Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00033
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00033
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text

The ~ WIr

Florida For,

College Farmer Ag. Student

Published by Agricultural Students at the University of Florida

VOL. VIII MAY, 1940 NO. 3


Entomology Advances
In Florida
By James Toffaletti

N. Expose-
By W.ayne Dean

I.. "~ 'L ~ Student Teachers Hold
Joint Meeting
: "B\ Evetette H Wilcox

(1) Adelocephala Isias Bdv.; (2)
Wro\te-Lirne:l Sys.phirL. Adelocephala
abohrneata G and R --aio known as
Syssphinx albotineata; I3) Honey-
Slocust Moth, Alelocephala bicolor
Hfrr; I 41 Royal Walnut-motIh, Cit,-
hIerroa recalik Fabr 15) Rosy
Mapi- .-mth. ArnizLot ubicunda Fabr.
.I*,Malei. ,61 Olangr -sttiped Oak-
SWlrn Motl. Anrilsta natolia A. and
S.: I 7 Rosy Maple-moth, Anisota
Sn t.lr ia Fab Femalel: (8) Im-
perial Moth, Eaclcs ipnperials Dru.-
alio knw n as Bas.ltra imperialis;
1(01 Heilhgtlo. it's Sy\sphuIx. Adeloce-
ph ala he-iligh!o-Rit Har' \-also known
as Sy3'phirx hcllighrodti: 10) Stigma
Moth, Ani-ajta tigmna Fabr. talee;
(11) Stigma Moth, Anliota stigma
Fabi. IFemale).

permission from the
d National Geographic Society

.S i


The Florida College Farmer
Published four or more times during the school year in the
months of November, January, March, and May by repres-
entatives of student organizations, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida.
J. Lester Poucher ................. Editor
Loran V. Carlton ...... Business Manager
Editorial staff (contingent): Associate editors, Myron G.
Grennell, Curtis Ulmer, Earl Faircloth, Joe Heitaman;
Departmental editors, Arthur P. Ellis, Leroy Fortner, Wilson
Suggs, Eugene Boyles, Joe Adams, Robert Granger, Ted
Purvis, Johnny McLaurin, Glen Steckel, Warren Wood,
Harold Brewer, Charles Wincey, Eric Mills, Ben Woodham,
Thomas Skinner, Claude Slater, Burnice Dean, Charles
How ll, Clint Brandon, M. C. Eldridge, Bill Atwater, Roy
Business staff (contingent): Advertising Manager, Wilson
Suggs, Circulation Manager, Floyd Eubanks, Assistants,
David Coverston, Ormcnd Hendry, Tom Pulliam, Art Ellis,
Bennett Dominick, Tommy Lunsford, James D. McClung,
B. G. Clayton.
Faculty Advisory Committee
Dean H. H. Hume, ex-officio Chairman, H. S. Wolfe,
Chairman, L. M. Thurston, W. G. Kirk. C. H. Willough-
by, E. A. Ziegler.. i
Entered to second class mailing matter at the Post Office
at University Station, Gainesville, Florida. December 8.
1938, under Act of Congress of 1879. Advertising rates
furnished upon request. Subscription prioe-thirty cents.




Agricultural College Council
Pres.: Don Brooke

Collegiate Chapter, Future
Farmers of America
Pres.: John D. Butler

Agricultural Club
Pres.: "Strawberry" Syfrett
Forestry Club
Pres.: Frank Chappell

Newell Entomological Society
Pres.: John Frederick

Block and Bridle
Pres.: John Kinzer

Alpha Zeta
r' -res. Don Brooke

Alpha Tau Alpha
Pres.: Joel P. Keen

Pres.: Lorry Mitchell



The Fifth Annual Florida, Entomo-
logical Conference sponsored by the
Newell Entomological Society com-
memorated the fiftieth anniversary of
the teaching phase of entomology in
the South.
Dr. H. A. Morgan, pioneer teacher
of entomology in the southern states,
was honored at the annual banquet
during the conference. Many other
prominent entomologists were also
present during the three day session.
Dr. Morgan, now chairman of the.
Tennessee Valley Authority, was form-
erly president of the University of
Tennessee and director of the Ten-
nessee Agricultural Experiment Sta-
tion. He was a pioneer professor of
zoology and entomology in Louisiana
and in Tennessee and state entomolo-
gist of Tennessee for fifteen years. Dr.
Morgan was at one time entomologist
and secretary of the Louisiana Crop
Pest Commission. He is a past presi-
dent of the American Association of
Economic Entomologists.
Dr. Morgan is credited with the dis-
coveries concerning the life-history of
the cattle tick which he made at the
Louisiana Experiment Station prior to
1905, and which led to tick eradication.
Dr. Morgan's conference address was
titled "The Future of Entomology."
The Canadian Government, recogniz-

ing the important part played by a
former son in the development of
southern entomology sent Doctor
Arthur Gibson, Chief of the Divisui:t
of Entomology of the Department of
Agriculture of the Dominion of Cana-
dt Ls its special represent tive. Dr.
.;ibhcon addressed the conference
rn The Organization and Activities
of the Canadian Entomological Divi-
Dr. Gibson was formerly chief of
the Division of Field Crops and Garden
Insects and has headed the Domiil- ',
ion's entomologioal activities since
1920. He is past president of th' En-
tomological Society of 'America, the
American Association of Economic En-
tomologists and (he Entomological
Society of Canada, and is also a Fel-
low of the Entomological Society of
Dr. .Herbert Osborne. Professor
EmEritus of the Ohio State University,
wa. al:o present for the conference
Dr. Osborne's topic was "The Early
History of EntomoloFical Teaching in
America." He is known widely through-
out the country as one of the most out-
standing educators in the field of
Another prominent entomological
educator who appeared on the pro-
gram was Dr. Z. P. Metcalf Head of
the Department of Entomology and
Zoology and Director qf Instruction


The persistent and untiring efforts
of genial Jimmie Tofaletti who suc-
ceede in hog-tieing a few majors in
entomology,to give them a bit of ex.-
perience in writing scientific :stories.
The Staff believe these stories to be
highly significant and are presenting
some of them in the current issue
with regrets that lack of space pre-
cluded the publishing of all the manu-
scripts turned in ..... more orchids to
Dr. Creighton and Dr. Hixson whose
kindly advice and profound ability
have enriched the readability of the
current stories. For the first time in
the history of the FLORIDA COL-
LEGE FARMER, we are publishing a
special issue devoted to the insects
of Florida and the work of the De-
partment of Entomology in the Col-
lege of Agriculture. We present 'this
. issue with anticipation of greatC' in-
terest on the part of our readers We
are glad to bring to light ;he Vital,
role in Florida's prosperity which the
Department of Entomology is so
modestly performing.

at the North Carolina State College
Dr. Metcalf's address was "The His-
tory of the Instruction of Entomolo-
gy in the South."


MAY, 1940

By James Toffaletti, '39

Entomology rated a place in the col-
lege curriculum after chemistry, phy-
sics, aind biology had been recognized
as legitimate subjects before which it
was included in courses in zoology. In
many instances the teaching of in-
sect anatomy and classification and
sometimes life-history and economic
details were merged in courses of
biology or zoology. The economic re-
quirements in entomology were pro-
bably responsible for its gaining equal
rating with, other studies.
The early history of entomological
training in Florida follows closely the
development of the University of Flor-
ida and its predecessor, the Florida
Agricultural CoAlege which was locat-
ed in Lake City. At the time of the
founding of the College at Lake City
in 1884, the research workers in the
Agricultural Experiment Station were
also members of the faculty. Dr. Wil-
liam Ashmeacd, historically the first
Entomologist resident in Jacksonville
prepared an -excellent bulletin on en-
tomology. Later publications of Dr.
Ashmead established him as a scientist
of unusual ability.
The first resident entomologist of
the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station was Dr. J. C. Neal, a practic-
ing physician from Arch-er. His depart-
ment was located on the second floor
of a frame building and consisted of a
cubby-hole for an office and a one-
room laboratory. In 1892 Dr. P. H.
Rolfs was made Professor of Natural
Sciences, Geology, Astronomy, Ento-
mology, and Botany. In the words of
Dr. Rolfs the situation was described
aos follows: "I had from 18 to 25 hours
in the classroom each wsek. The rest
of the time if I felt so disposed, could
be devoted to research in Entomology
and Botany. This was slightly relieved
when A. L. Quaintance came as as-
sistant, but the relief was more ap-
parent than real, as my department
had to assume the teaching of Horti-
culture." Dr. Neal and Dr. Rolfs pub-
lished several bulletins on entomology
about this time.
A. L. Quaintance, who later served
for many years as Chief of the Divis-
ion of Deciduous Fruit Insects in the
United States Bureau of Entomology,
was appointed as a member of the staff
of the Biology Department. He must
be credited with many valuable con-
tributions to our knowledge of fruit
insects. Mr. Quaintance became Station
Entomologist and was later succeeded
in this position by Professor H. A.
The Agricultural Course was the
first course offered students in the
Lake City institution, and by 1897, 32

Dr. John T. Creighton, Head of the
Department of Entomology of the Col-
lege of Agriculture, serves as friend
and adviser to students who come to
him for instruction.

students had graduated from the Flor-
ida Agricultural College. In 1904, Dr.
E. H. Sellards was appointed Profes-
sor of zoology and entomology al-
so Entomologist of the Experiment
Station. The next year the Florida
Agricultural College at Lake City and
several other state institutions were
combined into the University of Flor-
ida at Gainesville.
In 1905 word came from Washing-
ton that unless the Experiment Station
was made completely autonomous,
federal funds would be withheld. For a
line of demarcation between the Ex-
periment Station and the University
proper, the Board of Control, in 1906,
ruled that all materials and apparatus
paid for from Experiment Station
funds must be turned over to the Ex-
periment Station. This left the Univ-
ersity Department of Entomology a-
bout as bare as it was in 1892. Every-
thing had been bought with Station
At Gainesville, the south end of a
dormitory, consisting of six rooms on
three floors was set aside for the Ex-
periment Station laboratories. Offic-
es. were non-existent and libraries
were confined to books shelved in the
Dr. E. W. Berger began entomologi-
cal work in Florida as Station Ento-
moligst in 1906 and held this position
for several years He was then appoint-
ed Entomologist of the newiy-created
State Plant Board in 1915, a capacity

in which he still serves. His early work
on the fungus parasites of citrus pests
and methods for utilizing the Ascher-
sonia fungi in controlling the white
fly of citrus has resulted in great sav-
ings in the control of this pest.
Dr. P. H. Rolfs became Director of
the Experiment Station in 1906 and
held this position until 1920. He gave
strong support to entomological re-
search and is largely responsible for
the growth of this branch in Florida
and other states. Dr. Rolfs, after near-
ly thirty years in Florida went south
in the real sense of the word. After
his directorship at the Florida Station
he organized the Agricultural College
of the State of Minas Geraes at Vicosa,
Brazil where he is now located.
The course in Entomology taught by
Professor Sellard emphasized the ec-
onomic phase, particularly the insects
of Florida and their control. In the
Normal School, Professor W. L. Floyd
taught courses in biological science in
which entomology was included.
Dr. H. S. Davis was appointed Prof-
essor of Zoology in the College of Arts
and Sciences in 1908. A course in En-
tomology and a course in Economic
Zoology for agricultural students which
was devoted chiefly to insects and re-
lated forms were taught by Dr. Davis
who served on the staff for many
In 1923, Dr. T. H. Hubbell began
teaching courses in Entomology in the
Biology Department. At the same time,
a course in Agricultural Entomology
was given by Professor John Gray,
who, in 1924, was made head of the
newly-established Department of En-
tomology and Plant Pathology in the
College of Agriculture. Among the
courses taught at that time were:
Farm, Garden, and Orchard Insects;
Insectary Practice; and Taxonomy. In
1927, Advanced Economic Entomology;
Fruit Insects; and Greenhouse and
Garden Pests were courses added to
the curriculum. These were later au.
gumented by courses in Insecticides
and Fungicides; Advanced Insect
Morphology; Diseases and Insects of
Citrus; and Apiculture.
Professor Gray was succeeded by
Dr. John T. Creighton who is now
Head Professor in the Department. In
1937, Dr. Homer Hixson was appoint-
ed to the staff of the department and
a course in Medical and Veterinary
Entomology was added to the curricu-
lum. At the present time a well-round-
ed curriculum is offered in the field
of Entomology leading to the degrees,
Batchelor or Science in Agriculture,
and Master of Science. The depart-
(Continued on page 8)

11111E_ 1111!w



MAY 1940


Florida's Misunderstood Pests of Man and Animal

By Wayne Dean, '38

Even in this era of widespread in-
formation and scientific knowledge
there are still to be found many er-
roneous ideas pertaining to pestilential
bugs. When stories live on the tongue
of man, they grow by the natural tend-
ency to exaggerate. This fact, combin-
ed with the sensationalsim that is
strived for in popular publications, is
largely responsible for the continued
existence of misconceptions. Many of
the crawling creatures found basking
under our Florida sun bear the brune
of startling tales.
The story goes that the bite of the
centipede, sometimes known as the
'hundred-legged worm,' is deadly pois-
onous and that wherever it crawls over
the skin, the tissue rots out. Although
all centipedes are provided with large
poison glands and poison fangs, only
the bite of the large tropical species is
to be feared and even it is rarely fatal.
In truth the Florida centipedes are
practically harmless, their bite only
causing a local swelling. Cases have
been reported where a double reddish
streak has been left by a centipede
crawling over the skin, but the ulti-
mate effect was never of any conse-
Another bugaboo that has been much
overrated is the scorpion. And justly
so, the sting of this ugly and ferocious
appearing fellow is often thought of as
deadly poison. The sting of the Flor-
ida scorpions causes a great deal of
pain, but the effect is only comparable
to the sting of a bee. The Durango
scorpion in the West is exceptionally
poisonous and its sting is often fatal
to children from one to seven years
of age.
The whip scorpion or "grampus" is
another even more ferocious appearing
marauder which is often confused With
the true scorpion. It is generally re-
garded as poisonous, but it is not even
equipped with a stinging organ. Its
only protection being the ability to bite
and the secretion of an acrid-smelling
fluid that may burn the skin. The
bite is not serious; however it results
in a slight mechanical injury.
Probably no poisonous arthropod
animal that occurs in Florida has re-
ceived as much publicity as the black
widow. As she has been painted, one
would be afraid to venture forth for
fear this small demon would leap up-
on him from her lair in the darkness
and smite him down. In reality this
spider is not aggressive and will not
bite unless agitated or attracted by a
motion that simulates the action of its

prey; and although its poison is more
coxic than that of the rattlesnake, its
bite is rarely fatal except to aged or
inmirm individuals. This is due to the
small size of the poison sacs and con-
sequenuly the small amount of poison
injected. Other spiders m the state
are not malignant to man or animals
with the exception of one of the taran-
tulas which fI.quently comes to us
from the tropics concealed in bunches
of imported bananas. Its bite, while
poisonous and decidedly painful, it nat
dangerous. Many other large spiders
are often confused with the tarantulas,
especially those named "wolf spiders."
.Iearly everyone who has walked
through a weed-infested area at cer-
Lain times of the year, usually in the
summer or autumn, hats experienced
an infestation of chiggers or red bugs
as they are commonly called. These
small mites cause an exceedingly severe
itcning sensation and it is commonly
thought that they bore into the skin.
This, however, is not the e case as tney
attach at the surface of the skin by
means of their small jaws and inject
a toxic substance that causes the con-
tinued itching. The nymph and adult
chiggers live an animal refuse and de-
caying vegetable matter in the soil and
it is only the newly hatched larvae
that attack man and animals.
Although it is not commonly known,
the conditions known as mange and

scaly-leg of poultry are caused by
mites. One of these mites burrows in
the skin of man causing the condition
known as seven year itch. Unthrifty
chickens and dying baby chicks are
sometimes a puzzling problem to farm-
ers. Often this condition is due to
another insidious bloodsucking mite
that remains hidden during the day
and swarms out at night to devour the
farmer's prospective shekels. Fowl
ticks also follow a similar exercise re-
sulting in like damage. Other mites of
birds and rats are prone to feed on
human blood when left stranded by
their normal hosts, inducing a quandry
as to che source of such infestations;
but as this is an abnomal condition it
invariably corrects itself if the attack
is endured.
It is the general opinion that there
are only two or three kinds of ticks in
Florida, but in reality there are ten or
twelve species. The small seed tick is
merely the immature sage of one of
the several species. Each of the three
stages of each species fills with the
blood of its host to become distended
and blue.
When ticks are found attached one
thinks only of the fact that they are
biting, and not that several kinds may
transmit diseases. The relapsing fever
tick normally lives in the den or rest-
ing place of turtles, swine, and other

(Continued on page 8)

Screwworm infestation in the brisket of the cow. This condition is due to horn-
hook. (Fla. Agri. Lxpt. Station)




MAY, 1940

Relationship of Pest Control to Successful Grove Management

By Paul Bragdon, '40

Pest control is a very important part
of successful grove management. Ec-
onomical and effective control of in-
sect pests and diseases masy be the de-
ciding factor determining whether
there is a profit or loss for the sea-
son's crop. One of the most important
types of injury caused by citrus pests
is marring of the fruit and thus caus-
ing it to be placed in a lower grade
and commanding a lower price in the
markets. Other important injuries
caused by citrus pests are dropping of
fruit, fruit breakdown in packing and
shipping, increased pruning costs, and
decreased regularity of better crops.
The most important diseases of cit-
rus from the manager's standpoint are
scab on grapefruit and lemons, and
melanose which affects all varieties.
The important insect pests of citrus
are rust-mite, scales, whitefly, six-
s-otted mite, purple mite, and mealy-
bugs. All of these are taken into con-
sideration in determining an effective
control program. There are others that
may be watched, but due to their more
or less irregular occurrence in suffici-
ent numbers to produce injury they
are often controlled individually if the
regular program does not give control.
The grove manager must be experi-
enced in order to determine
the pest present or expected
the rate of increase in the
infestation, factors affecting
the pest such as weather
conditions and natural ene-
mies, and the best method of
control for the particular or-
ganism under the environ-
mental factors present. If
there are two pests attack-
ing at the same time the
manager must know whether
the control measures for one
in conjunction with those
for the other pest will cause
injury to the trees or fruit, r
and if so he must decide
which of the two is the more
important and apply the
proper control measures for
it. Combination sprays are
often used in the control of
more than one pest and is a
great saver in the cost of
application This method is
very practical when it is
definitely known that the in-
gredients of the spray ma-
terials are not injurious to
the trees when mixed to-

A scheduled control program is us-
ually determined and followed in ob-
taining the most economical and effi-
cient results. Spray schedule will vary
greatly with the individual manager,
the -envioronmental conditions in dif-
ferent localities, and the financial state
of the owner. There appears to be two
general types of control schedules. In
one a certain spray or dust is applied
at certain definite intervals for the
pest usually present at that time and
the other in which spray materials are
applied at the proper times for pre-
venting those diseases which cannot
be halted after the spores have de-
veloped, while the rest of the pests
are sprayed or dusted for as they ap-
pear in sufficient numbers to warrant
it. This requires constant and system-
atic inspection. Where this method is
used systematic inspection and control
records must be kept in order that
spray treatments at the proper inter-
vals will not be overlooked.
A typical schedule under the second
method would be as follows: A scab
dormant spray (on grapefruit) applied
between January first and February
tenth consisting of Bordeaux mixture
or its fungicidal equivalent in other
forms. If scales are present in suffici-

ent numbers, a one percent oil emul-
sion should be added to the Bordeaux
mixture. If oil is not added and rust
mites are present, five to ten pounds
of wettable sulfur per 100 gallons is
added for the control of these close
relatives of insects. This is applied
just before the growth begins in the
spring to protect the new growth from
scab spores.
If citrus scab is a major problem
another copper spray is applied when
two-thirds of the bloom has fallen. The
second fungicidal application is given
two or three weeks after the bloom
has fallen if melatose is expected.
Five to ten pounds of wettable sulfur
should be added to this mixture for the
control of rust mites, also to check
scale crawlers and six-spotted mites.
This second spray may often be eli-
minated depending upon the effectiv-
eness of the dormant spray. Control
for melanose may be materially les-
sened by the absence of large quantiti-
es of dead wood in the trees. Such wood
is the source of the spores causing the
spread of the disease to the fruit and
leaves. Dead wood in a tree must be
kept at a minimum for this reason.
The copper sprays referred to are
(Continued on next page)

Purple Scale on grapefruit. (Fla. State Plant Board)



MAY, 1940


MAY, 1940

Relationship of-
(Continued from proceeding page)
grove insurance against scab and
melanose and omitting them from the
program may result in serious damage
to the appearance of the fruit. All
other spray applications are made
when constant inspection shows them
to be necessary. It is usually necessary
to spray for scale insects a few weeks
following the application of any resi-
due spray, such as Bordeaux mixture
of nutritional sprays, because the cop-
per has killed the natural fungus ene-
mies of the scales, causing their in-
crease. Inspections for scale insects
should be started one month after the
application of a residue spray and be
conducted thereafter every two weeks.
Oil sprays must thoroughly wet all
parts of the trees, fruit, and on both
sides of the leaves to obtain good re-
Rust mites are sprayed with lime-
sulfur and wettable sulfur, and dusted
with sulfur dust for control. The fruit
must be constantly protected from
rust mite from the time it forms until
it is picked. Frequent careful inspec-
tions are necessary to determine the
time for initial application of rust mite
control material. After spraying for
rust mites, inspections for them are
discontinued for four to six weeks and
thereafter made at two week intervals.
Dusting is to be avoided unless condi-
tions are ideal and speed necessary,
because spraying is more effective.
Care should be used in the applica-
tion of spray and dust materials in
order to avoid injury to the trees or
fruit which migh constitute greater
damage than the insect or disease
whose control is attempted. Either oil
or wettable sulfur may be added to
copper sprays but not at the same
time as they are not chemically com-
patible. Coverage of foliage and twigs
is of primary importance with all cop-
per sprays. Lime sulfur is not used with
copper sprays because it is chemically
incompatible and such a mixture may
damage the trees.
The oils used in oil emulsion sprays
vary in chemical composition and phy-
sical characteristics, therefore the

matiager generally uses the recom-
mendations of the manufacturer for
making field dilutions from their stock
solutions. Liquid lime-sulfur and wet-
table or dry lime-sulfur are not used
with oil emulsions unless recommend-
ed by the manufacturer. Oil must not
be applied in the winter when there
is danger of cold weather as it is be-
lieved that this may cause severe leaf
drop and greater cold injury. Oil sprays
applied after July 15 on tangerines,
August first on early fruit, or Sep-
tember 30 on midseason fruit may re-
tard coloring. Applications of oil
sprays are avoided while the residue of
previous sudfur spraying still shows
yellow deposits. In general, a period
of three weeks or more should elapse
between an applications of sulfur and
an application of oil.
The percentage of kill is generally
determined in the field by the effec-
tiveness of the coverage of the spray
rather than by making counts of the
pests on the trees. In cost oil is more
expensive than Bordeaux or lime-sul-
fur. The major labor problem involves
ignorance on the part of the operator
relative to the great importance of a
thorough coverage. It is often hard to
obtain a good coverage for this reason
without close supervision.
Machinery essential to the proper
application of the spray materials con-
sists of as power sprayer with at least
a 100 gallon tank and capable of pro-
ducing 300 pound pressure. Accessory
equipment consists of proper hose,
spray guns, and different sizes of
disks. The sprayer may be mounted
on a truck or may be pulled by a trac-
tor unit. The power may come from a
power take-off on the truck or tractor
engine or from as separate engine. If
dusting is contemplated it is necessary
to have a good power duster of modern
design. The sprayer and the duster
must be capable of handling the job
efficiently, and the size is determined
by the grove acreage and size of trees.
Good machinery, well cared for, will
last for five to ten ten years. The spray
machinery should be carefully cleaned
and overhauled daily when in con-
stant use, .and always before being put



The Spined Soldier Bug killing a beetle. (Fla. State Plant Board.)

away for an inactive period.
The cost of pest control varies so
greatly per acre for different groves
that it is difficult to make an accurate
estimate of its per cent cost of the
total cost of grove management. A
rough estimate would be around one-
fourth of the total cost of production.
Probably no two groves in the state
will have the same cost of production
or the same proportion of that cost
devoted to pest control. Equally dif-
ficult is estimating the benefits de-
rived from pest control in dollars and
cents. One way of estimating this is
by using the difference in price ob-
tained per box for U. S. number l's
and U. S. number 3's and noting the
percentage of fruit from controlled and
uncontrolled blocks being placed in
both grades as well as the number 2
grade. It will be seen from this that
efficient pest control is one of the
most important factors in successful
grove management.


By Lowell Slagle, '42
Renewed attention is being given by
the U. S. D. A. to the introduction of
so-called friendly insects and parasites
which destroy serious crop pests with-
out themselves doing damage to human
The use of beneficial insects is a
method of attack on pests which has
made rapid strides within recent years
and natural and biological control is
now well established in the armory of
economic entomology. Most farmers
are acquainted with some aspect of
the measure; for, during the past few
years, much has been written on the
propagation and use of certain para-
Biological control is based on the
fact that certain injurious insects are
themselves attacked by parasitic and
predacious species. Examples of the
former are the wasp-like insects which
attack the egg and larvae of various
pests; while the latter are represented
in insects, such as the familiar lady-
bird beetles which prey upon aphids
or mealybugs.
Natural enemies of certain injurious
species are often brought in from
foreign areas where the insect pest is
native. Three species of parasites from
South America have been released in
Louisiana and Florida in an attempt
at the biological control of the Sugar-
cane Borer. A Hawaiian parasite of
the Grey sugar cane "Mealybug" has
also been released and recovered sev-
eral times in Georgia and Florida, and
additional colonies have been establish-
ed in both o0 these states by the move-
ment of seed cane bearing parasitized
(Continued on next page)



/I- 'y --% \,,


Cultures of beneficial fungi grown by the Florida State Plant Board. (Fla. State
Plant Board)

Natural and Biological-
(Continued from proceeding page)
mealybugs. It is very difficult to esti-
mate how effective the parasite is in
the control of the sugar cane Mealy-
bug, but it is undoubtedly of som
Considerable study has been devot-
ed to the problem of controlling the
Pecan Nut Case-bearer, but no satis-
factory control measures can be re-
commendsd. A good many growers
have no doubt thought at various
times of natural enemies in relation
to control of this insect. They are not
without these minute, friendly insects.
The Bureau of Entomology maintains
laboratories for the investigations of
the various pecan insects and numer-
ous parasites of this pecan pest have
been reared.
Aphids are attacked by various
species of parasitic and predacious in-
s:cts and by fungus diseases, and these
agencies exert a very important in-
fluence in their control. The combined

Effect of these several fa'ztors normal-
ly keep the aphids pretty well reduced,
but when for any reason their activi-
ties are lessened the aphids may in-
crease enormously and do widespread
Ladybird beetles may be found in
almost any colony of aphids, both the
beetles and larvae feeding freely on
the insects. Numerous species of these
beetlEs attack aphids, and they should
be proLected and encouraged when pos-
sible. Larvae or maggots of Syrphus
flies, also called sweet flies, are very
generally present in aphid colonies and
are most important checks to their

The work of all true parasites is
rather spasmodic because of the very
nature of their existence. Naturally,
when they cause a decrease in the
numbers of the host, the parasites die
from lack of food and may be so re-
duced in numbers that they are not
able at a subsequent time to check a
rapidly increasing number of the host,

and a serious infestation may result.
Although the Cottony-Cushion Scale
has never been quite as serious a
menace here as in California it caus-
ed much trouble until through the
efforts of the Experiment Station, the
Australian ladybird beetle, Vedalia,
was introduced into Florida. This
beneficial beetle was found preying on
the scale in Australia and was intro-
duced into California in 1889. The
Vedalia seldom exterminates the scale
from a grove but always keeps it un-
der at least fair control. The native
twice-stabbed lady-beetle does good
work against this as well as other
scales, but it cannot be depended upon
to control the cottony cushion scale as
does the Vedalia. In the control of
Cottony-Cushion Scale in large groves,
Vedalia is undoubtedly the only per-
manent and satisfactory method of
control. It is to be noted that a gene-
ration of the Vedalia requires but a
month, while that of the Cottony-
Cushion Scale requires at least three.
This explains the ability of the lady-
beetle to clean up an infestation so
quickly; usually three or four months
after introduction of the beetle. Veda-
lia is already present in many groves,
and is often found in the colonies of
cottony cushion scale. Under these cir-
cumstances it will not be necessary to
introduce more Vedalia, as those pre-
sent will utlimately bring the scale
under control. Colonies of this preda-
cious beetle are supplied to citrus grow-
ers by the State Plant Board at the
cost of production.
There are at least six fungus para-
sites known to infect the White-Flies
which attack citrus. These fungi re-
produce themselves by means of very
small fruiting bodies or spores. When
a spore of these entomogenous fungi
lodges on its insect host, it sends out
very minute threads that penetrate the
body wall of the insect, gradually ab-
sorbing the substance of the insect's
body, thereby destroying it. These fungi
are not detrimental to the leaves or
other plant parts, as their sole source
of nourishment is the host insect's
The climate of Florida. is Very favor-
able to the development of these fun-
gus parasites which thrive during per-
iods of abundant rainfall and high
temperatures during the summer mon-
These fungi are not to be relied up-
on for complete control of scale in-
sects and white-flies; however, they
seem to be as definite aid in controlling
these pests. The fungi may be intro-
duced into a grove by spraying a water
mixture of the fungus spores into the
trees infested with the insect. Cultures
of some of the beneficial fungi which
attack white-flies are obtainable from
the Florida State Plant Board, Gain-
esville, Florida.


MAY, 1940



MAY, 1940

(Continued from page 3)
ment had grown to such a point that
in the fall of the present year (1939-40)
the field of plant pathology was sepa-
rated and placed in the, Department of
Botany; thereby permitting a concen-
tration of effort in the study of in-
sects. The Department is now known
as the Department of Entomology.
Arrangements have been made
whereby Professor J. R. Watson, Head
of the Entomology Department of the
Experiment Station, and Dr. A. N.
Tissot, entomologist of the Station,
teach Ecology and Advanced Insect
Taxonomy. *Dr. J. H. Montgomery,
Assistant Plant Commissioner, Mr.
Arthur Brown, and Mr. J. C. Good-
win, of the State Plant Board, are
special lecturers for the course, Plant
Quarantine and Inspection.
*Dr. J. H. Montgomery died Febru-
ary 16, 1940.

(Continued from page 4)
warm-blooded animals, but this tick
has been known to transmit relapsing
fever to man in Florida. The small
rabbit tick, though it never bites man,
keeps up a natural reservoir of tular-
emia which it spreads among rabbits

and birds. The brown dog tick, a night-
mare to dogs, also transmits malignant
jaundice, a canine disease. Many dog
owners wonder why their pets stagger
around as if under the influence of
ssveral healthy draughts of corn liquor.
Usually such paralytic symptoms are
caused by the American dog tick when
it attaches near the spine. Another
apparently innocent creature is the
Gulf coast tick which is important in
Florida because it attaches in the ears
of domestic animals and creates
wounds that offer an ideal place for
screwworm entrance. And to add insult
to injury tre meadowlark (field lark)
serves as a host for the young ticks.
Many farmers have erroneously re-
ported finding screwworms in gophers.
Screwworms do not infest gophers
and what the farmers have really seen
is an infestation of fleshfly maggots
which usually gain entrance through
wounds left by the gopher-tortoise
If someone told you that cockroach-
es, despised creatures of filth, cause
cancer you would immediately say,
You 'had better see a doctor." In truth
cockroaches are recognized as inter-
mediate hosts of nematods and when
accidentally swallowed by man in in-
sufficiently cooked foods retain of

these parasitic nematodes establish in
man and give rise to cancer through
Many are the residents of the United
States who at night have thrown back
the sheets and turned on the lights to
see legions of pillow pigeons (bed-
bugs) scurrying to cover. Then comes
the question, "Where did they come
from?" Innumerable times, bed-bugs
are brought into the most fastidious
homes in the laundry basket.
Occasionally, Florida doctors receive
patients in serious condition as the
result of coming in contact with furry
caterpillars. These caterpillars were
not created to be handled as they
possess numerous hollow poisin-filled
hairs that break easily and produce an
intense nettling sensation that varies
in its .effect on the individual. The
Io moth, puss caterpill r, and saddle-
back caterpillar are the malignant of-
fenders that caress the people of our
state in such a fashion.
Many poultry raisers gladly watch
their flocks devour the common house-
fly little realizing that this common
insect is the interi idiate host of the
fowl tapeworm, a ccmmein parasite of
Nearly everyone realizes the impor-
(Continued on page 10)

Over 4,000 members of the Florida Association of Future Farmers of America, attended the Florida State
Fair early in the semester. They are now preparing to attend their annual state convention in Gainesville,
May 27, 28, 29


MAY, 1940





Student-Teachers Hold Joint Meeting

By Everett H. Wilcox, '41

Seniors in Vocational Agriculture
went to Tallahassee last month to
confer with the girls majoring in
Home Economics on "How to Develop
a Community Program in Home Ec-
onomics and Agriculture."
After luncheon in the F. S. C. W.
dining room, both classes retired to
the Wescott building for the confer-
ence session. Miss Boletha Frojen,
State Supervisor of Home Economics
Education, presided. The program was
opened with a greeting from the
State Department of Education by
Mr. J. Franklin Williams, Supervisor
of Agriculture. Dr. Edward Conradi,
President, Florida State College for
Women, welcomed the conference Lo
the campus and gave an enlightening
speech to the group. Dr. Margaret R.
Sandels Dean, School of Home Ec-
onomics, spoke briefly on the purpose
of the meeting .
Miss Ruth Sanderson opened the
business session of the conference
with a talk on "What the Teacher of
Home Economics Does in the Com-
munity." The gist of the program
outlined by Miss Sanderson was that
the home economics teacher has very
little time to take part in any activi-
ties that do not pertain to the actual
duties which her position in the
community demands. She stated that
on a recent survey of the state, home
economics teachers were found teach-
ing in high schools eleven different
courses, besides the various courses
offered in home economics. Outside
activities in which the teacher was
called upon to take part were many
and varied. In practically all social,
civic, and money-making enterprises
of the community she was called up-
on to take an active part and in
many instances to sponsor such pro-
grams. She concluded with the quota-
tion "Do whatever the hand findeth
to do and do it with all thy might-
and luck to you."
Following Miss Sanderson. J. R.
Butler, President of the University of
Florida Collegiate F. F. A. Chapter,
spoke on "What the Teacher of Agri-
culture Does in the Community." It
was brought out in Mr. Butler's talk

Representing the State Department of
Education, Mr. J. F. Williams, Jr.,
State Supervisor of Agricultural Edu-
caticn, greeted the Conference of Stu-
dent teachers in home economics and
agriculture. Mr. Williams was recent-
ly honored by "Men Who Make

that the teacher of Agriculture does
as much and perhaps even more in
community welfare, and that even
though the home economics teacher
offers a greater variety of courses,
she by no means is burdened with a
greater load to carry in the com-
munity, since the agriculture teacher
does every thing from conducting a
livestock show to teaching his pupils
parliamentary law.
"A suggested Procedure for De-
veloping a Cooperative Program"
was presented by Mrs. Geraldine Al-
britton Brock. In the program were
included the basic principles that are
necessary to know before any action
can be taken. The program included
such items as the following: (1) The
teachers must develop a tentative

plan for a community program, in
which they analyze the records of
previous teachers, work out a co-
operative plan of action between the
teachers, and find out the other agen-
cies in the community that might be
interested in working out the pro-
gram with them; (2) Revise the pro-
gram as necessary and discuss the
plan with the principal of the school;
(3) Make a survey of the general
conditions in the community and of
the individual families represented.
In order to develop the program for
the community to do the most good,
it would be necessary to know such
things as housing conditions, utilities
available, health facilities, welfare and
civic organizations, churches, educa-
tional facilities, buying, transporta-
tion, communication and protection
facilities, ordinances affecting the
family, occupations prevalent, gener-
al climatic conditions, and further
data concerning families represented
in home economics and agriculture
classes. Obtain information from
agencies that might have such on
their records, and contact represen-
tatives of other agencies that might
be interested in the welfare of the
families of the community and dis-
cover the part each would play in a
cooperative program; (4) Plan class
work in own and exchange classes
so that it will contribute to the attain-
ment of objectives for the community
program as set up by cooperative
agencies; (5) Establish a community
center for meetings of the various
organizations in the community that
can be used for both social and busi-
ness meetings; (6) Organize or work
with clubs to bring about closer re-
lations among the individuals of the
community. Finally, form an Inter-
Club Council for the purpose of in-
tegrating and coordinating the ac-
tivities of all of the unit clubs.
Miss Dorothy Townsend, President
of the Home Economic Club, spoke on
"Proposed Units of Work in Home
Economics for High School Boys,"
in which she stated the values of
such work for rural youth. She
(Continued on next page)



(Continued from proceeding page)
brought out the point that boys really
wanted to know how things were
done that they pretended no interest
in, but that fear of being called
"sissie" prevented them from showing
interest. That in a course such as this
all boys would be involved and would
obtain from it many of the things
that they should know such as table
etiquette, how to buy clothes, and
future family relationships. The
course would be presented in such a
way as not to be "effeminate."
Group discussion followed the com-
pletion of these talks in which the
methods of presentation, what sub-
ject matter to use, length of time de-
voted to each subject, and value to
the student were considered. It was
generally agreed that such a program
would be beneficial and should be
carried out where the school program
could permit the arrangement.
Miss Lucy Lang, teacher of home
economics and Kenneth Clark, teach-
er of vocational agriculture in Gil-
chTist County, spoke on "The Co-
operative Program in Home Econo-
mics and Agriculture." They have, for
the past year, carried out an out-
lined program and found it helpful,
and related many unique and helpful
experiences they had in following
their cooperative course of study.
Mr. A. W. Tenney, Professor of
Agricultural Education at the Uni-
versity of Florida, spoke briefly in
summarizing the conference, stressing
the value to be obtained from this
After the close of the meeting the
group adjourned to Camp Flastacowo
where a steak supper, followed by a
dance, was enjoyed.
Honored guests of the conference,
included Miss Boletha Frojen, Dr.
Edward Conradi, Dr. Ruth Connor,
Mr. and Mrs. Franklin Williams, Dr.
Margaret R. Sandels, Professor A. W.
Tenney, Dr. E. W. Garris, Mr. H. E.
Wood and Mr. W. T. Loften.

Fred Barber, who is a former 4-H
club boy from Escambia County and
graduate of the College of Agricul-
ture at the University of Florida, is
now County Agricultural Agent of
Washington County.

This year's annual 4-H club short
course will be held June 3-8. All
county prize winners from counties
having 4-H club work will be pres-
Over three hundred 4-H club boys
are expected to attend the short
course this year. The theme of this
year's short, course will be "Poor Soil
Makes Poor Farmers."

One of the day's crowded activities for Future Farmers at the State Fair was
livestock judging. These excellent Brahmas are led by Jack Kinzer and "Straw-
berry" Syfrett


Since the organization of the Cit-
rus Chapter of the Future Farmers
of America four years ago, a large
number of purebred hogs have been
introduced into the county. During
the first year, five purebred Hamp-
shire gilts and one boar were pur-
chased by the boys and during sub.
sequent years a total of twenty-one
purebred gilts and boars have been
brought into the county. From these
the sows have produced fifty-seven
pigs and at the present time six boys
have gilts which will farrow in
The Chapter owns its own Poland
China boar and this boar is used free
of charge by the members of the
Before the organization of the
chapter in 1936, there were four pure-
bred sows in the entire county and
these were not registered. Today there
are representatives of some of the
best Hampshire and Poland China
blood lines in the country available to
the boys and farmers of the county.
For the current year in addition to
the six gilts already mentioned, six
new chapter members have purebred
gilts as one of their first year pro-
jects. W. H. Simmons is adviser of
the Citrus F. F. A. Chapter.

(Continued from page 8)
stance of malaria as a disease end the
role of the Anopheles mosquito in its
transmission. These mosquitoes develop
principally in permanent bodies of

fro h water containing aquatic vege-
'aticn or floating debris. Because of
the gresding habits of this mosquito,
malaria in the southern states is large-
ly a disease of rural communities and
mall towns.
Since the true crewworm attacks
only live animals and do.-s not breed
in dead animals, the story that the
destruction of carcasses will control
the screwworm still existing has no
basis. The basis for this continued be-
lief is the fact that the secondary
screwworm and other kinds of blowfly
maggots live in decaying tissue and are
mistaken for the true screwworm.
Realizing the great harm done by
the screwworm it would not ssem pos-
sible that closely related fly maggots
have saved men's lives. This is true,
however, as sterile green bottle fly
and black blowfly maggots have besn
used for a number of years in the
treatment of wounds. The fact that
they promote healing and do not feed
on living tissue was first discovered
during the World War when the
wounds of injured soldiers were found
to be in excellent condition as a re_
sult of infestations of fly maggots.
The flea is often thought of as oc-
curring only on animals, but if you
w-re to sift the sand from under a dog
kennel there would undoubtedly be
found numerous small worm-like creat-
ures. A logical name for these small
animals would not be fleas, but young
fleas they are, never-the-less, as the
harmless, worm-like, immature stages
live in and around ths kennel, consum-
ing organic matter in order to ulti-
mately become the blood-sucking adult.
This fact explains why households are
sometimes infested with fleas even in
the absence of domestic pets.



MAY, 1940

MAY, 1940


S4-H Club News


The team which wins the state
championship in the Dairy Demon-
stration this spring at the annual
Doy's 4-H club short course will be
the guests of Kraft-Phoenix Cheese
Company at Harrisburg, Pennsylvan-
ia in October of this year. Each,
county who enters the contest has a
team of two boys each. The contest
is one of the many outstanding fea-
tures of the annual 4-H club short
course held at the U. of Fla. each
Last year's state championship
team, composed of Maxie Bryant and
David Boatright of Pasco County,
went to the National Dairy Show in
San Francisco and won second place
in the Southern District. Each of
these deserving youths was given a
$100 scholarship which they will use
in the College of Agriculture at the
University of Florida.


Three Dade County 4-H club girls
who know their eggs, as well as
their chickens, will get a free trip to
the National Club Congress and In-
ternational Livestock Show in Chi-
cago next December. They won it by
being high team in the recent 4-H
poultry show and judging contest at
the Central Florida Exposition in
Misses Lucille Dobson. Martha
Casey, and Barbara Baumgartne.
were victors over eleven other teams
of both' girls and boys and will re-
present Florida in a National poultry
judging contest in Chicago. They
were trained by Misses Eunice Grady
and Margaret Delaney, home agents
in Dade County. The trip is sponsored
by the Central Florida Exposition and
the Florida Association of Chain
R. W. Blacklock, State boy's club
agent with the Extension Service,
says that the team of Orange County
girls finished second, while Brevard
County boys took third place at Or-
lando. Jack Luffrison of Dade Coun-
ty was high individual judge.
Club members entered 115 dozen
eggs and over 400 birds in the show,
which was supervised by Extension
Poultryman Dan. F. Sowell.

4-Hers Win Grand Champion
At Fat Stock Show

At the Sixth Annual Florida Fat
Stock Show in Jacksonville, February
27 and 28, Sidney Allen Jr., of Live
Oak, exhibited the Grand Champion
4-H steer, which brought firty-five
cents per pound, and Amanda Jean
Hancock of Alachua showed the re-
serve champion, which sold at twen-
ty-eight cents per pound. Both were
Florida bred steers.
A team of Alachua County boys,
coached by County Agent Fred L.
Craft and his assistant, H. J. Brink-
ley, won top honors in the 4-H judg-
ing contest. Members were Ernest
Denton, C. B. Emerson and Luther
Harrell. Other leading teams, in or-
der were from Baker, Suwannee.
Pasco, and Leon Counties. J. E. Yar-
brough of Baker was high individual
Ernest Denton of Micanopy won a
$100 scholarship to the U. of Fla.
College of Agriculture for his re-
cord in 4-H live-stock work, as well
as for his placing in the pudging con-
test and at the show.
Grand championship steer of t h e
show went to a 1,115 pound Hereford
shown by George Duke of Alachua,
wlich brought fifty cents per pound
at the sale. Reserve championship
was captured for the second year in
succession by A. L. Jackson of Gain-
C. R. Shaw of Quincy exhibited
both grand and reserve champion car
lots and the champion pen of three.
D. D. Mathews of Alachua showed the
champion Florida carlot and pen of
There were 278 steers exhibited at
the show which weighed 225,550
pounds and which sold for $22,795.72,
an average of 10.1 cents a pound.
"They're the finest group of steers
ever assembled in Florida," that is
the way Professor L. V. Starkey of
Clemson College rated the heavy en-
tries in the Stock Show and Sale. He
commented on the progress which
has been made with Florida cattle,
as reflected in the Fat Stock Show.
The show and sale were sponsored
by the Jacksonville Chamber of
Commerce and livestock development
committees of Florida. County Agent
A. S. Lawton of Duval County was
chairman of the general committee
in charge.

Scholarship Awarded To

Ernest Denton, a 4-H club boy of
Micanopy, was the winner for 1930
of the $100 scholarship which is giv-
en each year by the Florida Fat Stock
Show Committee to the 4-H club boy
who exhibits one or more steers at
the Show, and who has the best past
records in beef animal production.
Young Denton has won several
prizes in state-wide competition with
his beef cattle during the last three
With this scholarship he hopes to
attend the University of Florida after
he graduates from high school.

Sidney Allen Jr., of Suwannee Co-
unty, is the winner of the $50 gold
watch given by Thomas E. Wilson,
meat packers, for 1939. Young Allen
won this watch in the Southern Dis-
trict competition. A watch is given
each year by the Wilson Company
to the 4-H club boy with the best
records and most outstanding work in
meat production for that year.
The 1938 winner of this award was
Daniel Causion of Pasco County.

The Twice-Stabbed Ladybettle. (U. S.
D. A.)




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Ripe grapefruit with citrus canker. (Fla. State Plant Board)

Injury by the sweet potato root weevil. (U. S. D. A.)

Horticultural Spray

By M. L. Anderson, '40
A study of spray machinery is of
tremendous importance to everyone in-
terested in the profitable production
of horticultural crops. In many in-
stances though spraying is essential
if a profit is to be realized an ef-
fective spraying can be done only with
carefully selected machinery.
Spraying machines are on the market
in styles and types so numerous as to
bewilder the inexperienced person. In
picking the right type of sprayer, a
grower has many points to consider.
First of all the machine must be suited
to the crop with enough capacity to
cover the acreage quickly. Other
things to consider are the number of
spray applications necessary each
season; equipment already owned by
the grower, and its possible usefullness
in spraying; value of the time to be
saved by self-contained spraying out-
fits, with power units free for other
Some of the various types of outfits
are the power take-off sprayers; skid-
mounted sprayers; combination spray-
ers for both orchard and row-crop
spraying; cutunder sprayers; tractor-
trailer sprayers driven by the power
unit that draws them and traction
sprayers, usually horse-drawn, with
direct pump drive from the sprayer's
If a spraying machine built ten years
ago colud be compared with the latest
model by an expert, the improvements
and changes would be even more
numerous and impressive than a simi-
lar comparison of automobiles. Con-
struction and designing of spray ma-
chinery is at radically different pro-
blem from the making of well pumps
or other outfits which transfer Water
only. To be successful in this field he
must recognize that pumps and en-
gines designed for stationary work are
not the lightest in weight for the
power developed. On high-pressure
sprayers, engines are installed which
develop at least four times the horse-
power per pound weight found in
stationery or semi-stationary types.
Cast iron is very heavy in propor-
tion to its strength. It may be used in
all patts of the pump except for the
wearing surfaces coming in contact
with spray materials. More the cor-
rosive action of spray materials causes
more rapid wear on cast iron than in
brass or bronze. Spray mixture tanks
made of wood are more durable and
more popular on power outfits than
are metal containers. Cypress tanks
are not affected by any corresives
used in spray mixtures, lasting indef-
initely. The best steel tank needs
correct coating to prevent the corrosive
action of spray chemicals.
(Continued on next page)


MAY, 1940

Spray Machinery-

(Continued from proceeding page)
In general, the main requirement
for good spraying machines is that
they should be as light as possible so
as to be conveniently handled under
trying working conditions, on hilly or
soft ground. They should be construct-
ed with a minimum number of parts
requiring attention, and so placed
that they may be easily repaired or
replaced when necessary. To sum up,
lightness, simplicity, accessibility,
strength, efficiency and durability are
the factors which both maker and the
user are seeking in spray machines.
The important parts of a spray
pump which may be found on prac-
tically all types are the pump cylinder,
plunger, valve, valve seat, air chamber,
and agitator.
Brass or bronze are the materials
which are most commonly used in
cylinder construction. Some have por-
celain-lined cylinders, while in others
plungers ride in well lubricated pack-
ing, entirely clear of the cylinder walls.
There is no need for porcelain or brass
in the construction of this type cylin-
der. The plunger performs a most im-
portant function of the pump in forc-
ing the spray on to the nozzle. In
some modern outfits roller bearings
are used entirely in pump construction,
doing away with all plain bearings. In
certain types lubrication is done en-
tirely by Alemite fittings with no oil
holes at all.
There are three general types of
valves used in spray outfits. They are
the disk, puppet and ball type. The
ball type is most generally used in
garden and orchard sprayers. The valve
seat receives a great deal of wear and
must be made of some hard alloy metal
that will not corrode. Valves should be
so situated that they may be readily
gotten to because any sprayer's valves
will coat up with solids from the spray
material and have to be cleaned.
The purpose of the air chamber is to
maintain as evenly as possible the
pressure at the nozzle. The air com-
pressed in the chamber by the liquid
acts as a cushion.
The effective materials in any spray
mixture are not always in solution, but
are held in suspension and consequent-
ly the materials should be kept well
mixed or agitated. In small outfits
wooden paddles are often jused, but
the chief objection to these are that
they are easily broken. The propellor
types are the most efficient and the
most popular. On some outfits the
agitator works only when the pump is
in motion, and others have a separate
drive to work the agitator at all times
which is very desirable. Constant cur-
rents from one end of the tank to the
other with no "dead" corners is strived
for in modern sprayer agitator const-

Damage by the Mediterranean Fruit Fly. (U. S. D. A.)

The main fault of the first relief
valves was that not enough surface
was exposed to the pressure, and some-
thing else gave way before the valve
started working. The pressure regu-
lator works on just about the same
principal as the relief valve, but there
are minor differences in the way it
is applied. The regulator works the
engine and pump when the nozzles are
working. The pressure regulators of
the piston type are very efficient.
When the discharge is shut off, the
overflow valve automatically opens and
excess solution overflows at no pres-
sure back into the spray tank. The
pump and engine idle under no loade
and the pump, hose, and gun are all

There are several types of nozzles in
use. The Vermorel and disk types are
probably the best known. Spray guns
may be so adjusted to give a fine mist-
like spray at close range, a coarser
discharge for medium distances, and
still coarser discharges for long-range
work. Solid-stream nozzles are used in
spray work involving large shade

has resulted in a new breed of cattle
capable of roughing native conditions
for Florida farmers. The Braford,
which is a cross between the Brahma
and the Hereford, is a popular breed
among livestock producers.

';'.''' ~': '


MAY, 1940



MAY, 1940

By O. C. Syfrett, '41

EDITOR'S NOTE-The accom-
panying article entitled, "Market-
ing Animal Products," by O. C.
Syfrett, senior in the College of
Agriculture, won first place in
formidable competition in an essay
contest sponsored by Swift & Co.
The award carried with it a trip to
Chicago and a visit to the Inter-
national Live Stock Show and the
plant of Swift & Company.

From the four corners of the earth
come facts to back the statement -
man has always eaten animal products
and considered them his primary food.
Meats and dairy and poultry products
have always been fairly plentiful
throughout the world, but in certain
sections, occasionally, there occurs a
scarcity of these products. Taking the
surplus and carrying it to these under-
supplied areas has been one of man's
biggest problems until recent years. In
the 18th century, cattle and hogs were
commonly driven to market but this
practice brought about considerable
loss of flesh. Instead of being driven
to market, hogs were frequently slau-
ghtered at the point of production, the
most salted and then shipped by wagon
or boat. About the middle of the 19th
century, hogs and cattle began to be
shipped alive by train and boat but
this method of marketing was still not
very satisfactory. The big question still
remained, how could the various ani-
mal products be brought to the con-
sumer in first class condition.
In 1868 a solution to marketing ani-
mal products in excellent condition
was found. The first refrigerator car
was built. By 1877 the use of the re-
frigerator car had passed beyond the
experimental stage. That year marked
the purchase of ten such cars by G'. F.
Swift for use in his wholesale meat
marketing organization. Truly, one of
the biggest problems of marketing had
been solved when refrigeration had
been applied to the storage of meat in
transit. As a result of this, high quality
meats and dairy and poultry products
could be delivered in an excellent fresh
Prior to the discovery of the prin-
ciple of refrigeration, salt was used as
.a preservative. Salt, however, was never
a completely satisfactory meat curing
agent. Salt removes quality and often
food value. To preserve some meats, so
much salt was required that the pre-
servation by refirgeration is a much
more effective method than is the
salt cure. Refrigeration preserves all
meats for a reasonable length of time
with the qualities of freshness and
vitamin content retained. Refrigera-

tion as a means of preserving meat is,
therefore, a more successful preserving
agent than is salt. This principle of
refrigeration is responsible in a very
great measure for our present-day
marketing methods.
Now animals may be slaughtered at
cr near points of production and the
meats stored under controlled condi-
tions of t-mperature and moisture un-
til demand warrants shipment. These
stored meats may then be shipped by
means of the refrigerator car or boat
to points of consumption. By this sys-
tem of marketing, the consumer is able
to enjoy high quality fresh meat.
The livestock products of greatest
importance are beef, pork, sheep, and
poultry and dairy products. Without
effective marketing facilities, much of
these products would go to waste. Such
facilities as telephone, telegraph, fast
trains and refrigeration make it pos-
sible for people all over the country
to have an abundant supply of these
products at all times of the year.
The relationship of supply to demand
probably affects prices more than any
oth.-r one thing. This factor of supply
and demand is, itself, greatly affected
by efficiency of marketing facilities.
The bigger the demand, the higher the
price. The better the market facilities,
the better the distribution. As a re-
sult of efficient marketing, goods are
distributed alike over all areas and
prices are thereby made more or less
uniform throughout the country.
The livestock farmer is the one who
has probably benefited most by the
well organiz-d system of marketing
meats in this country. These livestock
farmers receive approximately 57 per-
cent of the final price paid by con-
sumers for their animal and dairy and
poultry products, in comparison to 30
or 40 per cent received by fruit and
vegetable farmers. These livestock
farmers are not only paid a higher
percentage but they are provided with
a r-ady market for their animal pro-
ducts and are paid a price proportion-
.ately equal all over the country. Pre-
vious to the development of our pres-
ent market set-up, the farmer was
paid lower prices and was often un-
able to find a market. Consequently, he
did not strive to produce the best
quality products. Now the situation has
improved; higher quality products are
being produced, ready markets provid-
ed, and prices, are being paid for these
products in proportion to quality.
Animals are being produced lor hu-
man consumption all over the world.
The leading meat producing countries
are: The United States, Russia, Argen-
tina, New Zealand, and Australia.
India, to be sure, has more cattle than
any of these countries, but she sells
or uses for food very few of these be-
cause the Hindu considers the cow a

sacred animal. The United States,
Russia, Argentine, New Zealand, and
Australia find a ready market either
at home or abroad. Why?-Because
excellent marketing facilities are of-
fered to the producer by the packers
throughout the world. The refrigerator
ship has played the biggest part in
marketing meats abroad. However,
much meat now marketed abroad is
processed and sold as a canned pro-

The meat packers offer many serv-
ices to the public. Federal inspection
is given all animals and meats whl-rn
go through our regular packing houses,
this service being provided by thL
United States Government in coopera-
tion with the packers. Federal in-
spectors who are usually veterinarians
also supervise the program of sanita-
tion which is an integral rart of most
of our meat packing organizations.
Low grade meat undesirable for fresh
retail trade, yet suitable for human
food, is processed and sold as sausage
canned meats, and other similar pro-
ducts. In this way much meat which
formerly had little value is made ac-
ceptable for human use.
At the present time most of the big
meat packing companies are handling
poultry and dairy products. By handl-
ing eggs, chickens, butter, cheese, sweet
milk, and processed products, the risks
to the company are increased, but gross
sales and profits warrant this action.
However, this service is one designed,
more or less, to meet the demands of
the consumer.
If marketing agencies are to stay in
business, they must realize a profit.
This profit is not easy to make when
competition is taken into considera-
tion. There is no end to the work and
careful management which have been
performed in attempts to make small
net profits. At present there is very
little, if any, of an animal wasted. De-
sirable cuts from the carcass are used
for human food. The balance of the
animal enters the trade field as by-
products: glandular extracts for medi-
cinal purposes; trimmings for animal
food; hides for leather; huffs and
horns for glue; intestinal and other
wastes for fertilizer; and innumerable
addition preparations.
In conclusion, it may well be point-
ed out that the problems confronting
one engaged in the marketing of ani-
mal products are more exacting than
the problems found in other market-
ing enterprises. Among these may be
listed the fact that accurate informa-
tion is hard to obtain; that a more
accurate system of grading is essential:
that the operator is handling a costly
product with costly equipment and,
therefore, has a great deal of capital



. That we hereby express our deep re-
gret and sorrow at the untimely death of our belov-
ed colleague, Dr. L. M. Thurston, Professor of
Dairy Manufactures; and that we offer our sincere
sympathy to his family in their great bereavement.
In the few years of work with us, Dr. Thurston en-
deared himself to both students and faculty of the
College, and showed his great worth as a teacher,
research worker, and useful citizen. His service in
planning a splendid dairy laboratory building,
and arranging for research in the further develop-
ment of the dairy industry of Florida, will stand as
a model and foundation for many years. We con-
sider his death a great loss to the University, and
to the State of Florida, and realize that his place
will be difficult to fill.

Resolved further, that we enter this motion up-
on the minutes of our faculty, and send a copy of
same to his family.

Faculty and Students

& llg^ orf nrmuiu~nre

mmmI I


MAY, 1940




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1886 The Largest Cattleman Supply Company in Florida 1940

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MAY, 1940


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