Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00034
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00034
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text


College Farmer

Ag. Student

Published by Agricultural Students at the University of Florida

S1 ( t
."' \l ~~ No L



The Florida College Farmer
Published four or more times during the school year in the
months of November, January, March, and May by repres-
entatives of student organizations, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida.
Myron G. Grennell ................ Editor
Loran V. Carlton ...... Business Manager
Editorial staff (contingent): Associate editors, Curtis Ulmer,
Earl Faircloth, Joe Heitzman; Departmental editors, Arthur
P. Ellis, Leroy Fortner, Wilson Suggs, Eugene Boyles, Joe
Adams, Robert Granger, 'ed Purvis. Johnny McLauril,
Gene Steckel, Warren Wood, Harold Brewer, Charles Win-
cey, Eric Mills, Ben Woodham, Thomas Skinner, Claude
Slater, Burnice Dean Charles Howell, Clint Brandon, M. C.
Eldridge, Bill Atwater, Roy Wood.
Business staff (contingent): Advertising Manager. Wilson
Suggs, Circulation Manager, Floyd Eubanks, Assistants,
David Coverston, Ormond Hendry, Tom Pulliam, Art ELis.
Bennett Dominick, Tommy Lunsford, James D.. McClung.
B. G. Clayton.

Faculty Advisory Committee
Dean H. H. Hume, ex-officio Chairman, H. S. Wolfe,
Chairman, W. G. Kirk, C. H. Willoughby, E. A. Ziegler.
Entered to second class mailing matter at the Post Office
at University Station, Gainesville, Florida, December 8,
1938, under Act of Congress of 1879. Advertising rates
furnished upon request. Subscription price-thirty cents.

Every Farm Family Would Profit

By Subscribing Now

To The

Florida College Farmer

University of Florida



Agricultural College Council
Pres.: Don Brooke
Collegiate Chapter, Future
Farmers of America
Pres.: John D. Butler
Agricultural Club
Pres.: "Strawberry" Syfrett
Forestry Club
Pres.: Frank Chappell
Newell Entomological Society
Pres.: John Frederick
Block and Bridle
Pres.: John Kinzer
Alpha Zeta
Pres. Don Brooke
Alpha Tau Alpha
Pres.: Joel P. Keen
Pres.: Lorry Mitchell

ILI, L-,

I ii I I00

MIAY, 1940


S1GE 3


By Eugene H. Boyles, '41

To train specialists for the service
of various animal industries in the
State of Florida, and to serve the
people of Florida, is the goal for the
teaching division of the Animal In-
dustry Department. To accomplish
this best, the Animal Industry De-
partment has eighteen specialists in
six sub-divisions of the organization.
These sub-divisions include Animal
Production which is mainly devoted
to the breeding, feeding and care of
beef cattle, sheep, swine, horses and
mules; Dairy Husbandry, which deals
with the breeding, care, and produc-
tion of dairy cattle; Dairy Products
which has to do with the manufacture
and sale of milk and milk products,
Poultry Husbandry, which deals with
the production of poultry and poultry
by-products; Animal Nutrition, which
includes work with feeds, minerals and
other food products; and Veterinary
Science, which treats of diseases and
their control.
The activities of the Department
are directed into three channels: the
Extension Service, the research work
carried on by the Experiment Station
and the teaching of students who are
interested in animal husbandry in the
College of Agriculture.
A unique feature of Animal Indus-
try Department is working in one
unit which allows its members to
work in the three divisions at the Uni-
versity. This feature allows for mem-
bers of the department to serve the
people of Florida in all three capaci-
By Ihis mIans students are taught
about the various activities of the
Experiment Station, having an oppor-
tunity to observe the animals and ex-
reriments being conducted on the Ex-
periment Station farm.
The Animal Husbandry Depart-
ment is the only division of the Col-
lege of Agriculture offering the de-
gree of Doctor of Philosophy while
the Agricultural and Mechanical Col-
ege of Texas is the only other south-
ern institution of higher learning of-
fering the same degree. Courses of-
fered at the University of Florida are
equal in value to those offered in the
larger universities of the east and
midwest. An examination of the Ani-
madl Industry courses offered to stu-
will easily show an observer that
nearly all phases of animal produc-
tion and products are taught. The
courses are primarily designed to meet
the many conditions of Florida and
more generally to the South. Among
a few of the courses are those in nu-
trition, feeds and feeding, livestock
judging, beef production, swine pro-
duction, sheep production, horse hus-

bandry, breed history, meat products,
condensed milk and dry milk, milk
production, dairy herd management,
ice cream manufacture, advanced in-
cubation, brooding and rearing, tur-
key production, marketing poultry
products, advanced poultry judging
and poultry breeding, poultry diseases,
veterinary anatomy and physiology,
farm diseases and farm sanitation.
However, a student who has majored
in some phase of Animal Industry
does not take only Animal Industry
courses, but other courses that should
be of value to the student in making
him successful in his chosen work.
Some of the courses required of a stu-
dent who is majoring in Animal In-
dustry are farm management, soils,
genetics, bacteriology, forage and
cover crops, chemistry, accounting,
engineering and others that he may
elect. Credit is allowed boys who do
practical work under competent su-
pervision; in fact, students who have
not had practical experience are urged
to do some work of this nature before
they are granted a degree. Initiative
on the part of the student is encour-
aged, such as the work of the Block
and Bridle Club, which annually spon-
sors the Little International Livestock
Show and Rodeo. In this exhibition,
students fit the show quality live-
stock, and put on a rodeo in a very
"western" style. To this show this
year approximately twelve thousand
people were attracted, which' is re-
puted to be the largest crowd ever
attracted to a similar show. The stu-
dent livestock judging team was
placed second in the Eastern States
intercollegiate judging contest at the
Baltimore Livestock Show last year.
Graduates of the Animal Industry
Department have many opportunities
in the field of practical applied agri-
culture. First of all, graduates are
urged to go into business for them-
selves, which includes: Dairying, Live-
stock, Farming and Ranching, Poul-
try Raising and some other forms.
Another field open to graduates is
working for governmental institutions
as the Bureau of Animal Industry,
Soil Conservation Service, Farm Se-
curity Administration, Extension Ser-
vice, Experimental Stations and
others; assistants in commercial firms
as various packing industries, rail-
roads, dairy manufacturing industries,
feed manufacturing industries, com-
mercial experimental institutions, and
other commercial firms.
"All of thie many and varied activi-
ties of the Animal Industry Depart-
ment", said Dr. A. L. Shealy, Head of
the Department, "are directed to more
and better livestock production and
products for the inhabitants of Florida.

Livestock is now one of Florida's lead-
ing industries and will lead to better
diversified farming, which will pro-
vide a year around income to the
farmer if it is emphasized and adopt-
ed more."

Students Get Broad
Training In Soils

By Don Charles Nearpass, '40
The curriculum in Soils is designed
to give the student a broad training
in the fundamentals of general agri-
culture with particular emphasis on
crop production and soil management.
The courses are carefully selected and
outlined so that the men may be-
come good farmers, farm managers,
experiment station workers, college
teachers, and soil conservation work-
ers. In recent years men trained in
soils have found ready employment in
these and other fields. The Land
Banks and Insurance Companies re-
quire Soils trained men for land ap-
praisers and managers. The fertilizer
industry offers an attractive field for
many men trained in Soils. County
agent and extension Soils specialists are
always in demand and Soils-trained
men qualify for service in these fields.
The curriculum in Soils has been
revised and redesigned to serve all
departments in the College of Agri-
culture. The first two semesters work
in Soils have been planned especially to
train men in the fundamentals of
good soil management and proper land
use. That the students in the College
of Agriculture approve these changes
is evidenced by the fact that the en-
rollment in these courses ha.s more
than doubled since the new courses
were announced a year &ago. Another
course which has been very popular
with students in all departments of
the College is that of Special Problems
in Soils. Students who have become
interested in some special soils pro-
blem and desire additional informa-
tion take their problem, in consulta-
tion with an experienced research
man, to the laboratory or greenhouse
for further investigation and study.
This is, of course, advanced work
but many students have qualified for
A full major with twenty semester
hours in soils is now available for the
first time. In addition to the funda-
mental principles of soil management
and economic crop production, stud-
ents majoring in soils are enrolled in
advanced courses in soil genesis and
morphology, classification, identifica-
tion, mapping, the soil survey and
land use problems of Florida. The
physical, chemical and biological fac-
tors limiting the crop producing
power of the soil are dealt with
thoroughly. The principles underlying
the use and the practical aspects of
(continued on page 6)

-1 -


MAY, 1940





Donald B. Nelson, '41
Agriculture is the industry devoted
to the production of food and raw
materials used by the human race
primarily fr food, shelter and cloth-
ing. Engineering is defined as the art
and science of organizing and direct-
ing men, and utilizing the forces and
materials of nature for the benefit of
the human race. The engineering
identified with, and related to, the
industry of agriculture is properly
called agricultural engineering. In
view of the foregoing definitions, it is
seen that agricultural engineering is
concerned with the application and
use of labor, power and materials in
agricultural production and rural
life. The training of students in agri-
cultural engineering, therefore, must
be along very broad lines. The scope
of training as given by the Depart-
ment of Agricultural Engineering of
the University of Florida covers five
major fields; namely, power and ma-
chinery, soil conservation, water con-
trol, shop operations and farm struc-
Today training in agriculture would
not be complete without a knowledge
of tarm power and machinery. The
Department of Agricultural Engineer-
ing offers courses dealing with in-
ternal combustion engines both sta-
tionary and traction. The increase in
rural electrification has made it high-
ly desirable that agricultural workers
to be informed as to the nature asd
uses of electricity as it applies to ag-
riculture. Machinery for soil prepara-
tion, planting of seed, cultivating of
growing plants and the harvesting of
crops is the subject of another course
offered by the Department.
The American people are becoming
conscious of the fact that our great-
est heritage is our soil and therefore
should be protected from th'e erosive
effects of water and wind. The course
in soil conservatino deals with ways
and means of reducing the washing
away of our soils by surface runoff.
The investment in farm buildings
is quite high. They represent consid-
erable of the farm capital. The effi-
ciency of the farm depends to a great
extent on the kind, arrangement and
location of the farm buildings. The
course offered in farm structures
deals with farm buildings along the
above named lines as well as the con-
struction and materials used in their
Water control is one of the most
important things in connection with
the growth of plants. It is often the
cause of crop failure. The course in
land drainage takes up methods of
removing surplus water from the soil.
The lowering of the water table by

underground drainage is also treated
in the drainage course. The different
methods of applying irrigation water
to the soil as practiced in Florida is a
part of the subject treated under
water control.
Unlike many professions agricul-
ture requires a man of many talents.
A farmer must be able to do an as-
sortment of jobs. The course in farm
shop operations is designed to give
training to the student in some of the
most important shop jobs found on
the farm. This instruction includes
work in concrete, paints, soldering,
sheetmetal work, carpentry and many
other similar jobs.
In the training of students in -he
field of agricultural engineering we
have two major objects in view. Cne
is to train technical workers for pro-
fessional positions in the field. The
increase in the mechanization of agri-
culture has created a greater demand
for students trained in the field of
farm machinery and farm power.
Thea work of carrying out our pro-
gram of soil conservation and rural
electrification has also created a de-
mand for more agricultural engineers.
The second object is to give service
courses for students whose majors
are in other fields. This is a very im-
portant part of the work in agricul-
tural engineering.


Many of the departments in the
College of Agriculture sponsor clubs
or societ.es which bring together stu-
dents and faculty members for infor-
mal discussion of subjects of mutual
interest. Often these organizations
contribute largely to the training of
the student and to the promotion of an
interest in agricultural matters on the
campus and always they bring student
and teacher into intimate contact and
cordial relationship. Thus Animal
Husbandry has its Block and Bridle
Club, Horticulture has Thyrsus, Ento-
mology has the Newell Entomological
Society, Agricultural Education has
Alpha Tai Alpha, and Forestry has the
Forestry Club. Membership in these
organizations is open to students with
special interests in these fields, often
with some requirements as to scholar-
Certain other organizations are
equally of interest to all departments.
The Agricultural Club is open to all
students in the college, and endeavors
to present the field of agriculture as a
(Continued on page 9)

MAY, 1940

Agronomy Is Old

By Arthur P. Ellis

On the third floor of the Agricul-
ture Building is located the Depart-
ment of Agronomy of the College of
Agriculture, one of the three original
departments: Agronomy, Animal
Husbandry, and Horticulture, making
up the College of Agriculture shortly
after the University of Florida was
established in 1905. This department
has enjoyed steady growth and sinc3
its beginning three other departments
of the present College of Agriculture
-Agricultural Engineering, Agricul-
tural Economics and Soils-have had
their beginnings in the Department
of Agronomy. Courses in this depart-
ment are designed to give instruction
in the various phases of agronomy in-
cluding general field- and forage
crops, genetics, and plant breeding.
Special stress is placed on crops of
the Southeastern United States with
special consideration being given the
crops commonly grown extensively in
Emphasis is placed on visual in-
struction and this method is usea ex-
tensively in presenting subject mat-
ter in all courses offered by th'e de-
partment. An extensive collection of
fresh and preserved materials such as
plants, plant parts, and products of
agronomical crops is available for
classroom and laboratory instruction.
Seeds and other products of economic
crops are featured in the department-
al displays. The lecture room and
laboratories are amply equipped with
apparatus for instructional and le-
search work in general field crops,
genetics and plant breeding.
In addition to lecture and labora-
tory instruction students of the de-
partment have opportunity to become
acquainted with actual field practice
on the college farms and with meth-
ods employed by experimental sta-
tions in scientific research dealing
with agronomic problems. Training
in the Department of Agronomy as-
sists young men in preparing for va-
cations in general farming, teaching
in colleges and universities, for posi-
tions as agronomical investigators in
the State and Federal departments of
Agriculture and as county agricul-
tural agents and extension specialists.
Students who have received train-
ing in agronomy in the University of
Florida are found in every county of
the state, a number of states of the
Union and several foreign countries.

13, U_ A



By John D. Servis

War is an ugly word for with its
coming also come stock market de-
pressions, curtailment of trade, and
misery for the specialized farmer,
grower, and animal breeders. Surplus,
low prices, and poverty are resultant
when our foreign trade is so sudden-
ly cut off. These factors, together
with agricultural expansion through-
out the world, indicate a need for a
new type of demand for the agricul-
tural products that are so extensive-
ly produced in the South. It is toward
that goal that the present day sou-
thern agricultural chemist is striving.
New products from tung trees, citrus
pulp, pine trees, castor beans, cotton,
peanuts, corn, and even the lowly but
common potato are being sought.
Citrus pulp is now being used as a
feed for cattle and, to a small extent,
as a feed for chickens. Cotton pro-
vides one of the greatest sources of
artificial silk, and we all are familiar
with the distillation product of corn.
True, agriculture can not exist from
these synthetics but it can most cer-
tainly be aided.
But in order to obtain these pro-
ducts, it is necessary first to deter-
mine what the material is essentially
composed of. Little is known of the
chemical composition of the various
parts of the tree; few know the funda
mental changes that occur in the
maturity of the fruit, and few know
the reasons for poorer nourishment
of the tree. All we know is that if we
do certain things, certain results are
to be expected. That is now the prob-
lem of the agricultural chemist. Ana-
lysis must always precede synthesis
just as a carpenter must first trim
the tree to meet his need. Food ana-
lysis, fertilizer analysis, soil analysis,
water analysis, plant analysis, and
animal analysis are all problems that
are now being worked out by the pre-
sent day chemist, in order that at some
future date the quality and quantity
of present day materials may be bet-
About these principles the depart-
ment of agricultural chemistry was
organized. The department through
its curricular requirements enables the
willing student to understand the
basic principles of chemistry, the
methods of detection and determina-
tion of chemical substances, the basic
knowledge of the chemistry of life, the
theoretical considerations of chemical
action, and the application of all of
all of these principles to agriculture.
Accompanying these studies the de-
partment offers the opportunity for
the student to become familiar with
the practical laboratory experience that
all those intending to follow the pro-
fession must acquire. In addition to
these required subjects the department

also includes such subjects as bacteri-
ology, physics, mathematics, and ani-
mal nutrition, and soils; all subjects
centered mainly upon the foundation
training of chemistry in agriculture.
Completion of these basic studies grant
the student the opportunity of entering
agricultural research, the most funda-
mental field of study to the State of
A multiplicity of problems await the
ambitious researchers: First of all, how
can we utilize the non-productive soil
of our State? Second, what can we do
with the waste products of agriculture
Third, what by-products of industry
can we use to aid agriculture? Fourth,
is future soil fertility related to ur-
ban sewage disposal? And finally, are
soils, foods, and health intimately re-
lated? Certainly, we can not neglect
to forsee the concentration of popula-
tion in lErge industrial communities
and the mechanization of agriculture,
with its resulting drain upon agricul-
tural fertility and concentration in
sewage disposal dumps. It seems so
odd to put all our proverbial wealth
in the same dump. Some day we sha'il
be confronted with the problem of re-
turning that waste to the land The
department of agricultural chemistry
is now equipped to meet such research
fcr during the past year new ac-
quisitions have been made.
A laboratory occupying the south
end of the main floor of the agricul-
tural building has been provided.
Facilities are provided for the drying.
the grinding, the analyzing of various
agricultural materials. Occupying a
space of 168 square feet overall, the
laboratory is equipped with the latest
in vacuum ovens, drying ovens, furn-
aces, mills, nitrogen stills, fat extract-
ors, and analytical balances; rounding
into one whole the finest agricultural
chemical student laboratory in the
The department is ably headed by
Dr. A. P. Black, and with an increas-
ing enrollment, is forging ahead to
become one of the foremost depart-
ments of the C)ollege of Agriculture.
and with the beginning of the 1940-41
sessions intends to further expand its
subject of agricultural analysis and
agricultural research.

The College of

Agriculture Trains

Men For Leadership

In Florida Agriculture

Botany Major Offered

Botany is one of the two major
biological sciences; the other is Zo-
ology. These two sciences serve as
the foundation for all specialized
fields of Agriculture. Botany treats of
ir.e diia erent groups of plants, and of
fundamental facts of their structure,
grown and reproduction; relation of
plants to their environment and to
each otner and of the principles un-
derlying variation, inheritance and of
their human interest. Plants serve
directly and indirectly as the princi-
pal source of clothing, food and shel-
ter for man. On the other hand, cer-
tain groups of plants cause diseases
of man, animals and plants and offer
a continuous challenge to the ingen-
uity of man to keep them subdued. A
knowledge of these facts and princi-
ples underlying plant life and of their
practical application are essential to
the comprehensive training in any
specialized field of agriculture. The
Botany department affords the stu-
dent opportunity to obtain this funda-
mental information. There are three
divisions of the department pure
botany, bacteriology and plant path-
ology. Teaching in these divisions is
in charge of Professors M. D. Cody.
W. R. Carroll and G. F. Weber, re-
In the introductory courses of pure
botany one learns of the structure,
methods or reproduction, inter-rela-
tionships of representative plant
types and of their relation to their
environment. In the advanced courses
one becomes familiar with processes
involved in plant feeding, digestion,
assimilation, conduction and respira-
ricn of the plant. Studies are made of
certain plant communities to deter-
mine natural responses of units of
vegetation composing them and their
potential value for agricultural pur-
poses. Fr-m th- e courses one learns
what the plant is and under what
conditions it may best serve man.
In the division of bacteriology one
learns of the microscopic forms of
plant life that are beneficial and
harmful to man. The student also
learns of the principles underlying the
many and varied applications of
these organisms to agricultural life
and industries. He learns how micro-
organisms bring about chemical
changes in farm products and min-
erals of the soil and air to increase
crop production, and of the factors
which increase and retard their ac-
tivity. One also is given opportunity
to learn the nature of articles of pro-
cessed foods and beverages and how
to make them; of food spoilage and
how to prevent it; of diseases and
how to combat them. This knowledge
(Continued on page 8)

MAY, 1940




By Donald L. Brooke, '40

The scope of work in the Depart-
ment of Agricultural Economics can
well be summarized in six words "To
help farmers make more money".
The uppermost questions in all eco-
nomic work concerning any specific
production, transportation, marketing
distribution or other activity con-
nected with the farm business are:
Will it pay better than any other
competing activity employing the
same land, labor, capital and man-
agement ?
Are there constructive recommen-
dations to make that would increase
the efficiency of the best paying ac-
tivities ?
In attempting to answer these
questions, it is not from the stand-
point of a single year or season, but
to endeavor to point out the farming
activities that make for the greatest
continuous profit and that would re-
sult in the operator who followed
such activities being classed as a
"good farmer". Dr. Liberty Hyde Bai-
ley has stated that:
"The requirements of a good farm-
er are at least four:
The ability to make a full and com-
fortable living from the land;
to rear a family carefully and well;
to be of good service to the com-
to leave th'e farm more productive
than it was when he took it."
This brings us to the arbitrary di-
visions of agricultural economics.
Just as agricultural economics is but
an arbitrary division of all agricul-
tural science, and as agricultural
science is but an arbitrary division
)f general science, just so agricultural
economics is arbitrarily divided into
more specific fields in order that the
problems to be studied may be more
clearly isolated.
Farm Management is the first divi-
sion that may be mentioned.
This is the science of the organiza-
tion and management of a farm busi-
ness for the purpose of securing the
greatest continuous profits. It deals
with the individual farm as a unit.
The best tool for a farm management
study is a system of well kept and de-
tailed records of the farm business
over a period of years. It is for this
reason that considerable emphasis is
given to record keeping and to en-
couraging farmers to keep the type
of records best suited to their type of
farming. If it is impracticable to ob-
tain the proper type of uniform farm
records to serve as a basis for a farm
management analysis, the next best
tool is a detailed questionnaire cover-
ing all the vital information concern-
ing a farm business and filled out by
personal interviews with each farmer

in the area to be studied. By the use
of these tools, abiding principles of
good farm management practices
have been found and others will be
established as research progresses.
Marketing agricultural products
may comprise the second major divis-
ion of agricultural economics. The
farmer's work may be only half ac-
complished when he has produced and
harvested his commodity. His profit
or loss may depend upon his efficien-
cy in reaching the ultimate consumer
with the least possible cost. This in-
volves many difficult problems to
solve. In the first place, shall he at-
tempt to market his product indep-
endently, or shall he join with other
producers in a cooperative marketing
organization. Secondly, just which
essential marketing functions will it
pay him to perform independently or
cooperatively and which ones should
he turn over to organized middle-
men. Studies must be made of the
comparative economic advantage of
the many problems involved before
an intelligent answer can be given. In
the event a cooperative marketing
organization seems advisable, then it
is essential to study this type of or-
ganization to determine the factors
that determine a strong and efficient
organization. Transportation of farm
products from the farm to market is
one of the vital marketing functions.
The comparative economic advantage of
the many methods of transportation
needs careful study. Another matter

that needs careful study in the per-
formance of marketing functions is
the nature of the demand for eacl-h
commodity in the important consum-
er markets.
In addition to the courses offered
in farm management and agricul-
tural marketing, the Department of
Agricultural Economics is concerned

Field Trips Needed For
Agriculture Students

Studying agriculture from books has
an important place in the work of the
College of Agriculture, but it also has
serious limitations. The laboratories
supplement this study with opportuni-
ties for direct observation in some
courses, while in others it is necessary
to make extended field trips. These
may be for a period of two hours and
over a distance of ten miles, or for a
four day period and covering over a
thousand miles. Groves, packinghouses
farms, factories every type of ag-
ricultural industry within the state is
visited and studied at first hand by
classes of students. Areas visited range
from Homestead to Pensacola and from
Jacksonville to Fort Myers.

also with work in rural law; the
credit needs of farmers and the best
sources for obtaining these needs;
prices of farm products and the
factors affecting them: and public
problems concerning agriculture,
such as the proper utilization of
land, and attempts and accomplish-
nents through organization and legis-
lation to improve the economic and
social conditions of agriculture.
Students who have majored in
agricultural economics and who have
not returned to the farm, the grove,
or to work with marketing organiza-
ons directly related to same, have
be-n employed in County Agent work,
in fruit and vegetable inspection
work, and in various branches of the
Federal government service. Some
have continued in graduate study and
are now employed in college re-
search, teaching or extension work.
Still others have found positions with
fertilizer, feed and other farm and
grove service companies.

(Continued from page 3)
iiTe in Agriculture; the importance
cf organic matter and practical
measures for its maintenance, in-
cluding green manures and cover
crops, legume inoculation and cot.-
nmercial fertilizer ; sof- ero lon and its
I. crtance in the main" nance of
:simanent soil fertility are some
cf the topics soil majors consider in
detail. Not only those fundamental
practices in soil managernsnt and
crop production which are recommend-
ed by the experiment station and
practiced by successful farmers are
studied but new findings bring the
student up to date in the soil seminars
in which recent investigations are re-
ported by students and research
In addition to the specialized work
in Soils, students receive training in
chemistry and other technical branch-
es of agriculture. Supplementery to
the study of the soil is the study of
crops. The courses required include
studies in field crops and cover
crops as well as horticulture, botany
and forestry. Basic courses are re-
quired in bacteriology, entomology and
plant pathology in order that the
student may be better able to under-
stand and control insect pests and
plant diseases. At least one course
in animal husbandry is required and
the fact that the ultimate use of the
soils is to produce crops for animals
and particularly man is emphasized.
Sufficient elective hours are provided
so that in addition to the training in
Soils any student may specialize in
some closely allied line of work such
as agricultural economics, agricultural
engineering, agronomy, animal hus-
bandry, agricultural chemistry or



MAY, 1940



By Wilson Suggs, '41
The field of Agricultural Education
has expanded rapidly during recent
years. There are at the present time
109 teachers of Agriculture in Florida
and more than 6,000 in the United
States. This rapid growth has made
inany opportunities for trained young
men in the field of teaching Vocational
Agriculture. Replacements alone in
this field require the services of a
number of new men each year. The
increase may be expected to continue
for several years due to the fact that
there are many communities in Flor-
ida and other states that need depart-
ments in their schools. A recent sur-
vey in Florida indicated that it would
be necessary to employ approximately
twice as many teachers as we now
have to meet adequately the needs of
prospective farmers.
There are also opportunities in this
field for employment as teacher-train-
ers, supervisors, and as research speci-
alists. This is true for those men who
have had experience teaching and have
had additional training. Many gov-
ernmental agencies prefer men who
have had experience teaching Vocat-
ional Agriculture. Many teachers have
gone into County Agent work, Farm
Security work, and in other similar
types of governmental employment.
Teaching Vocational Agriculture isa
most interesting type of work. It is a
year round job and requires as much
time as a man will devote to it. Teach-
ers teach a minimum of five classes
daily. Three of these are in-school
classes and two are out-of-school.
Many teachers teach more than this.
The teacher of Vocational Agricul-
ture performs a variety of activities
besides his classroom work. He visits
and supervises the farming programs
of his class members. He serves as ad-
viser of a chapter of Future Farmers
of America. He participates in all of
the worthy activities of his community
and cooperates with other governmen-
tal agencies in his area. A teacher of
Agriculture is a very busy man. He has
an unusually fine opportunity because
of his close contact with rural young
people and adults to be of great service
in his community.
Such a varied type of program calls
for men who are well trained. In order
to be successful in this field a man
should possess the following character-
istics. He should be a good leader, for
teachers are continually called upon to
serve in positions of leadership in their
communities. He should be a man of
sterling character because young men

will naturally want to follow in his foot
steps. It is essential that he have rich
farm experience so that he may have
an understanding of rural young peo-
ple and a knowledge of the common
skills which are performed on the farm
He must have a reasonable amount of
ability. He should also enjoy working
with people and should like farming
and rural life.
A student planning to qualify as a
teacher of Vocational Agriculture
should study the requirements as listed
in the catalog and contact a member
of the Agricultural Education staff. A
complete training program is provided
at the University for boys desiring to
become tecahers of Agriculture.
It will be noted that a student must
have a minimum of 18 hours in Edu-
cation. Vocational Education, Methods
of teaching, and courses in Participa-
tion Training, are required in order
for a student to be a teacher of Agri-
culture. The student will find thatclass
work is only a small part of the train-
ing provided. He participates in the
organization of out-of-school classes.
He observes the teaching of all-day
classes in high school and out-of-
school classes for young men and ad-
ults. He receives experience in all
three types of classes. Trainees re-
ceive experience in directing an F. F.
A. chapter by serving as an adviser,
assisting with the Gainesville and
other nearby chapters, and by partici-
pating in the activities of the collegi-
ate F. F. A. chapter. The trainees
also receive actual experience in the
supervision of farm programs of high
school boys and the programs of part-
time and evening class members.
Each year a tour is made of several
of the departments in Florida in order
that trainees may become acquainted
with the activities, equipment, and
buildings with which teachers work.
Trainees also have an opportunity to
become proficient in the use of various
visual aid machines and equipment.
Training is provided in the making of
charts, tables, graphs, as well as in
the use of lantern slide, film strips,
opaque projectors and motion picture
For many years young men who en-
rolled in Agricultural Education and
have qualified to teach Vocational Ag-
riculture have been unusually success-
ful in securing employment. Approxi-
mately 90 per cent of those men de-
siring employment have been placed.
At the present time the future con-
tinues to look very bright for this
field of service.

Forestry School

By David Stewart, '40
The University of Florida School of
Forestry had its beginning in 1935 as
a department in the College of Agri-
culture with a staff of only one in-
structor. From this small beginning
the School has progressed rapidly, and
now has, in addition to the usual class
rooms, laboratories, offices, and lab-
oratory equipment, a field laboratory
consisting of the 2,000-acre Austin
Cary Memorial forest, and a long term
lease of a 2,00-acre conservation re-
serve at Welaka, Florida. This latter
area is jointly managed by the school
and the Department of Biology of
the University of Florida, and contains
equipment for biological and game
propagation studies.
The Austin Cary Forest, which is
located 10 miles northeast of G'ain-
esville, is equipped with adequate
buildings for a summer camp, a tree
nursery with overhead springling sys-
tem, ranger quarters, sawmill, and
other additional equipment for practi-
cal work.
The forest is being used to study
naval stores production, relative in-
comes which are derived from poles
saw timber, pulpwood or combinations
of the products, reforestation meth-
ods, and wood preservatives and me-
thods of treatment.
The Florida School of Forestry is
the only one which is located directly
in the Naval Stores Forest Belt The
School is also ideally located for the
study of many southern forest in-
dustries. Within the City of Gaines-
ville are found a veneer-hamper fac-
tory, soft wood distillation plant,
treating plant for poles, ties, etc.,
small sawmills, an excelsior factory,
and a Spanish moss preparation plant.
Several pulp and paper mlils, large
cypress, hardwood and pine sawmills,
and sta',e mills are located within a
relatively short distance of Gaines-
The Ocala, Osceola and Apalachicola
National Forests, as well as several
private forests a'r. only a short travel-
ing distance from Gainesville and can
be studied as examples of the manage-
ment of sustained yield forests. An ex-
perimental forest of the Southern
Forest Experiment Station is located
about 60 miles from the University.
Almost one-third, or more than 600
million acres, of the total area of the
nation is occupied by forests or brush
cover. If our progressive civilization
is to be supplied with the raw material
it demands this land must be protect-
ed and managed carefully and wisely.
This need is being met by the new
profession of forestry. Foresters are
now, and will be even more so in the
(Continued on page 8)


MAY, 1940





by Harold Garrett, '39
In a state like Florida where the
value of horticultural products exceeds
that of all other agricultural products
combined, the responsibility of training
men for participation in this huge in-
dustry must be taken seriously. The
field of horticulture is not a simple one
however, but has developed into a
number of separate areas, each requir-
ing specialized methods of culture.
The student intending to major in
horticulture begins his horticultural
work with a fundamental study of
methods of propagating all kinds of
plants and for pruning those that re-
quire it. At the sane time he takes
courses in chemistry, soils, botany and
other fields which will give him a foun-
dation on which to build his horticul-
tural knowledge There follows a course
in which the fundamental factors un-
derlying all fruit production is consid-
ered A course in vegetable gardening
is also required of all students major-
ing in horticulture, and actual experi-
ence in growing a variety of vegetables
is obtained.
With these foundation courses be-
hind him, the student is ready to
choose the major field of horticulture
in which he wishes to specialize. There
are four or five available to him, each
with a full year of course work.
Citrus fruits are the most important
crop of Florida, and have long receiv-
ed special attention in the horticulture
curriculum. A citrus grove is part of
the equipment of the Department, so
that students can practice or observe
various phases of citrus culture at
first hand. In addition, a 3-day field
trip is made each semester to import-
ant citrus growing areas of the state,
where students study the methods used
by successful producers and by packing
houses. In addition, a half day is spent
at the Citrus Experiment Station, keep-
ing up with the latest research devel-
Truck crops rank second in Florida
horticulture, but the field has been
less popular with Florida students than
some others. Probably the seasonal
nature of the winter truck industry,
and the annual influx of northern
farmers into Florida for winter farm-
ing, are responsible. A full year
course is now offered in this subject,
Tropical and subtropical fruits are
small in value, compared with citrus
fruits, but large in interest and wide
in extent of culture. A full year is
devoted to these fruits, with field
trips to the areas of principal produc-
tion, since Gainesville is too cold for a
grove of these fruits. Specimens of
fruits are available for study and tast-
ing, and fresh branches or greenhouse

plants are studied also. This has prov-
en a very popular course.
The deciduous fruits of northern
states are widely grown in the north-
ern half of Florida, and the Depart-
ment possesses a. grove of the import-
ant varieties of these fruits. Habits of
growth, pruning, fruiting and other
factors of culture are studied at first
hand here. Culture of pecans, tung oil
and other nuts receives attention in a
companion course, thus rounding ouO
the work on tree fruits.
Ornamental horticulture, a course
designed for the study of plant ma-
terials suitable for use in ornamental
horticulture, has special application
to the beautification of homes and
schools in Florida. The landscaping
of homes in Florida has become sig-
nifica'nt, especially within the last few
years with so many of our wealthy
tourists establishing their permanent
residence here. Another important
phase of ornamental horticulture that
is discussed to some extent is the com-
mercial nurseryman. At present, this
is one of our most interesting and
profitable fields in horticulture which
has ample opportunity for expanding.
Commercial Floriculture is a. rela-
tively new course in the horticulture
curriculum. This is designed to give
the student the principles of propaga-
tion and handling of commercial flor-
ists crops and the management of
greenhouses. The growing of winter
flowers has followed the trend for
growing of winter vegetables and the
scenes of activity are slowly shifting
from the north to ths south.
Special consideration is given in the
Horticulture curriculum to the need
of flexibility in choosing courses for
supplementing these various major
fields. Ample opportunity is afforded
for extra work in soils, botany, plant
pathology, entomology, or whatever
other field of science will be of great-
est value to the student in his pros-
pective future work.
Two graduate fellowships and one
graduate assistantship are available in
this department. The General Tung
Corporation established a fellowship
for the study of tung tree culture, es-
pecially with regard to problems of
propogation The Florida Federation
of Garden Clubs has sponsored a fel-
lowship for investigation of problems
encountered by Florida gardeners.
Jther graduate students are at work
in the department on other horticul-
tural problems. In recent years re-
sea'rch on the use of hormones and
vitamins in propagation by cuttings
nas received most attention.

MAY, 1940

(Continued from page 5)
assures the agricultural student of
better health for himself and his
Plant pathology is a field of ap-
plied botany which deals with dis-
eases of plants and plant products.
This science is of economic importance
to everyone, and especially for those
entering any field of agriculture. All
plants are affected by diseases of
one kind or another. Regardless of
th'e variety of plant or the purpose
for which it is grown, sooner or later
it becomes necessary to combat these
diseases to produce the desired quan-
tity and quality of product. Without
a knowledge of the nature of diseases
and methods of control, one may
spend much time and money in fruit-
less attempts to remedy the condi-
In the division of plant pathology
the student obtains information con-
cerning plant diseases and factors
which influence their development. He
also learns of th'e principles underly-
ing prevention and control of diseases
of cultivated crops.

(Continued from page 7)
future, of primary importance to the
welfare and prosperity of the nation.
Not only do foresters supply the pub-
lic with forest products, but they are
also in demand in the control of soil
erosion, in public recreation, in water-
shed protection, and other similar
Schools of forestry have been estab-
lished over the entire nation, but the
number of southern forestry schools is
relatively few when the large area of
forest land in the south in considered.
In addition to possessing the largest
area of land of all forest regions, the
south possesses land which has a
greater productive capacity than that
of any other region. This fact is now
being recognized, resulting in a rapid
shift of the pulp and paper industries
to the southern states. Millions of
dollars are being spent in developing
this industry in the South An even
wider development of this industry in
the South has been predicted.
Gradutes of the University of Flor-
ida School of Forestry are now being
employed by the Florida Forest and
Park Service, Soil Conservation Servi-
ice, United States Forest Service, and
by private industries.
The profession of forestry is im-
portant to the State of Florida, be-
cause 20 million acres (nearly two-
thirds) of its area are forest lands.
Past experiences have demonstrated
that the practice of forestry on forest
land is almost a necessity, if the land
is to continue to produce forest pro-

MAY, 1940






Farm boys from all over Florida,
wiho are members of the Future Farm-
ers of America, will gather en masse
on the Florida University campus,
May 28, 29, 30, for their twelfth
annual state convention This band of
high school vocational agricultural
students will lay aside milking the
cows and feeding the chickens for
three days to assemble for their annual
business meeting.
This organization of, by, and for
farm boys, will provide contests for
the judging of hogs, cattle, sheep,
horses and poultry. A busy three-day
session is planned to include such con-
tests as parliamentary procedure.
public speaking, quartet singing, and
Highlight of the convention will
be thel delegate session, which ac-
tually is a "model legislature." The
house of delegates composed of two
boys from each of the state's 114
chapters and representing over 4,000
members will deliberate in sessions to
conduct the business of the organiza-
tion and to elect officers for the
coming year. The boys thus get experi-
ence which prepares them for aggres-
sive farm leadership. President Earl
Haynesworth, Alachua, will preside
over the convention, assisted by Vice-
Presidents Billy Jones of Fort Meade;
Benny Driggers of Apoipka; E. A.
Brandon of Altha; Robert McDaniels
of Lake City; and Hollis Rigby of Wal-
nut Hill, Dan Beardsley of Pahokee.
Mr. J. F. Williams, Jr., state super-
visor of agricultural education, is the
adult adviser for the organization.
The Future Farmers of America
is an organization composed of high
school students, studying agriculture
courses in the schools of the state.
Representatives from as far south as
Homestead and as far north as Chapel
H:ll will attend. Thursday will fea-
ture an excursion to Camp O'Lano at
the state forestry camp, where the
boys will observe the latest methods
of forest conservation and logging. A
wiener roast will fill the evening with
fun and entertainment.
Each year great interest centers
around the livestock judging contest
because the state championship tea m
wins a coveted trip to Kansas City,

at the time of the national conven-
tion of F. F. A. in November, to
compete and represent Florida in
the national stock judging contests.
The state winner in the public speak-
ing contest will represent Florida in
a tri-state contest, and if successful
there, will go to as regional contest, and
then, to the national finals. Last year
a Florida boy, J. Wayne Poucher, of
Largo, won first in the national con-
This organization known as the
F. F. A. is but 13 years old and is an
outcome of the Smith-Hughes Law
which was passed by congress in 1917,
founding the Agicultural Education
Service in the United States Office of
Education. Since the F. F. A. was or-
ganized in 1928, it has grown national-
ly and extends into 47 states, Hawaii
.id Puerto Rico. Its present national
membership of 207,000 represents a 15
percent increase over the previous
As a part of their regular high
school course in vocational agriculture
they carry a supervised farming pro-
gram at home. In their regular chap-
ter meetings, where the boys run their
own show, they learn lessons of thrift
co-operation, citizenship -and charac-
ter-building. Truly, the Future Farrm-
ers cf America' organization is a great
Isbcratory, a human laboratory, where
character is developed and farm leader
ship is made. Future Farmers are in-
suring the future of agriculture by
practicing the words of their creed:
"Learning to Do; Doing to Learn;
Earning to Live; a'nd Living to Serve,"
The F. F. A. creed is as follows:
"I believe in the future of farming
with a faith born not of words but of
ceeds, achievements won by the pre-
s:nt and past generations of farmers;
in the promise of better days through
better ways, even as the better things
we now enjoy have come up o us from
the struggles of former years.
"I believe that to live and work on

Learning To Do
Doing To Learn
Earning To Live
Living To Serve

a good farm is pleasant as well as
challenging; for I know the joys and
discomforts of farm life and hold an
inborn fondness for those associations
which even in hours of discourage-
ment, I cannot deny.
"I believe in leadership from our-
selves and respect from others. I be-
lieve in my own ability to work ef-
ficiently and think clearly, with such
knowledge and skill as I can secure,
a'nd in the ability of organized farm-
ers to serve our own and the public in-
terest in the marketing of the product
of our toil. I believe we can safeguard
those rights against practices and
i.olicies that are unfair.
"I believe in less dependence on
bLgging and more power in bargain-
ing; in the life abundant and enough
honest wealth to make it so-for oth-
ers as well as myself; in less need for
charity and more of it when needed;
in being happy myself and playing
square with those whose happiness de-
pends upon me.
"I believe that rural America can
and will hold true to the best tradi-
tions of our national life and that I
can exert an influence in my home
and community which will stand solid
for my part in that inspiring task."

fContinued from page 4)
whole. Alpha Z.-ta is an honorary fra-
ternity of leaders among agriculture
students, with membership based on
scholastic standing and qualities of
leadership. This year Alpha Zeta step-
ped forward to lead in promoting an
Agriculture Fair, participated in by all
departments of the college. The Ag-
riculture College Council consists of
the presidents of the various student
crgae.nizat.ons in the college, and has
among other responsibilities the selec-
tion of the editor and business mana-
ger of this publication.
Of course the students fo the Col-
lege of Agriculture partake equally
with all other students of the Univer-
sity in the sports, lyceum entertain-
ments, dances, and other general ac-

MAY, 1940


PAGZv 1 0

By James Toffaleti, '39
The Department of Entomology
was established at the University of
Florida at the beginning of the scho-
lastic year 1924-25. In addition to the
regular teaching staff, a cooperative
staff was created in 1935 which In-
cluded the members of the Depart-
ment of Entomology of the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station and
the State Plant Board. At the pres-
ent time the staff consists of nine
members: Dr. E. W. Berger, Ento-
molgist, State Plant Board, Special
Lecturer Biological Control; Dr.
Mark F. Boyd, Rockefeller Founda-
tion, Special Lecturer, Medical Ento-
mology; Mr. Arthur C. Brown, Grove
Inspector, State Plant Board, Special
Lecturer, Plant Quarantine and In-
spection; Dr. Homer Hixson, Assist-
ant Professor, Medical and Veteri-
nary Entomology; Mr. G. B. Merrill,
Associate Entomologist, Florida State
Plant Board, Specia'l Lecturer, Tax-
onomy; Professor J. R. Watson, Ento-
mologist, Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station, Research Advis7r,
Economic Entomology and Insect
The student, by choosing proper
electives in addition to the entomol-
ogy course work, may train for one
if the following phases of the profes-
sion: Insects affecting man and ani-
mals; Industrial Entomology; Insects
affecting fruit, vegetable and field
crops; Legal phase of entomology or
plant quarantine and inspection; For-
est entomology and conservation; or
research phase of entomology and
graduate work.
The Department is well represented
in the Graduate School ranking about
fourth in the University in the num-
ber of students receiving advanced
degrees. It is also significant that a
high proportion of these recipients
of advanced degrees are engaged in
research work in the field of ento-
mology today.
The Pest Control Division of the
Department renders service in con-
trolling pests on the campus. Activi-
ties include control of pests of orna-
mental plants, the dormitories, cafe-
teria, and it attempts to prevent the
breeding of mosquitoes and houseflies.
The funds required to maintain the
division are appropriated annually
and besides the service rendered it
provides student employment. Valu-
able scientific data is accumulated
through this organization also. This
division is under the supervision of the
Head of the Department and includes
a graduate student as Assistant Su-
pervisor, and Associate Supervisor
and several Junior Pest Control Oper-


Grduate Assistantships are offered
each year. Two of these are available
in Pest Control and another is avail-
able as the Graduate Inspector. Re-
cently, permission was granted for the
establishment of a Freeport Sulfur
Company fellowship, and efforts are
being made to permit the establish-
ment of another with the Rockefeller
Majors in the Department of Ento-
mology increased from three to thirty
five during its existence which re-.
fleets the development and capacity
of the department in meeting the
needs of the student.

My Experience As
A Future Farmer

Belt Brewton, Tate Chapter
I enrolled in vocational agriculture
in the Tate school in October, 1936.
Of the many subjects in high school
I find none that interests me more
than agriculture. Under the instruc-
tion of Mr. T. L. Barrineau, I have
been given an opportunity to study
agriculture and learn the many things
it offers.
In my first year as a Future Farm-
er my supervised practice work con-
sisted of 1 brood sow, 3 acres of corn,
and a dairy heifer. During the year
my brood sow fa'rrowed 15 pigs which
I raised for market.
I consider my first corn crop a
success. I made a total of 70 bushels
which I used to feed my brood sow
and meat hogs. My first corn yield
as a Future Farmer was equal to the
average of our community. My total
labor income for the first year was
The second year I continued my
brood sow project and 11 pigs, three
acres of corn, and 1 dairy heifer. In
addition to these projects I worked a
total of 200 hours on my father's
truck farm, receiving ten cents an hour.
I also worked a total of 75 hours help-
ing a neighbor build his barn. I re-
ceived fifteen cents ain hour for this
For the school year of 1938-39 I
continued my brood sow project, 5
acres of corn, 4 meat hogs, 1 dairy
cow and one-half acre of Irish Pota-
toes. In addition to carrying out my
supervised practice work I was elected
to the Executive Committee of the
chapter, and was a member of the Live-
stock Judging Team which won fifth
place at the Tampa Fair and a prize
of $5.00.
I was also on the Livestock Judging
Team which won first place at Gain-
esville and competed in the national
contest at Kansas City.
After taking out all of my expenses

MAY, 1940


my total labor income for the third
year in vocational agriculture was
For the school year of 1939-40 I am
taking as my supervised practice work
1 brood sow, 11 pigs, 5 acres of corn,
and 200 baby chicks. I plan to sell
the cockerels on the market and keep
the pullets for laying hens.
In this, my senior year, I hare been
elected Secretary of the Chapter, was
on the Exhibit Judging Team which
went to the Florida State Fair in
Tampa, and I will be a member of the
Parliamentary Procedure Team when
the contest is held.
In planning my life work I have
considered a number of occupations
and find none that interests me more
than farming.
After graduating from high school
I plan to enter the University of Flor-
ida and continue the study of agri

Producing Strawberries And

J. B. Watts, Plant City Chapter
My first year of agricultural work
was in 1938-39. I had only one-half
acre of land, therefore, I could not
carry but two enterprises.
I had a strawberry project and
followed it with pepper. I was not
bothered with any diseases in my
strawberries but the red spider gave
me considerable trouble along the lat-
ter part of the season. I used pure
sulphur dust to destroy them. The mole
crichets and cut worms were the worst
insects of all. I had to put several
applications of poison bait before they
were controlled.
My yield was about thirty four
hundred pints, which averaged ten
cents per pint. My labor income was
The weather was rather dry the
first of the season but in the latter
part of the year the rains were heavy
and caused many culls in the berries.
I set pepper plants on the sides of
the berry rows. After the berries were
harvested I hoed them up and gave
the pepper more space. I wasn't both-
ered with any diseases. The mole crick-
ets and cut worms had haid time to get
another start in the field. I put an-
other application or two of poison
bait. This was the last of the insects
for the year.
I gathered one hundred and eighty
seven bushels of pepper. My labor in-
come was $250.00. The weather con-
ditions were very suitable for a good
pepper crop.
My second year in the agricultural
work was in 1939-40. I still had only
one-half acre of land. I had made such
a good crop the year before that I de-
cided to plant the same kind of crops
again, planting the one-half acre in
strawberries and following them with
(Continued on page 12)


S4-H Club News


GAINESVILLE, Fla.-Around 3,000
rural girls and boys of the 4-H clubs
are expected to spend a week this
summer at one of the three permanent
4-H club camps to be operated by
the State Agricultural Extension Serv-
ice, it was announced today by offici-
als of the organization.
Camp McQuarrie, in the Ocala
National Forest, will open June 10 and
continue through September 6. Camp
Timpoochee, in the Choctawhatchee
National Forest, will operate from June
17 to August 9. Camp Cherry Lake,
near Madison, will open July 8 and
close August 23.
Girls and boys from counties in ex-
treme western Florida will camp to-
gether at Clamp Timpoochee while
those from other areas will camp
separately at the other two sites. Each
camp is equipped to care for 100 camp-
ers each week. The youngsters will
be under the supervision of their
county and home demonstration ag-
G. T. Huggins, assistant county
agent in Lake, will be in charge of
Camp McQuarrie while Prof. C. P.
Sparks of Escambia County will direct
Camp Timpoochee. Some representa-
tive of the Extension Service, yet to be
selected, will direct activities at Camp
Cherry Lake.
A number of special .vents for both
men and women have been slated at
the three camps. The annual West
Florida Farm and Home Institute at
Camp Timpoochee is listed for July
18 and 19, while the North Florida
Farm and Home Institute at Camp
Cherry Lake is set for August 22 and
Poultrymen from all of Florida will
gather at Camp McQuarrie August 19-
24 for their annual institute The Lake
County Horticultural Association and
the Extension Service have set the
week of August 26 for the annual Cit-
rus Institute, and are inviting all citrus
growers to the sessions. The Feed Nu-
trition Institute September 4-6 will be
the closing even tof the calendar.

Schedule of Camp Timpoochee
(Boys and girls camp together here)
June 17-22 Escambia.
June 24-29 Holmes.
July 1-6 Washington, Okaloosa, Bay.
July 8-13 Walton.
July 29-Aug. 3 Calhoun-Gulf.
Aug. 5-9 Jackson.
Schedule of Cherry Lake Camp
July 8-13 Wildlife Camp.
July 15-20 Girls.
July 22-27 Girls.
Aug. 5-10 Leon, Jefferson, Dixie,
Nassau, Duval, Baker, Columbia Boys.
Aug. 12-17 Madison, Suwannee, La-
fayette, Taylor Boys.
Aug. 22-23 Farm and Home Institute.
Schedule For Camp MoQuarrie
June 10 to 15 Union, Bradford, Hills-
boro, Gilchrist 4-H Boys.
June 1 to 6 Hardee, DeSoto, Pasco,
Sumter 4-H Girls.
July 8 to 13 Marion, Levy, Citrus,
Lake, 4-H Girls.
July 15 to 20 Lake, Volusia, Putnam,
Orange 4-H Boys.
July 22 to 27 Dade, Palm Beach,
Okeechobieeo Brevard, Lee, Charlotte
4-H Boys.
July 29 to August 3 St. Johns, Mar-
'on, Levy 4-H Boys.
August 5 to August 10 Pasco, Citrus,
Hernando, Sumter, 4-H Boys.
August 12 to Aug. 17 Hardee, DeSoto,
Manatee, Pinellas, Alachua 4-H Boys.
August 19 to Aug. 24 Poultry Insti-
tute, Poultry Producers.
Aug. 26 to Aug. 31 Citrus Institute,
Citrus Producers.
Sept. 4-6, Feed Nutrition Institute.


Columbia County 4-H club boys are
good credit risks. They bought 10 bred
gilts last Fall and they recently com-
pleted payment in full on the notes
they gave the Chamber of Commerce
when they obtained the animals, ac-
cording to County Agent Guy Cox.
High school boys of the county are
showing considerable interest in the
organization of the Columbia County
Conservation Club, the purpose of
which is to protect game and fish.

4-H Quartette Will
Leave For Washington

Four Florida 4-H members, two
boys and two girls are now preparing
to attend the National Club Camp in
Washington, June 12-19, having been
chosen for the honor by officials from
the State Agricultural Extension Ser-
vice. They are Mary Lucy Hughes of
Dade, Evelyn Hayne of Pinellas, David
Littleton of Lake, and Glen Davis of

Escambia County.
Young Littleton has been a member
of the 4-H club for five years ,and his
recent activities have been directed by
County Agents R. E. Norris and G.
T. Huggins. His work has been con-
cerned with gardening livestock,
poultry, home beautification, and
handicraft projects. During 1939 he
made $177.60 profit on his project
work. He has been reporter, secretary
and vice-president of his club and is
president cf tLe county council, com-
posed of representatives of all clubs
in the county.
Glen Davis has been 4-H club boy
for seven years and has an equally
impressive record. His projects have
dealt with piga, corn, cotton, white
potatoes, calves, peanuts, poultry, and
sugarcane. His profits last year were
$183.43, according to his record book
submitted to County Agent E. H. Fin-
He held the office of reporter, sec-
retary-treasury, vice-president and
pr-sident of the county council. Of
his work, county Agent Finlayson
says: "Glen has been a leader in his
community for the past four years.
He has taken an active part in en-
i-1ling new members and helping them
with their record books."
The group, accompanied by a re-
presentative of the State Home De-
monstration Department, will leave
shortly after attending annual short
courses for 4-H boys and girls at the
University of Florida and Florida State
College for Women during the week
of June 3. At this time they will re-
ceive final instructions for their trip,
which was awarded them because of
outstanding records over a, period of
Each member of the quartet has
been enrolled in 4-H clubs conducted
by home demonstration agents for
at least six years. Each has amassed
a record in leadership as well as in
project work.

MAY, 1940





MAY, 1940

Florida Fights
Against Hookworm

I. D. Pittman, Marianna Chapter
I enrolled in vocational agriculture
in September, 1937. I wai initiated in-
to the Green Hand degree that same
year and received a pin.
My supervised practice work for the
first year was one half acre of sweet
potatoes, one-half acre of roasting ear
corn, and one dairy cow. I made $18.10
on my sweet potatoes the first year;
$15.32 on my corn, and $77.35 on my
cow. My cow netted me the largest
profit so I decided to continue the
project for the next year.
At the beginning of the next school
term I decided to enlarge the project
program I had by adding a hog. I
I also decided to enlarge the ones I
already had. My project program for
this year consisted of cne acre of
sweet potatoes, one-half acre of roast-
ing ear corn, my dairy cow, and a
barrow. I made a larger profit on my
projects the second year than I did
the first. I cleared $29.40 on my
sweet potatoes, $30.44 on my corn,
$109.00 on my dairy cow, and $13.23
on my barrow. I would have made a
larger profit on my barrow if I hadn't
had to buy all the feed. I fed him
corn and a protein supplement.
I won second prize, which was $7.50.
on my barrow at the Jackson County
F. F. A. barrow show which was held
at the West Florida Auction Market
the last week in April.
For my third year I have selected
the same projects that I had the
second year. I took the same amount
of sweet potatoes, I enlarged my corn
projects to two acres, and I added one
more hog to my last year's project
and took my dairy cow again.
I plan to change my variety of sweet
potatoes this year and try to increase
my production at least 25 per cent. I
am planting my sweet potatoes on
new ground. We have about an acre
of good land on the back part of our
field and my father said if I would
cut the scrub oaks off it he would
have it broken up and I could use it
for my sweet potato project.
I have cut the trees and underbrush
and it has been harrowed twice. I
plan to take a Joe Harrow and straigh-
ten out and then break it with a steel
beam. After that I will lay it off and
plant my potato draws.
I have had an exceptional good crop
of roasting ear corn each year. There
is a low mucky place on our farm that
covers about half an acre. For the
first two years I planted it in roasting
ear corn. This year I have cleared
about a quarter of an acre on each
side to make an acre. I plan to plant
one acre of roasting ear corn and
one acre of field corn. I plant my
roasting ear corn early as possible each

year and in that way I can get a
better price for my corn. I then turn
all the old stalks and grass under and
plant turnips on it. In this way I can
get crops on the same land each year.
Some of my improvement projects
for the three years are: planting a
flower garden, putting out a hedge
around our home, planting fig trees,
helping build a barn, building a fence,
clearing land, breeding dairy cows to
pure bred bulls, and improving my
variety of sweet potatoes. I have
carried out these improvement pro-
jects to the fullest extent.
I planted about twelve fig trees and
five saotsuma orange trees in my
garden. Next year I am going to get
some shrubs and set them around my
front and side porch. I have already
made a lattice to let vines run on
this summer. I plan to make my home
as beautiful as possible with little

(Continued from page 10)
pepper. I have not made as much this
year as I did last year.
The same pests bother me again
this year, namely, red spider, moles
crickets, and cut worms. I controlled;
them the same way I did last year.
My strawberry yield was one thou-
sand and twenty seven pints which
averaged ten cents per pint. My labor
income was $150.00.
As you know the freeze came about
the time the crop was in full pro-
duction. This set the crop back for
five or six weeks. When the next crop
of berries came it was too late. The
berries would become soft and could
not be shipped very well. The buyers
would not pay enough to pay the
farmers to harvest their crop.
I had some early pepper but the
freeze came and destroyed it. I had
straw on it but it didn't save it. I
planted pepper in the field just after
the freeze. It looks fairly good now,
but I am afraid the sun will be too
hot and cause it to blister.


Miss Mildred Boley of Lake Alfred,
outstanding member of the Polk Co-
unty 4-H club for girls directed by
Miss Lois Godbey, home demonstration
agent, is tops in singing as well as in
homemaking projects.
She won national honors with a
contralto solo at a recent regional music
festival at West Palm Beach, in ad-
dition to having made first division
rating at the State Music Festival in
Tampa sometime ago. Miss Boley will
attend the annual Girls' 4-H Club
Short Course in Tallahassee Jun el-8.

By William Davis Parker, '43
Few people realize the dangers of
hookworm. Most of us, when we do
have occasion to think of it, merely
dismiss it as a children's disease,
which, although it may now and then
cause some distress, really isn't harm-
ful. In other words, we are inclined
to think of it simply as "one of those
things". This line of reasoning, how-
ever, is far from being correct. The
truth' is that, while hookworm prob-
ably has never resulted directly in a
fatality, it has paved the way for a
grea, many diseases which take their
toll in human life and misery. The
Sketched rural children: devoid of
energy, anemic, miserable looking
cieatures-they are an example of
what hookworm does. Hookworm is
indeed a serious health problem.
The state of Florida, according to
reports prepared by the Florida State
Board of Health in conjunction with
Vanderbilt University and the Rocke-
feller Foundation, has th'e highest rate
of hookworm in the nation with 34.8
per cent of its rural white population
infected with the disease. The disease
is most prevalent in rural sections,
and while many southern states ex-
ceed Florida with respect to the num-
'.TI-' of rural folk, the sandy soils
found in Florida combine with the
abundant rainfall to make this state
a veritable paradise for hookworm.
The western part of the state, follow-
ed by the northeastern and central
portions, are the most infested areas,
with' as many as 80 per cent of the
school children having hookworm. It
can be easily seen that with condi-
tions as they are, there health of this
state is sorely in need of a revitaliz-
ing influence. Or, rather than take
this extreme position, the health f
t:'e state is genuinely in danger un-
less preventive steps are taken.
Hookworms are contracted by
handling, or coming in contact with
polluted ground. After contact has
been made, the hookworm bores into
the skin of its victim causing the
familiar "ground itch". The worm
gets into the bloodstream, makes its
way to the heart, the lungs, the stom-
ach, and finally the small intestine.
It is here that the worm does its
damage. By means of the sucker-like
hooks on its head, it attaches itself to
the wall of the intestine and derives
nourishment by sucking blood. One
-'jokworm, since it lays eggs at the
rate of 9000 each day, can speedily
cause trouble. As many as 300 worms
have been found in one person, and
Shen this number, or even many less
are all engaged in sucking one's blood
they use more blood than the organs
(Continued on page 13)

PAGF, 12

PAGE 12-


(Continued from page 12)
of one's body. The results are obvious.
Children who are continuously being
deprived of necessary blood, and in
addition, being made the subjects of
other and more disastrous diseases,
live constantly in a weakened condi-
tion and consequently grow into men
and women warped both in mind and
Sanitation is the keynote to the
eradication of hookworm. Hookworms
can live in the ground for months,
and for this reason, adequate toilet
facilities are an absolute necessity.
For the past several years, the State
Board of Health, through many de.-
vices, has been at work on the prob-
lem. Many of its agents who specialize
only in hookworm control, travel
about the state delivering lectures to
civic organizations, conferring with
the County Health Departments, and
in general, acquainting the public
with the necessity for hookworm con-
trol. Also, in the public schools of the
state, school children have been
taught the dangers of hookworm and
the means by which it can be pre-
vented. Clinics have been set up for
the cure of the disease. As was stated
previously, Florida ranks first and
foremost in the percentage of infect-
ed persons, although rapid strides
have been taken toward the control
of the disease. Even now, many per-
sons either do not realize the serious-
ness of the problem or because of
thier own interests refuse to be con-
cerned with the control of the dis-
ease. For example, a state senator,
representing the people of a county
which has an unusually high percent-
age of cases, when asked by an agent
of the State Board to remedy the ob-
vious dfeects of his own toilet facili-
ties and use his influence to have
others in his community do likewise,
refused to take any part. His answer
was that he, himself, had hookworm
his several children had hookworm,
probably always would have it, and
it was not harming any of them. One
can imagine just how this gentleman
will vote on any appropriations bill
for health service which comes up in
the state senate.
The great majority of people, how-
ever, once they understand the dan-
gers of hookworm, are only too will-
ing to help in the control and eradi-
cation of the disease. Perhaps the
Florida law which makes a misde-
meanor of maintaining the old open-
back privies has played an important
part in shaping public opinion toward
copoerating with health officials in
creating sanitary conditions. At any
rate, the wheels of health service are
moving and gaining momentum every
day and 'the hookworm had better dig
in for a long hard fight!

by F. 'ardo de Zela, Jr. '41

The condition in which agriculture
in the Latin American republics found
itself at the beginning of the century
can be attributed to several factors.
The Spanish, Portuguese and French
who conquered the Indians were pri-
marily soldiers and adventurers in-
terested in exploiting the new lands
for their quick wealth, principally in
the form of precious metals. Thus the
truly advanced forms of agriculture
which had been developed, through
centuries by the Indians-the Aztecs
in Mexico and the Incas in Peru-
were not only ignored but, in affect
destroyed by the virtual enslavement
of the natives for the work in the
The settlement of Europeans upon
the land, such as that practiced in the
British colonies of North America, was
unknown. Such farming as existed
was carried on by peons or African
slaves on the huge estates of Euro-
pean favorites, soldiers and religious
The establishment of republican
forms of government did little to
change basic agricultural conditions.
Of course, imperial barriers against
foreign trade were removed, and some
commerce in agricultural products got
under way. Certain countries gradual-
ly discovered that local conditions were
suitable for the raising of one particu-
lar crop; thus Cuba and Peru produc-
ed sugar, Argentina and Uruguay rais-
ed cattle, Brazil and the Caribbean
countries grew coffee.
By 1900 the foregoing picture had
simply filled out in detail, though no
great change in character had occur-
red. Immigration from southern and
western Europe was concurring, due
in part to the wars and revolutions on
that continent, a*nd the frontiers being
pushed back The great bulk of the
population -the native Indians-still
existed as small farmers, subsisting by
mean of the same primitive forms of
agriculture and trading to which they
had been accustomed for centuries.
By 1900 the countries of Latin
America hadc become important export-
ers of food products, a tendency great-
ly accelerated by World War I. Devel-
opment of refrigerated cars and steam-
ships made possible Argentina's huge
exports of meat and meat products
the exportation of banana from the
Caribbean countries ,and out-of-season
deciduous fruit from ArEentina and
Chile and elsewhere. Machinery and
tractors have replaced hand and ani-
mr'l labor, and help-d to make agri-
culture a cash business with its at-
tendant advantages and disadvantages.
The growth of highways and railroads


in Latin American countries has open-
ed up new farming areas, while the
rapid dispatch of men, goods and mail
by plane has speeded up the whole
tempo of agriculture and agricultural
education generally.
The 1914-'18 war brought thousands
of additional acres under cultivation,
while the depression which followed,
with its emphasis on national self-
sufficiency, left huge surpluses of
wheat, coffee, cotton and other Latin
American commodities without a
market. One painful lesson on the im-
portance of science in agriculture was
taught to Latin America. during this
period, when the English and Dutch
took away such native American plants
as rubber, cacao, cinchona, and others,
and by careful breeding and market-
ing, gained control of a considerable
part of the world market.
Lets compare the Latin American
area' to its competitors, that is, to
those countries lying between the same
parallels of latitude. In the latter
position one finds most of Africa, Ara-
bia, India, Australia, New Zealand and
the East Indies. Without begging the
question, one may say that few geogr-
a hic entities found among these re-
present truly autonomous units; most
cf them owe allegiance of one sort or
another to some European power of
the northern hemisphere. In these
Northern countries the predominant
economic activity consists of manu-
facturing, trading investing, or a
combination of these. They have a
ready outlet for their surplus popula-
tion, products and capital, while their
dependencies enjoy an easy market for
their non-competitive raw materials.
They are able to furnish, in addition,
a tremendously rich supply of techni-
cal men and information to assist in
the most economic and rational de-
velopment of the colonial resources.
The independent republics of Latin
America, lacking thel foregoing ad-1
vintages and hampered in their trad-
ing by the restrictions of economic
nationalism, early turned to one an-
other and to wider international or-
ganizations in an attempt to correct
the disparity.
And as such, Latin American took
part in the Rome Conference of 1905,
and at present, most of them belong
to the International Institute of Agri-
culture, created by that conference
And they kept going to Agricultural
Conferences: Santiago, Chile, 1908;
Buenos Aires, 1910; Washington, 1915;
Lima, 1924; Mexico City, 1935, and of
course, in all Pan-America#n Cbnfer-
ences the Agricultural problem in re-
lation to commerce was studied.
In concluding this survey of this
(Continued on page 14)

MAY, 1940



MAY, 1940

(Continued from page 13)
century of agriculture in Latin Aemri-
ca, it may be said that these lands
are destined to become perhaps the
greatest suppliers of food, fibers, and
other raw products in the world. Al-
ready tremendous strides have been
made; for example, Latin America
provides one-fifth of the cattle hides
used in the world's tanneries; a very
high proportion of the world's coffee;
about one-third of the world's cane
sugar; one-third of the world's cacao:
and in addition large quantities of
rubber, bananas and other fruits, nuts
and oil seeds, cotton, tanning materi-
a'ls, dyes, drugs, and many other pro-
Two great needs have always been
capital to develop communications and
other facilities, and population to serve
as agricultural labor and as consum-
ers. The natural increase of the popu-
lation, now evident, together with
government programs to admit agri-
cultural colonists, indicates that the
latter problem is in process of
solution. Greater crop diversification
and general improvements are notice-
able; and agriculture, as least in the
temperate parts of Latin America, is
generally in a thoroughly prosperous

Short Course Slated

Nearly 900 boys and girls, members
of 4-H clubs conducted by county and
home demonstration agents in over 40
Florida counties, will be college stud-
ents during the week of June 3. They
will be attending their annual short
courses at Florida State College for
Women in Tallahassee and the Univ-
ersity of Florida in Gainesville.
Some 550 of the girls will assemble
at State Cbllege for Women in Tall-
ahassee on Saturday, June 1, for a full
week of instruction and inspirational
training given by Miss Mary E. Keown
and members of her state home de-
monstration staff. On Monday, June
3, around 325 4-H boys from practical-
ly every county where county agent
work is conducted will gather at the
University of Florida for a week ot
intensive instruction and recreation
directed by R. W. Blacklock, state
boy's club agent with the Extension
Facilities of both State College for
Women and the University of Florida
will be enjoyed by the girls and boys

during their annual short courses.
They will stay in the dormitories, just
as regular term students do, and eat
in the college cafeteria and dining
Similar short courses have been held
for over a quarter century, since the
early days of demonstration work on
farms and in rural homes. Each
course culminates a year of work and
,accomplishment by the girls and
boys. Those attending this year will
represent an enrollment in excess of
Principal theme of the boys' short
course will be conservation of the soil,
according to the program now being
prepared by Mr. Blacklock. During the
week Bernard Joy of the USDA Exten-
sion Service will conduct a special
course on 4-H organization for county
Civic clubs, county commissioners,
school boards and other organizations
and individuals have contributed free
scholarships for the boys and girls
who have done outstanding work dur-
ing the past year.


It is necessary that we consider Walton Ckounty as a whole in order to evaluate the agriculture program of
Walton High Walton County is a county without any "get rich quick" natural resource Its future and
economic good seem to depend upon a long range program in agriculture livestock and reforestation We
can readily see that this situation presents a Wonderful opportunity for the agriculture department in our
school It is my opinion that our agriculture department fully recognizes its opportunity and responsibility
I further believe that our department is definitely meeting the needs of a large number of boys and is
cooperaing in making our entire program a functional one





Cr -~~~~A~

Club boys learn how to bud and graft and care for young trees at the
Short Course

The 4-H club girls have their annual style revue during
Course in Tallahassee each year

"Citizens, Wherever We Ser

Sparks Theatres ol

In Gainesville its the Florida an



SUIT $16.50



Gainesville, Florida

4-H Steer Wins
Once again Florida 4-H club boys
have demonstrated their ability to
meet grown farmers in their own fields
and do as well as their elders, if not
Packers and stockmen were jubilant
when it was announced recently that
the grand champion steer in the Flor-
ida Fat Stock Show and Sale had
dressed out 67.01 percent when
slasaghtered, seldom excelled by steers


Most Plant-Food
the girls Short per bag
Lowest Cost in
handling or apply-
ve!" Most Crop for each
unit of plant-food
Lowest Fertilizer
[ Fl Cost for each unit
Fla. of crop
Sendfor our booklet


MAY, 1940



5/Y and
Nothing much to look at
yet.picturedby Craftsmen.
it all becomes a Subject
lDramatically Beautiful.'

So it is with Photo Sngrav-
ings. 7he reproduction ofyour
merchandise by experienced
,Arlisans is given that. ..
"Selling Spark"




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