Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00043
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00043
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text


NP.e re ,i&"

Vol. 7, No. I



:;~n: :~1~~~~aiE,

A Thanksgiving Soliloquy

"I've heard it said the world's a dismal place.
But I know better...
for I have seen the dawn, and walked in the
splendor of a morning's sun blinked at the brilliance
of the dew, and beheld the gold and crimson
of an autumn landscape.

"I've heard it said the world is sad.
I can't agree...
for I have heard the cheerful songs
of feathered masters ... heard the low laughter)
of the leaves, and the everlasting chuckle
of a mountain brook.

"I've heard it said the world's a musty, sordid thing.
It can't be true...
for I have seen the rain ... watched it bathe
the earth, the very air ... and I have seen the sky,
newly scrubbed and spotless, blue from end to end...
and I've watched the Winter's snow drape tree and bush,
to look like Nature's freshly laundered linen hung to dry.

"I've even heard it said the world is evil.
But they are wrong...
for I have known its people watched them die
to save a freedom, bleed to save a life .. spend of themselves
to stem disaster, of their wealth to ease distress and
I have watched them live, love, and labor.., watched them
hope, dream, and pray, side by side.

"I have heard them say these things.
But I would disagree...
because, for every shadow, I have seen a hundred rays
of light for every plaintive note, I've heard a
symphony of joy ... for every pennyweight of bad, I have
found a ton of good ... good in Nature, in People,
in the World.
And I'm thankful I belong."

Copyright, John Deere, 1952

JOH N DEERE MOLINE, ILLINOIS Quality Farm Equipment Since 1837


SFor the
s CFinest
L F Quality in
We Ask
That You
Contact Us.

Box 1051 OCALA, FLORIDA Ph. MA 2-7151

Be sure to call for your nearest Lyons representa-
tive and discuss your grove problems. He will be
glad to help you plan your grove program.



For many years, season after season, the users of Lyons Fertilizers have been producing premium
crops of highest quality fruits and receiving higher profits. Now, more than ever, high quality
fruit will command high prices. Plan now to increase your own net sales next season. The price
of good fertilizer is small when it increases your net returns.


P. 0. Box 310 Tampa, Florida






The Florida College Farmer, rOm t dito, OD
Volume 7, Number 1 November, 1954 7jom the ediuori 2)e&i

George M. Edwards ............... ................ Editor

Editorial Staff
Ralph Voss
George Milicevic, Jr...................... Managing Editors
Anne Cawthon
Jackson Brownlee Editorial Assistants
Lawrence Shackleford ....
Jimmy Cummings

Club Representatives
Jean Lovett ...............................Ag Economics
John Creel ................... ..............Alpha Zeta
John Creel...................American Society of Agronomy
Arthur Wood .... American Society of American Engineers
Dempsey Thomas. .......................Alpha Tau Alpha
Charles Cowart ......................... Block and Bridle
George Milicevic. ........................... Dairy Science
Chuck Pulley ................................. Forestry
Bobby L. Taylor................ Future Farmers of America
Philip Oberry .........................Lamda Gamma Phi
J. Hurst...................... Newell Entomological Society
Arnold Fisher ........................... Poultry Science
Dubbie Price................................ Thrysus
Bobby Taylor...................... Vocational Education

Business Staff
Art Duchaine...........................Business Manager
Bill Burger .......................Asst. Business Manager

Circulation Staff
Richard McRae......................Circulation Managei
Tom Rowand.................. Asst. Circulation Manager
Dean Griffin
Pat Close
Clorie Caproni
Ann Wallis

Faculty Advisory Committee
J. Clyde Driggers .............................Chairman

Entered as second class mailing matter at the Post Office at University
Station, Gainesville, Florida, December 8, 1938, under an Act of Congress
of 1879. Fifteen cents per copy, fifty cents per year, $1.25 for three years,
$2.00 for five years. Published four times during the year: November,
January, March, and May. Address all correspondence to Florida College
Farmer, Florida Union Building, Gainesville, Florida.

Contend s. *
Greetings Dean Noble ............................... 6
Mechanical Harvester ... .............. ............... 7
Agriculture Building.................................. 7
Bill Gunter National F.F.A. President................ 8
19th Annual Dairy Field Day............................ 8
We Salute. ............ ............................. 9
Ag Clubs .. ... ............................... .10
13th Poultry Institute .............................. 12
C.R.O.P. ............. ....... ..... ................14
Florida Forestry ................... ................... 14
Dry Freeze "To Preserve Quality" ...................... 18

Ground breaking ceremony for Dan McCarty Hall, September 30,
1954. Dr. J. Wayne Reitz, provost for agriculture, turns a shovel
of dirt, as Marshall O. Watkins, assistant director of extension, Dr.
H. Harold Hume, emeritus provost for agriculture, Dr. C. V. Noble,
dean, Dr. John S. Allen, acting president, and Dr. Roger Bledsoe,
assistant director of the Experiment Station.

It's that time again! Time for the FLORIDA COLLEGE
FARMER to come out this 1954-1955 school year.
The COLLEGE FARMER, with almost a completely new
staff, presents many new problems for us. With a new editor
and business manager, we are starting this year almost inex-
perienced. Nevertheless, as a whole, the FARMER
is "better than ever."
We here in Florida and at the University of Flor-
ida should take our hats off to Billy Gunter, who has
recently been elected National F.F.A. President.
Good luck to you, Bill! We are mighty proud of
At last, work has been started on the new Ag
building. As can be seen

turns the shovel of dirt
at the site of this build-
ing. We are anxious for
the completion so that
we may have adequate
space, facilities, and a
modern library. This
new Ag building will be
the "Dan McCarty Hall"
after former governor,
Dan McCarty. The li-
brary will be the H. Har-
old Hume library after
emeritus provost, H.
Harold Hume.
Each issue, the FARaM- GEO E M.
ER salutes an outstand-
ing alumnus whom we feel has made outstand-
ing contributions as a citizen. This issue we salute
Doyle Conner, a graduate in the College of Agricul-
ture. We feel that it is of interest of everyone to
know what outstanding work that our alumni are
Starting out this year, we are going to try and keep on
schedule and to have the most successful year that the
FARMER has had. We can do it if the staff, students and
faculty cooperate to the utmost extent. One of the biggest
problems in printing an Agricultural student publication is
getting cooperation from "YOU" the student and
this year the FARMER has more support from the students
than it has had in the past. With this cooperation, I'm sure
that we will have the very successful year which we are antici-

Meet your editor:

George Montague Edwards is a Junior in the College of
Agriculture, majoring in Animal Husbandry. George was
born and raised in and around Ocala, in the heart of Marion
County, the Kingdom of the Sun. He is a member of the
Alpha Gamma Rho fraternity.



In pioneer times the woodlot was usually an uncleared patch
of virgin forest, sometimes a windbreak planted to shelter
a prairie home. It furnished fire-wood, perhaps shade and
poor pasture for livestock. For generations the woodlot has
been too much taken for granted, or ignored.
Today the woodlot presents new challenge, new oppor-
tunity-especially to farm youth. Fenced to prevent damage
due to pasturage it may be a watershed to fill a pond, a
refuge for wild life. It may be selectively harvested to yield
saw logs, rail ties, fence posts, or pulp wood. It'may be
replanted, perhaps with Christmas trees, to produce better
returns in years to come. So managed, a wooded area may
indeed be an endowment, begun in boyhood to mature in
the fullness of manhood.
All this is a place for the energy and ingenuity of youth-
ful enterprise. There are new applications of conservation
principles, new techniques of tree culture, new methods for
planting and harvesting trees. With the help of a modern
tractor, and some supplementary equipment, woodlot enter-
prise can be both pleasant and productive. J. I. Case Co.,
Racine, Wis.




, Ideas...

p;,. ~ --

Master of woodlot tasks is the Case "VAC-14" low-seat tractor,
shown here with half-tracks added for work in soft ground. With
PTO auger to dig holes and utility carrier to haul materials it
speeds the planting of young trees or the building of protective
fence. The same Eagle Hitch carrier lifts and moves logs without
damage to the stand. With loader and fork lift it puts logs into
piles or onto trucks. The "low-seater" has adjustable tread and
full under-clearance for work among trees and stumps, con-
venient power to pull transplanters and drive saws.

Serving Farmers Since 1842













FARMER has extended to me the privi-
lege of greeting all present and pros-
pective students of the College of Agricul-
ture. Also, I wish to extend my greet-
ings to all former students of the College
and to all farmers and friends of agricul-
ture and forestry who find interest and
pleasure in continuing their contacts with
the College and its students through the
pages of this first-class student publica-
tion. It is now twenty-four years since
the first number of this publication ap-
peared. The present editors are begin-
ning their work with enthusiasm and
hope to make the 1954-55 year the best
in the history of the magazine.
Registration in the College of Agricul-
ture for this semester is 393 compared
with 370 at the same time in 1953, as
follows: Juniors 123, Seniors 93, Specials
22, Graduates 155. This increase is due
to the higher registration of graduate

Dean C.V. Noble



students. It will be noted, however, that
there are 3o more junior than senior
students, reflecting the increase in Uni-
versity freshman enrollment which started
.two years ago. There are eight women
students in the College at the present
time-five undergraduates and three grad-
uates. It is of interest also to note the
continuing increase of foreign students
in agriculture. At present there are 21
foreign countries represented with 38
students. Twenty-three of this number
come from 12 Latin American countries.
Other countries represented are Iran,
Israel, Pakistan, Viet Nam, Greece, India,
The Philippines, The Netherlands, and
The Teaching Staff for the College of
Agriculture now numbers 71. Only 31
of this number are engaged in full-time
teaching. The remaining 40 members
are teaching one or more courses and are
engaged part-time in teaching, research

or extension work in the School of For-
estry, Agricultural Experiment Station,
Agricultural Extension Service or the
Statistical Laboratory. In addition to
these part-time staff members who are
offering formal undergraduate or gradu-
ate courses, much work with graduate
students is in the hands of other full-
time Research or Extension Staff mem-
bers who are members of the Graduate
Faculty also. A number of the members
of our Graduate Faculty are located at
our Branch Agricultural Experiment
Stations. Some graduate students are
interested in thesis problems that can
be pursued much more satisfactorily at a
Branch Experiment Station than at the
Main Experiment Station at Gainesville.
Again, I wish to commend THE COL-
LEGE FARMER to you as the student
mouthpiece of the College of Agriculture
and to solicit your help in making the
publication better from year to year.



A Mechanized Harvester

Developed for Florida Crop

Society of Agricultural Engineers
THE TWENTIETH Century has truly been
a "Century of Mechanization" in the
field of agriculture. To the farmer, this
has meant more efficient production and
greater profits from his crops with less
hand labor.
One of the more difficult crops to
harvest mechanically has been tobacco.
For years, farmers and men of industry
have been interested in developing a less
laborious and more efficient method of
harvesting tobacco. Workers realized
years ago that to harvest tobacco
mehanically, and successfully, a machine
must be developed which would handle
the tobacco leaves with the gentleness
and tenderness of human hands. This is
necessary because tobacco leaves are
turgid and break or bruise very easily.
The development of a machine which
would duplicate many of the delicate
hand operations offered the greatest
challenge. Also, the machine would
have to be mobile, adapted to the topo-
graphy of the tobacco field and permit
harvest of the ripe tobacco without
damage to the remainder of the crop.
Years of thought and effort have only
recently consummated the successful
mechanical tobacco harvester. This new
machine is known under the trade name,
"Silent Flame Harvester." It is a four
row harvester which requires only seven
workers as compared to thirteen in the
non-mechanical method of harvesting.
Four of the crewmen are "croppers."
They ride in comfortable seats adjacent
to the row from which they will crop
the tobacco. The seat height is adjust-
able to correspond with the height of
the tobacco to be cropped. The cropper
picks the ripe leaves and places a hand

of tobacco in the holder which is at-
tached to a conveyor chain. The hands
of tobacco are conveyed to a platform
which is elevated above the plants. Two
workers on the platform tie the tobacco
on sticks and a third member drives the
harvester and assists the stringers.
The field speed of the harvester is
approximately one-fourth mile per hour,
and it is capable of harvesting 20 to 25
acres per season. Simplicity and unique-
ness are incorporated into the design by
using a tricycle wheel arrangement, with
the 2o horsepower, air-cooled engine
mounted on the support column directly
above the single front wheel. Power is
transmitted from the engine to the front
wheel through a short endless chain. Also
the front wheel will caster for steering.
The retail price of the harvester is
approximately $1,500. The minimum
number of acres that can be harvested
economically with one machine has not
been determined. However, several grow-
ers with low acreages may purchase a
harvester jointly thereby reducing the
initial cost per acre to the extent that
all tobacco growers may use this new
machine economically. The popularity
of the harvester and its potential value
to the tobacco grower is represented by
the fact that one brief demonstration in
a nearby state resulted in nine immediate
purchases by growers who observed the
Florida has always been a state ready
to go forward in any field and the farmers
of this state have shown great interest in
mechanical tobacco harvesting by having
placed more than forty harvesters in
operation during the first year they were
available. It appears to the writer that
the success of this machine can be
attributed to the successful operation of

A new machine that
has been designed
for more efficient
harvesting of tobac-

the "holder" which makes it possible to
convey the tobacco from the cropper to
the stringer without damage. Now with
this efficient new machine, the old back-
breaking job of hand harvesting will soon
be a thing of the past.
In an era, and in a crop in which the
cost of labor constitutes a great portion
of the cost of producing the crop, this
harvester should serve to promote a more
favorable margin of profit to the grower
by reducing labor costs.

At Last!!

New Agriculture

Building Started

AT LAST! The long awaited Agriculture
t building has grown from a blueprint
to a reality.
Ground breaking ceremonies of Sep-
tember 30, inaugurated the building of
a series of units to house the agricul-
tural research, teaching and extention
divisions at the University of Florida.
When completed, these facilities will be
second to none in the South.
The Dan McCarty Hall which will in-
clude the H. Harold Humes agriculture
library will be constructed at the tidy
sum of $1,392,544.20. Already under
construction are, the agricultural engi-
neering, animal nutrition and veterinary
science buildings. The bid was awarded
to Ruscon Construction Co. of Charles-
ton. Plans were drawn by W. Kenyon
Drake and associates of Jacksonville, in
consultation with Jefferson M. Hamilton,
University consulting architect and Guy
C. Fulton architect to the State Board of
"An ever-increasing demand for gradu-
ate work, where adequate space and
equipment are a prime essential, adds to
the necessity for this new structure. The
additional space, particularly for teach-
ing, which will get many of the staff out
of temporary and totally inadequate
space now occupied, will make this new
building a most welcome addition to
university facilities and to the agricul-
tural program in the state."
Those were the words of Dr. J. Wayne
Reitz, provost of Agriculture who ad-
dressed the group at the ceremonies.

WHITE PEACH scale on trunks and branches
of peach trees may be controlled with a
spray containing half a pound of 15
percent parathion wettable sulphur in
25 gallons of water. This spray can
be used at any time of year without in-
juring the tree. It is advisable to make
two applications-the second in about
two weeks after the first. All precautions
should be observed in using the spray.



19th Annual

Dairy Field Day

By George Milicevic, Jr.

Bill Gunter

National FFA President
ILL GUNTER, a member of the Suwan-
nee F.F.A. Chapter and a Junior in
the college of Agriculture at the Univer-
sity of Florida has just returned from
Kansas City, Mo. where the National
FFA Convention was held with the high-
est honor which can be bestowed to any
member of the Future Farmers of Amer-
ica Organization. That being National
President of 371,0oo members of the 48
states, Hawaii and Puerto Rico.
Billy is the third of three national
presidents to come from Florida in the
25 years of the F.F.A.'s existence. The
other two being Earl Poucher of Largo
and Doyle Conner from Starke.
Billy lives on a 125 acre dairy farm
near Live Oak. He and his father have
the dairy farm in partnership. Billy made
quite a record for himself at Suwannee
High School and has continued to do so
here at the University of Florida. Among
the many things he has accomplished
here at the U. of F. are member of the
student body executive council, managing
editor of the FLORIDA ALLIGATOR,
and president of the Baptist Student
Union. He has just gotten back from
Great Britain where he and Don Travis
of Nevada represented the national Fu-
ture Farmers in an exchange program
with the Young Farmers Club there.
Among the many things Billy will be
doing this year will be their first execu-
tive meeting the last of January. This
will be followed by a Good Will tour the
National Officers make each year. On
this tour they will meet such men as
President Eisenhower and Mr. Raymond
C. Firestone, President, Firestone Tire
and Rubber Company. They will also
appear on radio and TV programs.
We are indeed proud to have a mem-
ber of the Florida Association, F.F.A.
to be elected national president and we
do not feel that a more sincere, respect-

E VERY YEAR for the past nineteen years,
the University of Florida Dairy
Science Department has sponsored the
dairy field day. On these two days some
of the most qualified men in the field of
dairying are brought together to present
information in their particular branch of
dairying, whether it be from practical
dairying or research work. The recogni-
tion of the value of such a program as
this has been shown by an increase in
attendance of more than twenty percent
above that of last year, giving a total of
146 present. Functionally, the program
provides a means for dairymen, extension
men, research workers, and other men
working in fields related to dairying to
be brought up to date on developments,
and happenings each year and to hear
discussed the most prevalent problems
existing in the field of dairying today.
Field day began this year on the
morning of September sixteenth with a
welcome from the Head of the Dairy
Science Department, Dr. E. L. Fouts.
Response to the welcome was given by
W. H. Boyd, President of the Florida
Dairy Association. These opening for-
malities were followed by discussions
from men now engaged in dairying or
allied fields. The basic topic was dairy
feeding and management, with emphasis
on pasture utilization. Some of the as-
pects of pastures discussed were, "Produc-
tion of Pasture and Forage Crops," "In-
creasing Production and Reducing Feed
Costs on an Intensive Grassland Pro-
gram," "My Barn Feeding Program for
Milk Production on Clover and on Grass
Pasture," "Reducing Feed Costs on Millet
and on Clover Pasture," and "The Pro-
duction and Use of Pasture, Forage Crops
and Silage in South Florida." The sub-
jects of Leptospirosis and Vibriosis where
enlightened upon by Dr. Karl Owens,
veterinarian of Gainesville. One of the
highlight speakers of these series of
speeches was J. F. Thompson who is
manager of the Livestock Research
Division of the Ralston Purina Company
in St. Louis, Missouri.
Not all of the time, however, was given
to planned and organized speeches. Some
time was dedicated to open discussion
and more time was given to just plain
general fellowship.
On the evening of September 17th, the

ful, deserving and popular boy could be
found anywhere.

Dairy Field Day Dinner was served. The
sociability, meal, and program were
enjoyable. The program was quite ex-
tensive, including the presentation of the
1954 Florida Dairy Industry Queen, Miss
Merriam Simmons, and presentations of
various awards. The address was made
by Honorable D. R. ("Billy") Matthews,
Representative from the 5th Congression-
al District in Congress.
The first awards given were the Na-
tional Honor Roll Diplomas by the Uni-
versity of Florida for those herds com-
pleting records of 350 or more pounds of
butterfat per cow on a year's test. Four-
teen different dairies received these diplo-
mas. The second group of awards was
the Dairy Production Efficiency Awards.
These are furnished by the National
Dairy Products Corporation through
Southern Dairies and are given in recog-
nition of outstanding work by dairymen
and by D. H. I. A. Test Supervisors in
their herd improvement work with the
Association. State winners of the award
were Polk County Dairy at Bartow and
B. W. Judge and Son of Orlando. There
were also district and county winners.
The final awards were the 1953 Pasture
Contest Awards sponsored by the Florida
Dairy Association, which were presented
to Hall and Boyd of Miami and Floyd B.
Crawford of Lake City. These winners
were customarily selected from the coun-
ty winners of the same contest.
Part of the morning of the second day
was consumed by discussions by dairy staff
members of the University. General
topics of these discussions were, the basic
nutrition of dairy calves, by Dr. J. M.
Wing; breeding efficiency by P. T. Dix
Arnold; ensiling methods and preserva-
tives by Dr. R. B. Becker; and feeding
concentrates to cows on white clover
pasture, by Dr. S. P. Marshall. The
remainder of the morning was spent
touring the Dairy Research Unit. A
"pleasant taste" of Dairy Field Day was
left in the mouths and minds of those
present by appropriately ending the
scheduled program with lunch at the
Dairy Research Unit.

A REVOLVING, offset mechanical hoe
mounted on a tractor and especially de-
signed to hoe young citrus trees, but
also adjustable for row crops, vineyard
cultivation and the like, is in the process
of being set-up by a local grower, accord-
ing to Lake County Agent Bob Norris.



This Issue We Salute:


By Ralph Voss

nor's ambition, personality, consideration
for others, and the high degree of good
common horse sense has been fused to-
gether to form a product that will be in-
teresting to watch in the near future. In
fact, the dailies throughout the state have
had him under close surveillance and
they can be quoted that Connor has a de-
finite lead in the race for the next
speaker of the House next term.

THIS EDITION we are privileged to salute
one of the most prominent alumnus
of the School of Agriculture at the Uni-
versity of Florida. The Honorable Doyle
Connor has in a very short span of years,
compiled a record of achievements that
have astonished even himself. His ac-
complishments range from President of
his Freshman Class at Bradford County
High School of Starke, Florida, to the
youngest member of the House of Repre-
sentatives in the State of Florida.
Connor's first big political success was
his election to the State F.F.A. Presi-
dency. This marked a milestone in his
future political career. It was in 1948
that he went on to be National President
of the F.F.A. During that term of office
he filled numerous engagements that
carried him as far as Hawaii.
The following year Connor entered
the race for District Representative at
the age of 2o and was elected to the
House of Representatives in Tallahassee.
This was the foothold he needed to ful-
fill a burning desire to successfully pur-
sue politics.
His winning personality and constant
drive has won him other outstanding posi-
tions such as, President of the Junior Cat-
tleman's Association, 1953-'54, Chairman
of the Agriculture Committee 1953, Presi-

dent, Bradford Jaycees 1953-54. While in
college he was elevated to the ranks of
Blue Key, and President of Alpha Gam-
ma Rho social fraternity. He was chosen
for the Distinguished Service Award
given annually by the Florida Jaycees,
Vice-President of his Freshman class and
also President of the Agriculture Club.
One of the few times Representative
Connor has had to be content with a co-
chairmanship occurred on June 28, 1954.
On this day Doyle Connor took the hand
of Miss Johnnie Bennett of Marianna,
Florida in marriage. This has been the
shining jewel in his crown. Mrs. Connor
has been by his side through political
campaigns and all of his other endeavors
giving him the ample encouragement
needed to stay on top. In fact, it was at
a political rally that the two first met.
Very soon after, she became his secretary
and later his wife.
Connor's deep interest in agriculture
may be seen in his small highly selective
commercial herd of Angus cattle which
he plans to enlarge as time and finance
will permit.
Along with being a successful politician
and cattleman, he is half owner of the
Connor Brothers Insurance Agency of
Starke, Florida.
It is an acknowledged fact that Con-

It is the opinion of the author that
Connor is now ready to step into bigger
things. He has had five good successful
years of experience where even his oldest
colleagues have come to respect his sound
judgment. He has assumed the dignity
of his position.
This magazine wishes you, Mr. and
Mrs. Connor, a long and successful ca-
reer, both domestic and political. Flor-
ida needs you.



New Ag. Club Highlighted By

Kit Demonstration Project

THE FLORIDA Chapter of American
Society of Agronomy was formed in
the Spring of 1954. The Soils and
Agronomy Clubs combined their re-
sources and efforts to form a club that
could be affiliated with the national
organization. The Society of Agronomy
was chosen because of the close relation-
ship existing between soils and crops.
The two fields are actually handled in
the same department of most universities.
The major project now being carried
on by A.S.A. is a series of teaching aids,
planned primarily for Vocational Agri-
culture teachers and county agents but
available to any one. The aids are in
the form of kits designed and assembled
by members of the club.
The crops demonstration kit is de-
signed for use in acquainting students
with field crops that can be grown in
Florida. The Fall demonstration kits
are being delivered at this time. Next
Spring a different demonstration kit will
be available with Summer grown crops.
Smaller kits are produced throughout
the year, containing seed, fertilizer ele-

Ag. Economics Club

Elects Officers

MR. AND Mrs. Lehman Fletcher are in
Cambridge, Massachusetts, where
Lehman is taking graduate work at Har-
vard University under a Danforth Schol-
arship. He was president of the club
last year.
Officers elected for the fall term are:
President, Lowell Teal, Winter Garden;
Vice-President, Charlie Wilson, Fort Lau-
derdale; Secretary-Treasurer, Phil Wil-
liams, Gainesville; Reporter, Jeanne Lov-
ett, Gainesville; Parliamentarian, J. D.
Grinstead, Branford; Faculty Adviser,
Mr. John R. Greenman.
Ernest Evan Brown who was vice-presi-
'dent of the club last year is now on the
research staff at Clemson Agricultural
College, Clemson, S. C.
The club has made up a directory on
all graduates of the department by
classes; it also contains information on
addresses and titles or positions.
Roy Lassiter was associated with the
Central & Southern Florida Flood Con-
trol District this summer as economic
analyst. At the present he is Research
Fellow No. 1.
Dallas Lea of Baton Rouge, La. is the
new graduate student in the department.
He received his bachelor and master de-
grees from Louisiana State University.

ment carriers, and soil separates, for use
in identification work only. The ma-
terials are sealed in plastic vials for easy
study, and durability. Bob Woodward,
president with aid of Allen Witherspoon,
Neil Morris and Norman Chase intro-
duced the kits with a thirty minute pro-
gram at the F.F.A. convention held this
past summer in Daytona Beach, Florida.
Each kit was displayed and discussed
before the group. A short program was
also given at the recent county agents
meeting held at the University of Florida.
A.S.A. took part in the annual agricul-
ture fair in 1954 and won first place with
an exhibit prepared from a Fall crop
demonstration kit.
The largest and most looked forward to
social event of the year sponsored by
A.S.A. is the supper held at the Agron-
omy Laboratory. All the club and
faculty from the Agronomy and Soils
department got together and let their
hair down for a good time.
Officers of the club are: President, Bob
Woodward; Vice President, Neil Morris;
Treasurer, Norman Chase; Secretary,
Lou Heiney; Reporter, John Creel. Also
serving the club are three faculty ad-
visors elected by the club members.
They are Dr. Derell E. McCloud of the
Agronomy department, Dr. D. O. Spinks
and Dr. R. E. Caldwell of the Soils de-

Ag. Council Elects Officers;
Annual Functions
THE NAME Of the Ag. Council is the
Agricultural Council of the College
of Agriculture, University of Florida.
The objectives of this organization are to
coordinate the activities of all organiza-
tions in Ag. College, to encourage co
operation between all of the organiza-
tions, to promote faculty-student interest
and to put the ideas of all together for
the good of the College.
The Council shall sponsor certain
functions during the year. They are an
annual College Outing which was the
18th of Oct., a Turkey Shoot, and from
time to time, Agricultural Assemblies for
outstanding programs.
Members of this Council are the presi-
dents from the clubs that are represented
on the Council. This year we have about
eighteen (18) members.
Officers of Ag. Council for this year
are: President, Bob Freeman; Vice-Presi-
dent, Bob Woodward; Secretary, Herman
O. Jones, Jr.; Treasurer, Doug Wilcox
and Faculty Advisor, Dr. G. J. Stout.

Alpha Tau Alpha

Has First Meeting

their first meeting of the year and
progress toward the established goal
immediately started under the super-
vision of the following officers: President,
James K. Austin; ist Vice President,
Bobby L. Taylor; and Vice President,
Leamon E. Howell; Secretary, Dempsey
L. Thomas; Treasurer, Douglas E.
Alpha Tau Alpha is an organization
on the college campus composed of
young men in training to teach vocation-
al agriculture. It is felt by many that
Alpha Tau Alpha has a very definite
place on every campus where teachers of
vocational agriculture are being trained
because it encourages prospective pro-
fessional men to band together in a fra-
ternal spirit.
Those engaged in Vocational Agricul-
ture have the valuable opportunity of
working directly with nature and in
doing so, understanding how to cooperate
with it.
All agricultural education students are
urged to join this fraternity. It is direct-
ly concerned with future teachers of agri-
culture. Practical experience and per-
sonal contacts acquired through this or-
ganization are invaluable to the student
who plans to transfer his technical
knowledge and professional skills to
America's younger citizens.
Any one interested should write:
Alpha Tau Alpha
c/o Doctor E. W. Garris (advisor)
Room 136
P. K. Younge School
Gainesville, Florida
In return, the interested person will be
So Future Professional Agriculture
Education Teachers, let us band to-
gether and make this year's Alpha Tau
Alpha's accomplishments bigger and
better than ever.

Lamda Gamma Phi Makes
Information in Veterinary
Schools Available
THE PRE-VETERINARY students at the
SUniversity of Florida have organized
this fraternity to make information con-
cerning Veterinary schools all over the
country available to those interested.
They have an exhibit in the Agricul-
tural Fair each year, hoping to make the
students of the University and citizens
of the state more conscious of the Veter-
inary problems of the state.
Their purpose is to furnish information
and encouragement to the future veteri-
narians of the State of Florida.



Block & Bridle Feed

Hundreds at

Producer's Field Day

By Charles Cowart
N PLANNING for the Producer's Field
Day participants, we of the Block and
Bridle Club were responsible for two
barbeques and the concessions as well as
the parking facilities. As anticipated,
we had a busy but enjoyable time prepar-
ing for and entering into the field day
activities. For the barbecue pit, we were
fortunate in our quest for seasoned hard-
wood. We were given our 'steak on a
platter' when seasoned oak logs were
offered to us. That was the beginning
of the gay, busy time which ran like this:
loading logs, digging the barbeque pit,
starting the fire during the wee hours be-
fore many roosters begin clearing their
throats, keeping the hot fire ablaze so
there will be about 20 inches of live coals,
boning madly away on the forequarters
of four beefs so you can have the roasts
rolled, then wrapped in barbecue sauce
soaked sacks so they can be cooked for at
least 20 hours in the closed pit.
Other times we were hustling about clean-
ing and shining up the pavilion and its
premises, standing watch over 550 pounds
of cooking barbeque, making fast runs
to town for details, preparing and serv-
ing meals, selling concessions, parking
cars, and dodging hurricane Hazel.
With Jim Carpenter, the department's
meats instructor leading us so capably
with the barbeque, we of the Block and
Bridle Club had time to set in on parts
of the livestock grading school and field
day which many livestockmen through-
out the state found educational, interest-
ing and profitable. Beef and pork grading
was attacked from all angles. There were
demonstrations, speeches and panel dis-
cussions, as well as audience participation
in actual grading of hogs and cattle on
foot.The next day the same proceedings
about the dressed carcasses of the animals
were held. Cattle were discussed from the
feeder slaughter and breeder viewpoints
as to desirable characteristics. Federal
grading, its technical points and practical
applications were highlighted as were
down to earth topics as yellow coloration
in beef carcasses and the advantages and
disadvantages of crossbreeding for the car-
cass of today. Economics and marketing
of the finished product, ham and steak
were limelighted 'when speeches were
made concerning the marketing on na-
tional and state levels. As a climax to
the occasion, a tour of the Beef Research
Unit was made. Problems of breeding.
pastures, soil fertility, moisture, insect
and disease control, and economics were
posed and discussed, proving helpful to

Thyrsus Club
Triples Membership
THE THYRSUS Horticultural Club began
the fall semester with an election of
officers. The new officers who will try
to fill the shoes of Bob Freeman and his
capable crew are: President, Dub Price,
Vice-president, Charles Salmon; Treas-
urer, Alton Crozier, and Secretary, Tomas
The recent membership campaign re-
ceived the support of all members and
the roll was tripled. The first party of
the semester will be the one given by
the old members for the new.
The purpose of the club is to foster
fellowship in the department and inter-
est in horticulture. If the peals of laugh-
ter we heard during Dr. Valise's discus-
sion of his European travels are any indi-
cation of the fun and fellowship in Thyr-
sus, then there's only one place for a
horticulture student on the second and
fourth Tuesdays of each month.

State 4-H Officers-
Cummings, Lee, Rice
HIS YEAR the 4-H clubs of Florida
began with a big bang. There are
activities going on all over the state. The
new State 4-H club officers held their
first meeting, October the eighth. It was
a joint meeting of both the boy's and
girl's officers.
The main purposes of this meeting were
to better acquaint the members and to
plan the activities of 4-H day in our
coming State Fair. The 28 of November
a group of twenty selected members from
all over the state will be traveling to Chi-
cago for the National 4-H Congress. They
were picked because of their outstanding
work with their projects. These projects
range from beef production to better
methods of home making in accordance
with the work of the girls.
There has been a Dairy show in Tal-
lahassee just recently. Plans have been
made to hold another of these shows in
Orlando sometime in the near future.
These shows are made possible due to
the generous efforts of the Sears Com-
pany. This is one of the companies
that has done and is now doing so much
for 4-H boys and girls all over the State
of Florida.
Just a few months ago the Boy's 4-H
clubs of Florida held their annual Short
Course here. The purpose of such a
gathering is to teach newer and better
methods of Agriculture. New officers were
elected and three who were honored
as elected state officers are boys on your
own campus. The reporter, Albert Rice;
Vice-President, James Lee; and the Presi-
dent, Jimmy Cummings; all three of
which are studying Agriculture.
4-H Clubs pay.

Block & Bridle's

Little International

To Be Held Dec. 10

THE BLOCK &g BRIDLE Club will have a
high point in its years activities in
its annual Little International Livestock
Show held Friday, Dec. io at the Univ.
Livestock Pavilion. The livestock will
be trained, groomed, and shown by
B. & B. pledges this year. Besides the
competing classes of cattle, hogs, and
sheep, other interesting and educational
events are planned. We also plan several
features on the lighter side to have an
entertaining and instructive Little In-

Collegiate F.F.A. Sees
Great Year Ahead
THE COLLEGIATE Chapter of the Future
Farmers of America held its first
meeting Tuesday evening, September
28, 1954.
The main objective of the Chapter is
to train men who are in teacher's training
for vocational agriculture; how to organ-
ize and advise a local chapter when they
become teachers.
It is urged that anyone who is inter-
ested in the F.F.A. or plans to major in
agricultural education please come to the
regular meetings on the second and
fourth Tuesday evenings at 7:00 p.m.
The officers of the year are: Ernie
Redish, President; Ken Austin, Vice
President; Preston Bennett, Secretary;
Sonny Sloutarnire, Treasurer; Bobby
Taylor, Reporter; Glen Wade, Sentinel;
W. T. Loften, Advisor.
It is believed that with much effort
and cooperation between the officers
and members, we will have one of the
best years since the Chapter was organ-

Columbia Co. Seen
As Possible Site for
Growing Aromatic
INTEREST IN growing aromatic tobacco in
Columbia County was expressed by a
group of local farmers and County Agent
Neal Dukes after a visit in South Caro-
lina where this tobacco is growing success-
Aromatic tobacco, commonly referred
to as Turkish tobacco, has been used
with domestic tobacco for the past 30
years to obtain the blend cigarette so
familiar to the American public. Dukes
said it has been necessary to import these
aromatic tobaccos in considerable quan-
tity from Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria and
Soviet Russia.
More than 80 million pounds of aro-
matic tobacco are used every year.



13th Poultry Institute Has

Theme-"Better Than Ever'

By William Burger
"BETTER THAN EVER" pretty well sum-
Jmarizes the 13th Annual Poultry In-
stitute sponsored by the Department of
Poultry Husbandry, Agricultural Exten-
sion Service, University of Florida and
cooperating state agencies and associa-
tions. The institute was held at Camp
McQuarrie, Astor Park, Florida, the week
of August 23-28, 1954. Approximately
500 people registered and attended the
Institute from all sections of Florida as
well as from 6 other states, Alabama,
Georgia, North Carolina, Illinois, Vir-
ginia, Iowa, and also Washington, D. C.
and Cuba. This was the largest registra-
tion of any of the previous Institutes and
because of limited facilities at the camp

many had to stay at nearby Motor Courts,
some few slept in their cars and on one
of the very crowded nights several people
put mattresses on the floor and slept in
the dining hall. More than 250 people
ate the noon meal each day at the camp.
Tuesday, the noon meal consisted of Bar-
becued broilers furnished by the pro-
cessing plants over the state, and cooked
under the direction of Mr. Julian Moore
and members of the University of Flor-
ida Poultry Science Club who were at-
tending the Institute. Friday's special-
ty at the noon meal was roast turkey
furnished by members of the Florida
Turkey Growers Assn.
In addition to speakers from the poul-
try industry of Florida, featured out-of-

state speakers were: Dr. O. H. Peterson,
Head of Bacteriology Department, Dr.
Salsbury's Laboratories, Charles City,
Iowa; Dr. J. C. Fritz, Director of Nutri-
tion Research, Daw's Laboratories, Inc..
Chicago, Illinois; M. A. Khoury, Dairy,
Poultry and Margarine Division, Armour
and Co., Chicago, Illinois; R. C. Larkin,
Poultry Division, Agricultural Marketing
Service, Washington, D. C. and H. A.
Rust, Assistant Chief Dairy and Poultry
Marketed News Branch, USDA, Wash-
ington, D. C.
The educational program was excellent
in every respect. Tuesday was designated
as Broiler and Poultry and Egg Council
Day. Practical broiler operations, feed-
(Continued on page 19)


No transhandling but direct fertilizer service to
the grove, field or pasture.

Complete field service rendered with major portion
of deliveries effected by a fleet of 15 truck and
trailer units direct to point of consumption, co-
ordinated with users' spreading requirements. F
Formulation of fertilizer mixtures geared to actual
requirements of individual consumer. This efficient
service can save you time and money!





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Southern Feeds for Southern Conditions

For more than a quarter of a century Security
Feeds have been developed through research to
help Southern farmers produce more milk; more
meat, and more eggs more efficiently and profit-
ably. As the first feed manufacturer in the South
to operate an experimental farm to scientifically
develop new feeds based on the latest nutritional
findings, Security Mills has always been a leader
in providing better feeds
0I for the growing South. Pro-
gressive feeders know they
can depend on SECURITY
FEEDS for top performance
for all classes of poultry and
Every animal on the farm,
including the dog.




Christian Rural Overseas Program (CROP)

ELKHART, INDIANA-A stepped up food
appeal by CROP to the farmers and
churchmen of America will reflect the
greater role the churches will play in
International relief in 1955.
CROP, the Christian Rural Overseas
Program, is now in the midst of the 1954
canvassing season. Reports show in-
creased spontaneous response to the need
for voluntary gifts of food for victims in
disaster areas of Greece, North Africa,
Indo-China, East Pakistan, India and
All of these countries have suffered
loss of life and property in earthquakes,
floods and wars. In all of them great
masses of people are on the verge of
starvation and can survive only with

FLORIDA HAS 34.5 million acres of land
of which 21.5 million are in forests.
Thousands of tourists enjoy the scenic
beauty of the many recreation areas and
parks making these forest lands one of
the most valuable natural resources of
the state.
Since this tremendous forested area
contributes so much to so many, it is
only reasonable that much care should
be taken to protect and perpetuate our
forested lands.
The state of Florida has established a
School of Forestry at the University of
Florida to provide a four year pro-
fessional training program and a State
Forest Ranger School at Lake City,
Florida, as a one year vocational school,
to provide skilled workers in the field
and as qualified woods-foremen.
The training received is quite distinct.
The School of Forestry program leads to
a Bachelor of Science degree in Forestry
and includes theory as well as practical
experience while the Ranger training is
mostly practical field work.
The demand for men in the pro-
fessional class is quite high; as a matter
of fact, the supply of trained men at the
university is not large enough to meet the
needs of the new or expanding industries.
With many pulp mills in the state
purchasing land to put under a strict
management plan, more and more men
will be needed in the field.
The farmer and small land owners are
gradually seeking the advantage of a
small woodland area to be treated as a
crop, so the need for county foresters
and consulting foresters is increasing.
It is rapidly becoming apparent that
the general public is demanding a wild

outside help. Millions of refugees are
flooding displaced persons camps and
other relief centers, reducing present
supplies to a dangerous, new low.
The national CROP food appeal is
under the direction of the Reverend
Albert W. Farmer. CROP seeks farm-
grown staple food which is not available
from government surplus stocks and gifts
to facilitate surplus distribution overseas.
The government so far makes available
free dairy products and cottonseed oil
to Church World Service and other relief
The World Council of Churches As-
sembly at Evanston in August gave ex-
pression to its increased concern over
expanding distress around the world.

life program. The School of Forestry
provides the training for such personnel
that choose this field.
Our forests must be protected from
fire if we, as citizens, and the thousands
of tourists are to enjoy them. Both the
Ranger School and the School of For-
estry have a complete fire suppression
program and upon completion of the
training program the men are quite
capable of directing a crew, or crews, in
the suppression of fires that threaten the
The various campaigns designed to
make the public conscious of the value
of our woodlands are usually the work
of a few foresters in the information and
education branch of the Florida Forest
Service. This field is becoming quite
extensive and has many possibilities.
These various opportunities, and many
more, are open to graduates of the School
of Forestry and the Ranger School, and
no matter which school is chosen the
student will receive superior training for
employment in one of Florida's most
respected and important industries,

As FLORIDA rarely has more than 500
hours of winter temperatures of 45 de-
grees or lower, apples and several other
fruits that have chilling requirements
that exceed 500 hours cannot be grown
satisfactorily in this state. The Elberta
peach requires about 900 hours of such
temperatures for development of fruit
and vegetative buds, and therefore has
not produced satisfactorily in Florida.
Some varieties of peaches with lower
chilling requirements can be grown as far
south as central Florida.

This was followed by a re-appraisal and
strengthening of church relief machinery,
including the appointment of former
national CROP director John D. Metzler
to the World Council staff in Geneva.
Mr. Metzler will coordinate the distribu-
tion of food relief to prevent disruption
of agricultural economies in receiving
Mr. Farmer has called on CROP or-
ganizations throughout the country for
increased efforts, for "if the starving
masses around the world are going to
be helped next year, it will require the
support of everyone who has shared
through CROP in the past plus many
Mr. Farmer, who has headed the pro-
motional and organizational phase of
CROP since 1950, is a minister of the
Disciples of Christ. He has long been
active in ecumenical affairs and organized
the 1948 and 1949 CROP campaigns in
Iowa when a total of more than a million
and a quarter dollars in commodities was
given to CROP by Iowa farmers.
CROP food is distributed overseas by
its parent agency, Church World Service,
in collaboration with the World Council
of Churches.

Farmers Aren't Using

Enough Limestone

Advises Dr. Breland

MANY FLORIDA farmers are not applying
enough limestone to their soils for best
crop performance, says Dr. Herman L.
Breland, soils chemist with the University
of Florida Agriculture Experiment Sta-
Of the thousands of soil samples that
have been tested by the Experiment
Station here during the past 10 years,
Dr. Breland reports, 40 percent had a
pH of 5.5 or below. "A pH of 5.5 or
lower is too low for production of maxi-
mum yields of most crops," he explains.
Soils and crops vary in their lime
requirements, and this is responsible for
the pH differences between certain farm-
ing areas of Florida. These variations
should be considered by farmers in man-
agement of their soils, the Experiment
Station worker points out, for best re-
sults from the use of limestone.

A MIXTURE Of one part creosote and nine
parts kerosene or used motor oil is ef-
fective in destroying ticks that attack
chickens. Apply it by sprayer to the
interior of the chicken house, taking
care to do a thorough job and get the
material into all cracks and crevices.


Florida Forestry




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Extra quality in your fertilizer
means extra quality and quantity in
your crops. IDEAL Fertilizers are
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FASCO Pesticides, too, offer you
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The Newell



THE NEWELL Entomological Society was
established at the University of Flor-
ida in February, 1936. This organization
is named in honor of the late Dr. Wil-
mon Newell, agriculture provost from
1938 to 1943.
The creation of the Newell Entomolog-
ical Society grew out of a sincere desire
upon the part of the students and faculty
of the department of entomology of the
University of Florida to contribute in a
broader sense in their service to that
phase of the Natural Sciences to which
they had dedicated their services; while
materially facilitating the advancement
and stabalization of human society.
The following objectives were listed by
the creators: (1) to promote the study of
entomology; (2) ao encourage research
and teaching relative to insects and re-
lated Arthropods in the State of Florida;
(3) to assimilate and disseminate know-
ledge of pure science, economic, and pop-
ular entomology, to the end that the lay-
man shall develop a broader sense of ap-
preciation of the necessity for and the
importance of the many phases of the
science; (4) to bring about a closer coop-
eration between all entomological organi-
zations and phases of the science.
David Bleech, Pahokee, is president for
the present scholastic year. Future ac-
tivities of the society are being carefully
outlined and studied by the members
of the society. All persons selected to
become members should tend to strength-
en the society and materially extend its

THE CAMPAIGN that Florida cattlemen are
carrying on to convince folks that they
should eat more beef is a very satisfying
and promising development in this im-
portant branch of the state agriculture.
Beef cattle prices were high for several
years straight running, and the produc-
tion of beef in the nation naturally rose.
Then when the supply reached a peak,
prices began dropping and, as has been
the case in similar situations with other
crops and products, they dropped so low
that some folks who had ventured into
the cattle business or had over-expanded
their operations lost money. While cattle
prices were going up, so were costs of
land, labor, animals, feed and other es-
sentials for beef production, and these
costs did not drop as rapidly as did the
prices for cattle.
These developments were not confined
to Florida, however; they were nation-


Hints to the Wise

WHILE CATTLE ordinarily will not eat fol-
iage from tung trees if good grazing is
available, they may eat it if grass is
sparse. Tung foliage is poisonous and
should never be removed from trees and
piled where cattle can get to it. Cattle
will "sample" prunings from tung and
other poisonous trees if the material is
piled or dumped in the pasture.

NO ONE type of washing machine con-
sistently gets clothes cleaner than other
types, says USDA home economics workers.
The way a home-maker handles a washer,
however, makes a big difference in per-

A LAYER of broken rocks, sand and gravel
worked or pounded into the soil around
watering troughs will prevent formation
of mudholes.

A DEEP plowing will break the roots of
corn, it is advisable to practice only
shallow cultivation of this crop to con-
trol weeds.

POULTRY AND egg losses in production and
marketing in this country total one thou-
sand dollars every minute.

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Gainesville, Florida



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December 10, 1954

Livestock Pavilion, in Gainesville

* it is an excellent cattle conditioner. it is a bulky and succulent feed.
* it will take the place of BEET PULP. it contains 1512 pounds of digest-
* it has a tonic effect upon the ani- ible feed per ton-a cheap source
mal. of digestible nutrients.
* it will produce good milk flavor.


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\ it is rich in milk-making units, brim-
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0 its taste is so unique. That's why
"They Moo For More".

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Vegetable and Field Seeds

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To Preserve the Quality

N ORDER to preserve the quality and
value of certain heat sensitive materials
during dehydration, special low tempera-
ture drying techniques have been de-
veloped by a method known as Freeze
Drying. It is now possible to dry and
maintain the solubility of pharmaceuti-
cals, the potency of biologicals and the
flavor and aroma of foods and extracts. It
has many advantages over atmospheric
drying since many substances which are
heat sensitive and must be dried at low
temperatures may be kept indefinitely in
the the form of bone dry powder.
Freeze drying depends on the fact that
water will change directly from the solid
to the vapor state by a process known as
sublimation. (In evaporation a liquid
changes to the vapor state, but in sublima-
tion the water in the form of ice does not
pass through the liquid form, but leaves
the solution molecule by molecule as
vapor.) If heat is applied to the frozen
solution, the drying process is speeded
up. Placing the solution in a vacuum
also hastens drying by making it easier
for the water molecules to escape. The
freeze drying process thus consists basic-
ally of the frozen solution, vacuum
chamber, and a heat source.
As a result of freeze drying, the ma-
terials treated are left in a porous powder
form easily dissolved in water for immedi-
ate use. If dried by conventional meth-
ods, they form a solid mass or cake which
must often be re-ground to form a pow-
der. When dried in the frozen form, the
molecules of water leave the material in
exactly the same position they occupied
in the frozen solution with voids repre-
senting the position of the water. Freeze
drying has been known theoretically for
half a century, but it was first actually
taken up seriously during the last war to
remove water from blood plasma. The
discovery of penicillin brought large scale
use of this method of drying.
Specifically, and somewhat in conjec-
ture-were this method applied to Citrus
single strength vacuumated juice would
be frozen in shelves similar to ice trays
in a refrigerator, and infra-red rays at a
temperature approximating I o o o C.
would be applied from below the "trays."
By a process of sublimation, the liquid
portion of the orange juice would be
transformed into a vapor and collected
at the rear and/or top of the chamber.
The residue would be in the form of
bone powder. This powder could be
safely kept at room temperature and re-
constructed by adding water, in much
the same way that concentrate is turned
into juice under present methods.

As far as the dry freeze process affects
the frozen citrus concentrate industry at
the present time, costs in the production
of the machinery, as well as production
of the end product, seem to make such
venture on their part, prohibitive; from
what I inferred in speaking with one of
Proctor &c Schwartz' Associates, and in
reading much about the subject.

Cunha Selected to

Serve on Feed

Survey Committee
DR. T. J. CUNHA, head, department of
animal husbandry and nutrition, Univer-
sity of Florida, has been selected to serve
on the Feed Survey Committee of the
American Feed Manufacturers Associa-
tion. He is one of 23 outstanding col-
lege men chosen to represent every major
feeding section of the United States.
The committee will meet in Chicago
October 28-29 and undertake an intensive
and critical study of the national feed
supply and general economic outlook.
The group will issue a forecast of the
numbers of each type of livestock and
poultry to be raised during the next 12
months, how much each animal and bird
will eat, total feed consumption, and the
balance that will likely exist between feed
supplies and use.

WITH WOODS tinder dry, the worst forest
fire in Duval County history occurred in
More than 6,ooo acres were burned
over before the fire was brought under
control, according to County Agent
James N. Watson. Mr. Watson assisted
the State Forest Service in obtaining
equipment for fighting the flames.
Drought made the woods highly sus-
ceptible to fire and also reduced crops
and pastures. Rainfall from January
through August was 24 inches short of
normal for the county, Mr. Watson says.

FLORIDA'S MORE than 30,000,000 citrus
trees are to be counted and checked for
kind, variety, rootstock, bearing surface,
age, and diseases and insect pests during
the 1954-55 season by State Plant Board
workers, according to Plant Commis-
sioner Ed L. Ayers.
The survey, which will be the most
complete and comprehensive ever made
of Florida citrus, will begin September
1 and run through June 1955, the Plant
Board official says.



13th Poultry Institute
(Continued from page 12)
ing, housing and disease control were
given major consideration during the
morning program. The afternoon pro-
gram was devoted to a talk by the late
Dean Walter J. Matherly of the School
of Business Administration, University
of Florida on the relationship of the
Poultry Industry to the Economy of Flor-
ida. Other industry wide programs such
as the Value and Location of Florida's
Poultry Industry and the Establishment
of Poultry Diagnostic Laboratories were
The program on Wednesday was de-
voted to problems of the Hatcheryman
and Poultry Equipment. The highlight
of Wednesday's program was a discussion
of the Random Sample Poultry Test, how
it works and its value to the Hatchery-
man or breeder. Another subject in
which there was a great deal of interest
was that on the construction of cold
rooms for the proper care of eggs to
maintain quality. The University of
Florida and the Poultry Industry, was
the title of an address by Dr. J. Wayne
Reitz, Provost for Agriculture at the
University of Florida.
Thursday Program was devoted to the
Marketing of Poultry and Poultry Pro-
ducts. The Production and Marketing of
a Quality Product was the keynote of all
speakers. The various methods of mar-
keting eggs such as the cooperative, egg
assembly plants, egg dealers and through
retail routes were discussed.
Mr. Mike A. Khoury of Armour and
Co., gave an illustrated lecture on how
the egg is formed and factors which tend
to hold the quality of the new laid egg
and factors which tend to destroy quality.
Dr. J. Clyde Driggers of the Poultry Dept.
of the University of Florida assisted him
throughout the talk. Some interesting
egg specimens were exhibited. Some of
these included eggs with the yolks colored
and having hues running from yellow to
green and purple. Another interesting
specimen was an egg having 4 yolks
which is something quite rare. All of
the colored eggs were produced at the
University of Florida Poultry Unit, with
Dr. Driggers in charge of the experiment.
Cage layers and turkeys were the sub-
ject for Friday's discussion. "Another
Year of Layers in Cages", was the title
of a panel participated in by four cage
operators from various sections of the
state (namely A. S. Chipley of Bokeelia;
C. W. Bassett of Quincy; W. F. Pumph-
rey of Tallahassee and F. J. Davis of
Tampa. These men participated in a
similar discussion at the 12th Annual
Institute, thus they were able to bring
one more year's experience on this sub-
ject to the group in attendance. Friday
afternoon's program was devoted to Tur-
keys. Dr. O. H. Peterson discussed Tur-


key Diseases, Dr. J. C. Fritz discussed
Nutrition problems with turkeys and Mr.
C. Waechter discussed the Marketing of
a Quality Turkey.
The Prevention and control of poultry
Diseases was stressed at all sessions of
the Institute. These discussions were
led by Dr. O. H. Peterson and Dr. M. W.
Mr. H. O. Harrison, County agent
from Walton County was in charge of
the recreational programs at all Gen-
eral Assemblies and the night programs.
Mr. L. W. Kalch, Assistant in poultry
husbandry, was in charge of the movies,
Dr. J. Clyde Driggers, Associate Professor
of Poultry Husbandry, conducted the

fishing contest.
Throughout the Institute various jobs
were performed by members of the Poul-
try Science Club at the University of
Florida and 4-H boys from Orange, Lake
and Duval counties.
The members of the University Poultry
Science Club attending the Institute
were: Bill Burger, Miami; Herman Jones
and Don Moore, Jacksonville; and Char-
les Hale, Kissimmee. The whole camp
expressed gratitude to the boys' for their
help in serving the meals, running the
canteen, cleaning the cabins and bar-
becuing the chicken for Tuesday's noon
meal, and various other jobs. The oc-
casion was enjoyed by all.



that Sells Fertilizer

That's just what Superior likes to be known as: "the SERVICE AGENCY that Sells
You see, Superior puts service to the customer first and sales second. It might
sound like an idle advertising slogan, but we've tried it out AND IT WORKS.
Superior retains for the service of its members, two horticulturists, two entomologists,
and an improved pasture specialist. These men are on call from the Citrus and
Cattle industries at all times. They are experts in their own right but that doesn't
keep them from keeping abreast of all new developments and instigating many
.Superior's fertilizer and chemical sales develop from the many friends who have
utilized the free and helpful services.
If you need help, either in planning your citrus programs or your improved pasture
program, contact Superior. Branch plant and office at Ft. Pierce, Florida.

Phone. Tampa 4-4131

Write: P. O. Box 1021


A Century Of

Farm Mechanization

FARM MECHANIZATION has made striking
progress in recent years. This pro-
gress, more than any other single thing,
enabled American farmers to turn out re-
cord production in World War II. And
today farm machines are tools for peace,
helping to grow food for a hungry world.
Progress of farm mechanization
through the years can be measured by its
achievements. It has meant increased
production of food and fiber for human
use, greater production per farm worker
and per man-hour, and increased efficien-
cy in farm operations. Other technolog-
ical developments in farming which
raised crop and livestock yields also have
contributed importantly to these achieve-
One of the most important effects of
mechanization over the last quarter of
a century has been the displacement of
horses and mules by tractors and other
motor vehicles. Horse and mule num-
bers in the United States, at their peak
during World War I, have decreased by
about two-thirds. As a result more than
i5 million acres of cropland are now
free to grow food and fiber for human
use, which once was used for growing
horse and mule feed. Production from
these released acres accounted for one-
half of the increase in output of farm
products for human use during the per-
iod between the two great wars. The
rapid decline in horse and mule numbers
during the last decade helped greatly in
the sharp rise in food production.
Mechanization has increased farm pro-
duction in other ways too. Greater time-
liness in crop operations has been very
important in some years. This can be
illustrated for the Corn Belt in several
recent years when late, wet springs
seriously delayed corn planting. With
the use of tractor power and equipment
and early-maturing varieties of hybrid
corn, the ground was prepared and
planted, and large crops were made.
These accomplishments would not have
been possible in so short a time in the
days when Corn Belt farmers depended
mainly on animal power and equipment.
Modern tractors and tractor equipment
have also enabled farmers to do better
work in the heavier farming jobs, es-
pecially those connected with land pre-
paration and soil conservation practices.
Each farm worker now produces
enough agricultural products to support
himself and more than 13 others. In
1920 one farm worker had supported

himself and 9 other persons, and a cen-
tury earlier himself and only about 3
other persons. Mechanization has been
the most important single factor in this
rapid rise in productivity of farm labor.
Machines in agriculture have accomp-
lished much in reducing the hours of
backbreaking work in farming as well
as the total man-hours per unit of pro-
duct. For example, each man-hour of
farm work meant 44 percent more total
production in 1945 than it did in 1917-
21. Half of these savings in the man-
hours used on each unit of product re-
sulted from mechanization. Other tech-
nological developments, mostly increases
in yields of crops and livestock, were ie
sponsible for the other half.
Widespread use of the modern tractor
and its associated equipment has contri-
buted most of these savings in farm man-
hours per unit of product. A modern
tractor and its equipment now saves
about 850 hours of man labor compared
with the time required with the animal
power and equipment used in a genera-
tion ago. A big part of these savings are
due to the reduction in time required for
horse and mule chores when work ani-
mals are displaced by tractors.
Important also in this picture are the
combines, tractor-plows, tractor-cultiva-
tors, mechanical corn pickers, milking
machines and other modern equipment
which have replaced horsedrawn equip-
ment and hard work. For example, a
modern 15-horsepower tractor pulling
a 2-bottom, 14-inch moldboard plow will
plow 8 acres in a day but the same sized
plow drawn by 5 good horses will plow
only 4 acres in the same time.
In the Great Plains, modern farm
power and equipment will produce and
harvest an acre of wheat with around 3
hours of man labor, and sometimes even
less, but in the days of horses and
modern horse-drawn equipment, the
average was about 8 man-hours per acre.
Good roads, motor trucks, and automo-
biles also have cut many hours from the
time required with horses and mules
to haul farm products and to get supplies
for farming and home use.
In spite of the advances so far made,
60 percent of all farm work-about 13
billion man-hours-is still done with the
hands or with hand tools. Further me-
chanization of farm jobs will reduce
the amount of hand work used in agricul-
ture. The greatest challenge will be
in livestock work, 75 percent of which is

now hand labor.
Since 1870, total volume of farm power
and machinery-including horses and
mules, machinery and equipment-has in-
creased more rapidly than total farm
output. The first high point of farm
power, machinery and equipment oc-
curred in the early 192o's when farms
were being mechanized and horse and
mule numbers were being reduced some.
The recent wartime peak in volume re-
sulted from large increases in numbers of
tractors, motor trucks, and labor-saving
machines. By 1945, farmers had nearly
5, times as much farm power, machinery,
and equipment as in 1870, and farm out-
put for human use was nearly 41 times
as great. On the other hand, farm em-
ployment had gone up less than half.
Total physical production costs (in-
puts of labor, power, land, and other
resources) per unit of farm output were
reduced about 26 percent during the last
quarter century. Over the same period
physical costs of labor, power, and ma-
chinery per unit of output went down
about 30 percent. These large reduc-
tions in physical costs have occurred
to some extent in all sections of the
country and have benefited many indivi-
dual farmers and agriculture as a whole.
Many opportunities for further reduc-
tions still exist, especially in areas where
improved machines and techniques are
just coming into use.
Total physical costs of agricultural
production have not changed much since
190o, although total farm output is
.greater. Labor, power, and machinery
account for the bulk of total production
inputs, and shifts in the relative impor-
tance of these three items have made pos-
sible the outstanding gains in production
efficiency. Since World War I me-
chanical power and equipment have dis-
placed both animal power and human
power. More production per acre and per
animal also have aided greatly in in-
creasing production efficiency.
Past changes in prices paid by farmers
for production goods and in prices re-
ceived for farm products have overshad-
owed these trends in physical efficiency.

GUAVA FRUITS vary in sugar and acid con-
tent. Some are sweet, some sour, and
some are between sweet and sour. The
sweetness or sourness of a guava cannot
be changed by fertilizer or cultural prac-

A CORN variety that will silk within a two-
day period and a good growing season
are two very important factors that deter-
mine the success or failure of an earworm
control program in Florida.

THE ACREAGE required to produce food
for each United States citizen dropped
from 20.7 in 1910 to 12.6 in 1950.





Selected Features from

and National 4-H Club Congress
It's the World Series of Agriculture don't miss it! Again this year,
Allis-Chalmers presents a full hour telecast direct from Chicago,
featuring highlights of the International, interviews with delegates
to the National 4-H Club Congres, and other interesting features.
You can have a ringside seat at one of the world's greatest livestock
shows. See it as it happens. Here are some of the main events.
*Selection of the Grand Champion Steer by Judge A. D. Weber.
Judging the champion carlot of steers.
Interview with 4-H Club national winners, conducted by
Everett "It's A Beautiful Day in Chicago" Mitchell.
Meat cutting and cooking demonstrations by experts of the
National Livestock and Meat Board.
Close-ups of champion livestock and comments by famous
REMEMBER THE DATE Tuesday, November 30, 2:00 tod:00
p.m. CST coast-to-coast on NBC television network. Check your

newspaper for nearest station or ask your Allis-Chalmers dealer.





The Jackson Grain Company was
organized in 1909 in Tampa by the
late Frank D. Jackson as a wholesale
distributing organization to serve the
growing agricultural needs of the state.
Products sold by the company at that
time consisted almost entirely of corn,
such as bran and shorts, cottonseed
oats, wheat, flour and mill by-products
meal, cottonseed hulls and hay. The
company prospered from the start and
within a few years moved to its present
location and built the first grain elevator
in the state of Florida.
In the early 1920's the poultry and
dairy industries began to assume some
importance in the state's economy and
the Jackson Grain Company adapted
itself to changing conditions and be-
came one of the largest distributors of
mixed dairy and poultry feeds in the
state It sold the first mixed scratch
grains and the first 'sweet-feed" ever
offered in Florida and it was the first
feed distributor to bring in to the state
a solid freight train of manufactured
In the early 1930's the Company
began manufacturing some feeds of
its own and by 1940 it was manufac-
turing and distributing a complete line
of poultry and dry feeds under its

now well known X-Cel brand. Grow-
ing rapidly with Florida the next 10
years the company found it necessary
by 1950 to build a modern "push but-
ton" feed mill to meet the ever-increas-
ing demand for its products.
During the same period the com-
pany organized a retail subsidiary known
as X-Cel Stores, Inc. and opened
branches in Tampa, Plant City, Winter
Haven and Orlando. The company also
began distributing fertilizer, seeds and
agricultural insecticides.
In 1952 the company extended its
activities to manufacturing agricultural
insecticides and fungicides in its own
plant so that it could better serve
growing Florida agricultural interests.
Today the Jackson Grain Company
has a well rounded organization staffed
with men competent to serve in the
various fields in which it operates. It
has its own chemical laboratory and a
poultry research farm where its prod-
ucts are checked scientifically.
After 44 years of service to the state,
changing its operation to meet chang-
ing conditions, the Jackson Grain Com-
pany is today a Florida-owned and
operated organization looking forward
each day for better ways to serve the
agricultural community of Florida.





to Advertisers

Allis Chalm ers .................... 21
Baird Hardware Co................. 18
Business Equipment. ................ 16
College Inn .......................12
Florida Favorite Fertilizer. ........... 12
Deere and Company ................ 2
Florida State Theaters. .............. 16
International Harvester Co.......... 24
Jackson Grain .................... 22
J. I. C ase C o..................... .. 5
Johnson Brothers ................... 18
Kilgore Seed Co.................... 15
Lyons Fertilizer Co................. 3
Minneapolis Moline Co............. 23
Norris Cattle Co.................... 3
Nitragin Co. Inc ................... 16
Rosemere Farms .................. ..22
Respess-Grimes Engraving .......... 22
Security Feed Mills. ................ 13
Suni-Citrus.. ....................... 17
Superior Fertilizer .................. 19
Wilson and Toomer Fertilizer Co.....15
Winn and Lovett .................. 15
W R. Ames Co..................... 12

Rosemere Farms, Inc.


For Sale At All Times








These folks are looking at UNI-FARMING-
the farming system with a built-in future...



your key to profits carries
Uni-Machines piggy-back
Here's the MM Uni-Tractor, the entirely new and differ-
ent tractor that powers and propels all Uni-Farmor ma-
chines ... puts you right on top of every job. A cross-
mounted V-4 engine powers the Uni-Tractor from one
end, Uni-Machines from the other. Variable-speed
drive lets you change ground speed without changing
speed of the mounted machine; Uni-Matic hydraulic
power gives you finger-tip machine control. See this
Uni-Tractor, and you'll be convinced: there's no other
tractor to match itll

When a new way of farming can save you money and make you more
money, a man just has to know more about it. Take it from the farm-
ers, engineers, teachers who have seen the Minneapolis-Moline Uni-
Farmor in action: MM Uni-Farming is the farming system of the
future ready to go right now !
These people have seen the MM Uni-Tractor mount, power, and
propel Uni-Machines for harvesting grain, bean, seed, corn, and for-
age crops. They've seen how the Uni-Farmor offers matchless self-
propelled operation at a big cash saving over pull-behind equipment.
They've seen the Uni-Farmor's speed and capacity slash days from
harvest time. They've watched one attachment dismounted and an-
other mounted in a matter of minutes ... proving that you can actu-
ally harvest corn in the forenoon and soybeans in the afternoon of
the same day... with the same basic self-propelled machine.



METAL to help tlK

save costly grass s%

New band seeding methods enable farmers to get
good stands of grasses and legumes, saving up to
30 per cent in seed. But drilling as few as five or
six pounds of tiny seeds per acre calls for extremely
accurate seed metering.
To improve accuracy without increasing cost
of the feeds used in grass seed attachments for
McCormick grain drills, IH manufacturing re-
search and production engineers turned to a study
of powdered, or sintered metal-a relatively new
metallurgical process for economically mass pro-
ducing certain types of precision parts.
Extensive tests developed the correct "recipe"
of powdered iron, copper, and other ingredients;
the correct pressure for compressing the powder
into form; and the correct temperature for bonding
the metal particles in a sintering furnace.
The accompanying photographs show some of the
steps by which powdered metal is transformed into
grass seed drill feeds of greater precision, providing
more uniform seed distribution, and minimizing
seed leakage.

The new grass seed drill
feed starts with powdered

rect amount of copper,
plus a wax to lubricate
the dies.

Next, using a hydraulic press with precision dies, the
powder is compressed under 40 tons per square inch
pressure, forming a "green" compact. This compact is
then firmly bonded by sintering for approximately 30
minutes in a furnace at 2050 degrees F.


fflU : ^

-.. :- -... _- ::::.. .. ..... .. .. .. _..
Here is the finished feed cup assembly with fluted
metering wheel and cut-off thimble of sintered metal,
with an oxide finish to resist corrosion. Forming these
parts from powdered metal in precision dies results
in strong feed rolls, each with concentricity uniform
to within three thousandths of an inch-as compared
with an average of 15 thousandths of an inch for
grey iron castings.

Above, a McCormick drill equipped with the new attach-
ment for seeding grass and legume seeds in bands,
saving users up to 30 per cent in seed cost. Below, a
good stand of a band-seeded grass mixture.

Many other parts of sintered metal have been
adopted or are being developed through the team-
work of IH research, design, metallurgical, manu-
facturing, and field test engineers, working toward
the common goal of improving the quality and
performance of IH equipment while keeping costs
at a minimum. The result is product leadership
that helps farmers everywhere reduce production
costs and thereby increase farm profits.

For more details write for free engineering paper,
"Sintered Metal for IH Farm Equipment Parts."
There is no obligation. Send postcard with your name
and address to International Harvester Co., P.O. Box
7333, Chicago 80, Illinois.


International Harvester products pay for themselves in use-McCormick Farm
Equipment and Farmall Tractors... Motor Trucks... Crawler Tractors and
Power Units... Refrigerators and Freezers-General Office, Chicago 1, III.


P !1

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