Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00046
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00046
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text





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MAYBE it's true that
Buster here doesn't know table d'hote from a la
carte, but don't let that fool you. He really knows
his "vittles," as anyone who has tossed a shank
over a pasture fence can tell you.
Fact is, in his own four-footed world Buster
ranks as quite the gourmet, and he's been known
to get downright fussy at times. That's why those
who know him best-cattlemen, that is-have
come up with some pretty tasty recipes to satisfy
his boyish appetite-to help him grow into a
stout, healthy young fellow that will make a good
impression on "graduation day," when Buster is

shrewdly judged in terms of steak.
And because feeding Buster has become such a
science, often special machinery is required-like
the new John Deere Grassland Drill, which is
making such a hit with livestock growers. You
see, the John Deere Grassland Drill makes it
possible to establish and improve range and grass-
land and keep Buster supplied with the whole.
some, nutritious food he likes and needs.
Buster, of course, generously pays back such
treatment in more pounds of better beef-all be-
cause he doesn't have to take the "potluck" fare
of poor pasture.

JOHN DEERE Moline, Illinois

'4i- 1 Quality Farm Equipment Since 1837




For the
*. Finest
..Quality in
iWe Ask
That You
Contact Us.

Box 1051 OCALA, FLORIDA Ph. MA 2-7151

Be sure to call for your nearest Lyons representa-
tive and discuss your grove problems. He will be
glad to help you plan your grove program.
For many years, season after season, the users of Lyons Fertilizers have been producing premium
crops of highest quality fruits and receiving higher profits. Now, more than ever, high quality
fruit will command high prices. Plan now to increase your own net sales next season. The price
of good fertilizer is small when it increases your net returns.

P. O. Box 310 Tampa, Florida


MAY, 1955

The Florida College Farmer
Volume 7, Number 4 May, 1955

George M. Edwards ................................Editor
Editorial Staff
Jackson Brownlee ........................ Managing Editor
George Milicevic ...................... .Managing Editor
Anne Cawthon
Lawrence Shackleford ............... Editorial Assistants
Jimmy Cummings
Gene Cox
Club Representatives
Adele Roberts. .......... ............... Ag Economics
John Creel ................. ......... Alpha Zeta
John Creel. ................ American Society of Agronomy
Jimmy Windham..American Society of Agricultural Engineers
Dempsey Thomas........................ Alpha Tau Alpha
Charles Cowart..........................Block and Bridle
George Milicevic. ....................... .. Dairy Science
Chuck Pulley ............................... .. Forestry
Bobby L. Taylor................ Future Farmers of America
Dave English.........................Lamda Gamma Phi
Jack Hurst.................. Newell Entomological Society
Arnold Fisher ..........................Poultry Science
Dubbie Price.................................... Thrysus
Bobby Taylor ......................Vocational Education

Business Staff
Art Duchaine .......................... Business Manager
Tom Chaires .................. Assistant Business Manager
Wayman Smith .......................... Solicitors
Dubie Price I

Circulation Staff
Richard McRae......................Circulation Manager
Pat Close
Clorie Caproni ............... Circulation Assistants
Ann Wallis
James Thornhill
Faculty Advisory Committee
J. Clyde Driggers .............................. Chairman

Entered as second class mailing matter at the Post Office at University
Station, Gainesville, Florida, December 8, 1938, under an Act of Congress
of 1879. Fifteen cents per copy, fifty cents per year, $1.25 for three years,
$2.00 for five years. Published four times during the year: November,
January, March, and May. Address all correspondence to Florida College
Farmer, Florida Union Building, Gainesville, Florida.

Content .
Introducing Student Gov't Representatives ...............
Tomorrows Wealth in Todays Hands.................... 7
Job Opportunities ................... .............. 9
Rural Youth Conference ............ ................. 9
Baby Food for Baby Pigs.............................. so
"Apple Polishing Party".............................. 12
U of F Judging Team. .............. ............... 12
Herdsman Short Course ..............................13
4-H Members to Attend National Camp .................. 14
Club News ....................... .............. 17
Graduating Seniors .................. ................ i

This scene is typical of the days of yesterday as Otto Gaines of
LaCrosse, is shown plowing his bean field. The picture was
made by Dr. G. J. Stout of the University of Florida. We
wonder if it reminds him of his boyhood days.

THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER is printed by Cody Publications,
Inc., of Kissimmee, the publishers of the FLORIDA CATTLEMAN.

7rom the Cdiltor 's esk
Summertime is here again and as this school year
comes to a close the students in the College of Agri-
culture have many different plans for the summer
days that lie ahead. Some will come back to sum-
mer school for the purpose of early graduation and
some will go home to work on the farm. Many of
the agricultural students will be employed by
ranches, packing houses,
feed and seed stores, for-
Sestry enterprises an d
many other kinds of jobs,
to gain practical exper-
S ience in their various
fields and gain college
S credits toward gradua-
Stion. And still other stu-
dents will just take it
easy and relax during the
summer. Whatever they
may be doing it will be
a change and the FARMER
extends its wishes for the
greatest amount of edu-
cation, recreation and re-
laxation that can be a-
GEORGE M. EDWARDS achieved during t h e s e
summer months.
With the coming of summer not only students
here at the University but rural youth throughout
the state will be experiencing different kinds of edii-
cational and recreational activities. Two of America's
finest rural organizations will hold their State Con-
ventions. That is the 1-H Club Short Course to be
held here at the University during the week of June
13, and the F.F.A. State Convention to be held in
Daytona during the week of June 13. Following this
will be the election of the new state officers.
Please note the article "Apple Polishing Party"
on page thirteen. This is what I hope is the begin-
ning of a tradition around Ag. School to improve our
Faculty-Student relations. In my opinion, it is a
crying shame that the faculty gives such little support
to the students as they do. In a recent Ag. Council
meeting, many of the clubs said that their depart-
ments took such little interest in them that they were
in favor of doing away with Ag. Fair. Because of
this, the Ag Council has started a campaign to im-
prove the Faculty-Student relationship with the idea
that it be followed by the clubs in Ag. School. I
think that this is a wonderful idea on the part of our
Ag. Council and with this I challenge YOU-the Fa-
culty, the Student, and the Clubs, to improve your re-
lationship with your faculty, your fellow student, and
your club to club relationship. If we will do this,
we will have a much better College of Agriculture.




Modern youth, they say, is impatient, demanding, unwilling
to do drudgery. Case takes those young ideas as an inspira-
tion to build Diesel Tractors better than ever were built
Impatient with two-stage starting? The Case Diesels start
directly on diesel fuel at the touch of a button that calls
forth the energy of a 12-volt electrical system. For the worst
of winter cold, a capsuled shot of ether priming fluid pro-
vides prompt response.
Does youth demand smooth, quiet power and clean burn-
ing? Case "Powrcel" controlled combustion gives smooth
operation all the way from full load to prolonged idling ...
lugging power for hard pulls at reduced speed ... remark-
able freedom from smoke at all loads and speeds.
Dislike irksome effort? With Power Steering, a gentle
hand on the steering wheel turns front wheels short-even
when standing in soft soil. Duo Valve operation of Constant
Hydraulic Control works two rams-raises or angles big
implements at a touch of one or both levers.
These are ways that young ideas avoid waste of time,
strength and fuel .. make farm work produce more food
and better income. Case has been building young ideas into
farm machines for more than a hundred years.

All-new, 4-plow Case "400" Series Tractors have new
engines for all four fuels-diesel, gasoline, LP Gas, and
distillate. By every standard the "400" is known as the finest
tractor in the 50 H.P. class. The "400" has all the fea-
tures you want for your farm of tomorrow... plus famous
Case Eagle Hitch-the only 3-point hook-up available for
4-bottom plows and other rear-mounted implements built
for 4-plow power. J. I. Case Co., Racine, Wis.







Serving Farmers Since 1842

MAY, 1955


Tomorrow's Wealth

Is In Today's Hands

WVTHAT IS tomorrow's wealth and in
Whose hands does it lie? Youths in
agriculture are tomorrow's wealth and
their success or failure is placed in the
competency of vocational agriculture in-
American educators first recognized
and publicized the need for agricultural
education in igoo. Scientists and agri-
cultural specialists noted the decrease in
crop production, insect and disease prev-
alence and failure of proper land man-
agement practices just prior to this time.
Either farmers were to remain in this
"unproductive age" or be educated in
some manner to improved practices.
Even with agricultural colleges available
there remained the majority of farm resi-
dents who never had a chance to see a
college or university. This important
factor attributed greatly toward the es-
tablishing of vocational agriculture on
levels other than college. "Training and
teaching while young" was the theory be-
hind this agricultural education move-
Congress passed the National Voca-
tional Educational Act in i917 whose
purpose was to promote a program of
vocational education of less than college
grade. Finances for this program are de-
rived from cooperative efforts of the var-
ious states and the federal government.
The National Vocational Education Act
and the George-Barden Act authorize the
appropriation of $13,ooo,ooo annually for
vocational agriculture in the United
States. The money is appropriated to a
state on the basis of that state's percent-
age of rural residents as compared to the
national total of rural residents. No state
can receive less than $50,000 annually.
Another farm youth organization which
works directly with the vocational agri-
cultural program in high school was or-
ganized in 1928. The national Future
Farmers of America is this organization
and it spread throughout the United
States quite readily. Members of the Fu-
ture Farmers of America include those en-
rolled in vocational agriculture and are
supervised by local vocational agriculture
teachers. Important aims of the Future
Farmers of America are leadership, schol-
arship, cooperation, citizenship and pride
During the early years of Florida's
agricultural education program there
were two difficult problems. A lack of
qualified teachers was the dominant
problem. Interest of many school officials

in this program was very low and hin-
dered it's development considerably.
General interest was stimulated when the
importance of vocational agriculture was
recognized and aided to overcome these
two problems.
Financing vocational agricultural edu-
cation in Florida is the responsibility of
three governments: federal, state and
county. Appropriations from tax funds
are made in each respective echelon of
these governments. Of the $9oo,ooo spent
in Florida for teacher's salaries in voca-
tional agriculture during the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1953, over two-thirds
came from state funds. County and fed-
eral aid amounted to approximately
S122,ooo each. These figures only rep-
resent that money spent on salaries and
does not include maintenance costs, ex-
pense of new equipment or the construc-
tion of new buildings, which is derived
from state funds.
Best uses of appropriated teaching
funds depends upon the hiring of com-
petent instructors in vocational agricul-
tural education. Qualification standards
are relatively high for vo-ag teachers in
Florida as compared to other department
qualifications in education. Specific gen-
eral courses are required in agricultural
departments in the college of agriculture
to supplement a minimum of twenty
hours of specific education courses. When
these two curricula are combined, one of
the most inflexible college curricula pro-
grams is derived. Rigid college educa-
tion programs of this type develop a
broad understanding and knowledge in
the skills and techniques of a given pro-
Florida now has 201 vo-ag teachers be-
low college level. Some 12,000 high
school students are now being instructed
by these teachers. Each year the Univer-
sity of Florida graduates about 25 men
with B. S. degrees in agricultural educa-
tion. These graduates may or may not
enter the teaching profession.
"The turnover of vocational agricul-
ture teachers is higher in Florida than in
most southern states," says Dr. E. W. Gar-
ris. Dr. Garris, head of the department
of agricultural education at the Univer-
sity of Florida, states that low salaries
contribute largely in this turnover. Salar-
ies for vo-ag teachers vary with the coun-
ties. Counties with greater amounts of
local funds can usually pay the teachers
highest salaries. The lowest salary for a
first year vo-ag teacher in Florida, today,
is $3200 per year. Some first year teach-

ers are getting as high as $3600 per year.
These salaries when compared to sal-
aries offered by most other state or fed-
eral agricultural jobs is small. Imple-
ment dealers, fertilizer companies and
pesticide companies often persuade vo-
ag teachers that salesmen can be more
successful than school teachers. Young
men just finishing college are obligated
to serve two years in the armed forces if
they aren't veterans or 4-F. This is a
great drain on the immediate source of
vo-ag teachers in Florida. Even with the
persistence of these problems, counties
have been able to obtain qualified
teachers. Some schools in Florida have
teachers from other states. These out-
of-staters are hired when Florida gradu-
ates are not available.
What does the student of vocational
agriculture derive from this problem?
Students are potentials and the teachers
are the large consideration in developing
those potentials. Proper development
and training rests solely upon the indi-
vidual student's interests and natural
abilities. Teachers are primarily attained
to stimulate interest and aid students
to make sufficient use of their natural
Interest stimulation is reached through
various uses of teacher's aids. Aids which
vo-ag teachers commonly use are field
trips, specific lectures, guest speakers,
practical projects, periodic reports and
visual aids. No school year can be com-
pleted with just the use of one of these
aids. Certain emphasis can not be
placed upon specific subjects by the use
of only one aid, but takes a combination
of them. Aids in vo-ag teaching are nu-
merous and will vary with the location in
Teachers must be ready to find out
what subjects of interest are in his
class. For instance students in Walton
County would be more interested in the
detailed study of mineral soils than a
study of the organic soils of the Ever-
glades. Subjects to be taught must be
narrowed to a point where each student
will benefit equally. Well planned sub-
jects outlines and guides for course mat-
ter will be of great assistance to the
successful teacher.
Values derived from a successful vo-ag
teaching plan are numerous. Dr. Garris
relates, "The chief objective of vocational
agriculture is to impart technical under-
standing and skills which aid students in
becoming efficient farmers." The train-
ing period should begin while the poten-
tial farmer is young. All phases of vo-ag
programs are directed toward making
better citizens for tomorrow.
Funds, teachers and potentials are com-
ponent parts of tomorrow's agricultural
education and wealth. Failure in any one
of these, today, might lead to the pitfalls
of tomorrow.



Round Bales

have a built-in


The curved top of a round bale sheds showers like an umbrella.
Here is the answer to one of the biggest crop losses in farming
-wet and weathered hay.
Due to the extreme weather hazards at hay harvest time,
every farmer should have his own baler. The low-cost ROTO-
BALER makes this possible and practical. If only 50 tons of
valuable hay are saved from weather spoilage in one season,
the cost is more than repaid.
Round bales cannot work magic and turn poorly cured hay
into choice No. 1 grade. But if hay is sweet and cured properly,
round baling preserves the carotene and protein by rolling in
the leaves dry and safe.
Home-baling pays. It can be timed perfectly with a home-
owned ROTO-BALER. The reward will come in greater pro-
ductiveness and well-being of the herd.

Only the ROTO-BALER has it!
"Roll-up" compression seals leaves
in and shields them from weather.
When hay is round-baled... it's safe!

Home ownership! That's the final
great advantage of a ROTO-BALER,
priced for the individual farm. No
other haying system makes possible
such quick timing when hay and
weather give the sign to bale fast.

ROTO-BALER is an Allis-Chalmers trademark.
'- -. -- v -

.S a

rn'c''^"*"'**' 'ss^



$1165 f.o.b. factory
including Power Take-Off

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Ag. College Student Government

SRepresentatives for 1955-56

Bill Alsmeyer

OUR NEW member of the Honor Court,
Bill Alsmeyer, is a Junior, majoring
in Animal Husbandry. Bill was "reared
out in the woods" on a farm about twelve
miles from Sebring, Florida. His Father
was the county agent for Highlands
County so "at a young and tender age"
Bill was introduced to the cattle business.
Present activities in Ag. school include
Alpha Zeta, and Block and Bridle Club.
A man of many talents, Bill has been a
member of the Gator Band and sings in
the choir at the Wesley Foundation. Bill
plans to come back to graduate school
after serving three years with the Air
Force. Eventually he will go back home
to farm and fish.
Bill says that he has heard professors
and other people talk about the "get-to-
gethers" the Ag. students used to have in
the good old days. He would like to see
this custom revived. He feels that the
connections we make as undergraduates
mean a lot especially in Ag. school since
most agricultural students will be living
and working in the State after gradua-
tion. Speaking about the honor system,
Bill believes that the time has come
for a re-evaluation of the system on the
part of students and faculty. As Fresh-
men we are impressed with our obliga-
tions to uphold the honor system but as
time goes by we may be inclined to take
things for granted.

Paul Flemming

SAUL FLEMMING is a Junior from Laurel
Hill, Florida majoring in Agricultural
Education. His senior year in high
school, Paul was president of the 4-H
Club. He came to the University of
Florida with a Lewis Teaching Scholar-
ship and at the beginning of this year
he was awarded a Kroger Scholarship.
Paul's present campus activities include
Alpha Tau Alpha (Vice President), Alpha
Zeta, Forestry Club, Area Commander
of the Arnold Air Society, Steering Com-
mittee of the Advanced Officers Club,
and F.F.A.
Plans for the future?-first a career in
the Air Force for four years. After the
Air Force, Paul says he will probably
teach for four years and then go into the
saw milling business with his father. He
thinks that someday he might lke to
come back to the University and get'-a
degree in Forestry, feeling that such ad-
ditional training will be useful.
Our new representative to the Execu-
tive Council is full of ideas of things he
would like to see happen around Ag.
School. For example, Paul thinks that
the honorary organizations should be
more active-working to publicize them-
selves and Agriculture School. Also we
need some sort of organization with
alumni so that they can take a more ac-
tive interest in the students and their
activities in the School of Agriculture.

Lawrence Shakelford
LEGE FARMER carried a write-up on
Lawrence after his election to the Execu-
tive Council last year. It was interesting
to talk to Lawrence after his re-election
this year and hear of the progress that has
been made on one of the projects he
spoke of last year. Lawrence said in his
interview last year that he would like
to see more of the student activity fee
go to help agricultural activities on cam-
pus such as the Judging Team. Repre-
sentatives from Ag. School were success-
ful this year in obtaining a special ap-
propriation for the Judging Team's Au-
burn trip.
Lawrence is a fourth year Agricultural
Economics major from Wachula, Florida.
After graduation and two years in the
Army, he plans to work with the Agri-
cultural Extension Service. Present ac-
tivities include the Agricultural Econo-
mics Clug, 4-H Club, Scabbard and Blade,
and A.O.C.
Better relationship between Ag School
and the campus as a whole can be
brought about in part, Lawrence feels by
better publicity of agricultural activities.
More advertisement in the Alligator-
perhaps a weekly column contributed to
by the various clubs-would help by
letting more of the campus know about
our big events like Ag. Fair and our
other weekly news.

Florida Growers have been buying


fertilizers for nearly a half century. If better fer-
tilizers could be obtained Trueman customers
would not continue to use these good, old brands.


Jacksonville, Florida




Southern Feeds for Southern


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For more than a quarter of a century Security
needs have been developed through research to
elp Southern farmers produce more milk, more
eat, and more eggs more efficiently and profit-
bly. As the first feed manufacturer in the South
Operate an experimental farm to scientifically
develop new feeds based on the latest nutritional
ndings, Security Mills has always been a leader
Providing better feeds
,r the growing South. Pro-
ressive feeders know they
in depend on SECURITY
EEDS for top performance
ir all classes of poultry and
very animal on the farm,
cluding the dog. 1

MAY, 1955


What Happens to Horticulture, Ag.

Economics and Poultry Majors

By Rex Lawhon

Do YOU know that today in the field of
agriculture the opportunities are
greater than ever before?...The salaries
are higher than they have ever been?...
The advancement is more promising?
Vast new fields are being opened that
challenge every student of agriculture.
If you are interested in agriculture and
are interested in securing higher educa-
tion, the field is very promising, both
from the point of financial as well as
personal satisfaction of achievement.
Todays mechanical and scientific
means of production presents a challenge
as well as a problem. It is for this reason
that the youth of today who will become
the producers of tomorrow be prepared to
meet this challenge.
Agriculture today is no longer a small
farm operation. It involves county, state,
national and international agencies. This
vast network of allied agencies demands
an increasing number of trained person-
nel and replacements. Incomes of more
than $10,000 per year are becoming com-
mon in industry. The better paid posi-
tions in public service for men of several
years' experience now offer $6,000 to $1o,-
ooo per year. The student should under-
stand that such salaries are paid only to
well trained men who have proved over a
period of years that they are productive.
The graduating college student entering
industry or professional work should real-
ize that promotions will come slowly and
only as they show proof of their ability
to produce.
There is a great need for men to take
graduate work in agriculture, especially
through Ph. D. level. State and United
States agencies and private industry are
demanding more and more that men have
Ph. D. degrees. According to Dr. J.
Wayne Reitz, Provost of Agriculture for
the State of Florida, for good students
with good characters, a Ph. D. degree in
the field of agriculture holds as much
promise as any other field and the reward
in personal satisfaction as well as money
is great. Dr. Reitz states: "Generally
speaking, in the upper two-thirds of the
class, there are two positions for each
There are three major fields in agri-
culture which every student should con-
sider before selecting his career. These
are Horticulture, Agriculture Economics,
and Poultry; three fields where demands
are many and the opportunities unlimited
for those who are capable, properly train-
ed and willing to serve.
Horticulture offers six specialized fields
from which to choose. They are Citrus

Production, Vegetable Production, Flori-
culture, Ornamental Horticulture, Food
Some counties want citrus majors for
County Agents. The fertilizer industry
wants men who know citrus to sell ferti-
lizer and serve as consultants and field
representatives. A number of Horticul-
ture majors are employed by pesticides
and farm equipment companies. Many
graduates return to operate groves belong-
ing to his family and others go into assis-
tant grove management for large produ-
Food Technologists are employed by
the citrus processing plants and are in
charge of quality control. The demand
for these trained technologists is far great-
er than the supply. Since this is a growing
industry its future looks promising and it
would be well worth while for the student
of agriculture to investigate the oppor-
tunities offered in this field.
The student who specializes in Vege-
table Production either goes into truck
farming or into sales and service with fer-
tilizer companies. Floriculture and Orna-
mental Horticulture offer opportunities
for the graduate to enter business for him-
self due to low overhead and cost.
Agriculture Economics provides the stu-
dent with broad training in the funda-
mentals of agriculture and specialized
training in the application of the econom-
ic principles employed in producing and
marketing agricultural products, the form-
ulation of agricultural policy and the ex-
ecution of local, state and federal farm
A graduate in Agricultrue Economics
is prepared to enter the following fields:
Farming as operator or manager; whole-
saling or retailing as an employee of
public service in the capacity of farm man-
agment specialists, market and commodity
analysts, market news reporters, inspec-
tors and credit analysts.
If a student plans to farm or manage
a farm, Agriculture Economics is highly
recommended. Due to the broad training
obtained the graduate is qualified for
salesman in all agricultural products.
There is a great demand for Agricul-
tural Economics majors in U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, State Extension Ser-
vice, Agricultural Colleges and Experi-
ment Stations, and International Agri-
cultural Agencies. Private and commer-
cial enterprises are employing majors in
this chosen field as co-operative managers
and sales representatives. Banks and
commercial agencies are hiring special
trained Agricultural Economist to handle

farm credit and financing.
Each state has an Agricultural Econom-
ics staff for teaching, research and exten-
sion. The program of farm planning and
marketing is expected to employ an Agri-
cultural Economist as Assistant County
The wide diversity of the modern
poultry provides opportunities for people
with all degrees of education and train-
ing. Many with only a very meager edu-
cation have served and still serve the in-
dustry well. But as the industry continues
to become more specialized, more com-
mercialized and more technical in its
operations, the demand for well trained
personnel has increased beyond the num-
ber available. The $4 billion poultry in-
dustry of America requires the services of
several thousand trained people and
needs to recruit several hundred trained
individuals annually to work in this field.
The poultry industry offers many ca-
reers in Public Service such as teaching,
research, agricultural extension, and im-
provement programs and inspection. The
present number of graduates is not suffi-
cient to fill the demand for trained em-
Poultry offers opportunities in the
Manufactured Feed Industry. Considering
the vital service the feed manufacturing
industry fills, the growth of animal agri-
culture, and the rapid rate that our popu-
lation is increasing each year, it becomes
clear that there are and will be many
bright opportunities for the college grad-
uate in this field.
Poultry Processing and Marketing of-
fers a promising career for men interested
in business and research. Science has
played an important role in the develop-
ment of today's poultry industry, which
in turn creates an urgent need for well-
trained men.
The Hatchery Business is an important
part of the modern poultry industry. As
poultry production becomes more spe-
cialized and competitive, the hatchery
business does likewise-proof of this is
seen in the trend towards fewer but
larger hatcheries. This is where poultry
graduates find a widening field of oppor-
tunity; personnel with their basic train-
ing needed by hatchery operators who
wish to keep pace with developments in
the poultry industry.
Few students realize the promising
careers offered in the Poultry Veterinary
Service. This field affords students of
poultry disease wide latitude of personal
choice and broad opportunity for expres-
(Continued on page 21)



Baby Food for Baby Pigs

BABY FooDs for baby pigs is the biggest
news in swine nutrition today-both
for the farmer and the consumer. With
these special feeds, given to the pig when
it would normally be receiving all nour-
ishment from the sow, farmers are pro-
ducing more and better pork than ever
As recently as 1952, authorities estima-
ted that up to 35 percent of all pigs
farrowed in the United States died of
injury, disease, or malnutrition-all of
which may be caused by the sow-before
the weaning age of eight weeks. The
average survival rate was under seven
pigs per litter. The average weight at
eight weeks was less than 30 pounds.
Today, thanks to recent advances in
swine management and nutrition, it is
commonplace for farmers to save eight
or more pigs per litter, with eight-weeks
weights of 4o pounds or more. In well-
managed operations the mortality rate
has dropped to 10 percent and less.
Some credit for this advance must go to
the use of new "wonder drugs" such as
terramycin, which have cut disease losses
-but the chief factor, experts agree, has
been the practice of quickly removing
baby pigs from the hazardous presence of
the sow, which often passes diseases to
the young, fails to feed them properly,
crushes them, and even eats them.
Starter Feeds
The possibility of removing pigs from
the sow at an early age awaited the de-
velopment of starter feeds-which made
their appearance on experimental farms
in 1950. This was the year in which
antibiotics and vitamin B-12 were shown
to stimulate the growth of pigs and many
other farm animals. Pioneer work was
carried on at the University of Illinois.
In April of 1951 Illinois swine spe-
cialists announced some of the results
they had obtained with starter feeds
(then called "creep" feeds). They had

found that pigs fed a starter containing
B-12 showed weight gains over others fed
hulled oats and high-efficiency rations.
In November of 1951, came the an-
nouncement of a substitute for the sow's
milk. With this ration, scientists at Iowa
State College found they could take the
pigs away from the sow a few days after
birth and raise them under clean, non-
hazardous conditions.
The formula milk, which contained the
antibiotic terramycin, paved the way for
the development of today's starter rations,
which are becoming more and more pop-
ular with swine raisers. The antibiotic
reached the pigs at the time when the
greatest growth stimulation would result-
and also helped protect them against such
common diseases as scours.
In April, 1953, Dr. Herbert G. Luther,
director of Agricultural Research and
Development for Chas. Pfizer &: Co., Inc.,
who had been the first to incorporate an
antibiotic (terramycin), into a baby pig
food, reported success in feeding dry
starter rations to pigs as early as five to
seven days of age. Weight gains, he said,
were as high as 37 percent over sow-
suckled pigs.
Sweet Tooth Problem
The problem of palatibility had been
recognized from the very beginning of
research into baby pig feeds. Swine nu-
tritionists at Iowa State College found
that pigs-like human children-have a
sweet tooth. The pigs consistently pre-
ferred a starter sweetened with sugar or
molasses, and preferred it in pelleted
form rather than meal.
Then came the famous "75" Pre-Starter
Ration, which was developed by Dr.
Damon Catron and his colleagues at Iowa
State. It contained dry skim milk, sugars,
soybean oil meal, lard, toasted corn
flakes, antibiotics, vitamins and trace
(Continued on page 18)

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;E T i Li Z !RS

Credit for the success of the short course was due, in part, to the outstanding speakers who appeared, and the efforts of the co-
sponsors, the Florida Cattlemen's Association and the University of Florida. Some of these people are shown here (from left
to right): 7esse L. Dowdy, American Brangus Association; Dr. G. T. Easley; Harry Gayden, ABBA executive secretary; 7im Park,
ABBA fieldman; Jay Starkey; Dr. T. J. Cunha; Bill Terry, representative, American Aberdeen-Angus Association; and Dr. B.
L. Southwell.

Many Attend Short Course at University of Florida

Campus to Take Advantage of Useful Program

Many outstanding speakers feature event at Gainesville with

betterment of livestock industry as theme of program

AN OUTSTANDING array of speakers fea-
tured the fourth annual Beef Cattle
Breeder's and Herdsmen's Short Course
conducted on the University of Florida
campus at Gainesville on April 14-16.
Upwards of 400 owners, herdsmen,
managers and others interested in the
state's cattle industry were on hand to
hear some 64 speakers discuss finance,
marketing, management and feeding

practices and the results of research at
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion. Covering all aspects of the subjects
presented were speakers representing the
University, state ranches, and associated
industries, as well as several out-of-state
The theme of the short course was set
in the opening address by Dr. J. Wayne
Reitz, president of the University, when

Typical of the excellent panel discussions which featured the short course, was this
one on finance which opened the seminar. Participants were (from left to right):
R. A. Willis, 7r., Mill Pond Plantation, Marianna; A. E. Crocker, Equitable Life
Assurance Company; P. E. Williams, Crescent Valley Ranch, Davenport; Dr. T. J.
Cunha, moderator; Carlisle Rogers, the First National Bank, Leesburg; and Earl C.
May, Equitable Life Assurance Company.

he cited the past work of the University
for Florida agriculture and its determi-
nation to carry on this work in the future.


THERE' MONEY available for financing cat-
tle operations-but you have to have
collateral. Finance, which opened the
program on Thursday morning, was dis-
cussed by J. Carlisle Rogers, president of
the First National Bank of Leesburg, Earl
C. May and A. E. Crocker of the Equit-
able Life Assurance Society, P. E. Wil-
liams, commercial cattleman of Daven-
port, and R. A. Wills, Jr., Angus breeder
from Marianna.
Rogers, himself a cattleman since 1939,
outlined the five points he looks for in
an applicant for a loan to buy cattle.
The cattleman must: Be honest and
industrious; Show sufficient experience in
grasses and management; Have his col-
lateral inspected and free from lien; A
proper home for the cattle either on
applicant's own land or on leased land
with lease for a longer period of time
than the loan; Make definite arrange-
ments for repayment of the loan with an
eye on market demand, prices, etc.; Re-
quest the loan be made for a long enough
period of time.
Speaking for insurance companies in
general and Equitable in particular, May
(Continued on page 20)



Reuther to be Head of

Horticulture at Gainesville

Dr. Bob Vilece entertaining at the Apple
Polishing Party.

Apple Polishing Party
IN TRYING to improve Faculty-Student re-
lationship the Ag. Council recently held
an "Apple Polishing Party" at the home
of Dr. G. J. Stout. Yes, it was an apple
polishing party. What a shame, but oh
what fun. The purpose of this party
was to improve Faculty-Student relation-
ships and with the idea in mind that
other clubs will follow with similar out-
ings to improve the relationships with
their faculty.
Each member of Ag. Council invited
their favorite or should I say one of their
favorite professors to attend this party.
There were approximately 30 present. Dr.
Bob Vilece of the Horticulture depart-
ment entertained the group with some
Hawaiian music in his Hawaiian skirt.
Afterwards was held a volley ball game.
Faculty vs. Student, and much to the
students disappointment, the faculty won.
Sounds fishy, doesn't it? When the vol-
ley ball games were over the group went
inside and played a few hands of Black
Jack. This time the students were out
for blood and the faculty for fun so the
students won. The group were served
refreshments by Mrs. Stout.

Ag. Council
Ac. COUNCIL which consists of the presi-
dents of all the Ag. Clubs on campus held
its election of officers May 9. The pur-
pose of this organization is to coordinate
the activities of all organizations in Ag.
The following were elected-Pres., Her-
man Jones; Vice Pres.: Jackson Brown-
lee; Sec., Paul Flemming; and Tres., Bill

DR. WALTER REUTHER, principal horticul-
turist at the USDA citrus laboratory in
Orlando, on June i will become head of
the Department of Horticulture in the
University of Florida College of Agricul-
ture, Agricultural Experiment Station
and Extension Service.
His appointment to the combined
position, approved by the State Board of
Control, has been announced by Dr. J.
Wayne Reitz, Past provost for agriculture.
Dr. Reuther graduated from the Uni-
versity of Florida College of Agriculture
in 1933 and obtained his doctor's degree
from Cornell University in 1940.
From 1933 to 1937 he was assistant hor-
ticulturist with the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station at Gainesville and the
Citrus Station at Lake Alfred. From 1937
to 1940 he was assistant in pomology at
Cornell and after obtaining his degree be-
came assistant professor of pomology.
In 1941 he joined the U. S. Department

of Agriculture to do tung oil research and
was stationed at the Florida Experiment
Station in Gainesville. From 1942 to
1946 he was in charge of the USDA date
gardens at Indio, California.
"Dr. Reuther will assume leadership
of all horticultural work on the Univer-
sity campus," says Dr. Reitz. "He will
head the research and teaching program
and will be responsible for coordinating
the subject matter for Extension Service
"As is the case in other combined de-
partments, Dr. Reuther will be respon-
sible to Director W. M. Fifield of the
Agricultural Experiment Station for the
research program in horticulture at
Gainesville, to Director H. G. Clayton
of the Agricultural Extension Service for
leadership in horticultural subject mat-
ter for extension specialists, and to Dean
C. V. Noble for the undergraduate and
graduate teaching program."

UF Livestock Judging Team Takes Third Place

THE UNIVERSITY Of Florida livestock judging team took third place in the Southeast-
ern intercollegiate judging contest held at Auburn, Alabama on April 23. Seventeen
teams from the southeastern colleges participated.
The Florida team was first in judging Shorthorn and Hereford cattle. They
ranked third in place all classes of livestock and seventh in placing swine.
Tom Braddock, Jacksonville, and Gene Harrison, Sarasota, tied for fourth high
honors for judging all classes of livestock, and Ralph Cellon, of Alachua, was sixth
high man. Other members of the A team were Al Straughn, Paxton, and Jerry
Speares of Leesburg.
The B team was tenth in the contest, being seventh in judging sheep, and sixth
in judging cattle. The members of this team were Ben Griffin, Mt. Dora, Tom
Chaires, Bradenton, Jim Sloan, Lakeland, Ralph Proctor, Tallahassee, and Bob
Hooker, of Chosen.

Members of the UF Livestock Judging team from left to right, seated: Gene Harrison,
Tom Chaires, Ralph Cellon, and Tom Braddock; Standing: Don Wakeman, Coach,
Ben Griffin, Jim Sloan, Ralph Proctor, Alto Straughn, Bob Hooker, and Jerry Spears.


MAY, 1955

Four Florida Members to Attend Timber-Cattle-Game

National 4-H Camp in Washington Programs Followed
On 4-H Forest Land

MARY ANN GODBOLD, Miccosukee, Sandra
Dennison, Orlando, Jack Sellards, Apop-
ka, and Robert Carlson, Live Oak, will
represent Florida at the Silver Anniver-
sary 4-H Club Camp in Washington, D.
C., June 15 to 22. This is the highest
honor for a Florida 4-H Club member.
The national camp, held under the
supervision of the USDA Extension Ser-
vice will emphasize development of
worthy citizenship, constructive rural
leadership, and improved program plan-
ning. This year's camp theme, "Your
Government, 4-H and You," highlighted
throughout the week, will give the dele-
gates an opportunity to discover their res-
ponsibility as young citizens.
Mary Ann, daughter of Mr. and Mrs.
Rufus G. Godbold and president of the
State Girls' 4-H Council, has been in
4-H Club work for seven years. Her proj-
ects have included foods and clothing,
but her real love is in dairying. An
earnest-eyed blond with an infectious
smile, she is a representative on the Leon
High School Student Council, editor for
the school paper, reporter for the Talla-
hassee Democrat's Youth Paper, has her
own radio program, and as a delegate to
Girls State was elected Commissioner of
Sandra, daughter of Mr. and Mrs.
Maurice Dennison, has been a 4-H Club
girl for six years. Her favorite project is
livestock. As a petite, winsome blond,
she was chosen sweetheart of the West
Coast Dairy Show in Tampa and pre-
sented an armful of red carnations by

Commissioner of Agriculture Mayo. She
is president of the Orange County Girls'
4-H Council and served as corresponding
secretary of the State Girls' Council. She
was awarded a $0oo.oo scholarship for
the highest individual score in 4-H poul-
try and egg show at the Central Florida
Fair in February. About 4-H Club work
Sandra says, "To me 4-H is the greatest
youth organization in the world. It has
taught me, as it has so many others, to
think out my work and to work out my
Robert Carlson, son of Mrs. George E.
Blue, has worked in 4-H programs for
six years. For his activities in safety,
agricultural demonstrations, county fairs,
parades, rally days, recreation activities,
conservation and other community proj-
ects, he was presented a county loving
cup and crowned king for his outstanding
ability and leadership. As state winner of
the National Junior Vegetable Growers
Association contest, he won a trip to Cin-
cinnati in 1954.
Jack, son of Mr. and Mrs. Harry Sel-
lards, is an ardent worker in all phases
of 4-H and leadership. As a veteran
winner, his honors include a home beauti-
fication award, Florida State Fair certifi-
cate for outstanding 4-H leadership
achievement, a $1oo State Department of
Agriculture Scholarship, a trip to Chicago
as a member of a poultry judging team
and trips to short courses and camps.
Jack is very active in recreation, Boy
Scouts and Sunday School and is editor
of his school paper.

Newly elected officers of the Junior Florida Cattlemen's Association are, left to right:
Ralph Cellon, Second vice president; Joe Smith, First vice president; Dan Carlock,
President; Miss Mary Edna Jackson, Secretary-treasurer; and Tom Braddock, Second
vice president.

Florida 4-H clubs in six counties-Escam-
bia, Dixie, Nassau, Putnam, Orange and
Indian River-now own more than 1,3oo
acres of forest land and are managing it
in a timber-grazing-game program to en-
courage fire protection, cattle grazing and
The timber-grazing-game program was
outlined several years ago by Louis T.
Nieland, farm forester with the State
Agricultural Extension Service, and has
attracted the attention of foresters and
forest agencies in many states.
W. W. Brown, state boys' club agent
with the Florida Extension Service, says
the 4-H Club boys are getting first-hand
experience in timber management by
operating their own forests.
"Realizing that fire is the great scourge
of Florida's pine lands, these budding
young foresters are preparing to safeguard
their woods in a unique way," he says.
"Guided by their county agents, they are
surrounding their forested lands with loo-
foot-wide improved pasture grass grazing
strips. When closely grazed by their own
range cattle, these wide grazing strips
remain as perpetual and effective barriers
to any fires which threaten to come in
from the outside. Then, to keep fires
that might accidentally start inside the
forest from spreading, additional wide
grazing strips are established around each
block of timber.
"When completed, this set-up may have
as much as 20 percent of the land in im,
proved pasture fire barriers and 80 per-
cent in protected timber. Of course,
where the fire hazard is not so great, less
timber land is converted to these protec-
tive grazing strips."
The club leader points out that where
such a program has been established,
woods fires are no longer a problem. And,
in addition to safeguarding their woods
from fire, the little income from cattle
sales comes in handy while the young
forest is growing up.
A third feature of this 4-H forestry
program is the protection and restoration
of game and other important wildlife.
By providing food, cover and nesting
sites, such desirable game birds as quail,
doves, wood ducks and wild turkey are
maintained on the forested areas.
"And so, with this three-point program
of timber, grazing and game established
in a simple, practical and constructive
combination, these 4-H boys may have the
answer to Florida's forest fire problem,"
it looks like complete land use, conserv-
ing and using to best advantage all of
the basic resources of soil, water, timber
and wildlife."



"Person to Person" is Theme

Of Rural Youth Conference

"PERSON TO PERSON, Socially and Profes-
sionally" was the theme of the Eighth An-
nual Rural Youth Conference held on the
campus of the University of Florida April
15 and 16. The conference is sponsored
jointly by the 4-H Clubs of the University
of Florida and Florida State University.
Dr. J. Wayne Reitz, President of the
University of Florida welcomed a record
number of students and agricultural per-
sonnel. He stressed the point that each
of us is needed and it is up to us to
make use of the talents that are ours.
Our conference coordinator, Miss Em-
mie Nelson, Field Representative, Na-
tional Committee on Boys and Girls Club
Work from Chicago gave the inspirational
talk in the morning meeting. She brought
out the fact that we are important to
someone and that it is our own personal
outlook on life that will determine our
success. Miss Nelson gave us this formula
for success that may be followed in all
fields of endeavor. "Desire x Ability x
Personality = Success."
Professor H. P. Constans, Head of the
University Speech Department spoke on
the professional phase of life impressing

us with the fact that what we do reflects
on someone else. To accomplish any-
thing we must really be all for it. Prof.
Constans stressed the point that we are
the representative of our surroundings
and that we must live to our own ideals
in life.
Dr. L. L. Hale of the Speech Depart-
ment was the main speaker on the social
phase of Person to Person. In his speech
he reminded us to be thoughtful, faith-
ful and tactful in everything that we do.
We should be cheerful, grateful, hopeful
and helpful in the way we plan and live
our lives. Dr. Hale impressed us to be
careful of other people's rights but to
be powerful and determined in what we
do. Our social life is based on our per-
sonality and what we make it is entirely
up to us.
We, who attended this year's Rural
Youth Conference felt that the time was
well spent. We split into discussion
groups at the end of each speech to think
more thoroughly about what we had
heard. I believe that each one of us came
away from the conference with a better
understanding of our fellowman. As one
of the participants said, "What we are,

speaks so loud, we cannot hear what we
say." As Miss Nelson, in her summary
of the conference, pointed out that per-
sonality is the determining factor in one's
life and actions speak louder than words.
These are thoughts that should be re-
membered and practiced.

Experiment Station
Jerseys Classified
Given High Average
FLORIDA DAIRYMEN can be sure that results
handed to them from the Agricultural
Experiment Station here are from top-
notch cows.
This is evidenced by the fact that 97
registered Jersey cows owned by the
Dairy Research Unit at the University
of Florida had an average score of 80.9
percent of a possible ioo. The herd was
classified for breed type by an official
classifier of the American Jersey Cattle
Of the total, 13 Jerseys rated Very
Good, 53 Good Plus, 18 Good and 13
The Station herd consists of Jersey,
Guernsey and Holstein cows. The Hol-
steins were recently added and are pres-
ently isolated from the rest of the herds
as per state laws requiring a o9-day
quarantine period.

Higher production at lower cost often means
the difference between profit and loss. The
right fertilizer mixtures for specific crops and
soil types can be the answer to this problem.
The makers of Florida Favorite Fertilizer have
made an extensive study of Florida crops and
soils and formulate fertilizer mixtures to the
individual grower's needs for best results. This
means more efficient and more economical
fertilization. Try FFF Brand fertilizers! You'll
profit too!




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MAY, 1955

ri FFA


DURING THE last few weeks the Future
Farmer Chapters of Florida have
been pretty busy. Many of our chapters
hold their annual banquet during March,
April, or May. There have been some
truly outstanding banquets held this year.
Much work is put into the preparation
of our banquets because on these occa-
sions we get a chance to show our par-
ents and friends that we appreciate what
they are doing for us.
On April 22, sub-district meetings were
held all over the state. Elimination was
begun to find out who will represent each
district in the keen competition at the
state convention. The next level of com-
petition is the district where only one
winner is declared in each contest for
each district.
As this article is being written, we are
planning an executive officers meeting
in Daytona Beach, April 27th through
May Ist. There are many items of busi-
ness to discuss at this meeting. Plans for
our convention must be completed. We
are again holding our convention in Day-
tona Beach June 13-17. A program must
be drawn up and plans to hold the var-
ious contests must be made.
At this meeting the applications for
the State Farmer Degree and American
Farmer Degrees will be graded, evaluated
and recommendations made. Candidates
for Honorary State Farmer Degrees will
be nominated and selected. The Star
State Farmer will be selected at this meet-
ing. Winners of the Chilean Nitrate
Leadership awards and the Bankers Scho-
larship will be chosen.
We are expecting many friends and
supporters at our convention this year.
We appreciate the many things done by
the people in our F.F.A. communities
and wish to extend to them a most cor-
dial invitation to attend our convention
this year. We are hoping this conven-
tion will be one of the finest in the
twenty-seven years of the Florida Associa-
tion of Future Farmers of America. We
want you to have a part in it.

Economic Club News
THE Ec. Club proudly presents "Picnic".
We invite you to join in as a member of
the cast. (Watch the orange and blue
bulletin for time and place.) No, we have

not turned stageward in our older days,
either. When I think of stage I think of
auditorium and that brings to mind...
something...someone mentioned...uh.
.. uh... that is... uh. .something about
uh...century tow...URP...SLURP...
BURRRP...gosh that was nasty.
Nevertheless, we're going to have a pic-
nic. We plan to squander a portion of
our hard won funds from the concession
stand at Ag Fair, and this, we decided,
was the perfect way; a student-faculty
If you are enrolled in Ag Econ or plan
to be, we invite you to join us.

Block and Bridle
N WEDNESDAY night, April 13th, the
Block and Bridle Club played host
to the Junior Florida Cattlemen's Associa-
tion at their 2nd Annual Alumni-
Breeders' Banquet. Occurring the night
before the opening of the Herdsmen's
Short course made it possible for several
outstanding cattlemen and others con-
nected with the cattle industry to attend.
The welcome was made by Joe Smith,
president of the club, and the program
was turned over to Jay Starkey, presi-
dent of the Florida Cattlemen's Associa-
tion who acted as toastmaster for the
evening. Dr. T. J. Cunha introduced
members of the Animal Husbandry staff
and made a summary of the progress of
the department during the past year.
Each year the club selects a recent
graduate in animal husbandry who was
outstanding in his work for the club and
school and he is recognized by the club
at the annual banquet. Winner of the
Merit Trophy Award was Joe Friedheim,
Jr. of Belle Glade. Accepting the award
for Friedheim was Charles Cowart.
Milton Plumb of the Tampa Tribune,
and Fritz Stein of Chosen, Florida, were
presented honorary memberships for their
service to the club and the cattle industry
by George Edwards who made a short
talk about each of the men.
Rex Gilbreath, vice-president of Block
and Bridle spoke on the accomplishments
of the Block and Bridle during the year,
and Don Wakeman of the animal hus-
bandry staff introduced past and present
members of the livestock judging team.
Highlight of the evening was a talk by
Doyle Conner, past state president of the
Junior Florida Cattlemen's Association
and presently chairman of the Agricul-
ture Committee in the House of Repre-
sentatives. His talk centered around the
opportunities opened for young men and
women to take part in the rapidly grow-
ing cattle industry in this state and ended
in a challenge for the graduate in Agri-
culture to take an active part in making
this state a better place for us to live and



THE THING that is on the mind of most
4-H boys and girls in Florida is the
coming summer, and the weeks they will
spend at camp and short course. Camp
begins June 6, and runs for ten weeks.
Most of the workers at camp will be boys
Irom the University, and a few of the
girls from F.S.U. Programs are now be-
ing planned with as much going into the
preparation of camp as will be put into
its actual running. There are four of
these camps which are located at Lake
Placid, Ocala, Madison, and Fort Walton.
Short course will be held for one week
only and will be right here on our own
campus at the University. Here the boys
will learn newer and improved methods
of farming. There is an expected atten-
dance of 3oo. They will be housed in
the Freshman Dorms and will eat at the
cafeteria. The girls will also have a
short course which will be held at Florida
State University.
From these plans, 4-H promises to
have a very busy summer.

Connor Elected

Speaker of House 1957

REP. DOYLE CONNER of Starke was re-
cently elected as speaker of the House of
Representatives for 1957. At the age of
26 he is believed to be the youngest
speaker ever elected.
Doyle gained much recognition
through serving as State and National
President of the Future Farmers of
America. He was an outstanding leader
of the student body at the U. of F. and
was a member of the Blue Key Society.
He has continued to gain much recogni-
tion and respect in the state legislature.

You OLD timers remember what the
guiding theory behind cutting and close
grazing grass was? It was, keep it short
and always mow the grass evenly between
rotations. Now the U. S. Department of
Agriculture has come up with something
new on the subject of mowing and clip-
ping pastures.
USDA personnel have found that if
you remove too much of the grass' top
growth by grazing or mowing it closely,
the roots will stop growing until the
tops recover. Taking off more than
half of the foliage at a single cutting
causes root growth to stop for a time
after each clipping.





Hypera postica C(yll.
The Alfalfa weevil is one of the major insect
pests of alfalfa in the United States. It causes
greatest damage to the first crop. Adult fe-
males lay from 600 to 800 eggs in alfalfa stems.
An imported wa.-p is a parasite of the larvae,
but it does not destroy enough second crop
weevils to prevent a large build-up of weevils
the succeeding year.

Stona cylindricollis Fahr.
Sweetclover weevils are small, slender, drab
gray snout weevils. They feed on tender plant
leaves and stems, eating out circular notches.
Natives of Europe, these insects were discov-
ered in Canada in 1924, and have spread at a
rate of more than 100 miles a year. They now
extend over most of the United States and
Canada. They move in armies of a hundred or
more per square foot.



For full color booklets showing
I these and other insects write to Hercules


MAY, 1955

Estigmene acrea (Drury)
Mature caterpillars are either light
green or dark brown. They attack
alfalfa and other crops and travel in
hordes. The adult female moth lays as
many as 1000 pale yellow eggs from
which hatch tiny dark brown cater-
pillars. There are three generations of
pests in the southern localities, two in
the Midwest, and only one in New
England. In the South, the third gener-
ation causes the greatest damage.

911 King Street, Wilmington 99, Delaware NX52-23


Brothers, Inc.

111 South Main Street
Phones 4351 and 4352


Wholesale and Retail

Complete Line of Garden
and Pet Supplies

Vegetable and Field Seeds

Tuxedo Feeds





114 N.W. 13th Street Phone 21489

Sinclair Petroleum

Goodyear Home and
Auto Supplies

Use our Easy Payment Plan

Robert L. Saunders, Jr., Proprietor

Baby Food
(Continued from page ii)
Under this program, the pigs were
taken away from the sow at five to seven
days, fed 3.5 pounds of the pre-starter
(which took one to two weeks) and then
were switched to a sugared starter pellet
highly fortified with antibiotics. At five
weeks of age, or when the pigs had eaten
20 pounds of pelleted starter each, they
are sorted, penned in graded sizes, and
put on a regular grower ration to eight
weeks. From eight weeks to market they
are fed to a standard growing-fattening
Dr. Catron and his associates predict
that if this program is followed pigs will
weigh about 25 pounds at five weeks and
50 pounds at eight weeks. And they will
be ready for market seven to to days
earlier than sow-raised pigs creep-fed on
the best pig starter previously available.
The Future
New advances in baby pig feeding oc-
cur so quickly that reports may be out-
dated by the time they are published.
And, in the opinion of Dr. Luther, they
are going to continue that way for some
time. He declared:
"Work that we are now doing at the
Pfizer Agricultural Research and Develop-
ment Farm, near Terre Haute, Ind., indi-
cates that there is no field of nutritional
research that holds so many possibilities
for advancement as does baby pig nutri-
"We know, for example, that there are
several unidentified growth factors which,
when present in the ration, cause an
increase in pig growth. It is our job to
isolate and identify these factors-and to
help the feed manufacturer incorporate
them in the starter feeds and in the
growing-fattening feeds the farmer will
use in the future."

To GROW onions for bulbs, plant the seed
in a well prepared seed bed about the
third week in August. The young plants
should be ready for transplanting in
December. Texas Grano, Granex, and
Excel varieties have done well in Flor-
ida. Plant a variety that has proven
satisfactory for Florida conditions.

Two FLORIDA county agents, Emmett D.
McCall of Milton and P. R. McMullen
of St. Augustine, received distinguished
service awards from the National As-
sociation of County Agricultural Agents
at the recent annual meeting of the or-
ganization in Salt Lake City, Utah.
The two had been chosen previously
for the honor by fellow members of the
Florida County Agents Association. Both
awards are based on more than to years
of outstanding accomplishment in their

Proper Insecticides

Will Help Control
Insects in Gardens

FLORIDA GARDENERS must be constantly
on guard against destructive insects
if they are to harvest best yields of good
crops of either vegetables or flowers. Dr.
L. C. Kuitert, associate entomogolist
with the University of Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, offers the fol-
lowing suggestions on insect control in
the garden.
Cutworms are the immature stage of
certain moths. They are usually most
troublesome in areas where there has
been considerable grass. They can be
readily controlled with either 5 percent
DDT or 5 percent chlordane dust.
Chlordane baits also are effective.
Grasshoppers sometimes become a
serious problem in late summer or early
fall. Usually when the native vegeta-
tion becomes dry and unattractive they
migrate to more tender early fall crops.
A 5 percent chlordane dust gives excel-
lent results in controlling them.
Mole-crickets are well known to most
gardeners. They live in the ground
during the daytime and come out at
night to feed. A 1 or i 1/ percent chlor-
dane bait sprinkled over the areas in
which the runways may be seen is
effective in controlling them. A 5 per-
cent chlordane dust is also effective.
Aphids or plant lice are also well
known pests. Parathion is the best
aphicide. It can be used as a 1 percent
dust or as a spray. To make the spray
use 4 level teaspoonfuls of 15 percent
wettable powder per gallon of water.
Do not inhale any of the spray or dust
particles and wash off any material
which comes in contact with your skin.
Good results also can be obtained with
either 3 percent fixed nicotine dust or
40 percent nicotine sulphate.
Ants are another of the home garden-
er's problems. They are best controlled
by destroying their nests. This can be
done by making a liberal application of
5 percent chlordane dust to the ant hill.
For good control it will be necessary to
treat all the nests in the area.
In general, it is wise to remember that
insecticides should be applied when the
insects first appear in dangerous num-
bers. Do not wait until considerable
damage has been done. Keep in mind
that all insecticides are poisons and
should be handled as such. Do not apply
insecticides to vegetables to be harvested
within a few days. Thoroughly wash all
vegetables to which insecticides have
been applied before using the vegetables
for food.



Our 64th Year


Central Florida

*Hardware Building Supplies
Plumbing Electric Supplies

* Radio

* Television

* Outboard Motors

* Boats




Phone 8531



"Everything for the Student"







Our Graduating

Candidates for the Bachelor of Science
in Agriculture Degree
June 6, 1955
Robert Everett Allen ........ Gainesville
Alvaro Abel Alvarez............ Panama
Humberto Roman Alvarez ..... Panama
Billy Bass ................... M elbourne
Hugo Berrios-Espinoza ........... Chile
Robert Lewis Billings ............ Lowell
William Hunt Burger ........... .Miami
George Alva Chatfield, Jr......... Miami
Robert Bruce Christmas ..... Cottondale
Charles Robert Collins. ...... Avon Park
Charles Ray Cowart ......... .Wauchula
Donald West Cox............... Miami
Phillip Wright Crosby ....... Greensboro
Victor Burbank Dacy. ...... Coral Gables
Bartow David Daniel, Jr.......... Miami
Nancy Royale Daniels (Miss) .. Apopka
Albert Nelson Davis, Jr......... Orlando
Robert Marion Davis ..... Palm Harbor
Alexander Kent Doke .......... Alachua
James Poindexter Drane, Jr. ....Sebring
S. Arthur Duchaine......... Jacksonville
Herbert McCullough Dunlap, Gainesville
Henry Lorimer Fagan, Jr...... DeLand
Everette Henry Fischer ........... Gotha
Warren Desmond Fisher .........Tampa
John Keith Foulk........... Homestead
Norman Erwin Gary .............. Ocala
Rex Lamon Gilbreath .......... Tampa
Robert Edward Guyton.......... Miami
Charles Arthur Hale ......... Kissimmee
William Harvey Harper......... Bradley
Llewellyn Theodore Heine... Clearwater
William Ratcliffe Renry ........Apopka
Thomas Hiep Hosi .......... .Viet Nam
Robert McIntosh Howard, Jr.. Orlando
Leamon Eugene Howell. ...... Live Oak
John Williamson Hunt ..... Lake Wales
Ralph Frick Hyatt. ...... Ft. Lauderdale
Roberto Jarquin ............ Guatemala
Tonquin Gaines LaGrone...Tallahassee
Antonio Lardizabal ..........Honduras
James Daniel Latham, Jr.....Canal Point
Billie David Little ............ Ft. Myers
Willard Wynne McCurdy, Jr....Pahokee
Larry Leroy McIver ......Winter Haven
Federico Edmundo Malo........ Ecuador
Albert Peter Martinez ....... Gainesville
Billy Joel Maxwell .......... .Plant City
James Rufus Meeks, Jr......Otter Creek
James Riley Milam .......... .Dade City
Don Russell Moore........ .Jacksonville
Jack Nash .................... Orlando
Phillip Aaron O'Berry........... Miami
William Edward Page ....... Gainesville
James Dwight Pierce.... Memphis, Tenn.
Norman William Platts.......Ft. Pierce
Robert Lee Price, Jr........ .Graceville
Arthur Stockton Renfroe..... Graceville
Edward Shipp Saunders.. .White Springs
George Homer Scott ......... Mulberry
(Continued on page 22)

of Extrl.

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quality and profits





Extra quality in your fertilizer
means extra quality and quantity in
your crops. IDEAL Fertilizers are
quality fertilizers containing high-
grade organic to assure a continu-
ous plant food supply. Organics are
now more plentiful and less expen-
sive which means greater crop insur-
ance for you at less cost.
FASCO Pesticides, too, offer you
the extra values of the most effective
control materials, manufactured in a
modern factory under scientific
So feed your crops with IDEAL
Fertilizers, kill their enemies with
FASCO Pesticides-your profit com-

and Divisions
Peninsular Fertilizer Works-Tampa
Cartledge Fertilizer Co.-Cottondale
Port Everglades Plant-Port Everglades
General Offices Jacksonville, Florida


MAY, 1955

U of F Short Course
(Continued from page 12)
and Crocker stated that insurance com-
panies were interested in long term
loans on first mortgages on land and
were not interested in competing with
banks for short term cattle notes. They
also advised that anyone planning to
enter the cattle business should have
sound collateral to offer the lender.
Speaking for cattlemen, both Williams
and Willis advised the voung man enter-
ing the rattle business to have a plan, to
seek helo of experienced cattlemen and
have confidence in both themselves and
their banker. Williams advised that a
young man should put up all the collater-
al he can offer, get enough money for a
long enough time to insure that he will
not be starting on a "shoe string." Willis
advised the beginner not to take the first
offer for a loan, but find the man who
knows the cattle business and who will be
able to see eye to eye with the beginner
on his problems. Then make that man a
part of your operation by keeping him
informed of what you are doing.

30 Percent More Calves? ...
THE IMPORTANCE of a good calf crop and
the effect of nutrition and feeding on
reproduction and calf crop percentage,
was discussed by Dr. A. C. Warnick of the
University in the opening address of
Thursday afternoon's session. He em
phasized the need for improvement in
Florida's overall calf production percent-
age stating that the state's average calf
crop was 50 to 60 percent compared to
the national average of 80 to )o percent.
Following Dr. Warnick, Dr. Marvin
Koger, also of the University, spoke on
keeping herd records and, pointing to
the low calf production rate of the state,
stated it indicated that 3o percent of the
cows in Florida herds were not doing the
job. Without proper records many non-
producing cows don't get culled.
Warnick advised ranchers to pay par-
ticular attention to their bulls, stating
that extra feed for bulls during the breed-
ing period makes a higher calf crop. He
added that figures prove that cows kept
on a nutritional supplement during and
immediately before breeding periods
showed a 91 percent calf record and
calves weighed 95 pounds more at wean-
Koger pointed to the importance of ac-
curate and proper records. He advised
keeping individual records for each ani-
mal in purebred herds, and commercial
herds too, culling non-producers and se-
lecting the heavy, high-grading calves at
weaning age as herd replacements.

Management and Beef...
FRIDAY AFTERNOON, a panel made up of
B. L. Southwell, of Tifton, Georgia, head

of the Animal Husbandry Department,
of the Coastal Plains Experiment Station,
F. M. Peacock, of the Range Cattle Sta-
tion, Ona, and Gilbert Tucker, manager
of A. Duda and Sons Ranch at Cocoa,
discussed practices that would increase
income from cow and calf operations.
All three agreed that there were three
key steps toward more profit from cow
and calf operations: Keep good cows
and calves as herd replacements; Go out
and find what the buyers want and need
and then try to meet his demands; and
get better bulls-the best you can afford.
Friday afternoon's session was con-
cluded with a demonstration of beef
cattle types with Brangus and Santa
Gertrudis being used this year. During
the Brangus demonstration, which was
moderated by Jesse L. Dowdy, executive
Secretary of the American Brangus Breed-
er's Association, several bulls, heifers and
cows representative of the Brangus breed
were displayed by H. E. Wolfe Ranch,
St. Augustine.
Palmer Ranch of Sarasota, displayed
the Santa Gertrudis cattle used in that
breed's demonstration, moderated by R.
P. Marshall, executive secretary of Santa
Gertrudis Breeders International.

Artificial Breeding...
DR. G. T. EASLEY, ranch veterinarian at
Turner Ranch, Sulphur, Oklahoma,
spoke on artificial insemination.
He advised the group that this practice
was by no means a cure-all but just a
means of getting more service over a
year's time from a good bull. It means
keeping better records, costs more money,
means an increase in labor and cattle
handling problems-but pays off in in-
creased production records and control-
led breeding, he explained. Turner
warned that breed association regulations
should be checked before any breeder
starts artificial insemination in his pure-
bred herd.

Health and Wealth...
HEALTH IN cattle being imported into
Florida from other states, health factors
in ranch management and parasites were
included in Saturday's program.
Speaking on cattle from other areas get-
ting used to conditions in Florida, were
R. G. Heine, Ocala Shorthorn breeder;
Louis Gilbreath, general manager of
Camp Ranch, Ocala; George H. Wedg-
worth of Wedgworth Farms, Belle Glade;
and Dr. Marvin Koger of the University.
All agreed that cattle from other areas
usually adjusted well to Florida if cattle-
men used management and fed them well
during the period of adjustment.
Easley speaking on health in cattle,
stated that the best rule to follow is:
"When something shows up-jump on it!"
L. E. Swanson of the University's Para-
site Laboratory, speaking Saturday morn-

ing on internal and external parasites,
stated that no one can hope to control
parasites where good rules of sanitation
are not practiced.

FEEDING AND silage also played an im-
portant role on Friday and Saturday
Friday evening Dr. G. K. Davis of the
University and Jim Pace, extension assis-
tant animal husbandman discussed urea
in cattle feeding and spoke on the
making and feeding of silage. Davis
also showed a picture on urea, stated that
it can be used to advantage in cattle if
fed in the right proportions.
Pace advised cattlemen to grow the
crop that will give them the greatest
tonnage per acre, harvest it at the proper
time, and utilize a trench silo for storage.
Saturday morning, Dr. J. F. Hentges of
the University spoke on creep feeding.
While creep feeding has its place, Hent-
ges believes it isn't practical in cases
where there is an abundance of fresh
green forage.

Job Opportunities
(Continued from page Io)
sion of personal talents.
If, along with your interest in poultry,
you like writing, there are opportunities
for you in the editorial and advertising
work, although this is a field of employ-
ment which not many students consider
when they enter college. There are ap-
proximately a dozen magazines related
directly to the poultry industry and which
employ editors and advertising salesmen.
There probably are at least four or five
times that number of advertising agencies
and perhaps ten times as many manufac-
turers who want men with this combina-
tion of training for their advertising pro-
motion and public relations departments.
Many state farm papers and general
farm magazines hire poultry majors to
edit a poultry department. The number
of agricultural journalists who are work-
ing as farm editors of weekly and daily
newspapers is beyond estimating. There
are opportunities, too, as college exten-
sion editors, or in conducting farm pro-
grams on radio and television.
Agriculture is big business. It is be-
coming more and more necessary for the
person interested in farming or industries
allied with farming to be educated and

"THE FIVE-YEAR agricultural census to be
taken this fall is important to agriculture
and rural life," says H. G. Clayton, di-
rector of the Florida Agricultural Exten-
sion Service. He says Extension workers
will give full cooperation to the census
and he urges farm people also to give ac-
curate, useable information.



Ag. Engineers Move

To Their $455,000

Home on June 1st

LONGER" is the song being sung by
the Ag. Engineers because they are mov-
ing into their new, modern $455,000
Home on June 1. This new building has
38,000 square feet of space and will house
Teaching, Research, and Extension De-
They have new equipment that cost ap-
proximately $25,000. This is a great ad-
vancement over the equipment and hous-
ing that they have had before. The fa-
cilities that they are presently using were
built in 1907 and 1916. The one built
in 1907 was built for a barn and is now
being used as a shop. The other built in
1916 was for a garage for instruction of
auto mechanics during first world war.
It is now being used for a machine shop.
Prof. Frazier Rogers, Head of the de-
partment, who has been here since 1917,
can really tell you of the development of
the Ag. Engineer School. Much to our
surprise and probably to your's too, we
found out that Floyd 108, a room in
which many of us have had classes was
originally built for a farm machinery
Next year the Ag. Engineer students
can proudly present their new Sj,.,o'l,
building which they have long deserved.
This building will have four class rooms,
14 offices, one conference room, one
graduate student room, one large draft-
ing room, one small drafting room and
eight laboratories. Yes, the Ag. Engineer
students can truly say "Ain't gonna need
this barn no longer."

PIECES OF leaves, pods, and other screen-
ing material that accumulate when lu-
pine seed are cleaned are suitable for
mulching trees and ornamental plants.
The material is not suitable for mulching
tender annuals and other plants, how-
ever, because it may result in develop-
ment of damping-off and other fungous

ST. JOHNS County's 1954 potato crop was
a bumper one, with production almost
equalling last season's crop although
acreage this year was 2,000 under that of
1953, County Agent P. R. McMullen re-

As BIRDS that have been in production for
a long period are inclined to lose weight,
it is important to provide ample feed and
water and close care for them to prevent
weight loss. The drop in production
with such birds will not be so pro-
nounced if they maintain their normal


MAY, 1955

The Jackson Grain Company was
organized in 1909 in Tampa by the
late Frank D. Jackson as a wholesale
distributing organization to serve the
growing agricultural needs of the state.
Products sold by the company at that
time consisted almost entirely of corn,
such as bran and shorts, cottonseed
oats, wheat, flour and mill by-products
meal, cottonseed hulls and hay. The
company prospered from the start and
within a few years moved to its present
location and built the first grain elevator
in the state of Florida.

In the early 1920's the poultry and
dairy industries began to assume some
importance in the state's economy and
the Jackson Grain Company adapted
itself to changing conditions and be-
came one of the largest distributors of
mixed dairy and poultry feeds in the
state. It sold the first mixed scratch
grains and the first 'sweet-feed" ever
offered in Florida and it was the first
feed distributor to bring in to the state
a solid freight train of manufactured

In the early 1930's the Company
began manufacturing some feeds of
its own and by 1940 it was manufac-
turing and distributing a complete line
of poultry and dry feeds under its

now well known X-Cel brand. Grow-
ing rapidly with Florida the next 10
years the company found it necessary
by 1950 to build a modern "push but-
ton" feed mill to meet the ever-increas-
ing demand for its products.
During the same period the com-
pany organized a retail subsidiary known
as X-Cel Stores, Inc. and opened
branches in Tampa, Plant City, Winter
Haven and Orlando. The company also
began distributing fertilizer, seeds and
agricultural insecticides.
In 1952 the company extended its
activities to manufacturing agricultural
insecticides and fungicides in its own
plant so that it could better serve
growing Florida agricultural interests.
Today the Jackson Grain Company
has a well rounded organization staffed
with men competent to serve in the
various fields in which it operates. It
has its own chemical laboratory and a
poultry research farm where its prod-
ucts are checked scientifically.
After 45 years of service to the state,
changing its operation to meet chang-
ing conditions, the Jackson Grain Com-
pany is today a Florida-owned and
operated organization looking forward
each day for better ways to serve the
agricultural community of Florida.






(Continued from page l9)
Thomas Nash Seay. .. Cincinnati, Ohio
Richard Nettles Sever........ Clearwater
Francisco Adolfo Sierra ..... Guatemala
Joseph Emery Sisson.... Potsdam, N. Y.
Theron Woodroe Sistrunk, Pompano Bch
Charles Drane Smith ........ Tallahassee
Joe Steely Smith.........Ft. Lauderdale
Theodore William Stamen....... Miami
John Lester Stephens ........ .Plant City
Olin Thomas Stoutamire ....... Hosford
Ligio Antonio Tavarez, Dominican Rep.
Bobby Lee Taylor............ Sanderson
Dempsey Lee Thomas ....... .Macclenny
Paul Monroe Thornhill ......... Dundee
Wayne Philip Van Netta ..... Hawthorne
Tomas Vilanova ........... El Salvador
Norman Homer Vreeland ....... Orlando
John Everett Whidden, Jr...Okeechobee
Douglas Emory Wilcox, Jr.. .. Clearwater
John Young Willis ............. .Ruskin
Bill Ray Winchester. ... Boynton Beach
Harry Gene Witt.......... .Jacksonville
Robert Davidson Woodward, III, Quincy



Allis Chalm ers ......................7
Baird Hardware .................... 19
Campus Shop and Book Store........ 19
Deere and Company ................. 2
Florida Favorite Fertilizer. ........... 15
Florida Pest Control ................ 11
Florida State Theatres . ...... 11
Hercules Powder Co. ............... 17
International Harvester Co. ........... 24
Jackson Grain Company ........... .22
J. I. Case Company .................5
Johnson Brothers .................. 18
Lyons Fertilizer Co. .................. 3
Minneapolis Moline Co ............. 23
Norris Cattle Company .............. 3
Respess Grimes Engraving Co......... 22
Security Feed M ills .................. 9
Suni C itrus ........................ 21
The Gas W ell ..................... 18
T he Park Inn ...................... is
Trueman Fertilizer Co. ............... 8
V-C Chemical Corp. ................ 11
Wilson &g Toomer Fertilizer Co....... 19
W. R. Ames Co. .................... 15


This Uni-Machine chops hay or row crops to
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r .i-w ... :
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Here's famed Harvestor performance New Uni-Matic height control, big, 10-
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Powerful cleaning fan and long clean-
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crop to the tank.

In its first really competitive test, the
Minneapolis-Moline Uni-Farmor swept
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chanical Corn Picking Contest, MM
Uni-Huskors placed Ist, 2nd, and 3rd.
That's real proof of the prize-whinning
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One Uni-Tractor mounts all your Uni-
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And look at the money you save! You save
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Postoffice........................ State...............


MAY, 1955


A report to you about men and machines that help maintain International Harvester leadership

How IH engineers designed a more

efficient, safer, completely ri.
.. o".' .* -" ? A... '



The most flexible pto operation ever developed for
a farm tractor is available in new McCormick Farm- '* .'
all 300 andc400 tractors, and International W 400.
Velvet-smooli control of the completely independent
pto supplies convenience and safety features exclusive
with IH design. For example:
Pto can be started smoothly with engine at full throttle.
Pto can be braked to a smooth, fast stop.
Pto is securely locked, preventing machine "creeping"
when control lever is in disengaged position. '' t*
Pto and tumbler splines can be lined up by hand, with
engine stopped and pto control lever "centered."
With Torque Amplifier drive, pto speed can be main-
tained uniformly while tractor speed is changed on the Farmall completely independent pto and Tc
go to match the widest range of crop and field conditions. Amplifier drive team up to eliminate the in

To achieve these pto safety and convenience features,
IH engineers developed a planetary-gear drive and
control unit. This permits the use of spring-loaded
band brakes for starting and stopping the pto. thus
overcoming the undesirable characteristics of a snap-
action, over-center clutch.



ment and upkeep costs of mounted engine drives
on machines such as this pto-driven big-capacity
McCormick No. 55 baler, pulled by a Farmall 400.


Farmall pto is completely independent. The pto
drive is direct from the engine flywheel (A)
and clutch back plate, through hollow shaft (B)
to first gear reduction, then to planetary gear
reduction and control unit. When the pto shaft

is engaged, the brake band (C) on the shaft
drum is released, and the brake band (D) on
the sun gear drum is applied. This causes the
ring gear (E) to turn the planet pinions (F)
around the sun gear, driving the pto shaft.

IH engineering teamwork produced the new, completely independent power take-
off. IH research, engineering, and manufacturing men are constantly pooling time
and talent to provide equipment of improved performance, making the work easier,
Thereby reducing operator fatigue while boosting production.

International Harvester products pay for themselves in use-McCormick Farm Equipment and Farmall
Tractors Motor Trucks .Crawler Tractors and Power Units Refrigerators and Freezers-
General Office, Chicago 1, Illinois.

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