 4-H Club
member and University of Florida stu-
dent has been selected to represent the
United States at the First World Agri-
cultural Fair in New Delhi, India.
Hendrick and seven other 4-H Club
boys and girls will participate in the
United States exhibit, demonstrating
rural American dancing and folksinging.
The 4-H group will attend the fair
from December, 1959, until February,
1960, and then take a two month's tour
Hendrick first joined the Jasper 4-H
Club in 1952. In 1957-58 he was elected
president of both his local club and the
Hamilton County 4-H Council.
In 1958-59 Hendrick was secretary ,of
the State Boys' 4-H Council and a
member of the state 4-H livestock judg-
ing team which went to the Internitional
Livestock Exposition in Chicago.
In 1959, Hendrick represented the
state at the National 4-H Club Con-
ference in Washington, IE -C.
appeared. Undaunted by the sturdy de-
fenses of the professors the students ad-
vanced with baked beans pies coated
with whipped cream frosting. When the
dust and fire extinguisher fog cleared,
the students were gone, and standing in
the ring was a pitiful looking conglomer-
ation of bean covered professors.
Alpha Zeta, the agricultural honorary
fraternity, presented the "Outstanding
Freshman-Sophomore Award" to Wil-
liam T. Nelson. This award is based on
scholarship, leadership and service shown
by the student during his freshman and
sophomore years at the University.
Hendrick has received scholarships
totaling nearly $3,000 for his college
education. His 4-H Club projects have
included gardening, corn, poultry, home
improvements, tobacco, swine produc-
tion beef cattle, planting pines, planting
improved pasture, clearing land, truck
crops, dairy cattle, and sheep.
(Continued from Page 3)
The Four Fold Way is balancing the
mental, physical, social, and religious
aspects of your life. During our stay at
Camp Miniwanca, we devoted an ap-
propriate portion of time to each of
The program of the day began with
exercises and a dip in Lake Michigan.
Next we cleaned our tents, followed by
a fifteen minute devotion and meditation
period after which we ate breakfast.
After breakfast we had classes on
problems of modern faith, the ideas of
God in the Bible, achieving religious
maturity, and life essentials. The life
essentials class was the class I liked best.
Each day there was a different speaker
from the field of business or education.
Following lunch and a rest period,
there was a class in Four Fold Balance.
The remainder of the afternoon was
spent in tribal games and swimming, fol-
lowed by the evening meal.
Each evening we had vespers on
Vesper Dune while the sun was setting
over Lake Michigan. My most inspira-
tional moments of the camp were spent
on this dune listening to some of the best
speakers in the country, with the pictur-
esque sunset in the background.
The nights' activities included games
and tribal competition. Some of the ac-
tivities were low council, rodeo, indoor
track meets, and state nights.
On Sunday we had services in the
Church of the Dunes, which is the most
beautiful church I have ever seen. In
fact, there was a feeling of closeness to
God all about the camp.
Camp ended and many of us realized
we were leaving a wonderful experience.
In our thoughts we carried the reali-
zatioh that each of us had grown through
the Four Fold Way of Life.
As I look back over the experience
and compare them with the purpose out-
lined by the Danforth Fellowship, I think
even more how fortunate I was to have
a small part of this program for young
people. Having been given this oppor-
tunity, it is my hope I may be better able
to accept responsibilities with greater
strength, stability, and confidence.
It is hard to adequately express my
thanks to the Danforth Foundation and
its staff for making this fellowship
possible. I will forever be indebted for
those "most important weeks of my life".
The invocation was given by Dr. F.
W. Parvin, assistant to the university
Bernard Lester, Ag. council president,
and S. Allen Poole, Jr., program chair-
man, outlined the following as the ob-
jectives of the September 30 Convo-
1. Develop better agricultural student
2. Foster closer student-faculty re-
lationships in the College.
3. Provide increased awareness of the
advantages and opportunities in the agri-
4. Improve interests and instill in the
students a greater devotion to agri-
Miss Pat Cossin performed the song
and dance routine that won her the title
of 1959 Agricultural Fair Queen. Her
performance included numbers from the
The Agricultural Convocation Com-
mittee is composed of the following
student and faculty members: S. Allen
Poole, Jr., chairman; Bernard Lester,
Ag. Council president; Rod Magie, Ag.
Council vice president; Wayne Smith,
Ag. Council member; Dr. E. G. Rodgers,
Agronomy; Prof. J. R. Greenman, Agri-
cultural Economics; and Dr. R. H.
The Citrus Club served
following the Convocation.
SBernard Lester, Ag. council president, and Miss
Pat Cossin, 1959 Ag. Fair Queen.
Rep. Doyle E. Conner
When Russia equals U.S. agricultural
production then "America will realize
the importance of agriculture in a mod-
ern economy" stated State Representative
Doyle E. Conner at the first Agricultural
Convocation in Dan McCarty Audi-
Rep. Conner, a graduate of the Ag.
School, cited Premier Khrushchev's re-
marks about Russia's lag behind the
U.S. in agriculture. During his visit
to America this summer, Khrushchev
warned Russia would close the gap in
the near future.
Conner later stressed the fact that
while the population has declined on the
farm, production is at an all-time high.
He pointed out although fewer people
are needed on the farm, more college
agricultural graduates are wanted to per-
form services in related industries.
Also, more of those engaged in farm-
ing need college training to enable them
to cope with the problems and changes
taking place in modern farming. Accord-
ing to Conner, the U.S. is graduating
only half as many ag. students as are
needed each year.
Conner was introduced by Dean M.
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AGRICULTURE IS AFFECTED BY Changes in Retail Food Business
CECIL N. SMITH
Associate Agricultural Economist
Many changes throughout our business economy have
seriously affected agriculture. One of the most important
of these changes is concerned with retail food stores, the
final link in the chain of distribution of foodstuffs from
farmers to consumers. Some of the implications of this
and other trends related to agriculture are discussed here.
The retail food business is now
concentrated in fewer stores than in
the past. One-tenth of the food stores
in the United States do two-thirds of
the business. Nearly 40 percent of the r
retail grocery business in the United
States is handled by a small number
of chain store firms.
The modern grocery supermarket
has evolved from the specialty and
general stores of several decades ago.
Supermarkets, defined as independent and chain food stores
which sell $375,000 or more each year, now do about half
of the grocery business in the nation. When sales of su-
perettes (stores having $75,000 or more in annual sales)
are added to those of supermarkets, total sales of the two
amounts to about 80 percent of the nation's grocery busi-
The customer in an average supermarket has some
5,000 items from which to make his selection. Items which
are unprofitable to the store management are not handled
unless they are specialty items to attract and hold cus-
tomers. Management in the retail food trade has changed
many of its procurement practices in order to supply stores
with merchandise which can be handled efficiently and
which meets consumers' desires.
Bypass Terminal Markets
The growth of supermarkets has been accompanied by
a shift from consolidation of supplies of perishable farm
commodities at terminal markets to f.o.b. purchasing, in-
cluding much direct selling by growers or marketing firms
to buying organizations of the grocery trade. Not only
do the chains buy directly, but other portions of the gro-
cery trade follow the same general trend. Many groups of
so called "independent" supermarkets and superettes have
formed cooperative purchasing and distribution organiza-
tions and thus are competing on favorable terms with the
chains. Still others belong to voluntary groups organized
by wholesale grocers who procure, assemble, finance and
distribute fresh produce as well as meat and general gro-
cery items for their associated stores. Considerable savings
are made because of the large volume handled. Unaffiliated
independent grocers now do only 16 percent of the retail
food business; this represents a dip from 34 percent of
the total in 1947.
Shifts in store buying and selling practices have had
a serious impact on agricultural producers throughout the
nation. Adjustments have been made by the producers and
handlers of both fresh and processed products. Nearly all
Florida agricultural products have been affected by shifts
in procurement and merchandising policies made by the
retail food industry.
Quality and Volume
Buyers for grocery organizations try to minimize the
services performed at the store level and to assure con-
tinued supplies of items which meet trade specifications.
To accomplish this they generally stress standardized high
quality. Unless merchandise meets their requirements, us-
ually they are not willing to purchase it except at a dis-
count. Often they will not take small quantities of lower
quality or non-standardized produce at prices favorable to
producers. Buyers also want supplies of commodities over
a continued period of time. They also desire to obtain
these from the same sources. These practices reduce their
procurement, distribution and merchandising costs.
As a consequence of these procedures, small producers
who wish to sell independently have found it increasingly
difficult to meet the buying specifications of chains and
other large grocery buying organizations. Generally large
producers, marketing cooperatives or marketing firms with
ample supplies can meet buyers' specifications better than
firms with a small volume.
These changes have tended to speed up the trend to-
ward centralized control or management over two or more
phases of production and marketing. The process of inte-
gration, a term which has recently found its way into
much of our discussion of agricultural problems, may be
used to bring about centralized control.
Decisions which formerly were made by producers in-
1939 1948 1956*
. O hlu P rtl.l BIa .1* -.. .,
. I. D.iMrlll O1P LCIOui-L
A mNSU1RC .tuff1
The grocery trade is now able to exercise more power in setting
specifications for the products it sells than it did 10 or 20 years ago.
creasingly are being made by integrators as the integration
process gains momentum. A great deal of the decision
making and risk taking has been assumed by the inte-
grators. Thus, the prospects for many agricultural pro-
ducers to make profits is now controlled to a large extent
by other individuals and firms.
The poultry industry is the example most often cited
in discussions of vertical integration in agriculture. It is
reported that some 90 percent of the nation's broilers are
produced under some kind of contractual arrangements
which gives the integrator the right to make certain deci-
sions and control certain operations. In producing broilers,
the farmer normally provides only housing, equipment and
labor. Baby chicks, feed, management, marketing and pro-
cessing are provided by the contractor or integrator, who
is usually a feed dealer, a poultry slaughter plant or a co-
operative with a feed mill and slaughter plant. Decisions
concerning breed of chicks, rations, disease control, time
to sell, place of sale, etc., are made by the integrator.
The citrus industry in Florida is another prime example
of vertical integration in agriculture. There has been more
vertical integration in the citrus industry and for a much
longer period than most people realize. The industry was
integrated to a very large extent long before any appreci-
able amount of integration with broilers existed. Currently
the two largest citrus processing firms in the state contract
with grower bargaining cooperatives for the major portion
of their fruit. Most of the other large citrus processing
firms are federated cooperatives whose members are fresh
fruit packing houses. These packing houses are either reg-
ular corporations, cooperative corporations or individually
owned business firms. Cooperative packing houses usually
provide a complete grove care service for their members.
Such operations as cultivation,- pruning, fertilization, irri-
gation, insect and disease control, picking and hauling
are included. Furthermore, the cooperative either advises
with the member or actually makes the decisions with re-
spect to all cultural practices. Many growers who are not
members of cooperatives obtain these same services from
private or corporate grove caretakers.
In brief, three major factors are concerned in the co-
ordination of the integration process between producers
and handlers, whether the latter be chain stores, processing
firms, cooperatives, feed dealers or some other type of
firm or individual. These features desired with respect to
the commodities traded are: (1) uniformity of product;
(2) stability of supply with specified delivery dates over
considerable periods of time; and (3) availability of a
Other forces are also at work which will make the agri-
culture of tomorrow considerably different from that of
today. Some of these other forces are definitely related to
the changing demand conditions posed by the retail trade.
Many of the changes now taking place will enable agri-
culture to meet the specifications of the grocery trade more
1940 1950 1960 1940 1950 1960
S0.. ... .. = .,. .... .. U ...,.. .,, ,
U. S. OSX*fM. ENT or AP.CULTUS
I... .4r-S (l.1 MAICUIUR.L IrT1HG IlRVCE
Processng is not now an outlet for culls that the fresh market
will not take. Fruit, vegetables and other farm products must meet
rigid specifications when sold to the processing market.
Numerous farmers tend to specialize in a smaller num-
ber of commodities than heretofore. Many, in fact, pro-
duce only one commodity or confine their activities to only
a single step in the production process. This situation lends
itself well to vertical integration.
Expanded processing facilities by many types of firms
also hold serious implications for agriculture. Consumers
have shown their willingness to pay for packaging, freezing
and many other "built-in" maid services. Much of this
processing takes place at locations far distant from the
It also appears that innovations and new technology
in production and marketing will develop at a faster rate
than in the past. Recent trends show that today's farmers
adopt this technology much more rapidly than their fathers
adopted changes several decades ago.
Growers Adopt Technology
The new technology will likely require the farms of
the future to have much higher capital assets than the
farms of today. There will be a need for larger farm units
with larger field for utilizing efficiently the larger farm
machinery to handle farm products which fulfill market
specifications. These factors may well result in a change
from the family farm to new types of ownership and organ-
ization and to different production methods. It certainly
appears that the commercial farm of the future is destined
to grow in size.
The tendency for mergers, accompanied by a high de-
gree of centralized control in the supermarket industry,
the expansion of new supermarkets into locations with rap-
idly increasing populations and the desire of food store
management to control more fully the specifications of the
products they sell can portend a profitable future for agri-
cultural producers who meet their demands.
The successful farmers of tomorrow will be those who
produce commodities with standardized high quality at low
cost and who belong to or contract with organizations
which have products for sale in large volumes over an ex-
U N IEWS
Alpha Tau Alpha
The Epsilon chapter of Alpha Tau
Alpha assembled for the first meeting of
the year to elect officers. Elected were:
S. Allen Poole, Jr., president; Ronnie
Jeffries, vice president; Don Farrens,
secretary; Jim Ward, treasurer.
Alpha Tau Alpha is an organization
composed of young men in training to
teach vocational agriculture.
ATA's main purpose is to promote
the highest ideals and standards of agri-
cultural education and to have a more
intimate acquaintance and closer rela-
tionship with men who have chosen the
profession of teaching agriculture.
All agricultural education students are
urged to join this fraternity.
It is directly concerned with future
teachers of agriculture. Practical experi-
ence and personal contacts acquired
through this organization are important
to the student who plans to transfer his
technical knowledge and professional
skills to youth of our nation.
Block & Bridle
The Block and Bridle Club is com-
posed of animal husbandry majors and
students in related agricultural fields,
most of who hope to some day partici-
pate in Florida's growing livestock in-
Dr. T. J. Cunha, head of the Dept. of
Animal Husbandry, welcomed students
attending the annual Freshman Get-
Acquainted Meeting. He explained some
of the ways the department could help
students in Animal Husbandry and of-
fered the counseling services of the en-
tire staff to help freshmen with any prob-
lems they may encounter.
Dr. Cunha also discussed the facilities
available at the university for students
majoring in agriculture and the impor-
tance of working hard and gaining as
much knowledge as possible while in
Members of the club explained the ac-
tivities planned for the year and the obli-
gations new members would be expected
Several members were presented
scholarships for outstanding scholastic
and leadership abilities for the past year.
Glen Bardon was awarded a National
Science Foundation Scholarship for re-
search and the National Block and Bridle
Scholarship. He previously won the J.
Hillis Miller and Koger Scholarship as
the outstanding senior student in the
College of Agriculture.
Dick Ingerman was presented the Flor-
ida Block and Bridle Scholarship for
scholarship and club performance.
Dallas Townsend received the Ralston
Purina Scholarship for the top senior
animal science student.
Barbara Chaplin received the Koger
award for the outstanding junior agri-
Officers for the coming year are: Glen
Bardon, president; Richard Ingerman,
vice president; Barbara Chaplin, secre-
tary; John Stitt, treasurer; Austin Tilton,
pledge master; Wayne Wade, marshall;
Ed Watson, parliamentarian; and Bill
Faculty advisors are Dr. A. C. War-
nick and Dr. Clarence Ammerman.
The club began its activities early this
year with a meeting on September 21.
The meeting consisted of a welcoming
back of members and greeting the visi-
tors of ASA. The meeting was followed
by the showing of a film, "Dynamic
Careers in Agriculture," and a social
The officers for this year are: Presi-
dent, Wayne Smith; Vice President,
Mario Rojas; Secretary, Bobby Ray Dur-
den; Treasurer, Edmundo Ochomogo;
Reporter, Nicholas Fuentas; Business
Manager, Fred Godfrey.
Faculty Advisors for the club are
Dr. E. G. Rodgers and Dr. R. E.
On September 25, the club members
assisted the Agronomy department in the
annual Agronomy Fish-Fry.
At the second meeting October 5, the
club began work on the business for the
year. The club is now preparing Crop
Planting and Soil Crop Demonstrating
Kits for sale. These kits are sold at a
nominal fee and are most useful for edu-
cational instruction. These kits are avail-
able to county agents, vocational agri-
culture instructors, students and others
dealing with agricultural education.
Another item under discussion was
our contribution to the Agricultural Bar-
Be-Que. Initial plans for the Agricul-
tural Fair were formed. For the past two
years the club has won the "best exhibit"
trophy of the fair.
We have excellent attendance and a
high degree of enthusiasm among club
members. With attitudes like these, we
can expect a successful year.
Fruit Crops Club
The newest and largest club formed
in the College of Agriculture is the Fruits
The purpose of the organization is to
bring together students majoring in Fruit
Crops and all other students having a
vital interest in the field to promote and
maintain a better relationship with the
Officers elected were: Harold Ste-
phens, president; Jim Kimbrough, vice
president; Alan Weeks, business man-
ager; Wayne Jernigan, secretary; Donald
Surdyniski, treasurer; and Bruce Moun-
Faculty advisor is Dr. H. S. Wolfe.
Activities for the coming year were
planned at the first meeting on October
1, of the Poultry Science Club.
The club sponsored their annual bar-
beque for members of the Py 201 class,
a basic poultry course later in the month.
Officers elected for the year are: Ber-
nard Lester, president; Bill Nelson, vice
president; Harold Biust, secretary-treas-
urer; and Park Waldroup, reporter.
Faculty advisor is Dr. R. E. Cook.
The organizational meeting of the
Dairy Science Club was held in the early
part of October. This meeting was high-
lighted by the presentation of a silver
tray to Dr. and Mrs. S. P. Marshall, in
appreciation of their extensive service
as faculty advisors to the club.
At the Dairy Field Day banquet, held
at the Hub on October 15, T. G. Lee,
prominent Orlando dairy figure, was pre-
sented a certificate of honorary lifetime
membership in the Dairy Science Club
citing his eminent services to the dairy
industry in Florida.
The following day, in connection with
the Dairy Field Day, the club served a
barbeque luncheon at the Dairy Research
Unit at Hague.
At the present, plans are being form-
ulated for an unusually active year.
These plans include the second publica-
tion of "The Milk Pail," the club annual,
and preparations for a field trip during
semester break which will include visits
of various dairying facilities in Georgia
and South Carolina.
(Al Hammond, Jr.)
UErrEU rrrKi KrinWr U UeeEsk
Prompt Courteous Service
m.erican Gem Society
"University of Florida Rings"
TUU UUN I tHlUR A LUIIn-
JUST A LIGHT FINGER TOUCH! PATRONIZE
FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Hydraulic power does the actual l$
shifting, but it's controlled by this
handy lever under the steering
Now, for the first time
you can shift on-the-go
to any speed you want, any power you need, by
a simple touch of your finger! Ford All-Purpose
Select-O-Speed tractors give finger-tip, clutchless
shifting to any of 10 forward and 2 reverse speeds
so you can match pull-power and speed exactly,
instantly, to changing field conditions. And with
Ford's new independent PTO, you engage or dis-
engage the PTO shaft on-the-go, at any time. Come
in and test drive a Ford All-Purpose Select-O-Speed
tractor today see what it can do for youl
Weed Killers John Bean Sprayers
MILL CREEK PRODUCTS CO.
P. O. BOX 4297
TAMPA 7, FLORIDA
Jacksonville Orlando Miami
Much time has been spent this year
discussing the type of programs that
would be most interesting and at the
same time informative-in other words,
the type of programs students will attend
meetings to hear. We are starting off
with panel discussions. The panel is
given a certain length of time to lay some
ground work on the topic and the floor
is opened for questions from the students.
The Ag. Economics Display on the
second floor of Dan McCarty Hall was
used in the Life and Learning Exhibit
at Homecoming to represent the College
Meetings are held the first and third
Thursday nights of each month and it is
hoped the programs will be interesting
enough to attract students in other fields
of agriculture to attend meetings, when
we are discussing their particular field,
as we are concerned with all fields of
agriculture in economics.
Despite the annual "halfing of mem-
bership" resulting from the departure of
graduating seniors, early developments
during the organizational meeting on
September 29 portend a successful 1959-
60 season for the Florida Chapter of
Alpha Zeta, Agricultural Honorary Fra-
The fraternity, in an effort to bolster
a diminishing bank balance, decided to
replenish the coffers by selling Christmas
Chancellor Roderic Magie appointed
the following committee chairman: John
Stitt, pledge training; Bobby Dancy, re-
freshments; and C. W. Hawkins, pro-
grams. The resignation of Dancy as
Scribe was received and approved, and
Brother Kenneth Henderson was appoint-
ed by Chancellor Magie to fill the unex-
The membership noted the service of
Brothers Wayne Smith, Allen Poole, and
Magie on the student planning committee
for the Agricultural Convocation.
On October 27 a smoker was held for
The Agricultural Council began its ac-
tivities this year by sponsoring the first
convocation held in the College of Agri-
culture. A complete analysis of this
program can be found elsewhere in this
Other Council sponsored activities in
October included a TV program over
WUFT, October 21. This was a preview
for the Ag. Freshman Barbeque on Oc-
tober 30, which this year was held in
conjunction with Block & Bridle's Little
International. The Council will continue
to present a TV program over WUFT
once each month.
Next "big" event in the college will
be Ag. Fair in March. This fair will be
conducted similar to the '59 Fair, only
larger. It is the desire of the Council
that individual clubs and departments
begin preparatory work now for this
To stimulate scholarship, the Council
will present a rotating trophy at the end
of the year to the club whose members
have the best scholastic average.
Students will also be interested to know
work is being attempted toward the in-
creasing of study hours in the Ag.
The Council welcomes any suggestions
and criticisms from students in the
The Collegiate Chapter of the Future
Farmers of America held its first meet-
ing of the 1959-60 school year on Octo-
NEW HAMPSHIRE REDS
"Chicks hatched 10 minutes from the airport"
MIAMI INTERNATIONAL HATCHERIES, INC.
P. O. Box 48-1005
Miami 48, Florida
10 DECEMBER, 1959
The Collegiate Chapter of the FFA is
organized for the primary purpose of as-
sisting prospective teachers of Voca-
tional Agriculture in becoming compe-
tent advisors of the local high school
FFA chapters when they enter the field
Anyone who is interested in the FFA ER
or plans to major in Agricultural Educa-
tion is urged to attend meetings.
Officers for the fall semester of 1959-
60 are: Ken Trammel, president; James FERTILIZERS AND INSECTICIDES THAT ARE SUPERIOR
Ward, vice president; Ken Rauth, secre-
tary; John Olin, treasurer; Lou Smith, Factories and Offices: TAMPA and FORT PIERCE, FLORIDA
reporter; Don Farrens, sentinel; and
Prof. W. T. Loften, advisor.
The chapter has several projects listed
on its program of work for the coming
year. One of these is an FFA exhibit in
the Greater Jacksonville Fair, and will
be built around the theme "Food Line i CO/1 PLETE ff RT SERVICE
of the Future." ZINC TCHINGS
We feel this will be an instructive and C H T N S
useful, as well as entertaining year for C "2PER HALFTONES
our chapter. We hope those who are .. & COLOR PLATES
interested in our work will see fit to join
us and share in our activities.
(Lou Smith) 36 C
Since 1890 SOUTH
A~IrI r~ PHONE
B AIRD D J % C K S nv u, FL .
I R EL6-4831 JRCKSOnVILLE. FLR.
Air Conditioned Free Parking
GRILL & HOTEL RESEARCH
214 W. University Avenue i
~, /tried and tre...
FIELD For more than 65 years, W&T's
For Your Class Needs TESTING continuing program of research, field
testing and grower service has kept
See science's newest, proven advances
working efficiently for Florida
growers through Ideal Fertilizers and
I ALONE'h S GRO R FASCO Pesticides. It is gratifying
M ALUN i GROWER that results throughout the years
Book and SuSERVICE have earned the title of "the best"
Book and S y for these fertilizers and pesticides.
INSRE WILSON & TOOMER
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McDAVID'S FLORIDA., 'lf GENERAL OFFICES JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
McDAVIDS AGRICULT RAC -
BARBER SHOP SUPPLY COMPAN.Yxo
DECEMBER, 1959 11
DECEMBER, 1959 11
SERVICE & QUALITY!!
Years of experience in working with fertilizers
for Florida soils assures you of the very best
for your crops, groves, and pastures when
you call on WEST COAST.
QUALITY INSECTICIDES IN STOCK
One of our trained field men will be glad to
discuss your fertilizer and insecticide program
WEST COAST FERTILIZER CO.
CALL "MAC" MAXWELL: TAMPA 4-3116
OR WRITE: BOX 1094, 35th AT 6th AVE., TAMPA, FLORIDA.
' '"* ""ss
Allis-Chalm ers ........................ 13
Baird Hardware ....................... 11
College Inn .. 9
College Inn Barber Shop ........................ ........................ 9
Deere and Co. .................................................... Inside Cover
Florida Favorite Fertilizer .......................................... 5
Florida Ford Tractor .......... 9
Florida State Hatcheries, Inc ................ ......................... 5
Heart Bar Ranch 12
International Harvester ......................... ..Back Cover
Malone's Book Store 11
McDavid's Barber Shop 11
Miami International Hatcheries 10
Primrose Grill & Hotel 11
Robertson Jewelers 9
Southern Dolomite ........................... 9
Southern Mill Creek Products .......................... ......... 9
Superior Fertilizer o. .......... 11
West Coast Fertilizer 12
Wilson and Toomer ....................... 11
HEART BAR RANCH
Phone Tllden 6-5603
12 DECEMBER, 1959
A habit of reaching years ahead
..that's Allis-Chalmers research
Putting the milestones in place along the road
to better power has become a habit with Allis-
For the '30's the practice started with rubber
For the '40's streamlining outstanding
power for weight... starter and lights standard.
For the '50's TRACTION BOOSTER system
. .two-clutch power control Power-Shift
rear wheels and POWER-CRATER engine.
With the D-14 and D-17 Tractors, Allis-
Chalmers introduced Roll-Shift front axle and
Power Director or "Big Stick." It provides on-
the-go shifting and control of forward travel
completely independent of live PTO.
Now for the '60's Allis-Chalmers re-
search and engineering have developed the All-
New line of D-Series Tractors. This dynamic
new tractor family is now available in many
styles tailored to meet the individual power
needs of farmers and ranchers.
ALLIS-CHALMERS, FARM EQUIPMENT DIVISION, MILWAUKEE 1, WIS.
TRALTION BOOSTER andi POWI'wt-CHATEIt are Alik-Chalmers trademarks.
More zip...less slip...
Powerful I H tractors have the sure-traction
and big hydraulic "muscles" to
load and haul record manure tonnage
Slam an IH tractor and its brawny loader into hard-packed
manure to cram the fork full when others can't. Feel how
big power, big wheels, and balanced weight give you sure-
traction even in slippery lots. Smooth, peppy IH engines,
that seem to "see" the load coming, power you through tough
spots where others slow or stall.
"Live" hydraulic power keeps raising loader fork as you
clutch or shift to shorten the loading cycle. This high-volume
hydraulic power gives McCormick loaders tremendous break-
away lift helps you load big spreaders minutes faster.
You power-steer your way in and out of tight spots and across
deep ruts with one-handed ease. And faster tractor speeds
and bigger-capacity McCormick spreaders help you spread
tons more manure in a shorter day!
Clean low sheds and tight corners easily with low-profile
International' 240 Utility, and close-coupled McCormick No. 20
loader. This rugged loader lifts 900 Ib... dumps fork clean at
nearly 8-foot height. Tidy up quickly with handy rear blade. You
control this blade precisely with Tel-A-Depth.
C. IPwer-load a 95-bushel spreader in a hurry with this
&In.rnational 340 Utility tractor and a McCormick No. 34 loader.
> tn in cramped and muddy lots, IH power steering, 2-way control
- of-bucket and boom, and optional Fast Reverser cut loading time
v- v down to help you move tons more manure daily.
Power-away your loading and hauling jobs fast with
IH tractors and McCormick equipment to gain extra
field time worth hundreds of dollars. See your IH
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O MATCH YOUR PAYMENTS
e TO YOUR INCOME
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Haul more loads in a day with faster transport speeds. Torque
Amplifier drive gives Farmall tractors two road speeds. You can
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in 5th-TA, and when the load is rolling, instantly step up to 16/2 mph
without shifting gears.