Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00032
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00032
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text



College Farmer

Published by Agricultural Students at the University of Florida




"Away Down

West In Florida"

n This Issue:

i7^AH sx

Ag. Student

NO. 2

%"I ,-
~~ '3:

U- -

W E welcome every opportunity to
demonstrate that GULF Service For Everything that Gro-
is profitable to growers of every in Florida ... use
type of commercial crop in Florida.
And by GULF Service, we mean: First
high-grade, dependable fertilizers made
especially for soil and crop needs-section
by section throughout Florida. In a nut-
shell, GULP Brands of Friendly Fertliz-
er are formulated to give crops the right
plant foods In the right amounts at the
right time.
Second, we maintain all-the-year GULF
Field Service, with a trained man on the
spot to give growers dependable adviceJ'"
on all crop problems.

Tampa and Port Everglades,



Every Farm Family Would Profit

By Subscribing Now

To The

Florida College Farmer

University of Florida







The Florida College Farmer
Published four or more times during the school year in the
monts of November, January, March, and May by repres-
entatives of student organizations, College ot Agriculture,
university of Florida.
J. Lester Poucher ................ Editor
Loran V. Carlton ...... Business Manager
Editorial staff (contingent): Associate editors, Myron G.
urennell, Curtis Ulmer, Earl Faircioth, joe tieitaman;
Departmental editors, ArMhur P. hElis, Leroy Fortner, Wilson
Suggs, Eugene Boyles, Joe Adams, Robert Granger, Ted
i'urvis, Jonnny McLaurm, Glen StecKel, Warren Wood,
harold Brewer, Cnarles Wmcey, Eric Mills, Ben Woodham,
rhomas brinner, Claude later, Burnice Dean, Charles
Howell, Clint Brandon, M. C. Eldridge, Bll Atwater, Roy
Business staff (contingent): Advertising Manager, Wilson
Suggs, Circulation Manager, Floyd Eubanks, Assistants,
David Coverston, Ormond Hendry, Tom Pulliam, Art Ellis,
Bennett Dominick, Tommy Lunsiord, James D.. McClung,
B. G. Clayton.
Faculty Advisory Committee
Dean H. H. Hume, ex-officio Chairman, W. H. Wolfe,
Chairman, L. M. Thurston, W. G. Kirk, C. H. Willough-
by, E. A. Ziegler..
Entered to second class mailing matter at the Post Office
at University Station, Gainesville, Florida, December 8,
1938, under Act of Congress of 1879. Advertising rates
furnished upon request. Subscription price-thirty cents.


Our Cover Page

Through the courtesy of State News
Editor A. P. Cooke of the Tampa
Tribune, the typical Florida cattle
scene appears on our cover page this
month. This view was taken during a
recent tour of Florida pastures spon-
sored by the Animal Husbandry De-
partment of the College of Agricul-

Credit Where Credit
Is Due

In keeping with the policy of the
FARMER this year as in former years,
an attempt is made to present subject-
matter which, in addition to being in-
teresting to its agricultural readers,
proclaims a bit of credit where credit
is due. Therefore, the Staff takes
generous amounts of pride that is
tempered with utmost sincerity in
saluting the work of the Animal Hus-
bandry Department and the Block and
Bridle Club in the current issue.
SThe usual hazards which accompany
the placing of credit where it is well
earned are reduced to naught in re-
viewing the efforts of the Animal
Husbandry Department. We have
reason, as we say, again, to modestly
believe the fact is self-evident, that
the subject matter which breaks into

print in the 'FARMER as it smilingly
comes off the press happens there for
none other reason than the honest-to-
goodness merits of whatever it in-
volves. (We concede that the term
"honest-to-goodness" is dangerously
used these days and there seems to be
many kinds of "goodnesses"). But
listen while we speak!
Let's take a verbal sky-ride from one
end of the state to the other in order
to view first-hand the manifestations
of the work in animal husbandry.
Research is being carried on which aids
the stockman whether he is located on
the clay hills of west Florida, the sand
ridges of the Peninsula's middle, or the
fertile, swamp grasslands of the
Not fantastically, but in actuality, we
view Florida in its rapid but steady
adventure to the top in the cattle in-
dustry. In improved breeding, in re-
search, in expansion of the industry
and in general interest, Florida ranks
second to none, not even Texas, in the
cattle industry.
Due to research, the cause and cure
for salt-sick, Florida dreaded cattle
hazard, have been found; a new breed,
the Braford, has been introduced to
the stockmen's breeding program,
countless acres of improved grasses
have been planted, and many other
attributes of progressiveness on the
part ol those concerned with animal
husbandry work are evident.

Honor To Florida

The Florida State Fair, which has
become, among other things, an edu-
cational institution within itself, has
again proclaimed a special day, Feb. 3,
as Future Farmers of America Day.
The entire state will indeed be
honored on this day when, from the
United States Office of Education,
will come W. A. Ross, National Ex-
ecutive Secretary of the Future Farm-
ers of America, to greet this van of
FFA'S on their grandstand program,
Saturday afternoon, February 3. Other
notables on the program will be N. W.
Elam, Office of Education, Washington,
D. C., State Agricultural Commissioner,
Nathan Mayo; State School Superin-
tendent Colin English; the Fair Presi-
dent, Carl D. Brorein, Fair Manager,
P. T. Streider; State Supervisor of
Agricultural Education, J. F. Williams,
Jr., and Earl Haynesworth, State
President of the Future Farmers of
In addition to the grandstand pro-
gram, the day will be filled with judg-
ing contests in hay, grain, forage, live-
stock, vegetables, fruits, etc. An egg
show featuring egg production from
projects of F. F. A. members will also
be shown.
Handsome trophies and cash awards
will be given outstanding Future Farm-
ers in these contests.




Agricultural College Council
Pres.: Don Brooke

Collegiate Chapter, Future
Farmers of America
Pres.: John D. Butler

Agricultural Club
Pres.: "Strawberry" Syfrett

Forestry Club
Pres.: Frank Chappell

Newell Entomological Society
Pres.: John Frederick
Block and Bridle
Pres.: John Kinzer

Alpha Zeta
Pres. Don Brooke

Alpha Tau Alpha
Pres.: Joel P. Keen

Pres. Lorry Mitchell

JA-NUARY, 19940




Live Stock Producers Are Served By

Animal Husbandry Department

By Eugene Boyles, '41
To serve the most people of Florida
in the best manner possible is the goal
of the Animal Husbandry Deptrtment
of the College of Agriculture at the
University of Florida. To accomplish
this best, the Animal Husbandry De-
partment has eighteen specialists in
six sub-divisions of the organization.
These sub-divisions include Animal
Production, which is mainly devoted to
the breeding, feeding, and care of beef
cattle, sheep, swine, horses and mules;
Dairy Husbandry, which deals with
the breeding, care, and production of
dairy cattle; Dairy Products, which has
to do with the manufacture and sale
of milk and milk products; Poultry
Husbandry, which deals with the pro-
duction of poultry and poultry by-
products; Animal Nutrition, which in-
cludes work with feeds, minerals and
other food products; and Veterinary
Science, which treats of diseases and
their control. A large number of fields
of study outlined above allows the De-
partment to make ample studies of un-
limited value to Florida residents in all
fields of the livestock industry.
The activities of the Department
Pre directed into three channels: the
extension service, the research work
carried on by the Experiment Station,
and the teaching of students who are
interested in animal husbandry in the
College of Agriculture. Since the De-
partment is working under one head
as a unit, it allows its members to
work in all three capacities. This prac-
tice is advantageous because it per-
mits its members to serve more people
than was possible under the previous
system of organization. The Extension
Service is an organization which gives
assistance, advice, and help to the
farmers throughout the state. Vocat-
ional agriculture teachers and county
agents visit farmers, conduct meetings
of groups of farmers to tell them of
new and improved methods that are
discovered and worked out to be of
practical use to the farmer. This
phase of the work of the Animal Hus-
bandry Department is very important
in that it teaches better methods of
production a n d marketing among
farmers who are not able to receive as-
sistance and advice from other sourc-
The Experiment Station carries on
research in an attempt to solve the
farmers problems. Probably the ex-
periment that has affected more live-
stock producers than any other re-
cently was the discovery of a method
of the prevention of "salt sick," a
nutritional anemia caused by lack of
minerals in cattle and other animals.
This disease has for many years been

a problem to Florida livestock produc-
ers, but was finally found to be caused
by a lack of iron, copper, and cobalt in
the diet. Research with certain other
minerals, proteins, and other foods has
shown that many times a mineral and
protein supplement can b' advantage
ously added to the animal diet. Studi-
es of the toxicity and feeding value of
the crotalarias, ensilability of certain
Florida forage crops, the discovery and
use of citrus refuse as a fesd for cat-
tle, swine, and poultry, and the dig-
estibility of fresh Napier grass have
been arrong some of the experiments
that have been conducted by the Ex-
periment Station. Management and
feeding of livestock furnish the most
material for the studies and experi-
ments, examples of which are the vari-
ous methods of handling sows and
young pigs, breeding investigations
with four breeds of livestock as to re-
production, gains on various types of
pastures, value of certain protein and
mineral supplements to pastures, value
of certain feeds in rations, efficiency of
the trench silo for the preservation ol
forage crops, and other experiments ol
practical value to the farmer. Other
phases of Animal Husbandry studies
are various diseases as "hemorrhagic
septicemia," "leukemia fowl paralysis,"
and other allied conditions in animals.
Results from the various experiments
are compiled, conclusions are formed,
and if the information obtained is
valuable enough, it is broadcast over

the Florida Farm Hour from Gaines-
ville, and articles are published
throughout the state. After a long
series of allied studies has been made,
the results are published in bulletins
to give the benefit of the study to
residents of Florida. These methods of
publicizing information are of a great
teal of value to the Florida farmers.
Another phase of the work done by
the Animal Husbandry Department is
teaching students in the College of
Agriculture about the various methods
of livestock production.
The Animal Husbandry Department
is the only division of the College of
Agriculture offering the degree of
Doctor of Philosphy while the Agricul-
tural and Mechanical College of Texas
is the only other southern institution
of higher learning offering the same
degree. Courses offered at the Univer-
siLy of Florida are equal in value to
those offered in the larger universities
of the east and midwest. An examina-
lion of the Animal Husbandry courses
offered to students will easily show an
observer that nearly all phases of an-
imal production and products are
taught. The courses are primarily de-
signed to meet the many conditions of
Florida and more generally to the
South. Among a few of the courses are
those in nutrition, feeds and feeding,
livestock judging, beef production,
swine production, sheep production,
(Continued on page 14)

HEY THERE. AND MOVE OVER! You can't be a pig when there's plenty for all.
Careful breeding and feeding result in prolific litters on Florida farms. ---Courtesy
"Feeding Practices."



P A r-P A

"Block and Bridle" Active In College

By Eugene H. Boyles, '41
"Whoppee!" "Zowie!" "Yippee!" The
spectator leans forward in his seat to
catch the complete drama passing be-
fore him. "Ride 'em, Cowboy!" he
hollers at the top of his voice. No, my
dear reader, it isn't just another
"horse opera" but instead twelve
thousand wildly excited people watch-
ing the breath taking ride of a college
student on a salty, wild steer at the
annual Block and Bridle Little inter-
national Livestock Show and Rodeo.
This educational and exciting event
takes place in the University of Flor-
ida stadium each spring, usually in
April. After laying aside his books for
at least once during the year, the col-
lege student dons his silk checkered
shirt, ten gallon Stetson, high heeled
Loots and other festive paraphanalia,
and prepares to give a tremendous
crowd a night of the best entertain-
ment possible.
"They do it like professionals,"
marveled another patron. The parade
of choice beef and dairy cattle, and
other livestock which have been care-
fully washed, combed, and dressed as a
regular showman does, will show spec-
tators the fine cattle that can be rais-
ed in Florida." Next we have a group
of riders who will pit their skill and
power against the strength of young
Brahman steers. Another group of
boys parade their animals into three
rings on the excellently turfed field
and make their animal show to the
best of advantages to the judges. Each
competitor selects one or more animals
from the college herd two months be-
fore the Little International, and be-
gins to wash, curry, and train his ani-
mals for the show. Each boy, when he
selects his animals, enters into compet-
ition with others who have selected
animals in the same class. He knows
that he must improve the appearance
and disposition of his animal, make a
rope halt-r, and other things upon
which he is graded to be able to com-
pete in the show. Four divisions of
beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine and
sheep are shown. In each division are
s veral classes, and there are three or
more competitors in each class. In each
class there are prizes awarded, and the
person receiving the coveted first prize
for earning the highest score in the
class can show for the Grand Champ-
ionship of that division. The winner of
each class receives a handsome first
prize ribbon and a book of his choice
or a Block and Bridle key, while the
wilnnr of each Grand Championship is
rivcn a beautiful silver loving cup.
"Never a dull moment," exclaims an
observer upon leaving the show. The
rodeo with its eight or ten events and
several heats to each event gives the
spectator plenty of action and excite-

Block and Bridle Club, ably directs
the work of this Club which sponsors
the Little International Live Stock
Ehow and Rodeo. Jack is a senior in
the College of Agriculture and is
majoring in Animal Husbandry.

ment. The chairman of the rodeo com-
mittee has searched the country for
the wildest and meanest animals that
he can secure. Hefty, half ton, Brah-
man steers are used to give anyone
daring a short ride, cows who have
never seen a man afoot before are
caught and milked, bulls that can
hardly be kept in pens are bulldogged
(occasionally), professional bucking
horses that are used in big rodeos try
to throw their riders. Races to test
horsemanship are run, calves roped,
and other breath taking contests are
staged. (A live pig dipped in grease is
hard to catch, the barrel used in the
barrel race is hard to crawl through in
a hurry. These and other events pro-
vide entertainment). As in the live-
stock show, first prizes accompanying
awards are given to the winners, scores
compiled and a Rodeo Champion is
Bringing interested animal husban-
dry students and stockmen of the state
together is one of the objectives of the
show. Another is to demonstrate to
others proper methods of fitting and
showing animals. Thirdly, the student
gets valuable experience in the con-
ducting of a show such as is given by
the group. Furthermore, the boys en-
joy the work of putting on such a
The organization again began in
1930 when a small group of students
decided that there could be many ad-

vantages from such a group and form-
ed what was called the Toreador club.
These young men staged a small show
and had a group of less than one
hundred onlookers. For the next few
years the show staged by the organiza-
tion was rather small, due to a lack of
interest, facilities and animals. By
19M5 the organization was holding their
show under floodlights, the knowledge
of their work was beginning to spread,
friends offered the us of necessary
equipment, worthy animals were secur-
ed, and more than a thousand people
saw the show that year. The next year,
even though in a rain, the number of
spectators was doubled. In 1937, the
organization became affiliated with a
national association of animal hus-
bandry clubs, and changed their name
from the Toreador Club to the Block
and Bridle Club. The Little Internat-
ional was moved from the beef cattle
barns to Florida Field stadium in 1938,
new features were added to the live-
stock show and rodeo, and eight thou-
sand people saw the show. These re-
sults more than gratified the members
of the Block and Bridle Club and they
were determined to put on a larger and
better exhibition the next year. Last
year twelve thousand people applaud-
ed the boys for the improvement that
they had made. A brief history of the
organization will show that each year
there has been marked improvement
over the previous year.
In the future these animal husbandry
students look forward to improving
the work which those who have grad-
uated have already done. With this in
mind, the Block and Bridle Club has
invited the other departments of the
College of Agriculture to join in pro-
Gally 2 Block and Bridle .... .. ...
moting an Agricultural College Fair
to show interested people throughout
the state what the College is doing to
improve Florida agricultural conditions.
The Little International Livestock
Show and Rodeo is only a part of the
activities of the Block and Bridle
Club. Each year a large delegation
goes to the Florida State Fair and Gas-
pirilla Carnival at Tampa where they
have a special parade in front of the
grandstand. This day is especially set
aside for the organization to look over
livestock exhibits and see the fair.
Each year a group of the students at-
tend the Fat Stock Show at Jackson-
ville where they assist in conducting
the show and see the fat cattle ex-
hibited there. On the campus of the
University of Florida, the group is
considered as one of the most pro-
gressive organizations in the College of

Watch for the Little Inter-
national date in the next issue.





Animal Or Machine Power On Florida Farms?

By Cecil Perry '40
What kind of power should I use on
my farm or grove? This is a question
that every farmer is called upon to
answer annually. Whether the power
should be furnished by a tractor, by
work stock, or by a combination of
both is a problem for each individual
farm and grove and must be consider-
ed as such. It is unfortunate that we
can not decide which is the most ec-
onomical source of power for a group
of farms as a whole, but due to so
many variable factors each farm or
grove must be considered as a unit.
Many people continue to use the type
of power that they are using because
of custom or prejudices, but economy
of operation should be the determin-
ing factor when dealing with such an
important economic problem. Perhaps
it would be better if we could combine
all the advantages of work stock with
all the advantages of a tractor into
one machine or animal, and thus elimi-
nate that problem, but (unfortunately)
this is not possible. Regardless of which
type of power we use, we will have
disadvantages along with the advan-
The chief advantage connected with
the use of a tractor is the ability to
do a large amount of work in a short
time. This is made possible because
tractors travel with greater speed
than work stock and can be operated
continuously regardless of heat, in-
sects, or time of day. If the tractor
stays in good running condition and
the farmer is on the alert, he may
do his work at the most opportune time
and .rcduce a better crop because of
his ability to do his work faster. Sav-
ing man labor is another important
advantage of the tractor. This is the
logical result of using a machine which
will permit one man to do the work
of two or three men. Other advantages
sometimes claimed for tractors are the
possibility of doing better work, use
as a source of power for belt work, and
in a few cases a reduction in the cost
of production.
The principal disadvantages connect-
ed with the use of tractors in Florida
are the excessive wear on the parts,
difficulty in securing efficient opera-
tors, cost of repairs, the initial cost of
the machines, and the inability to make
short turns. Depreciation due to ex-
cessive wear on parts is much more
important in Florida than in some
other states, where the soil is firmer
and of a different type.
In regard to securing an efficient
operator, here again we have a problem
that receives more emphasis in the
South than in other sections of the
country. In the South we have an
ample supply of cheap labor capable of
working a mule but nGt always capable
of operating a tractor. It is doubtful
that a farmer will be able to accom-
plish a very great saving by displacing
this cheap labor with a higher-priced

tractor operator. This question should
receive due consideration, though, and
an efficient operator secured, becaus-
this is one of the greatest reasons why
many tractors have proven unsuccess-
ful. How long a tractor will give good
service, the repair cost, type of work
done, and its dependability are largely
determined by the operator; and pay-
ing an inefficient operator more
money will not make him more effici-
Here in Florida many advantages are
often claimed for work stock because
of the many small farms throughout
the state located on rough land and
divided into small, irregularly shaped
fields. Economy of operation on farms
of this type is perhaps the greatest
advantage possessed by horses or mules.
The use of tractors and expensive
equipment on small farms and groves
where it may be used only a few days
each year has been definitely proven
uneconomical. Work stock are also
considered more flexible than a trac-
tor in that they may be ridden, driven,
or used for draft work even on rough
land among rocks and stumps. In
general, it may be said that each has
its own advantages and disadvantages,

and that which should be chosen as a
source of power is a problem for each
individaul farmer.
How IPrge a farm should be in order
to justify the purchase of a tractor,
and how many horses it will replace,
are important questions that are often
asked, and are difficult to answer.
There is no set rule for this, but ex-
perience has shown that in order for
a tractor to be operated economically
there should be at least one hundred
acres in the farm, or an opportunity
to hire the tractor out during the idle
periods. Most farmers retain part of
their work stock even after purchasing
a tractor, and the number displaced is
quite variable. However, the number
displaced in this state has been found
to be about three or four animals.
In view of the advantages and dis-
advantages of both tractors and work
stock, I think that it may be safely
concluded that horses and mules are
an indispensable factor in American
agriculture. That they do have a de-
finite place on Florida farms and
groves may be shown by the fact that
there are approximately 19,000 horses
and 41,000 mules in the state. In 1920
there were just about the same number
of mules, showing that the trend is not
away from work stock.

Wal ,

FROM MORN 'TIL NIGHT they trod. tilling the mellow fields in order that the
farmer might have an abundance. Today, this b3ck-bra.king labor is shared by
capable power tractors on Florida fields.-Courtesy "Feeding Practices."






KINGS OF THEIR DOMAIN as they leisurely grace this shady hillside. Beef
cattle is a growing industry in Florida.--Courtesy "Feeding Practices."

Improved Pastures Pay Florida Farmers

By T. J. Drake '40
"There's a pot of gold at the foot of
the rainbow, and he who gets it will
have earned it." So with Florida and
her cattlemen and cattle. We see the
pot of gold and the road of opportuni-
ty. From here on it's tough going but
determination and the pot of gold will
keep us on the move.
We're like a worm which has stretch-
ed way out in front but the time has
come when we've got to think about
getting the rear end up closer to the
front end before the front end can go
ahead again. Lets call animal breed-
ing the front of the worm and pastures
and grasses the rear end.
Considering the number of grasses
used there are comparatively few, but
in different locations each grass has a
particular advantage over others.
Take the Flatwoods; here the best
grass is Carpet grass because it covers
well and is suited to cut-over lands.
Carpet grows best on low sandy loams
where the ground water is less than
two fe2t below the surface. However.
it will grow any place with a compact

soil and a high moisture content. It
does not withstand burning but it re-
sists trampling remarkably well.
Next, the high sandy ridge section
has found Bahia grass to be well suit-
ed to its needs. Bahia is essentially a
pasture grass growing low on the
ground and having rooting stems which
grow just beneath the surface of the
soil. This root system forms a dense
mat several inches deep enabling it to
withstand heavy grazing. It is suscep-
tible to injury from cold but will grow
many places where few other grasses
can be found. Centipede and Bahia to-
gether placed first and second respec-
tively in a test on the number of
pounds gained per steer per acre on
different grasses. Centipede is a low
grower that must be planted but it
provides good pasturage and covers
Moving south into the richer soils,
Dallis is a. favorite. This grass is a
smooth, leafy bunch grass that likes
low, moist lands. It grows well in warm
weather and is frost resistant. In the
Southern glades area Para grass pre-
dominates along with Dallis. Para grass
spreads very quickly and when the

ground is covered it sends up shoots
which reach a height of four or five
feet. It likes lots of moisture. Even
lands with relatively poor drainage or
those occasionally submerged, yield
good crops of this grass. Para is now
being planted farther north than here-
tofore with large plantings being made
around Brighton.
Napier is a giant grass well suited
to growing anywhere in Florida. It is
a very heavy producing grass and so is
used for soiling, silage and supple-
mentary pasture purposes. With Napier
the young rapidly growing shoots pro-
vide fodder this is succulent and eager-
ly eaten by stock. It compares favorab-
ly with green corn in feeding value.
As something old yet ever new we
should consider the clovers. They
should be noted because they help to
furnish winter feed, aid grass growth
thru their nitrogen fixing abilities and
they greatly improve the nutrient
value of pasture herbage. Clovers give
promise of helping us with a great pro-
blem-lack of good pasturage when we
need it most, the winter-time, when the
grass production is at its lowest. Clov-
ers require special treatment since the
soils must be supplied with lime, phos-
phorus and potash. The amounts de-
pend on soil types and previous soil
treatment. The clovers must be
thoroughly inoculated with the organ-
ism especially adapted to it because
success with them is directly depend-
ent on the degree of nodulation if
nutrients and moisture are amply
A permanent pasture is one located
on land not to be cultivated. Moist,
fertile soil is best. The more fertile it
is and the better an even supply of
moisture is available, the better will
the future pasture be. Some land is
just naturally no good so do not waste
your time trying to make a pasture
out of it.
In establishing pastures we have
two conditions presented. Areas in
which the ground is to be elaborately
prepared and those in which it is not.
Taking up the latter, which includes
mostly the flatwoods section where
carpet grass is used, there is a simple
and easy way of making a good pas-
ture. First wait until August, just be-
fore the rains begin, and then burn
the land off well. Remove brush and
unnecessary trees. Close mowing may
be employed but it costs more and ec-
onomy is our object here. After a couple
of days, when the ashes have had time
to settle, seed the area with five to ten
pounds of the grass seed per acre. The
grass will come up in about a month.
The native bunch grass can be con-
trolled by heavy grazing which helps
the young grass plants thru the
trampling. The native grass comes
back succulent and the cattle relish it.
However native grass that has been
burned, if grazed and trampled will not
Continued on page 10





Sends Greeting


Office of Education, Washington, D.
C., sends greetings to members of the
Florida Association of FUTURE
cassion of F. F. A. Day at the Fair In
Tampa, February 3.

Will Attend

By Robert C. Bailey '40
Florida's dairy industry was of very
little importance until after the 1929
crash and the tick eradication in 1933-
34, Before the crash practically every
dairy farmer was receiving some re-
turns from his herd regardless of the
production, but the low price of mar-
ket milk, poor production, and high
feed costs marks the beginning of real
dairy herd management in the state
What was the farmer to do with bank-
ruptcy and poor production facing him
at the same time? Many of the small
producers were forced into some other
industry while other producers in-
creased the herd in an effort to in-
crease production and cut down over-
head costs. It was not until after the
tick eradication in 1933-34 that pure-
bred cattle introduction into the state
was very noticeable.
In less than a decade after tick
eradication many purebred herds have
been built up in the state, and there
has been a large increase in milk pro-
duction. This increased production has
presented the dairy industry in Flor-
ida with the problem of disposing of
surplus milk during the summer. In
the winter the tourists consume In
fluid form nearly all of the milk pro-
duced, but in the summer a consider-
able amount of the milk is being made
into butter to avoid its complete loss.
Butter does not produce as great an
income from milk as does market milk,
fluid cream, or ice cream. It is de-
sirable, therefore, to find a way in
which to market surplus summer milk
during the winter tourist season in the
form of a product more valuable than
butter, such as ice cream. The greatest

supplus occurs just before and Just
after the main tourist season.
A creamery at Chipley is producing
about 40,000 pounds of butter yearly.
A cheese factory at Thomasville, Ga.,
is obtaining about one-half of its milk
supply from dairy farmers in one near-
by Florida county. Some other market
must be found, whether it be in the
manufacture of some by-product or
stored for ice cream manufacture In
the winter.
During the year from September 1938
to September 1939, the ice cream plants
of Florida purchased about $600,000
worth of cream from the north. If it
were possible to store cream during
the limes of surplus production for use
during the times of shortage a consi-
derable saving could be made. By the
use of the present technical informa-
tion it is possible to store cream suc-
cessfully in frozen condition for a
limi ed time, but the longer the cream
is stored the greater is the hazard of
spoilage. The principal factor causing
this spoilage is oxidation of the butter
fat and the constituents of milk close-
ly associated with fat.
REsearch on this problem is being
started now at the Dairy Laboratory
under the direction of Dr. L. M.
Thurston with the assistance of Mr.
I. I. Rusoff.
During the Christmas holidays a
large number of cream samples were
prepared from a single batch of milk.
An antioxidant was added to some of
the samples. Others were processed in
ways though at present to retard oxida-
tion and still other samples were
treated with the prooxidant, copper,
(Continued on page 10)

TARY W. A. Ross, of the Future Farm-
ers of America, with headquarters in
the U. S. Office of Education, will ad-
dress members of the Florida Associa-
tiori of F. F. A. at the Florida State
Fair in Tampa, February 3.

"Learning to do
Doing to learn
Earning to live
Living to serve"

A SCENE OF A MODERN DAIRY replaces conditions of yesteryears among dairy-
men in Florida. Modern housing and equipment, as well as properly bred cows,
coupled with rigid sanitary conditions, insure the health of the milk-drinking
masses in Florida. --Courtesy "Feeding Practices."


C rI



P A G41. R




Forestry Practices Aid Farmer

Editor's Note-"A New Day in Farm
Forestry," by Assistant State
Forester William F. Jacobs, was a
feature of a recent regular broad-
cast over WRUF by the Florida As-
sociation of Future Farmers of
America It is published here be-
cause we believe it wil be of in-
terest not only to Future Farmers
of America but to everyone in-
terested in conservation.
By William F. Jacobs
-The forest has always been the!
silent partner of the Florida farmer-
a patient, long-suffering partner that
has been loyal and never-failing ir
spite of neglect and even abuse.
The contribution made by the forest
to farm living is not generally ap-
preciated. The use of wood is so much
a part of every day life on the farm
that it is seldom given a thought.
Wood provides the heat for our homes,
for cooking, for canning, for hot water
for the laundry and for butchering.
Fat-pine furnishes the heat for our
cane boiling and oak poles the heat for
curing tobacco. Even the tobacco barn
is frequently made of poles, so is the
chicken coop, and sometimes the
stock barns and sheds. As a matter of
fact, our fathers were probably born
in cabins constructed of logs and we
ourselves live in home made from
sawed lumber-which may have been

cut from our own or a neighbor's land,
by a local saw mill that provided at
least part time employment to our
own kin and our neighbors.
Every 40-acre field fenced involves
500 posts, more or less, of heart cy-
press, juniper, or fat-lightered pine.
An acre of fernery slhade calls for 625
12-foot poles and an acre of tobacco
shade for about the spme number. We
use stack poles from the farm woods
to cure our hay. Frequently, farm ve-
hicles and implements are made of or
maintained by wood cut from the ad-
joining forest.
And th-se farm necessities are given
by the forest generously, lavishly and
-up to now-at little or no cash out-
lay. Seldom does the wood cost the
farmer more than the time required
to select and cut it. If he has no farm
Aoodiot, or has exhausted its better
products, he merely drives down the
road to a great, logged-over and
scaroely-claimed tract belonging to
some absentee owner or some defunct
lumber company and cuts the choicest
of fat pine firewood from the stumps
and snags or selects his poles from the
second-growth cypress ponds.
I say this has been the case "up to
now" because we are reaching a time
when we can no longer do this. In the
better farming sections, good fence
posts are already costing 5 to 15 cents.
Continued on page 10

N. W. ELAM, specialist from the U
S. Office of Education, Washington
D. C., will attend F. F. A. Day at
the Florida State Fair in Tampa, Feb-
ruary 3.

*C S ;

4* i

FUTURE FARMERS each summer learn practical forestry work at the S
F. F. A.-Camp O'leno. Pictured here is a group receiving a lesson in surveying

STATE ADVISER J. F. Williams, Jr.,
Tallahassee, will address the throng
of farm boys gathered for F. F. A. Day
at the State Fair in Tampa, February
tate 3, at a special grandstand program
g. during the afternoon.

I -


4 T- 0 -




Continued from page 9
Fat-lightened firewood is almost a
thing of the past. And timber of saw-
log size is to be found only on isolated
tracts or in remote swamp areas.
Furthermore, the migration of pulp
mills into Florida has created a new
demand for the smaller, second-grow-
the timber. The great, neglected cut-
over areas have taken on a new value
and their owners are beginning to
guard their new timber crops jealously.
We are reaching a time when the
farmer must expect to pay for his wood
in cold, hard-earned cash-or plan to
produce it on his own farm just as he
does his syrup, greens, and his winter
meat supply.
And this is as it should be! The
farm program should be planned, first
of all, to provide as many as possible
of the necessities of life; after that,
to produce as great a cash income as
possible. The growth of timber crops
should be an integral part of the land
use plan. The farm forestry program
should assure the farmer a sustained
wood supply for his family's needs and
an additional cash income if acreage,
soil and local markets will permit.
Above all things, it should-and does
-offer him revenue or savings from
lands not suited to agriculture crops.
It should-and normally does-offer
him an opportunity for making every
acre pay.
In a State which only a few years
ago was forested from the Atlantic
coast to the Perdido River, in a State
where virgin timber is still to be found
and where 60 percent of the acreage is
(still forest or wild land, in a State
where miles of land are still unfenc-
ed, undeveloped and untenanted and
where frontier conditions still exist, it
is difficult to get the farming popula-
tion to realize that timber can and
must be managed as a crop.

The Future Farmers of Florida
have gone farther in this direction
than have their fathers, or the rank
and file of Florida farmers. Farm
forestry has had a definite place in
the agricultural curriculum for more
than a decade and there is scarcely a
Future Farmer chapter which is not
pioneering the actual management of
timber crops in its community. Farm
woodlots are beginning to receive fire
protection; selective cutting is begin-
ning to replace the clear cutting of
farm woodlands; and old fields, too
poor or too worn-out to produce ordi-
nary agricultural crops profitably, are
being reforested, frequently with
seedlings raised by the Chapter or the
Future Farmer himself and sometimes
even from seed which the boys col-
lected. Last season the Florida Future
Farmers planted more than 100,000
seedlings; during the past ten years
they have planted more than a half
million. Thanks to the Future Farmer
program more than 4,000 farm boys
in 107 communities, and representing
48 counties, are now thinking of
managed timber lands as a part of the
land use program and timber products
as items on the income side of the
farm ledger.
In another ten years, as the Future
Farmers become the "real farmers,"
lands now idle will be productive for-
est areas, farm values and incomes
will be greater, and local markets for
all farm produce and crops will be
better because local wood-using plants
and industries will have been sustained
or renewed and local labor payrolls
stabilized. The rising sun of the Fu-
ture Farmer seal truly heralds the
dawn of a new day in agriculture.

More than 75,000 men and women
are employed by the Department of
Agriculture, and most of them are
skilled specialists and scientists seek-
ing ways to help the farmer.

Continue from page 8
which frequently contaminates cream
when it is being processed normally.
Data taken on the fresh milk and
cream include: the study of the in-
duction p period of butter fat, the
peroxide value of butter fat, the
oxidation-reduction potential of the
milk, the carotene and vitamin A
content of milk, the vitamin C de-
termination, and the bacteriological
and microscopic examination of the
milk and the cream. These determina-
tions will be repeated each month dur-
ing a six month storage period. It will
be approximately one year before any
aelinite results can be obtained from
this experiment because of the slow
oxidation of cream during storage.
The induction pEriod of butter fat is
the inteival of time required for oxi-
dation of a fat sample to begin under
stated conditions. In sLorage the in-
duction period is several mon.hs, but
in the laboratory this induction period
can be shortened to several hours. The
sample of butter fat is placed in a
nlask which is connected by air-tight
listings to one end of a mercury mano-
meter. A wire is connected to the other
end of the manometar and to a marker.
The flask conma.nmg the sample of fat
is placed in an oil Dauh kept at 700 C.
When the end of the induction period
is reached the mercury in the mano-
meter ris-s and makes electrical con-
tact with the marker through a con-
necting wire. At this instant a vertical
mark is made on a time-recording
sheet, indicating that the end of the
induction period has been reached. By
counting the time intervals on the
recording sheet, from the beginning
of 1he experiment to the vertical line,
it is possible to determine the exact
Lime required for the induction period.
The principal cause of cream de-
terioration in stirage is oxidation of
fat and fat-like substances in cream.
It is known that high carotene content
of fat and vitamin C content of milk
tend to retard oxidation in milk pro-
Methods of study are based upon the
fact that butter fat, like all other fats
and fat-like substances, resists oxi-
dation for a certain time and then
oxidixes very rapidly. The length of
time that cream resists oxidation ap-
parently depends upon the treatment
of fat in regard to copper and iron
contamination, certain temperature
treatments, air incorporation and
antioxidants added.

PLANTING FORESTRY SEEDBEDS is one of many activities in which members
of the FUTURE FARMERS OF AMERICA engage in learning to conserve Flor-
ida's timberlands.

Subscribe Now

Florida College Farmer





* 4-H Club News l


The annual 4-H Poultry Show and
judging contest will be held in Or-
lando, February 19-24. The judging
contest will be held on Saturday, Feb-
ruary 24. The first place team at the
poultry show will be awarded a fresh
trip to the National Livestock Show
in Chicago in the fall of 1940.
Twelve teams from as many coun-
ties competed at the show last year
for high honors but the Lake County
team came out on top with first place
and enjoyed a free trip to Chicago
last fall, at which time they viewed
the National Livestock Show.
Joe Busby and Billy Lorenz who
were members of last year's winning
team, are students at the University
of Florida.

Rosenburger Wins Scholarship
Stanley Rosenburger, Micanopy, is
the winner of the 4-H club short
course scholarship awarded by the
Alpha Gamma Rho social fraternity.
Rosenburger was chosen from among
a group of 200 boys in Alachua County
as the outstanding 4-H boy in the
county. The annual boys' short course
will be held in June. This scholarship
will be available to one boy in Alachua
County each year.

J. FRANCIS COOPER, Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service Editor, re-
cently received an ovation when he
was saluted by "Men Who Make Flor-
ida," a section of the Sunday Miami
Herald which presents biographies of
outstanding personalities in Florida's

Fat Stock Show Will Be
Held Next Month

The sixth annual Florida fat stock
show which is sponsored by the Jack-
sonville Chamber of Commerce, will
be held in Jacksonville, February 27-
28. According to State Boys' Club
Agent R.. W. Blacklock, over 100 boys
will exhibit steers this year. The 4-H
livesock judging contest will be held
in connection with the show as usual.
The winning team will be awarded a
lr-e trip to the annual boy's 4-H club
short course to be held at the Univer-
aziy of Florida in Jure.
The 4-H boy who has the most out-
standing beef cattle record in Florida
for 1939 will be awarded a $100
scholarship to the College of Agricul-
ture. This scholarship is given through
the courtesy of the Fat Stock Show

By Joe H. Heitzman, '41
As we approach the first gate, we
immediately notice the large number
of cattle which hinder our passage
and never seem to be in a hurry; later
we shall learn why the cow considers
heisea to be the lady of this domam.
The garden itself is uniixe any garden
we have ever seen, instead of being
laid out in rows, the plants in the
Forage Nursery are separated into tiny,
individuals, labelled plots, Mr. G. E.
Kitchey, who manages this experimen-
tal area, explained to us that this sys-
tem is used to facilitate giving the
plants the maximum of care while they
are being tested. The objective behind
the Forage Nursery, or Test Area as ic
is sometimes more simply designated,
is to study old and new plants to de-
termine whether or not the new plants
are agriculturally useful and whether
or not new uses can be found for old
plants. Most of the plants are not
native to this part of the country;
therefore, those that are not native
must be naturalized. Many of these
plants are wild ones taken from vari-
ous woodland sections of Florida and
other States. In the test area there
are about fifteen hundred different
plantings comprising some three hun-
dred different species. In the course of
studying these plants, probably ninety-
five per cent will be discarded as use-
less; but from the remaining five per
cent there may be produced a plant of
such good forage qualities that it will
ultimately pay for all the trouble in-
volved in its discovery. Each separate

Boys Win Honor Roll
Distinction In Club Work

1939 was a banner year in Florida
for boys' 4-H Club work. The enroll-
ment reached the 5,000 mark for the
first time in the history of 4-H work
in Florida.
To reward accomplishment under
difficult conditions, a 4-H Honor Roll
has been established by R. W. Black-
lock, Boys' Agent. Any county secur-
ing reports from 60 percent or more
of the boys enrolling, with at least 25
boys reporung, has Decn placed on ihe
Honor Roll.
The following 18 counties made this
honor roll in 1939: Columbia, Dixie,
Duval, Escambia, Hardee, Hillsboro,
Jefferson, Lake, Leon, Marion, Nassau,
Palm Beach, Pasco, Putnam, St. Johns,
Sumter, Taylor, Union.

planting is carefully observed and
cared for. Since rabbits have been
found to possess a taste strikingly
similar to that of cows, the palatabili-
ty of a given planting can be approxi-
mately determined by observing Lne re-
acuuns of raDimts to tnat wantingg
iany Uxic eec, mcat tue itaiii ui,y
have can also be aeermmea at the
same Lue). I- the plant seems to have
succulence and palatablhty of possible
value, it is graduated from the test
area to a grazing pot where cows are
allowed to eat it (now we know why
we had to pass so many cows coming
in). If it stll proves outstanding, it is
promoted again this time to a unique
device, the "cafeteria." Here ditfeent
outstandingly prospective forage plants
are sown in scrips fifteen feet wide and
a hundred feet long. Cows are then
turned ino this multi-variety lot and
allowed to remain for a certain length
of time. The strip which has been
grazed closest is therefore
considered the most palatable. One
legume which Mr. Ritchey has been
testing was found by him growing wild
here in Florida. He transplanted some
of it to the test area and soon realized
that it was a bright prospect. He tried
the plant, which belongs to the genus
indigofera, on the cows and found that
not only did they gobble it up but they
also thrived when led on it alone.
Among the successfully useful plants
which this Forage Nurse;y has proc-u
ed are Bahia grass, velvet beans, centi-
pede grass, the Suwannee cowpea,
Continued on page 15

Test Area In Forage Nursery
Provides Interesting Results




PGE 12


By Jack D. Coleman, Jr., '40
At the present time Florida is only
producing about forty percent of the
State's meat products with about 140,-
000 head of steers for the market each
year. In the last eight years there has
been more improvement made in the
grade of cattle than in all the time
before. This improvement has been
brought about by the importation of
purebred bulls, by tick eradication, and
by research in minerals for cattle re-
sulting in larger and healthier animals.
There has been considerable change
from the old type cow weighing five
hundred pounds to those of today
ranging from seven to nine hundred
pounds. The use of the purebred bulls
brought in along with a more selective
program of breeding cows has been a
big step in this direction, but the use
of minerals and improved pastures has
even helped this on, making the out-
look for the next ten years in cattle
production the brightest of all agri-
cultural enterprises of Florida.
There has been a change in the
feeding methods and feeds used, from
the cattle sold off the range and out
of old fields to an improved method
of pastures and use of feed lots before
selling for beef. The leading cattle
producers have turned the old pastures
into improved pastures, using grasses
which are better suited and produce
more tonnage per acre than before.
These improved pastures will produce
from three to ten times as much beef
as the old wire grass pastures and
carry from three to six times as many
cattle. There have been several leg-
uminous plants introduced which do
well in certain areas and which before
were unknown in this section.
The use of leguminous plants is very
beneficial in beef production, since
they are rich in calcium and protein
which are essential to body growth
and development while grasses carry a
high proportion of sugars and starches,
being low in calcium and protein. The
main difficulty with legumes is that
they require an alkaline condition of
the soil which must either be natural
or made this way by the addition of
Lespedeza, white clover, Alyce clover,
velevt beans, cowpeas, peanuts, begger-
weeds and kudzu are some of the crops
used for grazing and hays in the
legume group.
Carpet grass, Bermuda grass, Bahia,
Para, Dallis and Vasey are some of the
better known and more used grasses
under these improved pasture systems.
There is yet to be developed the per-
fect pasture grass fir Florida which
will not be killed down during part of
the year, which necessitates using a
supplementary forage.
The use of the dry lot has now
brought out the use of the two types
of feeds employed in making up a
balanced ration which varies with the

age of the steers being fed. Proteins
and carbohydrates, both in the con-
centrate and roughage form, are used
in making up these rations. In making
up a ration the feeder should purchase
feed which supplies the protein or
carbohydrate at the cheapest rate. For
instance, cottonseed meal with 43 per-
cent costing $25 per ton supplies pro-
tein more cheaply than 36 percent meal
at $23 a ton.
Cottonseed meal, linseed meal, velvet
beans, peanut meal, and soy beans are
some of the protein concentrates, while
alfalfa hay, lespedeza, peanut hay, and
legume forage are some of the protein
Corn, oats, and rye are carbohydrate
concentrates, while grass, straws, corn
or sorghum stover or silage, roots and
pasture grasses are some of the carbo-
hydrate roughages.
In the last few years there has been
more use made of the dry lot method
of fattening steers for market due to
the interest in the Florida Fair in
Tampa each winter followed by the
Fat Stock Show and Sale in Jackson-
Last year the cattle sold at the sale
averaged eleven cents a pound, which
at the time was almost twice the price
of the general run of steers going on
the market which were not fed out
to a high finish as were these steers.
These steers at the sale were graded
before the sale and found to rank with
cattle fed out in the north, thus show-
ing that it is possible to produce steers
in Florida which compared favorably
with northern fed steers.
Florida is amply supplied with mar-
kets which have done a great deal in
the past few years to assist the pro-
ducers to obtain the best prices pos-

sible. There have been numerous auc-
tion markets established throughout
the State in the past couple of years
which have made it possible for the
producers to sell their stock easier and
at better prices by getting the buyers
together at a sale and securing more
favorable prices in this way. One of
these markets in the year from June
1938 to August 1939 did a half million
dollars worth of business most of which
was for the sale of beef. Most of the
steers sold here were sold to feeders in
other parts of the State where there
was plenty of feed for dry lot feeding,
The production of fat steers starts
with the 4-H Club members, Future
Farmers, and the cattlemen themselves,
and each year the number of steers
fed in dry lots is increasing with the
increase in knowledge of producing
steers under this method.
Another factor which has brought
about some change and will bring about
more of a change in the future is
gradual abolition of the open range
system which can only be brought a-
bout gradually and not do harm to the
cattle industry. Under th3 closed range
system it will be possible to carry on
the improvements now under way and
to continue to build up the herds with
better stock by selection.
There is quit- a bit of experimenting
b-ing done by the cattlemen today in
crossing breeds trying to get an ani-
mal which will not have the disad-
vantages of the breeds as they are to-
day and will make the production of
beef more efficient.
With the improvements made and
the higher demand for fat steers which
bring a much higher price, it seems
that there is a bright out-look for the
producers of fat steers in Florida in
the future, as they will be able to sell
their steers in the State helping to
reduce the large percentage of import-
ed beef.

FEEDER STEERS ARE READILY BOUGHT by packing agencies from Florida
producers since new pasture and feeding practices have resulted in higher quality
meat for the consumer. -Courtesy "Feeding Practices."



JANUARY, 1940.


The Braford Breed Of Cattle And The
Affect Of The Brahman Sire On Florida Herds

By D. J. Smith, '40
Today the term Braford cattle may
have an unfamiliar ring to the ears
Uf many Florida cattlemen, but there
are indications that in the not too
distant future this breed or one based
on similar foundation stock will be as
commonplace in the herds of our area
as the native and Whiteface of th
present day.
Braford cattle is the name given to
the offspring of a cross between the
Brahman or Zebu of India and the
Hereford or Whiteface cf British
descent. While this strain has not yet
been established as a breed in the true
sense of the word and as yet is only in
the experimental stage, the merit
shown by animals having such breeding
offers encouragement for more exten-
sive work in selecting and fixing a
beef type from such stock. It is hoped
that this project will result in the d.e-
velopment of a beef cattle breed more
adaptable to Florida conditions than
any of our established breeds.
Reason for the Braford Experiment
It will not require a great deal of
study to understand the reason for
atterr.pting such an experiment when
one considers that the foremost beef
breeds of this country originated and
have been developed, for the most
part, under conditions of cool to cold
cAmate, and abundance of nutrition
pasture, and comparatively little an-
nuyance from insect pesrs. Florida,
on the other hand, possesses a tempe-
rate to warm climate that, while of-
fering a long growing season for past-
ures, tends to reduce the vitality of
cattle during the hot summer months
and supports a multitude of insect
pests that harass and sap the strength
of tender skinned European breeds.
While rapid strides are being made in
improvement of our pastures we can
scarcely expect them to equal, except
in certain restricted areas, the famed

blue grass pastures of the central
To meet these problems resulting
from a certain lack of adaptability of
European breeds to our climate, it was
natural that breeders should seek to
introduce the blood of cattle which
were accustomed to tropical conditions.
Our own native stock are well acclimat-
ed but their small size and deficiency
in true b:ef confirmation results in
considerable sacrifice in market quali-
ties of their offspring. The Brahman,
however, is a true native of the tropics
and withstands heat, scanty pasture,
and insect pests with but little dis-
comfort. In addition, this br-ed ILas
the large size and many of the beef
qaulities that are desirable in produc-
ing feeder steers. It seems probable
that the ideal animal for Florida may
r sult from a blending of these types
into a breed carrying approximately
one-fourth native, one-fourth Guzerat
Brahman and the remainder Hereford,
or another of the better British breeds.
history of Brahman in This Country
The practice of intioducing Brahman
blood into herds of European stock is
not a new one but has been carried on
fcr a number of years in this country,
primarily with the object of increasing
the cattle's resistance to the Texas
fever tick, once the scourge of the
cattle industry along the Gulf Coast.
A few Brahman cattle were imported
to Ecuth Carolina and Georgia as early
as 1849 and several small imLortations
made to Louisianna and Texas during
the next decade or so. They did not
attract much attention however until
1906 when a large importation was
made by A. F. Borden. These formed
a nucleus from which the breed was
distributed throughout the lower south.
Th- first record of Brahman cattle in
Florida is of four bulls brought to
Cedar Key by J. S. Turner in 1880.

Brahman cattle are placed by the
zoologists in a different class from our
other domestic cattle. They have large
horns, drooping ears, and a pronounc-
.ed hump over the withers. The hides
are tough and waxy, usually some
shade of grey or brown, and there are
folds of loose skin on the dewlaps and
navel. This breed is very alert and ac-
tive, rustles well on the range, and the
cows are good mothers.
As compared with high grade British
breeds (Hereford, Short Horn, etc.),
Brahmans as a class are more efficient
on the range, produce a larger animal
calf crop, and require fewer bulls In
proportion to the cows in the herd.
Calves usually weigh slightly more at
birth than those of other breeds and
grow very rapidly for the first year or
eighteen months, sometimes reaching
twenty-five to forry percent greta,.
weight as yearlings than animals of
the same grade from British breeds.
Records show that Brahmans nave
much greater resistance to insect pests
of all sorts than cattle fo any other
known breed. It was this quality which
first gave stimulus to the introduction
cf Brahman blood into native herds as
a safeguard against Texas fever. The
eradication of the tick carrying Texas
f ver in most areas has minimized the
danger from this source, but there is
still a considerable loss in the value
of southern beef due to worry and loss
of vitality caused cattle by numerous
other insects that thrive in our warm
humid climate.
One of the most desirable che.:acter-
istics of Brahman catie is Leir un-
usual ability for grazing on scanty
pasture of the kind that is tough and
unpalatable to other breeds. They
withstand heat remarkably well and
may often be seen seen grazing in the
scorching sun while European cattle
pant feverishly in the shade.
Some Faults of the Brahman
One might wonder why a breed pos-
sessing all these superior qualities was
Continued on page 14

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Continued from page 13
not used exclusively in a climate sucl
as ours, and it is true that a number
of ranches, mostly in Texas, produce
Brahmans alone. However, pure bred
or high grade Brahmans are inferior
to British breeds in a number of res-
pects when judged according to market
standards. The strictly beef conforma-
tion is not so highly developed in the
Brahman as in the British beef breeds
and the carcasses of the former are
somewhat lacking in quality. After two
years of age the Brahman is inclined
to make slower growth and inferiority
of the meat becomes more pronounced.
Other faults are a tendency toward
nervousness in the feed lot and excit-
ability under any unusual circustanc-
es. They have a tendency to grow wild
on the range and can jump almost any
fence built to control other breeds of
Brahman Used in a Number of Crosses
It is with the object of combining
the superior qualities of both the
Brahman and the British breeds and,

if possible, blending them with our
own herd, well acclimated, native stock,
that the experiments with Brafords
have been undertaken. The Shorthorn
and Aberdeen-Angus breeds as well as
the Hereford are being used in crosses
of this nature. It was from, a cross
between the Brahman and the Short-
horn that the Santa G'ertrudis Breed
has recently been developed by the
King ranch at Kingsville, Texas. These
cattle which are proving their merit
on the Gulf coast of Texas are of ap-
proximately three-eighths Brahman
and five-eighths Shorthorn inheritan-
ce. They are solid red in color, deep in
body, possess good beef conformation
and show great adaptability to local
conditions. The breed is now reason-
ably true in type and other character-
A similar experiment has been initi-
ated recently by the Department of
Agriculture at its field station located
at Jeanerette, La. Here Brahman cattle
are being crossed with Aberdeen-Angus
for the purpose of producing a solid-
colored polled hybrid with the beef
conformation of the Aberdeen-Angus

and the qualities of adaption to the
Gulf Coast area possessed by the
Brahman. In this investigation an-
other cross, between Apricanclir cattle
from the Union of South Africa and a
red Aberdeen-Angus strain is being
used to produce a solid red-colored,
polled strain possessing the good quali-
Lies of both parental breeds.
It is too early yet to draw final con-
clusions as to the comparative value of
these cross bred strains, but all the
evidence at hand points to the fact that
one or more of these strains may
eventually result in a breed that will
prove superior to any now in existence
ior production of high quality beef in
iais section.

Continued from page 4
horse husbandry, breed history, meat
products, condensed milk and dry
milK, milk production, dairy herd
management, ice cream manufacture,
advanced incubation, brooding and
rearing, turkey production, marketing
poultry products, advanced poultry
judging and poultry breeding, poultry
diseases, veterinary anatomy and phy-
siology, farm diseases, and farm sani-
tation. However, a student who has
majored in some phase of Animal Hus-
bandry does not take only Animal
Husbandry courses but other courses
thac should be of value to the student
in making him successful in his chos-
en work. Some of the courses required
of a student who is majoring in Animal
Husbandry are farm management,
soils, genetics, bacteriology, forage and
cover crops, chemistry, accounting, en-
gineering, and others that he may elect
Credit is allowed boys who do practical
work under competent supervision; in
fact, students who have not had prac-
tical experience are urged to do some
work of this nature before they are
granted a degree. Initative on the part
of the student is encouraged, such as
the work of the Block and Bridle Club
which annually sponsors the Little
International Livestock Show a n d
Rodeo. In this exhibition, students fit
the show quality livestock, and put on
a rodeo in a very "western" style. To
this show last year approximately
twelve thousand people were attracted,
which is reputed to be the largest
crowd ever attracted to a similar show.
The student livestock judging team
was placed second in the Eastern
States intercollegiate judging contest
at the Baltimore Livestock Show last

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PAG E .4



Continued from page 11
Crotolaria, and the African squash.
This last named plant Mr. Ritchey us-
ed as an example to show what inter-
esting histories some of these plants
have. The seeds, which were brought
from Africa to Carolina by a mission-
ary, were begged by an unnamed Gain-
esville person who presented them to
the test area. The African squash
turned out to be very prolific and very
easy to grow. It has already made a
little niche for itself here in Florida;
it is used for the table and for feed-
ing cows in the winter in place of sil-
age since its storing qualities are good
if not bruised. According to Mr. Ritch-
ey, the "cafeteria" has shown that the
most palatable grasses are those which
belong to the genera Brachiaria and
Digitaria. As we leave the Forage
Nursery, we come to feel that the
really remarkable results obtained from
the test area thus far certainly war-
rant its continued existence.

Continued from page 7
come back for nearly a year and by
that time the young Carpet grass will
have become established and eventual-
ly crowd out the native grass.
The other condition represents pre-
pared land, which is used for any grass
but especially for Centipede, Para,
Napier and Bermuda. The land is plow-
ed to get rid of the native vegetation
and then harrowed until a smooth sur-
face is obtained. From here the ground
can be seeded then a Cultipac used to
settle the seed or the area can be drag-
ged with a plank to give a light cov-
ering to the small seeds. A Cultipac is
not very common in this country but
it resembles a small section of a round
corrugated iron sewer pipe, with the
corrugations rather wide apart and
fitted with a small ridge on the top of
each corrugation. It is used like a rol-

Para grass is established by strewing
the long woody stems of the grass cut
from an old established pasture, from
the back of a truck or wagon by several
field hands. A disk is then run over
the scatterings. The grass will take
root at each joint that is beneath the
surface of the ground.
Bermuda may be and Centipede is
always established by planting sod
cuttings at from two to four feet in-
tervals either with machinery or by us-
ing sticks to push the sod into the
With Napier grass the seeds or root
divisions may be used for propagation;
however, the most practical method is
by means of canes or mature joints.
Cane cuttings of three or four joints
are dropped eighteen to twenty-four
inches apart in six foot furrows. These
cuttings should lie horizontally and be
covered by a single shovel plow to a
depth of five or six inches.
In general for the man who has lots
of flatwood land and little or no money
his best bet is the method outlined
above involving burning and grazing
of the land. In other words you can let
time and Mother Nature do the work
instead of money in getting an im-
proved pasture.
The length of time necessary to pro-
duce a well sodded pasture depends
upon the soil, climate and manage-
ment. Ordinarily it will take about two
seasons to produce a good pasture but
good management will shorten the
time. Naturally the grass best suited to
a soil will thrive best there, so study
the soil and the conditions and then
decide which grass you think will be
the best to plant. Then if it does not
happen to work, do not be discouraged
but plant it again as it might work
the next time. The climate should be
considered with the amount of mois-
ture and rainfall and cold weather be-
cause they each migh bear a heavy in-
fluence in the choosing of a grass for

the area. Considering management we
have two things to note. The ordinary
things which will be discussed under
the next topic of maintainence, and
the variable factor of money. Most ex-
cellent results can be obtained by pro-
per and thorough fertilizing. A good
general fertilizer will speed things up
noticably but it is more important than
ever when fertilizer is used to keep
the weeds under control until the
planted grass has a chance to assert
This topic could be laid aside with a
very simple little sentence: for getting
and keeping an improved pasture keep
it grazed and mowed.
Any good sod must be grazed and
trampl.d. Most of our grasses are pro-
strate growers and if grazed the leaf-
age is mainly produced in a horizontal
manner. Never let the grass go to seed
because when it does the grass stops
producing and lies dormant for a
time. That is the principle behind
having the pasture mowed or grazed.
Fertilizers must be considered too
because they help to maintain the
grass in a vigorous condition giving
more for the cattle to eat and then a
properly fertilized range will give back
a lot of the minerals to the cattle thru
the grass.
Cleaning a pasture is necessary be-
cause cows avoid the area around
manure clumps because of the bad
odor. Remove the manure in the spring
or break up the dumps and spread
them out so that the spring rains will
break them up and wash the odor into
the ground. Manure treated in this
manner also acts as an efficient farti-
Pasture rotation is evidence of good
management. It is necessary with some
grasses as Para or Napier which would
be killed by continuous grazing.
Rotation must be practiced where
clovers are used to get the best re-
sults from them.










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