Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00054
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00054
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text

the florida







See Story Page 3


:C. ''
F' ~ ~Pl~h ~S~i~E~x~ p~lAAe~e~XI; ~~i~': -ciV'rrr--- is -TT-~1 i~ii;F~ 11721~nll.-~~~ :


^. *

-- .t.-** -
,,. + .*<-* *.-




DEERE Moline, Illinois


:i' ~Q


the florida

college farmer

Volume 10, Number 2



Citrus A Growing Industry .........
Where To In Poultry Integration --
Summer School and Travel.........-
The College Farmer Salutes.......
Trends in Mechanized Agriculture_
Agri Views ...--



Managing Editor ..........

Editorial Assistant .....-...

Business Manager .......---

Circulation Manager .-

Circulation Assistant -

.........-- .. Jackso



.----..... Phil

..--- ..Ric

.-- Harol

Faculty Advisory Committee

Chairman, Prof. J. R. Greenman

Dr. Earl G. Rodgers, Dr. Ralph Eastv

COVER: Florida's fine citrus is rollir
processing plants and fresh fruit ma

publication from the College of Agriculture of the Univer-
sity of Florida. It is compiled, edited, and distributed by
students of this college. It is the privilege of any ag stu-
dent to use this publication as a medium of expression. It
is the voice of the Florida Agricultural student.

Entered as second class mailing matter at the Post Office at University
Station, Gainesville, Florida, December 8, 1938, under an Act of
Congress of 1879. Twenty-five cents per copy, dollar a year. Pub-
lished four times during the year: November, January, March, and
May. Address all correspondence to Florida College Farmer, Dan
McCarty Hall, Gainesville, Florida.

I hereby resolve that in the year 1959 I will .....
Many resolutions have been made and many already
broken. The beginning of each new year seems to be
the one time when most people look back into the
past, admire their accomplishments, find their faults,
and resolve to do better in the New Year. Looking
back into the past of the College of Agriculture we
nuary, 1959 find many accomplishments. Jim Quincey placed first
in the international speaking contest of the American
Farm Economics Association and the Canadian Agri-
cultural Economics Society meeting. Emory Weatherly
was elected Vice President of the Student Body. The
Experiment Station installed a radiation experimental
unit. And then there is Dan McCarty Hall, still new
--- 3 enough to be thankful for.
4 These things didn t just happen. They became ac-
tualities because many people were willing to use their
.------- 5 energies for planning and working and not just dream-
6 ing. The past record of accomplishments of the Col-
lege of Agriculture suggests a future that is even
7 brighter. We can realize this bright future if we too
S10 work and plan to the best of our abilities.
Surely, we believe we have one of the best colleges
of agriculture anywhere or we wouldn't be here. But
looking back over the record of student activities as a
whole and as individual clubs, I wonder if we really
n Brownlee have done our best. Why (lid only 25 freshmen attend

y McDavid Ag Bar-B-Que, which was given especially in their
honor? Why did some of the clubs fail to perform the
ea Chaplin duties assigned them by the agricultural council? Why
did some clubs fail to sell any tickets for the turkey
Armstrong shoot? Why do more faculty members than students

hard Kelly turn out for a club picnic? Much value can be received
from extra-curricula activities, but it takes more than
d Stephens saying here's my dollar, put my name on the roll. To
those who have been working their hearts out for
these activities and get such little response from the
students, it is mightily discouraging.
Will we be able to look back next New Year's Day
vood and say, "Look what we have accomplished," or will
we still be making the same New Year's Resolutions?
"It is up to you my lad, you've all the greatest of men
ng to have had .. .. with your equipment they all began,
so get a hold of yourself and say I CAN."
rkets. .B.




MARCH 20-21, 1959

for top egg production

for quality broilers









A Growing



Inspecting the fruit? Left to right: John C. Norris, Hugh S. Rummel, Jr., Mrs.
Richard L. Ganin, Robert O. Brown, and Corland C. Rudolph.

THE STORY OF CITRUS has been one
of growth and expansion. From its
position as a prized ornamental in the
gardens of Chinese emperors, citrus has
become one of the major fruit crops in
the Western Hemisphere. In the United
States total citrus production more than
equals the combined production of ap-
ples, peaches, and pears.
Why has citrus become so popular and
how? Citrus plants were prized for their
beauty long before any sweet varieties
were grown extensively for their edible
qualities, and centuries before vitamins
and minerals were discovered. There are
many references to citrus in ancient Chi-
nese literature: poets wrote of its glossy
leaves, its brilliantly colored fruits, and
its perfumed blossoms. Although little
of the fruit was eaten, there were many
uses for citrus-medicine, poison anti-
dote, perfume, and moth protection be-
ing a few of the most interesting ones.
Seeds of citrons, sour oranges, and lem-
ons were greatly treasured by visitors to
the Orient and, upon their return home,
were planted and nurtured. Prior to and
during the period of the Crusades, citrus
spread through the Mediterranean basin,
first as hothouse plants and then adjust-
ing to natural conditions in Southern Eu-
By 1493, it was so common in Europe
that, when Columbus planned his second
voyage for the purpose of planting a
colony in the New World, he included a
supply of citrus seeds as a matter of
course. Thus citrus was introduced into
Haiti, and from there to other islands in
the Indies, and finally to Florida in 1759.
Here, thanks to the Indians who dropped

the seeds in their travels and to a benefi-
cent climate, the citrus multiplied and
spread throughout the peninsula. With
the later introduction of the sweet or-
ange, many of these wild trees were top-
worked and became the foundations for
the early groves.
Spain ceded Florida to the United
States in 1821. For the next fifty years,
citrus was grown only for a local market,
since such a large percentage of the fruit
spoiled because of haphazard shipment
in barrels and boxes. Then in 1875, the
development of the standard nailed box
and a scientific method of packing the
fruit cut down losses during shipping tre-
mendously. The production of citrus be-
came an industry and really began to
come into its own. It is still developing
and expanding. From the 1920-21 season
with a production of 15 million boxes, to
that of 1956-57 of 135 million, there was
an increase of 800 percent. The freezes
of 1957-58 reduced acreages somewhat,
but indications are that even higher yields
will be obtained from Florida citrus
planting this year. Total consumption is
steadily increasing-better transportation
and distributing facilities, improved ad-
vertising and selling techniques, and ad-
vanced canning and processing methods
have placed citrus fruit within reach of
Up until the end of World War II,
citrus was marketed mostly as fresh fruit
and single strength juices, and during the
war the government bought almost all of
the citrus crop. With the coming of peace.
a slump threatened because civilian con-
sumption was not sufficient to absorb the
supply. Then technology, producing a

new improved frozen concentrate, step-
ped in and saved the day and the in-
dustry. Again production spiraled upward
and just a few years ago, the industry
seemed faced once more with the prob-
lem of overproduction. Again it was Sci-
ence to the rescue, this time developing
"chilled" juice. This new process is ex-
panding in its field tremendously and is
utilizing more and more of the citrus
crop. By-products are also becoming in-
creasingly important to the industry. The
most important ones from the pulp, peel,
and seeds are dried stock feed and citrus
molasses. These are excellent sources of
carbohydrates and are used as feeds both
for beef and dairy cattle. Pectin, used in
the manufacture of jellies, is extracted
from the peel along with peel oil which
is used in flavorings and perfumes.
Today, citrus is Florida's largest agri-
cultural industry. In 1956-57 Florida
canned nearly 18 million cases of single
strength orange juice, while the rest of
the world canned less than one-half mil-
lion cases. Florida cans nearly one hun-
dred per cent of the frozen orange juice
concentrate produced in the world. There
are individual processing plants in Flor-
ida which produce more each year than
is produced by all of the world's proces-
sing plants outside the United States.
Florida is rapidly expanding orange
production and exploring new outlets for
citrus products at the same time, and
growers who, a few years ago, talked
about how many boxes they had deliver-
ed to the packing house now will tell you
the pounds of solids in their last ship-
ment of oranges to the concentrator.
(Continued on page 9)

Where to in


University of Florida

EDITOR'S NOTE. Philip Armstrong placed
third in the speech contest for students
at the joint meeting of the American
Farm Economics Association and the
Canadian Agricultural Economics Socie-
ty meeting in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The
following is Mr. Armstrong's speech.
IN RECENT YEARS an increasing number
of our farmers have entered into a
business arrangement which is called ver-
tical integration. Need for capital, hope
of greater profits and greater security
have caused farmers to delegate to others
many of their managerial decisions. This
is not new. In Colonial days cotton, to-
bacco and naval stores factors exercised
a great deal of control over farmer's pro-
duction and marketing decisions. The ac-
celerated development of vertical integra-
tion in recent times, however, with the
likelihood that it will continue to grow,
calls for a critical evaluation. 1. Why has
it developed so rapidly in recent years?
2. Will it continue to develop? 3. What
will be its effect upon farmers and upon
society? 4. How can vertical integration
be directed to the betterment of all? The
answers to these questions may be found
by social scientists.
Vertical integration has developed in
connection with the production of a large
number of agricultural commodities.
These include broilers, eggs, citrus, vege-
tables and livestock. The broiler industry
probably offers the most spectacular ex-
ample of rapid growth of vertical inte-
gration. Broilers produced under vertical
integration constitute more than 90 per-
cent of all broilers produced in the Unit-
ed States. Therefore, I have selected the
broiler industry for the purpose of dis-
cussing with you today some of the ques-
tions that arise in connection with verti-
cal integration.

In the broiler industry, contracts be-
tween farmers and processors or dealers
usually provide the legal medium for ver-
tical integration. The typical contract ties
the farmer closely to the contracting
dealer. The farmer must purchase his
chicks, feed and supplies from the deal-
er, he must sell his broilers to the dealer,
and he must follow production and mar-
keting practices laid down by the dealer.
In return he is provided with financing,
he is assured of a market for his product,
and hz is guaranteed a certain minimum
margin with possibilities of greater re-
turn if he is unusually efficient or if mar-
ket prices are favorable.
In essence, the contracting farmer is
provided with financing and a certain
amount of security, and in turn the con-
tractor gets an assured outlet for his sup-
plies or a dependable source of quality
Technological developments requiring
a great amount of capital, know-how and
know-why have set the stage for this
rapid integration in the poultry industry.
Modern methods of mass production and
chain store marketing require business
and managerial skills beyond the scope
of most farmers. During the last ten
years individual capital requirements for
efficient broiler production have increas-
ed ten-fold. With the application of im-
proved techniques of production, better
management and more capital under a
widespread system of integration the in-
dustry has rapidly increased its efficiency
and offers promise of even greater im-
provements. For example, ten years ago
a three pound broiler was produced in
eleven weeks with ten to twelve pounds
of feed. Today, a three pound broiler is
produced in nine weeks with only seven
and a half pounds of feed. A few years
ago one man could handle 24,000 broil-
ers per year. Today one man can raise
100,000 or more per year. Because of

this increased efficiency, broilers have be-
come our most economical source of
Cheaper meat, through integration of
the broiler industry has not come without
some social and economic cost to many
American farmers. Too much human dig-
nity, initiative, and independence have
been sacrificed. Farmers, untrained in
law and economics have entered into
contracts slanted to the advantage of
dealers. Under vertical integration in its
present form, the family poultry farm as
we have known it, ceases to exist. Inte-
grated broiler producers no longer make
their own immediate production and
marketing decisions. They are heavily de-
pendent upon contracting dealers for
farm management and for financing. In
many cases their status is little more than
that of hired laborers or share-croppers.
Large, integrated poultry enterprises
without a system of checks and balances
MAY ultimately degenerate into a system
of monopolistic competition, with at-
tendant decreases in efficiency and in-
creased costs to the American public.
Clearly, we must move quickly if the
modern family farm business is to be
preserved. And I believe you will agree
that the modern family farm, as a busi-
ness, should be preserved! We must find
ways of achieving the efficiency that ac-
companies integration without the sacri-
fices that ensue. Economics, political sci-
ence, sociology, law and other related
disciplines must be brought to bear. Per-
haps we can find ways to modify integra-
tion as we now know it; perhaps we can
find better substitutes. We must find why
integrated industries have been so suc-
cessful in improving efficiency and how
successful integrated farmers have man-
aged their farm businesses to employ best
this powerful business force. We must
analyze all of the different kinds of inte-
(Continued on page 11)





THIS PAST SUMMER I experienced
something that I believe every stu-
dent should experience at least once
during his college career. I attended sum-
mer school at another university. My
choice was the University of California
at Berkely. This afforded me the oppor-
tunity of travel across the United States.
It is my firm belief that summer study
on other campuses is one of the most
broadening and worthwhile experiences
a student can have. There are so many
new things to see and observe. The stu-
dents have new and different outlooks
and ideas. The different standards and
paces existing on the various campuses
are very helpful in developing a student's
outlook on various aspects of both aca-
demic life and life in general.
Berkely students have a very fast pace
and a high academic standard. The stu-
dent body and surrounding population is
made up of Oriental, German, Italian,
Negro, and just about every other group.
There is a very clear and common under-
standing among this varied population.
The students own a multi-million dol-
lar cooperative housing plant that accom-
modates hundreds of students like my-
self. Rates for room and board were
$80.00 for a six weeks session, and regis-
tration for all students is $65.00. Stu-
dents are organized not only in housing,
book stores, and barber shops, but will
not work for less than $1.40 per hour at
part time jobs off and on campus.
Besides studying at other Universities,
the travel is equally important. In case
you think travel of this sort is just for
the rich and elite, let me make you aware
of your error. My status, as many of you
know, is neither of the above. I have a
simple agrarian background. Since leav-
ing home, I have been self-supporting. By
this I am not trying to relate myself as
being like one of John Steinbeck's charac-
ters, but merely showing that it does not
require a pocket full of money to travel.
However, I must tell you that this mode
of travel is unknown to the ordinary tour-
To get on with the trip, Bob Strawn, a
forestry major, and I helped a Venezue-

lan student drive his car to California.
We saw to it that food expenses and night
accommodations were exceptionally rea-
sonable. We visited and explored the
main attractions along Route 66, such as
the Indian reservation in Albuquerque,
New Mexico, and scenic spots all through
the "Land of Enchantment," a land truly
named. It is hard for an easterner to vis-
ualize the vast barren areas that seem so
wasteful, but yet so beautiful. Whether
one is interested in geology, biology, ag-
riculture or any other field, the West of-
fers fascination and intrigue unsurpassed.
To one interested in field, vegetable, or-
namental or fruit crops, farming out in
the middle of a forsaken desert seems
like nonsense. Yet both the weather-beat-
en Indian and the white man are produc-
ing crops and building farms in these in-
credibly desolate areas. This is possible
mainly through diverted irrigation water
that has sometimes traveled for hundreds
of miles from its original course. Equally
amazing are the new industries and at-
tractive resorts out in the desert that are
attracting thousands of people each year.
The West holds a treasury of fossil and
geological deposits. Exotic formations
carved by wind and water erosion are un-
excelled in beauty. It is difficult to visual-
ize great forest and swamp lands that
once existed on what is now a dry waste-
land. In the petrified forest, one marvels
at the many tons of petrified logs and the
rainbow colored minerals that have re-
placed the original plant tissue. For the
astronomer especially, the giant Arizona
Meteor Crater is a must.
We progressed out of the hot desert
into the forested and cool mountains in
full view of the snowcapped San Fran-
cisco peaks, some 12,000 feet high. This
is the location of Flagstaff, Arizona.
From Flagstaff we headed north to the
Grand Canyon. The road is long and
straight, and decreases steadily in eleva-
tion out onto the barren plateau. On the
way down, the highway, always in full
view of the snowcapped peaks, passes
through a forest of giant ponderosa pines
that rival the California conifers.

Grand Canyon is perhaps the climax
of all the formations carved by the end-
less erosion. From the rim of the canyon,
the Colorado river appears as a lazy
brook, but from the floor of the canyon
one realizes the cutting done by the giant
river. Here layer by layer, the high walls
of the canyon present a geological time
table and the story of life through its rich
deposit of fossils.
The San Francisco Bay Area is heavily
populated and presents one of the world's
most pleasant climates. During summer
school, a sweater or jacket was very com-
fortable dress for class. A high of 85 de-
grees is considered a real heat wave, and
a low of 45 degrees is not uncommon in
My return trip was well mapped and
planned. I traveled in a most economical
manner-hitch-hiking. This was my own
choice since I wanted to stop when and
where I desired. I was told that this
method was a thing of the past, but I be-
lieve I pretty well disproved that. Actual
traveling time back to Ft. Myers, which
is over 3,000 miles, was seven days. My
route took me across the San Juiquin
Valley where I visited the AGR chapter
at Davis. There I received a first class
tour of their College of Agriculture.
I traveled across the scenic Sierra-Ne-
vada mountains on to dazzling Reno.
Here one has an excellent chance to lose
all his money, but since I had very little,
I wasn't worried. The long ride of 600
miles across the great Nevada desert to
Salt Lake City was made in one full day
in only two rides. This was a wonderful
friendly city. After several days in this
area, I crossed the Rockies to Denver
and then on to Kansas, visiting several
old army friends along the way. Needless
to say, these meals and a soft bunk came
in mighty handy.
It would be difficult to say which was
more valuable, the travel or the summer
school. They can both go together and be
of double value. As I have said before,
you don't have to be rich. With a little
money and a lot of determination this
summer could be one of the most re-
warding experiences of your life.




Emory S. Weatherly, Jr.


IF THE PAST can be said to be a measure
of things to come, then the future
holds much in store for Emory S. Weath-
erly, Jr., Vice President of the University
of Florida student body.
Such is the opinion one is quite likely
to form after reviewing the accomplish-
ments of this 21 year old senior in the
College of Agriculture.
Emory is characterized by a warm,
sincere, friendly personality, and his
quiet, but effective determination, cou-
pled with his spreading grin endear him
to all with whom he comes in contact.
Emory's leadership qualities were re-
cently honored when he was tapped for
membership by Florida Blue Key, the
men's leadership fraternity of the Uni-
versity of Florida. Blue Key membership,
which is to the campus leader what Phi
Beta Kappa is to the campus scholar, is
the highest leadership honor that can be
bestowed upon a Florida man, and it is
only fitting that Emory should be select-
ed for this honor.
Emory's leadership ability and interest
in agricultural affairs go back to his high
school days at Havana, Florida, where as
a vocational agriculture student he was
elected State FFA Vice President. He al-
so attended the national FFA convention
as a delegate from his local chapter.
During his high school days he helped
his father raise shade-grown tobacco and
tend a herd of Hereford cattle. For four
years he showed cattle at the Northwest
Florida Livestock Show in Quincy.
Emory's leadership abilities were in use
soon after he arrived at the University in
the fall of 1955. During his freshman
year he served as president of his Sunday

school class and secretary of the campus
chapter of the American Society of Ag-
ronomy. In the spring of 1956 he was
elected to the Student Body Executive
Council as a representative of the Fresh-
man class.
During his sophomore year Emory
was appointed Business Manager of the
ped by Alpha Zeta agricultural honorary
fraternity. As an AGR pledge, Emory
served as president of his pledge class
and was the recipient of his fraternity's
outstanding pledge trophy. Soon after
initiation into the active chapter, he was
elected secretary of the fraternity. In the
spring of 1957, Weatherly returned to
the student Executive Council; this time
as a representative of the Sophomore
class. He was appointed to the powerful
Budget and Finance Committee, Semi-
nole Committee and Constitution Revi-
sion Committee. During the spring se-
mester of 1957, Richard McRae, then
president of the Ag Council, resigned be-
cause of a trip he was to make out-of-
the-country. Emory was elected to com-
plete the unexpired portion of McRae's
term. At the end of his sophomore year,
the Ag Council elected him president of
that organization, the first time that po-
sition has been given to a junior.
As a junior, Emory was busier than
ever. He served as chairman of the Ag
Bar-B-Que and Chairman of Ag Fair, in
addition to presiding over the meetings
of the Ag Council. At the beginning of
the school year, Emory was again award-
ed for his abilities. He was given the
Alpha Zeta outstanding Freshman-Sopho-
more award. In addition he was awarded

a Kroger Scholarship for academic
achievement. As an advanced Army
R.O.T.C. student, Emory attained mem-
bership in the Scabbard and Blade Hon-
orary military fraternity and served on
the Military Ball Committee.
During the spring semester of 1958,
two honors in the field of student gov-
ernment were bestowed on Weatherly.
He was selected to receive the outstand-
ing student representative trophy donated
by Dean Beaty, and he was elected Vice
President of the student body, a position
he now holds.
As the recipient of the outstanding Ag
Senior award, Emory was given the Dan-
forth Summer fellowship, and with the
other outstanding ag seniors from the
United States, and Hawaii, spent four
weeks in St. Louis, Missouri, studying
various phases of agriculture at the Pu-
rina Research farm. Emory again proved
his leadership ability as President of this
group of young men.
August 26, 1958, was probably the
biggest day in Emory's life; he was unit-
ed in marriage with Miss Elizabeth Lou-
ise (Betty) Albrecht. Emory and Betty
first became acquainted while members
of the staff of Camp Miniawanca located
in Michigan.
Those who know Emory well will as-
sure you that this young man's potentials
have only begun to be tapped and that
the people of Florida and the agricultural
world will be hearing of his achievements
for many years to come.
It is in keeping with this spirit, that
salutes Emory Weatherly and wishes him
the success he is sure to achieve.


Trends In




alization that the student is frequent-
ly searching for a better understanding
of the correlation between subject matter
covered in the various science courses
and the application of knowledge in his
chosen field. The following are examples
which illustrate how scientific knowledge
has been given practical and effective ap-
plication in the solution of typical prob-
lems. Students studying through the De-
partment of Agricultural Engineering are
concerned with these and other related
"Robot Cultivator"
Anything that relieves farmers of the
close concentration and intense fatigue
that go with cultivating corn or other
row crops with motorized equipment de-
serves to rate as a distinct achievement.
Ford electronic and agricultural engi-
neers have been doing something about
the problem in their study to speed up
the cultivating operation and make it
semi-automatic Their efforts have led
them to develop what they call a "robot
cultivator." Its key feature is a pivoted,
hairpin-shaped "feeler" that touches the
corn or other plant, serving like an in-
sect's antenna to locate the plant's posi-
tion in the row. If the plant is to the
right or left of the center line of the
feeler, the latter moves in the direction
of the plant as the cultivator nears it.
This direction of movement of the feeler
is transmitted through miniature micro-
switches to a small servomotor attached
to the power-steering linkage of the
tractor. The linkage is automatically
lengthened or shortened to direct tractor
travel so the cultivator is centered as
it passes each plant Steering correc-
tion is automatic, with no attention from
the operator. He can override the device
at any time, but he never needs to touch
the steering wheel while the equipment
is moving down the crop row Big
advantage of the robot cultivator is that,
by removing the fatigue element, the
speed of cultivation can be much faster
-up to 5/2 to 6 mph, say the engineers.
Double Use of Irrigation Water
Not all applied irrigation water soaks

into the soil. That which is not taken
up by the soil, called "tail water." runs
off at the lower ends of most fields. This
represents a substantial loss, and may be
to as much as 20 to 25 percent of the
water applied.
Farm and ranch users of water from
the large storage reservoirs naturally de-
plore any loss of valuable water and have
sought ways and means to avert it .
The USDA Soil Conservation Service re-
ports one California farmer achieved
some success in this direction. With SCS
engineering help, this man devised a
"pump-back" or return water system by
building concrete-lined sumps at the low-
er ends of his fields. Tail water draining
into these sumps is raised by deep-well
centrifugal pumps to a concrete pipeline,
in which it is carried into irrigation lines
for reuse Irrigators who reuse irri-
gation runoff through sump returns, like
the "second-hand" water because it is
warmer and richer, containing plenty of
leached fertilizer and manure. Also, it is
a great help, especially when water is in
short supply Usually, water users
will be well advised if they are encour-
aged to undertake the planning, construc-
tion, and equipping of "pump-back" sys-
tems, and then only with competent en-
gineering assistance. Otherwise, such sys-
tems can be highly expensive or of doubt-
ful value, or both.
Belt-Tube Elevator
Using a 10-inch inside-diameter tube
and a rubber belt instead of chains and
flights, a Cornell University agricultural
engineer has developed a new tube ele-
vator that is described as faster, shorter,
and easier than conventional elevators. It
will move chopped hay or grass silage
at 1,000 feet per minute, or three times
faster than conventional elevators. It is
shorter and easier to handle since it can
be used almost vertically (85 degrees)
.In use, chopped hay or silage is
dropped at a uniform rate from the
wagon onto the feed table, and then
dragged to the carrier belt by a fingered
chain. The belt is flat on the feed table
but conforms to the inside of the elevator
tube. A 5 to 7/2-horsepower electric mo-
tor is required for operation.

Controlling Summer Environment
A notable engineering achievement of
recent years is the work of research agri-
cultural engineers in developing improved
control of the summer environment of
farm animals, so essential to their ability
to produce. The five main control factors
involved have been summed up concisely
by S. S. DeForest, following consulta-
tion with four leading agricultural-engi-
neering research specialists in this field,
as follows: (1) Create a low radiant heat
load. Good sunshades are most econom-
ical for cooling livestock, and they need
to be kept as high as possible (at least 12
feet) and be portable. Aluminum or gal-
vanized steel sheets painted white on top
are best. (2) Keep drinking water cool.
This means as near ground temperature
as possible. (3) Create artificial sweat.
Foggers or sprays are best suited for cat-
tle and laying hens, and wallows for
hogs. (4) Provide artificial breeze. Large
fans increase air movement, especially in
buildings. Wire rather than board fences
lower temperatures in feedlots or cor-
rals. (5) Create cool environment. Evap-
orative coolers are practical where hu-
midity is low. Though the investment
would be high, the ultimate in creating
a controlled, cool environment is me-
chanical refrigeration or heat pumps.

Joyal Wins

Borden Award

Paul M. Joyal, a senior in the Univer-
sity of Florida College of Agriculture has
ben named recipient of the 1959 Borden
Company Award.
Joyal, a dairy husbandry major, is
scheduled to receive the $300 award pre-
sented to an outstanding agriculture sen-
ior each year. The Borden award is
made to the student who maintains the
highest grade average prior to his senior
year, and has taken at least two dairy
Joyal is an active member of Kappa
Sigma Social Fraternity; member and
chronicler of Alpha Zeta, honorary agri-
cultural fraternity; member and present
president of the Dairy Science Club; rep-
resentative to the Agricultural Council;
affiliate member of the American Dairy
Science Association; and member and
past officer of the Vermont State 4-H
Honorary Society.
He was chairman of the dairy science
barbecue, recipient of the Kroger Schol-
arship of 1958, and winner of the J.
Hillis Miller Award in 1958. A native
of Barre, he was raised on a dairy farm
in Vermont. He was a 4-H member with
dairy projects for nine years.
At the University of Florida Joyal has
been student assistant to the dairymen
with the Florida Agricultural Extension





Improved Louisiana

White Clover
More Growth More Beef Heavy Reseeding
WE HAVE the latest answer to your winter grazing problems in AB 110 OATS
and GATOR RYE. New on the market .. but Proven!
ALSO FEATURING Floriland Oats, Seminole Oats, Florida Black Rye, Hubam
Clover, S-1 Clover. Regular White Clover and Alfalfa.
Contact Your Local Seedsman For Our Products

(Wholesale Only)


Dur Third Generation ...
Before the turn of the century, W&T
representatives were working hand-in-hand
with Florida growers to achieve success.
Through the years, we have kept on the
move with science, always formulating the
newest, proven advances into Ideal
Fertilizers and FASCO Pesticides.
S So, when you complete your training
and enter Florida's great field of agriculture,
you'll find science's best at your service
under the Ideal and FASCO labels.

Plants in Jacksonville, Tampa, Cottond? le, Port Everglades

Mowry Gave

Much to Florida

and Costa Rica
(The following is a reprint from the Miami Her-
ald, Sunday, Nov. 23, 1958)
an outstanding person of renown,
while chance so often heaps a multitude
of honors upon one who ill deserves
There's no better illustration of this
than in the death last week at the Uni-
versity of Florida Teaching Hospital in
Gainesville of Dr. Harold Mowry.
Few have contributed more to Florida
than Mowry. But the chances are that
you never heard of him, especially if
you came to Florida within the last dec-
He was director of the University of
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
at the time of his retirement in 1950.
Then he went down to Costa Rica
where for the next seven years he served
as chief adviser to the minister of agri-
A native of Valley Falls, Kansas,
Mowry came to Florida in 1916. He
was associated with Florida Agriculture
for the next 34 years.
Mowry's greatest contribution was in
plant nutrition. He discovered that ap-
plications of zinc to the foliage of
mineral deficient plants improved their
He was an authority on tropical fruits
and on the ornamental plants of Florida.
He was author or co-author of 13 bulle-
tins published by the Agricultural Experi-
ment Station.
He showed growers how to produce
more coffee through the use of mineral
sprays on foliage, and gave advice about
soils and farm improvements.
While visiting Costa Rica five years
ago, Mowry told this reporter that al-
though it might be claimed that he was
helping that country, it was his wish to
remain in the background.
"I do no research and make no per-
sonal demonstrations myself," he said.
"I merely make suggestions to the young-
er men, and thev go out and do the re-
search and make the demonstrations.
They get the credit. That's the way it
should be."
"Many years ago when I first began to
do research, I received suggestions from
the older and more experienced men
above me. But when my experiments
were successful, I got the credit.



"That's mighty encouraging to a young
fellow. And it's especially important in
Costa Rica, where research is just get-
ting underway."
Mowry made a great many friends in
Costa Rica. He could have won the title
of "the most loved Gringo." His atti-
tude, his willingness to submerge his own
personality while urging others on to suc-
cess, set an example for other citizens of
the United States who must work with
the people of other countries.
Costa Rica awarded him medal of
merit upon his departure.
Last year the Florida Fruit and Veg-
etable Association gave him the associa-
tion's distinguished service award for his
contributions to Florida Agriculture.

(Continued from page 3)
The University plays an important part
in the Citrus Industry of our state in each
of its three divisions; Research, Exten-
sion, and Teaching. At the Citrus Ex-
periment Station located at Lake Alfred,
research goes on under the direction of
Dr. Herman J. Reitz. There they are con-
cerned with problems in the growing,
processing, and the marketing of citrus.
They study and work with rootstocks and
scions, fertilizers, sprays, packing house
operations, and concentrate processes, to
name only a few. The results of their re-

search are passed on to the Extension
Service and its citriculturists, Fred Lawr-
ence. Jack McCown and William Mat-
thews. The Extension Service distributes
the information to the county agents
throughout the citrus belt. They, in turn,
pass the information on to the growers
in their various communities. The USDA,
which has laboratories in Orlando and
Winter Haven, aids materially in develop-
ing a bigger and better citrus industry in
Last, but not least, of the three divi-
sions is the one in which we students are
the most interested; the College of Agri-
culture. Citriculture is included in the
Fruit Crops Department under the direc-
tion of Dr. J. W. Sites. Dr. H. S. Wolfe
teaches courses in introductory horticul-
ture and fruit production physiology.
Nursery, maturity, and packing house
studies are handled by Dr. M. J. Soule,
Jr. Introductory citrus and crop produc-
tion is in the charge of Dr. L. W. Zie-
gler. Citrus canning and processing is in-
cluded in the curricula of the Food Tech-
nology and Nutrition Department of
which Dr. R. A. Dennison is head.
The College is a vital part of the citrus
industry, training young men and women
in all phases of growing, processing, and
marketing of citrus. The future of the in-
dustry rests with us who will assume lea-
dership in guiding its destiny in the years
to come.

Rush Tractor





Farm Equipment

Stengle Field N. Magnolia
Gainesville Ocala






hatched 10 minutes from the



P. O. Box 48-1005

Miami 48, Florida




Newell Entomological

gan the 1958 semester with an initia-
tion banquet at which time fourteen stu-
dents joined the club.
For a semester project the group as-
sumed responsibility of arranging displays
in part of the glass display cases in Dan
McCarty. These displays are of some
phase of entomology and are replaced
As another project the club is plan-
ning to sell insect pins, boxes and equip-
ment as an aid to the students as well as
a method of adding funds to the treasury.
At present the club is working towards
the publication of the Newell Entomolo-
gical Society Journal. This journal will
contain abstracts of theses, past history
of the department, alumni news, depart-
mental news and articles concerning pres-
ent research.
Various speakers will present programs
to the club on the first Thursday of each
month. Dr. Alvah Peterson, retired ento-
mologist from Ohio State University, re-
cently presented a very interesting illus-
trated lecture on "Eggs of Insects." (Sa-
thena Clark)

Dr. P. H. Senn, Head of the Department of
Agronomy, does a command performance for
the audience at Ag-Bar-B-Que.

Alpha Zeta

throughout the United States was the
26th Biennial Conclave at the University
of Kentucky in August. Vern Resler,
chancellor, represented the Florida Chap-
ter. The Conclave involved various or-
ganizational and business aspects of the
fraternity and all delegates and alumni
enjoyed a wonderful time.
Alpha Zeta will not be sponsoring Ag
Fair this year. In place of Ag Fair. Alpha
Zeta is sponsoring new projects. For one
new service project, the fraternity is help-
ing Gamma Sigma Delta in counselling
new freshmen in the University College.
Each agricultural freshman student will
have one faculty and one student advisor.
Fall pledging and initiation of 13 new
members took place during the first two
weeks of November. The new members
are: Carroll Hawkins, Elwyn Spencer,
and Bobby Dancy, Gainesville; Larmar
Bell, Reddick; Ben Whitty, Lee; Roderic
Magie, Bradenton; Eddie Register,
Graceville; James Roach, DeLeon
Springs; Irvine Roche, Vernon; David
Austin, Lake Placid; Arlen Buchanan,
Pinetta; Vergilio Romero, Venezuela; and
Raul Munoz, Guatemala.
Roderic Magie was the 1958-59 recipi-
ent of the Alpha Zeta Freshman-Sopho-
more Award at the Ag Bar-B-Que. This
award is presented annually by Alpha
Zeta to a junior in agriculture who pos-
sesses character and has achieved high
scholarship and leadership in the Univer-
sity College. (Paul Joyal)


this month that will go into the his-
tory of the club as one of the greatest
semesters of club progress.
As our main project this year, we have
been selling Mum corsages at home foot-
ball games. This project has been profita-
ble to us in two ways. First, as a source
of revenue for the club, and second, we
have gained valuable information on a
subject related to our professional inter-

As a result of the success of this proj-
ect, members of the club will be given a
chance to visit some of the important
terminal markets of citrus, vegetables and
cutflowers. The club plans to make this
field trip an annual affair. (Harold Steph-

Future Farmers of America

congratulate Dr. E. W. Garris on his
recent appointment to the chairmanship
of The Agricultural Education Magazine.
Dr. Garris has been head of the Depart-
ment of Agricultural Education since
1927. Before 1927 he was State Super-
visor of Vocational Agriculture.
The Collegiate Chapter of Future
Farmers of America feels that it has had
a very successful semester under the able
leadership of President Richard Kelly.
Richard says that the chapter's coopera-
tion has been at a very high level
throughout the semester. During the se-
mester the chapter has participated in
various activities. At Ag Bar-B-Que the
chapter parked cars. At Homecoming the
chapter sent out invitations to alumni
and served coffee to them during the
morning of the Big Day.
An exhibit was prepared by senior
members of the chapter and displayed in
the Greater Jacksonville Agricultural and
Industrial Fair. It was exhibited Novem-
ber 13-22 and explained different phases
of Vocational Agriculture and Future
Farmer activities. At present, the chapter
is making intensive plans and anticipate
the coming of the Modern Ag Fair.

Dairy Science Club

6:30 the first and third Wednesdays
of each month has experienced the be-
ginning of a very successful year.
At the first club meeting, Dr. E. L.
Fouts, head of the Department of Dairy
Science, spoke to the club about the op-
portunities in the field of dairying. He
told the members that they could, and
would, do as well in dairying or other
fields of agriculture as they would do in
fields outside of agriculture.

Speaker for the second meeting in Oc-
tober, was Mr. T. W. Sparks, assistant
extension dairyman. Discussing "Sell
Yourself," he explained that many ag
graduates, through the use of a negative,
rather than a positive, approach, fail to
get jobs for which they are fully qualified.
He advocated a "I'm the man you need,"
approach rather than one of "do you
think you have a position that I can fill."
He said this approach could be success-
fully enacted with a little self-confidence
plus preparation before application.
Dr. H. B. Clark was the guest speaker
of the club the evening of November 6.
His topic was, "Changes In The Milk
Marketing Structure, And The Effect
These Changes Will Have On Florida
Dairymen In The Future." Dr. Clark,
who is a professor in the Department of
Agricultural Economics, and who has his
own dairy farm in Kentucky, discussed
technical innovations and changes in the
marketing structure with which Florida
dairymen most plan to cope with in th'
future. The perfection of a sterile milk
concentrate similar to concentrated
orange juice and increased sales of milk
in the form of powdered milk are the
technical innovations facing the dairy-
men. Similar nationwide health standards
plus the fact that milk can be shipped
from the dairy belt in a matter of 24
hours may drastically change the state
price structure. Dr. Clark stressed ef-
ficiency of production and increased pro-
duction per cow in a manner such that a
lower consumer price can be achieved
and at the same time, a profit realized,
as the most desirable solution for the
dairymen of the state. (Erny Sellars)

(Continued from page 4)
gration contracts and help farmers to un-
derstand the importance of reading the
fine print and of knowing what they are
signing. Perhaps our College of Agricul-
ture curricula should be revised to teach
students more law, economics and busi-
ness management so that they can in turn
teach farmers. Perhaps we should re-
examine our Agricultural Extension
methods to learn why farmers have not
accepted improved farming methods
more rapidly without integration. We
should explore much more thoroughly
the possibility of cooperative education
and cooperative action to provide the
necessary controls for sharing the bene-
fits of integration. New laws may be re-
quired to improve integration as we now
know it, or to provide desirable substi-
Our problem is a hard one and will not
be solved quickly or easily. However I
firmly believe, that unless we find an an-
swer, many of the proud, self-reliant, in-
dependent, poultry farmers will disappear
from American agriculture.


Established, successful Florida ranchers and growers
can tell you you get more productive yield at less
expense with Florida's favorite soil enricher FLOR-
Why pay more, when economical FLORIDA FAVOR-
ITE FERTILIZER meets the specific needs, the specific
soil requirements of Florida soil. It more than pays for
itself in soil enrichment actually nourishes "dead"
soil back to rich, productive life. Save time and money!
Get on-the-spot delivery of fast-spreading FLORIDA






Phone MUtual 2-1291 P. 0. Box 912 LAKELAND, FLORIDA

Factories and Offices: TAMPA and FORT PIERCE, FLORIDA

Glenn W. Rodes, Owner Phone: Marion 2-6670
Breeders, Hatchers, Growers, Processors, and Shippers of



Ri. 1, Box 265 Ocala, Florida


36 I1 Sp/SSN rifi
MAIN : .M.l



Circle D Ranch ....... 12
Deere and Co. Inside Cover
Double D Ranch .............. 12
Florida Favorite Fertilizer 11
Florida Feed and Seed Co. ....... 8
Florida State Hatcheries, Inc. 2
Florida State Theatres 9
Heart Bar Ranch 11
International Harvester Back Cover
Miami International Hatcheries, Inc. ...................... 9
Oak Crest Hatcheries 13
Respess Grimes 12
Rush Tractor Co. 9
Southern Dolomite 12
Southern Mill Creek Products ..................... ... ... 12
Superior Fertilizer Co ............... 12
Wilson and Toomer ........... 8

Now I lay me down to sleep.
The lecture's dry, the subject deep.
VICE If he should quit before I wake
iGS Give me a poke for goodness' sake.
rES Hampshires

TS Breeding stock of all ages available
Sweaned pigs Prompt
bred gilts Export
boars Orders

S, FLIR. Rt. 2, Box 1000, Marianna, Fla.
Phone Cottondale 2461

Weed Killers John Bean Sprayers


P. O. BOX 4297
Offices in
Jacksonville Orlando Miami



-- --
____ ____ ___ ____ ____ ___ -

Step into a


New International 340 Utility tractor equipped with new 3-poir.t .IB S f
Fast-Hitch. You can get both Farmall and International 240 and 340 tractors
with your choice of 2 or 3-point Fast-Hitch, and many other options.

NOW, faster 3-point hitching

...from the seat!

a -

,/ *... \

S. .- "


Just move the dial on this pocket-size
calculator to match tractor speed with
implement width-then read off daily
plowing, mowing, or harvesting capac-
ity. You get the right answer fast...
without figuring! Use this handy cal-
culator to see how much more you can
get done in a day with the greater
power and extra job-matched speeds
of new 1H tractors. Get this handy
calculator from your IH dealer!

Now, IH gives you faster, easier
3-point hitching with automatic
latches on all three links. And you do
better work than ever with any of
your 3-point tools!
As with famous IH 2-point Fast-
Hitch, you get up-and-down and
side-to-side "float." Even wide im-
plements work at uniform depth.
Hinged lower draft links assure faster
penetration-prevent shallow-out
when crossing ridges.
You just set the handy Traction-

Control lever to add up to a half ton
of weight to tractor drive wheels.
New Tel-A-Depth gives you easy,
precise implement control.
This new 3-point Fast-Hitch-for
Farmall and International 240 and
340 tractors-mounts most 3-point
tools of other makes. For superior
work, select 3-point implements from
the complete new line of McCormick
3-point equipment. These tools fit
practically all 2 and 3-plow, 3-point-
hitch tractors.

Try new IH 3-point Fast-Hitch! 3-point tools! Check the full
Hitch or switch implements line of new McCormick 3-point
from the tractor seat. Do implements. Just call your
better work than ever before IH dealer for a field trial. Set
-even with your present a demonstration date today!


International Harvester Products pay for themselves in use-Farm Tractors and Equipment... Twine... Commercial
Wheel Tractors... Motor Trucks... Construction Equipment-General Office, Chicago 1, Illinois







Day Old Chicks or Started Pullets

Day Old Chicks To Be Raised By You


Pullets Raised for Cage or

Floor Plans



Contact Us Today


Floridandee Poultry Farms, Inc.

Oak Crest Hatcheries, Inc.


RT. 4, BOX 563

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs