Title: Florida college farmer
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STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00038
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00038
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text






C/e Jlori da


CCLLt IfA


Published by Agricultural Students at the University of Florida


GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


VOL. IX MAY, 1941 NO. 4


P X -

la i es ~ ~lr" .e ~i iI


NAPIER GRASS IS OFTEN USED AS A SILAGE CROP


WHAT A SHOW!
POMONA RANCH
SILAGE FOR FLORIDA
THE FLYING DUSTMAN
KOW COLLEGE COMMENTS
Ti-nRDA'S PRACTICAL POULTRY UNIT


--- %[ ItjK ,A


s5


Royce Agner
Stewart Fowler
Wade McCall
Clint Brondon
Terry Drake
Joe Heitzman


v~f) A












MIRROR, MIRROR, TELL ME TRUE

MIRROW, MIRROW, TELL ME TRUE


We have heard the virtues of Flor-
ida extolled by Chambers of Com-
merce, real estate dealers, and travel
agencies. We have been forced to en-
dure scathing remarks about our
mosquitoes, our sandy soils, our low
standard of living. Just where be-
tween the extremes can we get a
nearly-genuine picture of the possib-
ilities of our State? Let us look in-
to the mirror of past experiences and
try to discern what the reflection
signifies by taking the image apart
and resolving it into its major fea-
tures: climate, soils, plants, animals,
health, transportation, and people.
Probably the greatest of all of
Florida's varied resources, and at
the same time its great drawback, is
its climate. Florida weather with its
abundance of rainfall and sunshine,
and its lack of extremes of temp-
erature because of its nearness to the
sea and its southerly location is very
favorable to the existence of living
things. The fact that Florida is near
the southern boundary of the temp-
erate zone makes for warm winters;
the fact that no point in Florida is
more than sixty miles from the sea
is responsible for the State's lack of
extremely hot summer temperatures.
Florida's climate is almost too good
to be true, but it favors the growth
of undesirab.e living this as well as
beneficial organisms.
Although about four-fifths of the
total land area of the State can be
roughly classed as sand, it is the ex-
treme favorability of Florida climate
which makes even the inferior lands
of the State capable of producing
crops of greater value than those
produced on-some of the best lands
of other states. Florida soils are
"spotty;" that is, all of the predom-
inating groups of soils have spots or
strips of other groups in them. With
a few exceptions the major soil groups
which occur within the State are
found to a certain degree in all sec-
tions. The wide distribution of Flor-
ida soils makes it possible to grow
almost any type of crop in any one
of the three or four major agricultural
sections of the State during the grow-
ing season of the crop. This "spotty"
condition is sometimes the cause of
difficulties in regard to failures to
recognize change of soil type and
the need for cultural diversification.
In Florida agricultural prosperity is
dependent more upon climate and the
capability of the operator of the
farm or grove than upon soil fertili-
ty. Therefore, in spite of the fact that
the average fertility of Florida soils
is less than in most other states of
the Union, the value of the crops pro-
duced per acre is above the national
average. This is primarily due to the


presence of favorable climatic condi-
tions and to the use of commercial
fertilizers.
In no other state of the Union can
so extensive a variety of crop plants
be profitably cultivated as in Florida.
Not only is this true, but it is also
the common practice for farmers to
produce three or four crops on one
piece of land during a single growing
season. In Florida the shortest day
in the year is only about three hours
shorter than the longest day; along
the northern border of the United
States there is a difference of over
seven hours. Florida has 328 species
of native forest trees, and an esti-
mated variety of three thousand flow-
ering plants; these figures may give
some idea as to the wealth of pants
which will grow in the State. Al-
though staple farm crops are grown
in north and central Florida, the
amount of them that can be produc-
ed per acre and their value per acre
do not compare favorably with gen-
eral farm crops as they are pro-
duced in the states farther north.
Specialized crops like citrus fruits,
winter vegetables, sugar cane, celery,
strawberries, shade tobacco, and Irish
potatoes all bear eloquent testimony
to outstanding agricultural achieve-
ment in diversified produce.
Although our Florida climate is
not as favorable to the growth of
most kinds of livestock as is the
temperate climate of the states of the
Union farther north, the possibilities
of our state in relation to livestock
production have only begun to be
fathomed especially since new breeds
of stock which are adapted to our
warmer, more moist climate are con-
tinually being developed. Thousands
of acres of improved pastures have
been established and large areas of
range land have been fenced-Florida
is bidding strongly for the runner-up
position among the b-ef cattle produc-
ing states of the Union. There is room
for a large increase in the numbers of
dairy cattle, chickens and hogs.
Florida, as well as other agricultural
states, needs to develop a more div-
ersified system of farming. Livestock
are one of the surest and most ef-
fective ways of producing a more
balanced type of farming, and will
probably be a strong influence in the
future agricultural elevation of our
State.
In the early days of agriculture in
Florida river and ocean vessels trans-
ported the bulk of Florida agricultur-
al produce, and it was almost out of
question to think of supplying other
parts of the United States with vege-
tables. Inadequate transportation
facilities was probably the greatest'
obstacle to profitable crop production
for a number of years. Today Flor-
ida has 7500 miles of railroads and


almost 8000 miles of paved highways.
The increase in the tourist trade has
been largely responsible for the de-
velopment of the class A highway
system which our State now possesses.
The fact that Florida has such a high
percentage of improved roads plays
a significant part in the efficient
marketing of Florida agricultural
products. The ports of our State
furnish additional transportation
facilities to agriculture by coastwise
and trans-Atlantic steamers. It is
logical to assume that the present sys-
tem of airlines in the State will be
extended in the future as a supple-
mentary means of transport. Al-
though our highway system is already
the best in the southeast, we mus;
strive to maintain and increase its
branches in order to keep in step
with the times and the best interests
of our State.
The health of all the people who
reside in or visit our State depends
upon h-w effectively we control the
results of our climate. Our climate
promotes the growth of undesirable
plants, insects, fungi, and diseases.
Our abundance of sunshine and rain-
fal will not produce the most bene-
ficial effects on our civilization unless
we undertake sanitary measures to
make sunshine and health supreme.
We are perpetually in danger of dis-
eases and insects which may be in-
troduced from tropical countries to
the south of us. In this respect we
buffer our nation to a certain extent
from undesirable influences. T h e
Panama Canal Zone was in much
worse condition regarding healthful
living environment than our State
ever was, but today it is practically
free from disease as a result of in-
tensive, aggressive sanitary procedures
by the federal government. We, too,
can make our S.ate the envy of the
Union by eradicating malaria, hook-
worm, and insect pests. Our climate
is already such a marvelous asset that
it would not take much more work
to make it close to ideal.
The total area of the State of Flor-
ida is 58,666 square miles. Of this
total area only eight per cent is in
actual cultivation. With about thirty
people per square mile Florida has a
low density of population. It will be
many years before our State begins
to feel the pangs of over-population.
The South has always produced na-
tional leaders, and Florida has contri-
buted its share. F.orida's climate and
soil offer excellent opportunities to
men of initiative and vision; the
process of weeding-out has been go-
ing on for years and will continue to
go on. In the end will be left those
men who will use experience and in-
telligence in the production of ag-
ricultura products the like of which
Florida alone can produce.


MAY-1941


TFIE FtORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


PAGEc 2










MAY-1941


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


AMONG THOSE PRESENT

We sincerely thank all those stu-
dents who helped to make the 1940-41
Florida College Farmer a success.
Special commendation on the basis of
real service rendered must be given
to Clint Brandon who turned in a
splendid record as Business Manager
and writer, Eric Mil's who carried
out the functions of Circulation Mgr.
steadily and efficiently, and Terry
Drake who regularly turned out a
good column which he entitled "Kow
College Komments." The Editor is
especially indebted to Mr. J. Francis
Cooper, Experiment Station Exten-
sion Editor, and Dr. H. S. Wolfe,
chairman of the Faculty Advisory
Committee, for continued advice.

The soluble constituents of milk,
mainly ash and lactose, determine the
protozoan parasites which destroy
freezing point of milk and are res-
ponsible for the fact that milk has a
lower freezing point than has water.

It takes five or six years to bring
a citrus grove into bearing.


Jhe Jloridla Ctolege


STILL WET
BEHIND THE EARS

The first meeting of the Florida
Student Branch of the American So-
ciety of Agricultural Engineers held
its first meeting on January 9, 1941.
It is a pleasure to welcome this new
club, which has been holding regular
meetings since its establishment here,
into the circle of existing Ag. College
organizations.
Officers of the club are:
J. M. Johnson, President; W. L.
McLean, Vice-President; F. A. Lee,
Secretary-Treasurer; Prof. Frazier
Rogers, Faculty Advisor.
Members of the organization are:
R. E. Batey, J. M. Johnson, D. B
Nelson, R. A. Peaden, D. C. Stokes.
W. L. McLean, F. A. Lee, W. R.
Yoder, Leroy Fortner, Bill Huffman,
Wayne Smith, A. M. Larrimore, M.
W. Treiman.

Chance favors the mind that is
prepared.
-Louis Pasteur.


.tFarmer


Published by representatives of Student Organizations
College of Agriculture University of Florida

EDITORIAL STAFF
Joe Heitzman Editor
Terry Drake Associate Editor
Arthur Ellis Associate Editor
Bob Morris Alumni Editor
Bob Jones F. F. A. Editor
John Campbell 4-H Club Editor
Hilton Leifeste Forestry Editor
BUSINESS STAFF
Clint Brandon Business Manager
Eric Mills, Jr. Circulation Manager
EDITORIAL STAFF ASSISTANTS
Floyd Eubanks, Seth Plank, Charles Leonard, Jack
Herndon, M. C. Leslie, Lowell Slagle.
BUSINESS STAFF ASSISTANTS
Wilson Suggs, E. H. Greenland, Gordon Frauenheim, Ray
Goddard. Jim McCauley, Tommy Howell.


E. A Zie


FACULTY ADVISORY COMMITTEE
H. S. Wolfe, Chairman
gler E. L. Fouts C. H. W:


illoughby


Entered as second class mailing matter at the Post Office
at University Station. Gainesville Florida, December 8,
1938. under Act of Congress of 1879. Advertising rates
furnished upon request. Published four times during the
school year in November, January, March and May.

Subscription Price Fifty Cents.


THE NEW ORDER

Clint Brandon has been elected to
fill the editor's boots for the next
school year, 1941-42. A new era is
dawning for the Florida College
Farmer. Lots of water has flowed
under the bridge, but there's much
more to follow. We hope that next
year will find the Florida College
Farmer back among the top-flight
southern agricultural college maga-
zines, and that next year will be the
first of a series of years of expan-
sion. The College of Agriculture is
growing, and with it should and
must grow the College Farmer. The
editor is not the magazine-he is the
pilot who steers the ship. The pro-
pelling force must be provided by all
of the Ag students strongly pulling
together. The editor of the Florida
College Farmer is no miracle man;
he needs your help, and the more of
it the better. Supporting the College
Farmer means that you are support-
ing yourself-selling yourself and the
benefits of the Ag CoLege to the
world. Give Clint all possible support.
Make it your business to volunteer for
work on the magazine-don't be
backward, because the College Farmer
needs the assistance and cooperation
of every student and teacher in the
Ag College. The editor is nothing
without backing; the students of the
College of Agriculture produce a
feeble and inharmonious cry if the
expression of that cry is not guided
and directed by the editor. We have
a goal, "better farming days through
safer, saner ways." Let's pull to-
together toward it behind Clint
Brandon as editor.

A teacher was giving a lesson on
the circulation of the blood. Trying
to make the matter clearer, he said:
"Now, boys, if I stood on my head
the blood, as you know, would run
into it and I would turn red in the
face."
"Yes, sir," answered the boys.
"Then why is it that while I am
standing upright in the ordinary posi-
tion the blood does not run into my
feet?"
A little fellow burst out: "Cause
yer fee. ain't empty." -Grit

Perhaps the oldest and largest liv-
ing thing in the United States is the
General Sherman Tree in the Sequoia
National Park in California. It is
one of the well-known Sequoias, and
was first discovered by a hunter on
August 7, 1879. Its estimated age is
between 3,000 and 4,000 years; it is
272 feet high, and measures over a
hundred feet in circumference at the
base. The estimated volume of the
trunk of this tree, exclusive of the
branches, is 600,120 board feet.


PAGE 3








PAGE 4 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER MAY-1941


DIAMOND MERCHANTS WATCHES
Silversmiths Expert Repairing

LEWIS JEWELRY COMPANY
"Gainesville's Leading Jewelers"
305 W. UNIVERSITY AVE.
PHONE 455 Gainesville, Fla.
Reliable Credit Silverware




"Citizens, Wherever We Serve!"




SIDA LIK'S

THEATRES OF FLORIDA

In Gainesville it's the "Florida and "Lyric"


Feeds

Fertilizers

Seeds


JIM LARCHE
CLOTHES-SHOES
UNIFORMS
300 W. University Ave.


NOW IS THE TIME
FOR ALL GOOD MEN TO

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TO THE

FLORIDA

COLLEGE

FARMER


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FARMER
FLORIDA UNION BUILDING
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE




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STUDENT SUPPLIES
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FLORIDA DAIRYMEN GIVE CAREFUL ATTENTION TO SANITATION
AND VENTILATION IN THEIR DAIRY BARNS. THE BARN SHOWN
ABOVE HAS CONCRETE FLOORS AND WALLS AND IS WELL
VENTILATED.


MAY-1941


PAGE 4


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


33 l:]ajr-." '


















Florida College Farmer


Published by Agricultural Students at the University of Florida

GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA

VOL. IX MAY, 1941 NO. 4


ihe Jlying uJtman


By Clint Brandon


"All the day long they trod over
the clods of earth until they were
weary from sowing the seeds. Long
and late they worked." And so it used
to go.
But not for many more years, it
seems-Carey C. Carlton, Arcadia,
Florida, rancher who owns thousands
of acres of improved pasture in De-
Soto and Highland Counties, has
found a way to eliminate much of
this drudgery and to speed up the
whole process-he used airplanes for
sowing the seeds. This is something
new in Florida pasture planting; we
have heard of dusting with airplanes
to control citrus pests, but it is a
new thing, this planting pastures with
airplanes.
We were so interested in this novel
idea that we asked Mr. Carlton for all
the information or opinions that he
might be able to give us regarding
it. We relate it to you as best we
can, but advise you, in order to get
a better idea of the whole process, to
visit Mr. Carlton's ranch on the
highway between Chilcs and Arcadia
Mr. Carlton hires someone with a
plane to sow the seed for him, since
he himself prefers to stick to horse-
back. The grass seeds are poured in-
to the duster which is installed in
the plane, and as the flying machine


passes over the area to be planted,
the duster is turned on and the seeds
are scattered far and wide.
"But", you say, "how does he keep
from planting the same area several
times' It just doesn't seem practical
Io me." He solves this problem by
placing men with flags in line down
the field. Each time the plane passes
over, the men move over 40 feet and
get in line for the next round. In
this way the plane scatters seed on
new ground each time it flys the
length of the field. For rows a mile
long, three men would be used to
direct the course of the plane.
What size acreage is practicable-
that is, what is the minimum acreage
that could be economically planted
at one time? Mr. Carlton says that
he would not recommend planting less
than 640 acres at one time or in one
piece. This very obviously limits the
use of airplane-seeding to the larger
cattlemen.
How high does the plane fly? Mr.
Carlton says that the average height
is a hundred feet. On windy days the
seeds may still be sowed by plane by
flying somewhat lower.
How should the soil be prepared9
According to Mr. Carlton, a firm,
smooth surface with all the palmettos,
bushes, and wire grass eliminated is


best to insure better germination and
i subsequent growth of the grass.
How level should the land be, or
does it matter? All of Mr. Carlton's
land is made up of large, level, prai-
rie-like fields; therefore, he could
give no opinion as to how hilly land
would respond to the use of the air-
plane method. It is very probable
that small hills would not affect the
process, but hills or mountains of
considerable height would greatly
affect, and very probably prevent,
the use of this method.
His germination results have not
been entirely satisfectory. He used
the plane only one year, and was not
wholly pleased with the stand of
grass. On one pasture he was suc-
cessful in getting about 90 per cent
cover, which is very good. He does
not yet prefer the airplane method,
however. Mr. Carlton planted only
carpet grass. He did not say whether
or not he thought that other grasses
would plant as well, but it is our
opinion that most of them would.
This method of pasture planting
may prove to be very important in
the lower half of the state where
there are great expanses of untilled,
level land available for better care
and growth. Mr. Carlton is a pioneer
in the use of this method in Florida.


DAIRY TECH
CLUB FORMED

On May 5 students and faculty
members met at the Dairy Products
Laboratory for the purpose of or-
ganizing a Dairy Technology Club.
The following officers were elected:
Jack Prator, president; Ray Stew-
art, vic-epresident; Maurice Metcalf,
secretary-treasurer; Dr. E. L. Fouts.
faculty advisor.
The first event sponsored by the
Club was an open house at the Dairy
Products Laboratory on the night
of May 7.


BRANDON WINS DANFORTH FELLOWSHIP


The Danforth Fellowship for this
Sear has been awarded to Clint Bran-
dcn. The Fellowship, which is given
sach year to an outstanding junior
in the College of Agriculture, will
last four weeks from July 28 to Aug-
ust 24. The first two weeks will be
spent working and studying on the
Purina Mills Experimental Farms and
in their office in St. Louis. The re-
maining two weeks will be spent in
Camp Miniwanca on Lake Michigan
where study, work, sports, and fellow-
ship will be emphasized.
Clint Brandon stands a good chance


of piling up an enviable record by the
time he graduates a year from now.
He is only a junior yet he is chan-
cellor of Alpha Zeta, editor of the
Florida College Farmer, and Dan-
forth Fellowship winner. He has the
best wishes of his Ag College com-
rades for a successful summer.

Approximately 860 different species
of trees are known to be native to
the United States.

Tomatoes are the most important
commercial vegetable crop grown in
Florida.













A FL RIDA COLLE E FARMER


7-


THE ALL PURPOSE HOUSE BEING USED FOR LAYERS





Jiorida' ractical/ foult ty nit

By Joe Heitzman


Florida's practical poultry unit was
developed from houses originally used
by the Pinebreeze Poultry Farm;
its low cost and diversity of uses
have made it a suitable all-around
unit for Florida poultry farms of all
size ranges.
This portable house is 10 feet wide
and 12 feet long, and has proved to
be very economical and satisfactory
for brooding, rearing and laying.
Number 2 pine can be used for the
floors and rough lumber for the
framing and walls; since the house
is built on skids, the floor joists and
the skids should be made of cypress.
The even-span, galvanized iron roof
has two-foot eaves to keep the rain
from blowing in. The upper 28 inches
of the sides of the house are open for
the full length of the house. The top
half of the door is open, and there is
a gable ventilator on the rear of the
house.
As a brooder house, this unit can
comfortably accommodate 250 chicks.
Before the chicks are put in insulat-
ing material four feet wide is nailed
to the walls and along the slant of
the rafters. The door and the rear
ventilator are covered with muslin
in order to produce a softly lighted
interior. A 52-inch hover with a 5-
inch blue-flame brooders stove under-
neath makes a satisfactory brooder


unit for 250 chicks.
When the chicks are large enough
to do without heat, the brooder and
the insulating boards are removed
and the house is transformed into a
range shelter. At one side of the
house are placed the roosts which are
nailed 12 inches apart on center to 1
by 10 boards set on edge. Poultry
netting is tacked underneath the
roosts to prevent contact with the
droppings. The roosts can be used
for laying hens as well as for giow-
ing stock.
As the birds come into production,
nests are fastened outside of the
house to the wall opposite the roosts.
One 4-foot feed hopper is put inside
the house, while three 4-foot, covered
hoppers and a five gallon, double-
wall water fountain are placed out-
side. A single kerosene lantern fur-
nishes sufficient illumination for
night-lighting in the winter.
250 unsexed chicks can be brooded,
the pullets raised to maturity, and 85
laying hens housed for two laying
seasons in this all-purpose house.
After the second laying year, the
house will be available for chicks
again, but, in order to start a new
brood of chicks each spring and
maintain 170 layers continuously, it
will be necessary to have three
houses.


When more than one house is used,
the houses must be placed 100 feet
apart in rows speced 200 feet be-
tween. Each house is moved 40 feet
to a new location every month, which
means that a range of about 1 1-2
acres is required for each house.
One man, if he has available some
means of hauling the feed and water
to the houses, can take care of 20
to 30 houses. A house such as has
been described will cost for materials
between $35 and $50.
This all-purpose house, therefore,
can start 250 chicks in the spring,
rear 125 pullets in the summer, and
put 85 laying birds in the house in
the fall. To Mr. D. F. Sowell, ex-
tension poultryman, goes much credit
for the development and dissemination
of this idea. For the bill of materials
necessary for the construction of this
house, or for further information
about this practical poultry unit one
may refer to Extension Service Cir-
cular 50.




COLES JEWELERS
Watches Jewelry
Diamonds
Watch & Jewelry Repairs
423 W. University Ave.


MAY-1941


THF FI.C)RIDA COLLEGE FARMER


PAGE 6C



















lBy Wade Mcalli
By Wade McCall


Silage is a good supplemental feed
for livestock when used with grains
or hay. It is especially good for use
with dairy cattle to increase milk
production. Silage is very economical
and convenient to use, and it ha-
proved satisfactory under most Flor-
,da conditions.
There are several. advantages of
silage that should not be overlooked
, lien considering the growing of a.
silage crop; (1) the nutrients in the
entiree crop can be saved since there
Iz no leaching or shattering of the
leaves, (2) it furnishes a succulent
feed for use during the winter mon-
ths, (3) it can be used as a supple-
ment to pasture during a severe or
prolonged drought, (4) it conserves
space in storage, (5) less of it is lost
in storage than by any other way
(The shrinkage due to loss during
fermentation is about one-sixth of
the total weight), (6) it increases
the stock-carrying capacity of a
farm, (7) it is a palatable feed re-
iished by livestock, (8) it is econom-
ical and convenient to feed, and (9)
it does not require special weather
conditions for harvesting and curing
as is true in the case of hay.
Of the several craps that are used
for silage in the United States corn,
sweet sorghum, Napier grass, and
Japanese cane have proved to be best
adapted to Florida conditions. Corn
or sorghum and cowpeas or beggar-
weed mixed are sometimes used.
Corn is unquestionably superior to all
other crops for silage purposes in Flo-
rida because it contains less sugar
and undergoes less fermentation than
do any of the other silage crops;
consequently, it is not as sour and
more palatable. The varieties of corn
that produce grain well will usually
produce good silage. Planting and
cultivating of the crop for silage is
the same as for grain except that it
may be planted a little closer for
best results and more silage. Corn
for silage should be harvested when
the grain is in the glazed stage, and
put into the silo immediately.
Sweet sorghum is only a little in-
ferior to corn for silage. Its greater
drought resistance and its ability to
succeed on relatively poor land often
ensures better yields on the sandy
Florida soils. As is the case in corn
the grain-producing ability of the
crop also affects the quality of the
silage; the more grain there is, the
better the silage.
Napier grass is a fairly new crop
that has produced very good yields


under Florida conditions. Florida
Experiment Station experiments have
shown that one pound of Napier grass
silage is equal in feeding value to
three-fourths of a pound of sorghum
silage.
Japanese cane will yield much
heavier crops than corn, sorghum, or
Napier grass, and when well-packed
into the silo produces satisfactory re-
sults. Japanese cane produces no
grain; therefore, it should be sup-
plemented by grain in the ration.
Since the main value of Japenese cane
lies in the sugar content that develops
in the latter stages of growth, it
should be well-matured when cut. It
is about 71 per cent as valuable as
sorghum silage.
Legumes have a high protein con-
tent and add to the feeding value of
the silage when mixed with non-
legumes in the silo. One load of cow
peas or beggarweed may be added to
each three or four loads of corn, sor-
ghum, Japanese cane, or Napier
grass silage. Legumes should be en-
siled when mature enough for hay
Loss of legume leaves should be av-
oided.
There are two main types of silos:
the upright and the trench types.
the concrete upright silo is probably
the best, but it is also the most ex-
pensive to construct. An upright silo
should be well-packed next to the


walls where the most friction occurs.
About 35 feet is the maximum con-
venient height of an upright silo ab-
ove the ground level. The trench silo
is probably the cheapest where the
soil is favorable for its construction.
Thorough packing in the silo is
essential for all silage crops. This
is especially true in the case of the
Japanese cane when over-rapid fer-
mentation may cause the silage to be-
come sour and unpalatable. If a
silage crop is allowed to ferment too
rapidly or become moldy, it may
form prussic acid which when fed
to livestock may result in death.

A soil experimenter was working
on an artificial manure which was
producing a very distinctive odor. A
farmer passing by stopped to watch
the proceedings.
After watching and sniffing for a
few minutes, the farmer asked:
"Whatcha making' there?"
"Artificial manure," replied the ex-
periment station worker. The farm-
er sniffed speculatively, then said:
"Humph, nothing artificial about
that," and turned on his heel.


Mastitis (caked-udder) may be
transmitted from infected cows to
healthy cows by flies, gnats, hands of
milkers and milk machine cups.


A Trench Silo Provides Inexpensive Storage For Silage

A Trench Silo Provides Inexpensive Storage For Silage


PAGE 7


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


MAY-1941









THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


L2irect


,Jrom P odIucer to Lonwumer


% 1k,
-I
.1


~4,


PAGE 8


MAY-1941
















Whalt AI SowAgner

By Royce Agner


One of the largest crowds ever to
gather in Florida Field, University
of Florida football stadium, watched
the Block and Bridle Club present the
tenth annual Little International Live-
stock Show and Rodeo on Saturday,
April 19. It was estimated that near-
ly 16,000 persons from all parts of
Florida and nearby states assembled
to attest their appreciation of the
annual mammoth exhibition which
has become a tradition at the Univ-
ersity of Florida.
Sponsored by the Block and Bridie
Club, animal husbandry organization
the show was officially opened at
two-thirty in the afternoon when ab-
out a hundred gaily attired college
cowboys with covered wagons and
buggies for support took over the
busy downtown streets of Gainesville
to stage a whooping wild west par-
ade. The quarter mile long column
of prancing horses began their trek
at the Ag Co.lege and moved through
streets crowded with visitors who were
eager to catch a glimpse of the big
show; then it returned to the campus
where it was disbanded.
Promptly at seven o'clock that ev-
ening the grand parade of show an-
imals entered Florida Field. These
animals, which had been selected
from the Experiment Station herds,
were shown as representatives of the
most popular breeds of beef and dairy
cattle, hogs, and sheep raised in
Florida. They were put through the.r
paces in the show ring by animal
husbandry students, Florida's future
stockmen, and other Ag College boys
who had spent weeks grooming thpir
charges.
Prominent agricu tural enthusiasts,
of the State were present to act
judges of the showmanship pe:formn-
ance of each of the entries. They
awarded Clint Wilkerson cf Defuniak
Springs grand championship honors
above all other beef cattle entr es.
For the second consecutive 3 ear
Floyd Eubanks, Greensboro, was a-
warded grand championship laurel;
in dairy animal showing. Cecil
Crutchfield of Milton triumphed cve:
Gene Boyles in the swine classes
while W. J. "Doc" Cowen of River
Junction was champion sheep-shower.
Interspersed between showings of
animals were the exciting and col.r-
ful rodeo events. The chair race was
won by Bill Whitehurst, the barrel
race by Whitehurst and Mathews, and
the steer riding was won by Glenn
Mathews. Whitehurst took the ste-r
wrestling, Bob Campbell the bronco
busting, and Leroy Fortner and Roy-


ce Agner won the wild cow milking
contest. Many other rodeo partici-
pants turned in outstanding perform-
ances.
Paramount News had camera re-
presentatives on the campus to cover
the entire program; the movies of
these events were released in Florida
on April 27.
Lasting impressions of the show
are gained by all who see it, and es-
pecially by all the boys who have
the privilege of working to make it
a success. One of the outstanding
features that makes it possible is the
high degree of cooperation with the
Block and Bridle Club. Agriculturally
interested firms of our State give the
show financial backing, thus making
it entirely free to the public, and al-
so furnish prizes for the winners of
the showmanship events. The faculty
of the College of Agriculture contri-
bute immeasurably to the Show
through their advice, assistance, and
encouraging support. The crowds
who witness the Show express their
appreciation by their generous con-
tributions and offers of support. Last
but n o t least, the Ag College boys
do their part by furnishing the sweat
and grime which is inseparable from
the large scale preparations for so
big a demonstration.
The members of the Block and
Bridle Club are eagerly looking for-
ward to next spring when the elev-
enth annual Little International
Livestock Show and Rodeo will take
p. ace.

Approximately 30 per cent of the
world's supply of turpentine and
rosin is produced in Florida.

"Have some peanuts?"
"Thanks"
"Wanna neck?"
"No"
"Gimme my peanuts back."

Pigs should be castrated when they
are five to eight weeks old.

Iron Mountain, near Lake Wales,
is 325 feet above sea level; this is
the highest point in Florida.

Florida has almost 1,500 miles of
coastline and 30,000 lakes.


It depends upon the veiwpoint-
AUTO MECHANIC:
your brakes can make or break you
FOOTBALL PLAYER:
your breaks can make or brake you.


F. F. A. NOTES

HAVANA-Edwin Herring, a mem-
ber of the Havana Chapter, entered
two steers, one a 820-pounder in
Class B and and the other one a 965-
pound animal in Class C, in the re-
cent Fat Stock Show in Jacksonville.
The first steer won the second prize
of $16 and sold for 14 cents a pound
to bring a total of $114.80. The Class
C steer took the fifth place prize of
$11 and sold for 14.75 cents per pound
to put a total of $142.34 in Edwin's
pocket.
INVERNESS-The Citrus and Crys-
tal River Future Farmer Chapters
recently sponsored an issue of the
Inverness "Chronicle." The edition
featured project stories by chapter
members as well as cooperative acti-
vities in which the chapters are en-
gaged.
BRADENTON- "Seeing is believing"
the Bradenton Future Farmers heard
so they displayed two model houses
at the Manatee County Fair, one
house was unimproved without paint
and without plants around it; the
other house showed the vast differen-
ce that a little remodeling, redecorat-
ing, and landscaping made with the
same house. The boys hope to see
some real houses receive similar treat
ment.
SANFORD-Bees! They may be bugs
scm? people, but they are "bucks"
to a Sanford Future Farmer by the
nome of Amos Jones. In 1938 he
bought 36 colonies of bees and since
then he has earned $189.95 from them.
Amos doesn't stop there, either; the
truck crops and azalea cuttings which
he grows also net him a fair profit.
MAYO-The Lafayette Chapter of
the F. F. A. secured seed cane of
several improved varieties from the
University of Florida Experiment'
Station in 1939. The 43 members of
the chapter raised one-eighth of an
acre of sugar cane and sold the sed
cane to farmers in the community
for a cent a stalk. While they were
making money for themselves, they
were also helping to improve farm-
ing conditions in their community.
APOPKA-The Apopka Chapter of
the Future Farmers of America pre-
pared the Apopka Community Ex-
hibit at the County Fair in Orlando
and won $145.


PAGF. 9


MAY-1941


TKE FL(TRIDA COLLEGE FARMER












PAGE 10


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


P omona kanc

By Stewart Fowler


The W. K. Kellogg Institute of
Animal Husbandry at Pomona, Calif.,
with its white, spotless, fire-proof
stables grouped around their quad-
rangle of emerald turf, its green and
lush pastures and fertile grain fields,
and its eighty-odd proud Arabian
horses is one of the most interesting
showplaces in Southern California.
The Institue was begun as the W.
K. Kellogg Arabian Horse Ranch.
We might say that the ranch had its
beginning when Mr. W. K. Kellogg
visited the Arabian horse stud estab-
lished near Indio, California, by the
late Chauncey D. Clarke; for in a
few months Mr. Kellogg had pur-
chased the Clarke stud outright and
had begun his now famous Arabian
ranch at Pomona.
The W. K. Kellogg Institute con-
tains the most outstanding collection
of Arabians that have ever been
brought into country. A good portion
of the herd came from the Crabbet
stud in England. There are many
outstanding names at the ranch. For
instance, there is Rossana, a gray
mare sired by Champion Skowronek.
She was Mr. Kellogg's favorite
mount. Then there is Rifla, whose
brother was champion of England,
and whose mother is full sister of the
famous Arabian mare, Ramla, that
won the first endurance ride held
under the auspices of the United
States Army. Also there is Jadaan,


the last horse that Rudolph Valentino
ever rode. This outstanding stallion
was featured in the filming of the
picture, "The Son of the Sheik."
At the Institute, the stallions now
in service, as well as most of the
mares selected for the permanent
foundation of the stud, have blood
lines that are as pure today as they
x.ere in the foundation herd of the
prophet Mohammed. The entire stable
is registered with the American-
Arabian Horse Club-and the names
of many of the horses are entered ir-
the thoroughbred stud books of bo.n
England and America.
A few years back, Mr. Kellogg
presented the ranch with an endow-
ment of $600,000 to the University of
California; and the same clear an
practical purpose of the ranch is still
being carried on.
At Pomona, two great objectives
are being attained: First, to preserve
the purest Arabian blood for a con-
tribution to the improvement of the
light horse stock of America; second,
to improve the incomparable Arabian
himself.

North America has about one-fifth
of the total forest area of the world.

Hog lice may be controlled by using
waste motor oil which should be ap-
plied freely at ten-day intervals un-
til the lice are eliminated.


Corn is an ideal silage crop on good grade soils that have been
highly fertilized.


MAY-1941


PUNKIES

The native Floridian who has come
in contact with punkies or "sand
flies" as they are commonly called,
will need no introduction to these
spiteful spests because punkies are
something to which not even a na-
tive can become acclimatized. These
pests, which are most prevalent near
the coastal beaches during the latter
part of the summer, swarm by the
thousands and make life miserable
for all warm-blooded animals (that
counts us humans in) by biting at
the most unr-asonable time and place.
It is unbelievable, but true, that an
insect as small as the punkie can pro-
duce such a painful effect when he
taps the blood stream; their bites are
extremely irritating and cause in-
flamed swellings that itch persistent-
ly. Oddly enough, the insects seem to
prefer to bite at some point where
their progress is impeded such as
around the hat band, at the belt line,
at the shoe tops, or where the sleeves
are closely rolled against the arms.
Ihey bite chiefly in the evening and
very early in the morning. Punkies
are so small that sixty-mesh silk molt-
ing c.cth over doors and windows is
required to exclude them.
The long, slender larvae of these
flies develop in decaying leaves, hu-
mus, and silt where salty tidal water
backs up into fresh water streams,
along the margins of ponds, streams,
grass marshes, and pools of various
kinds, and in rot holes of trees. The
species which breed in salt marshes
can be controlled by devices such as
dikes and tide gates. In restricted
areas about drainage ditches creosote
or carbolic acid larvicides are recom-
mended. The species which breed in
mud and plant debris along the mar-
gins of fresh-water streams or ponds
can be held in check by removing
vegetation, by channelization, and by
filling in low ground. Another me-
thod of controlling punkies is by
draining tree holes and applying
wound dressing or saturating the hole
with creosote. A repellant consis-ing
of ona part of concentrated pyreth-
rum extrac; in twenty parts of lubri-
ca.ing oil may be applied to exposed
parts of the body every two hours, or
to window and door screens once a
day.


Farmer: I want to buy a plow.
Clerk: I'm sorry, sir, but we don't
handle plows.
Farmer: What kind of a drug
store is this, anyway? -Boy'. Life.

Good forestry practice requires at
leas. one mile of road for every 250
acres of forest land on areas of in-
tensive use.












MAY-1941


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


KOW COLLEGE COMMENTS
By Terry Drake


4-H NEWS

Jack Dyer of Union County, Edw-
ard Bradley of Leon County, Willie
Mae Mixson of Manatee County, and
Gertrude Noxtine of Pinellas County
are Florida's 4-H Club champions for
1941. They have been chosen be-
cause of their outstanding records to
represent this State at the National
Club Camp in Washington, D. C., on
June 18-25. While they are in Wash-
ington, they will receive instruction
and inspirational information which
will better fit them to become 4-H
Leaders when they return to their
homes.
'ihree Dade County 4-H C.ub boys,
Jack Luffman, Truman Bryan, and
Joe Scales, will represent Florida in
the poultry judging contest at the
National Club Congress in Chicago
nexc December. They won this honor
by being high judges at the State
4-H Poultry Show which was hed
last February in Orlando
Florida's 4-H Club camps will open
on June 14, and will be enjoyed by
Club boys and girls through June,
July and August. The camps-Camp
'impoochee in West Florida, Cherry
Lake in north Florida, and Camp
McQuarrie in central F.orida-have
a total capacity of 340. Each camp
will provide swimming facilities and
several other forms of outdoor re-
cieation for the young campers as
well as instruction in club leadership
and agricultural subjects. Each week
new groups of clubsters will visit the
camps for a period of a week after
which they will make way for more
boys and girls.
The theme of this year's 4-H Club
boys' Short Course will be "4-H Club
Work and National Defense." These
courses are always well-planned, and
the boys will receive a great deal of
good practical instruction which they
may put into use when they return
home. There will also be many en-
tertaining programs which the boys
will be sure to enjoy. The Short
Course will be a sample of college
life for the Club boy. He will stay
in the dormitories, attend classes in
classrooms used by the college stud-
ents, go on trips about the Experi-
ment Station, eat in the school cafe-
teria, swim in the University swim-
ming pool, and play ball on the ath-
letic field.


Well it is almost over again. For
some it will be over for good, others
will be back-perhaps. Thinking back
to the beginning of this school year,
who would have even remotely sus-
pected the many things that have
happened in such a few short months.
The war and its many ramifications.
It is not yet exactly clear what our
part in this coming struggle will be,
even though there are stronger and
stronger indications. Then what are
we to expect after the war? Will we
be able to live as we have doing now?
Just what social changes are in store
for us? There are two sides to every
question and only time will be able
to answer the question of what will
befall the lot of seniors in college at
this time. Perhaps they will be regi-
mented into the various military
camps throughout the nation, there
to become rusty and forget a large
portion of their college training. Then
when they are released they will have
a difficult time to regain their pre-
viously enviable position in the world.
Or on the other hand will this em-
ergency offer the graduating college
man something in the way of a real
challenge? The American nation was
founded not on good fortune but on
continued adversities. Will this em-
ergency test their capabilities and
a.low them to perform good service
to the nation by using their talents
where they may best be used, by
maintaining a high level of morale,
and by building toward a stable fu-
ture? Seniors in agriculture will be
in a favorable position to do this be-
cause they are bound more nearly to
the people that in the final analysis
"make us or break us."
The rodeo was as huge a success
as ever this year. This one activity
of the Block and Brid.e Club brings
by far the greater part of the favor-
able publicity to the Ag College. It
is a tremendous amount of work
that must be assumed by the boys,
but they always willingly and tireles-
sly do their parts. Of course, Dr.
Shealy's Department of Animal Hus-
bandry is the agency that provides
the continuity, or the factor that
carries over from year to year thr-
ough many new groups of boys. With-
out this very fine interest and co-
operation the Rodeo would be im-
possible, but on the other hand only
the Block and Bridle Club and its
boundless energy can make it the real
success that it is. Thousands of peo-
ple came from all over the State;
city folks, business men, cattlemen,
and farmers. Think of the romantic
appeal of such a tremendous under-
taking; cowboys, heeled boots, bright
satin shirts, cowboy hats, and "west-
ern accent" of the boys whether


genuine or not,- the bellowing ani-
mais, the 'fences, chutes, beautiful
ponies, the stadium lights; all these
contributing to an atmosphere at this
school that is unknown at any other
time during the year. The Agricul-
tural Fair second in popularity and
color only to the Rodeo is also worthy
of the highest praise; ic takes a great
deal of courage and work to stage a
display as colossal as the Agricultural
Fair has become. Alpha Zeta should
well be proud of its achievement and
strive constantly to maintain the high
standards that they have already set.
Alpha Zeta combines into one organi-
zation the best in the College of Ag-
riculture based on achievement and
scholastic rating.
Since the end of the school year is
so close at hand, the watchword now
is brevity. In other words. "Tie the
bull outside." To that end we will
not now go into a general summary
of all of the years activities as that
will be adequately taken care of in
other places. Suffice it to say that
this year has been a truly successful
one in every way, new milestones
have been gained, new achievements
have been chalked up. As a final
word permit me to say I have en-
joyed the privilege of writing this
column for each issue and hope that
in the future some archivist won't
stumble over these words and ascribe
them to too low an order of Homo
sapiens.

Sixty different kinds of winter
vege ab.es are grown commercially In
Florida.

Bill: How did you get upon that
big bull.
Ed: Dummox, I straddled him when
he was a calf.

Jefferson County produces about
eighty per cent of the world supply of
commercial watermelon seed.

Fourteen per cent of the total for-
est land of the world is in Brazill.

In Florida, corn comprises about
one-half of the total farm crop ac-
reage.

At a moisture consistency of ten
per cent, dried citrus pulp will keep
for three years without deteriorating.

Senior: Professor, I'm indebted to
you for all that I know.
Professor: Please don't mention
such a trifle. -Yellow Jacket.

Lake Okeechobee has an area of
717 square miles.


PAGE 11









SI


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PURE ORANGE, LIME AND
GRAPEFRUIT JUICES

Nothing added just the pure juices with their natural
flavors and food values.

Packed by a NEW process that gives you canned citrus
juices that taste like the fresh fruit juices themselves!

CITRUS CONCENTRATES, INC.
Dunedin, Florida


ANOTHER REASON

"They 1/oo for / .ore,


------trus eae
-minera&i ed.-


is

Conidnce


Eleven state colleges and experiment stations have fed and tested our pulp. Some prefer
our plain, while others prefer our sweet. Sw eet-Suni-Citrus Pulp has molasses dehydrated
into it.
Our family has been growing Citrus in Florida continuously since 1908.


$uni 'trus productss
Haines City, Florida


Ashcraft-Wilkinson Co.
Atlanta, Ga.


: Agents :


Company

George M. Barley
Jacksonville, Fla.


i --


- bl-


MAY-1941


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


PAGE 12




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