THE nm ,
Florida College Far
Published by Agricultural Students at the University of Florida
VOL. VI NOVEMBER 15, 1937 NO. 1
S" E C I A L
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Words And Promises
Do Not Make Trees Grow
No matter how eloquently a fertilizer may
be described by a salesman or in an adver-
tisement it will not necessarily make healthy
trees and high grade fruit.
There are two sure ways of judging the
character of any fertilizer-one by looking
over the groves where it is used-the other
by consulting packing house records of the
fruit produced from such groves.
We Welcome These Tests
On Groves Where Lyons
Fertilizers Are Used
Lyons Fertilizer Company
THE RIGHT plant foods in the
right amounts at the right time,
plus dependable all-the-year Field
Service, is the GULF formula for
crop success. Growers of all com-
mercial crops in Florida have found
it a formula that pays.
The Florida Grower Magazine pro-
vides a wealth of information for
those who look to the soil for
sustenance and profit. It deals with
conditions peculiar to Florida alone.
The coming issues will contain
items of interest and importance
that can ill afford to be missed.
We invite those interested to join
our list of readers.
For a limited time we are making
a special offer of 3 years for $1.00.
Florida Grower Magazine, Inc.
Enclosed find ................... for $1.00
for which please send me the
Grower for 3 years.
The Gulf Fertilizer Co.
November, 1937 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER Page 3
FOR A BETTER MAGAZINE
Cooperation is a vital factor in any organization,
and especially is this true with a college magazine.
Those who are concerned most are the editorial and
business staffs, the printer, the advertisers and the
Our magazine is a connecting link between the
College of Agriculture and the agriculturists of the
State and if you, the college students here at the
University, or agriculturists in the State, have any
articles that would be of interest to others in our
vocation, the editorial staff will be glad to have you
submit them at any time during the school year so
that we can continue editing the best material for
By advertisements and individual subscriptions,
the business staff is able to have the magazine printed,
and only the advertisements of reputable organiza-
tions are solicited, so they can be recommended
heartily to subscribers.
The goal for the year 1937-38 is to have 100%
cooperation from those who are concerned with the
magazine. This must be accomplished to have a bet-
-J. C. D.
As recently as a half-century ago public opinion
supposed that the agricultural field was a beautiful
way of redemption for
failures from other profes-
sions. Should a man of Th Flrid (
that period disappoint his T e lorid
friends by proving inade-
quate in a more "h;gh- Published by representative
toned" vocation, they al- COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
ways said: "Oh, don't GAINESVILL
worry about Tom.-He can
do all right farming. A;n't EDITORI
much to learn about farm- J. CLYDE DRIGGERS, '38
inv." And how surprised EDWIN B. WEISSINGER, '4
T o m 's friends usually J. LESTER POUCHER, '40
Tom 's friends usually
were when he fell as mis- BUSINES
erably far short of success HENRY C. LUNSFORD. '38
in farming as he had in Ross E. MOWRY, '38 .....
CHARLES O. ALLAN, '38 ....
the previous line of en-
deavor. EDITORIAL ST
Today we recognize the OSCAR K. MOORE. '38 ..........
indispensability of train- MEEN H. BOYLEB. '41.
MYRON GRENNELL, '41 .
ing if successful agricul- MRS. JULIET H. CARRINGT(
tourists are to be produced. WILLIAM H. STONE, '38 ..
We know that an ignorant CHARLES CLYMORE, '38
farmer is as futile in his E. WILTON STEPHENS, '38
farmer is as futile T. NEUMANN, '38 .....
efforts as an ignorant WAYNE P. DEAN, '38.....
architect, and that farm- FRANK H. RICH, '38 ............
ing is no refuge for the SIDNEY P. MARSHALL. '3
dull and lazy outcasts of CHARLES JAMISON, '40 .
other professions. FACULTY ADVIS
Furthermore men of this H. H. HUM
modern age have dispelled C. H. WILLroGBY
the false impression of PUBLISHED FOUR TIMES
former times that agricul- Subscription
ture is only stifling, monot-
onous drudgery, lacking all beauty and romance. The
farmer knows beauty and artistry in his work exactly
as any other craftsman does. As for romance, where
can we find it more apparent than in a lifting field or
a new and efficient chemical or an effective way to
fight man's insect enemies?
At last resort what endeavor can be more romantic
than that of growing food to nourish the minds and
bodies of humanity? -E. B. W.
WELL BALANCED DEVELOPMENT
Living in a period of keenest competition in every
line of endeavor, we should have well balanced de-
velopment if we expect merely to keep up with the
pace; much more, to lead. And of course we want
to be efficient leaders.
Physically, then, we must be able to overcome our
hardships and help those who are not strong enough
to run the race alone; mentally, eager to learn and
ready to grasp every opportunity to forge ahead;
socially, able to move in cooperation with our fellow-
men, with the utmost confidence in them as well as
in ourselves; religiously, desirous of retaining a
never-dying faith in God, so that while leading the
race, we shall have a vision of a future life which
is truly pure and noble.
Possessing poor health, we must fall to the rear
of the ever-moving line, retarded by our lack of
strength; being sluggish mentally, we only move
along with others lacking the initiative to become
leaders; being undevelop-
ed socially, we must run
es of Student Organizations
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
....... ..... ..................E editor
O ...........Managing Editor
.........................Business M manager
Assistant Business Manager
....................Circulation M manager
.............College of Agriculture
.......... ..... .... ... .... 4-H C lu b
'uture Farmers of America
ON, '38 ..............Alumni Notes
............................ Ag. Engineering
.... ........... ... Ag. Economics
.... ...... .................F forestry
...... ... Entomology
.......................A4 im al H usiib ndry
..... Poultry Husbandry
.. FRANCIS COOPER
DURING THE SCHOOL YEAR
the rase missing many of
the worthwhile contacts
of life; scorning religion,
we may lead the race in
blindness, if we lead it at
Therefore, with divine
guidance, we will develop
-J. C. D.
THE FLORIDA COL-
LEGE FARMER staff is
happy to be able to pre-
sent another special Citrus
Issue as the initial edition
of the year. And why
shouldn't we be?
Any enterprise that ac-
counts for practically half
of a state's agricultural
income is valuable to every
industry in that state, and
if we can further the in-
terests in Florida citrus,
then our objectives will
have been accomplished.
-J. C. D.
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
The Florida College Farmer
Published by Agricultural Students at the University of Florida
VOL. VI NOVEMBER 15, 1937 NO. 1
Citrus By-Products for Livestock and Poultry Feeds
By OSCAR K. MOORE. '38
$68,838.758! Such is the bigness of
the Florida citrus industry, for during
the 1936-'37 season, fruit with this
valuation-102.827 carloads of it-was
moved by growers. But only until the
citrus industry utilizes its vast, po-
tential by-product possibilities, will
such a figure be truly representative
of the worth of its annual crop.
Just as the sugar-manufacturing,
meat-packing, brewing, and distilling
industries were forced by economic
reasons to develop beet pulp, meat
scrap. tankage, bonemeal, brewer's and
distiller's grain by-products for use in
livestock and poultry feeding, the
citrus industry must ultimately utilize
its entire output in a useful manner.
But Florida's ranking citrus organ-
izations have already directed their
attention in such a direction, are now
making appreciable progress in con-
verting a liability into an asset since
Florida Experiment Station's Profes-
sor Norman R. Mehrhof, Dr. W. M.
Neal. Dr. R. B. Becker, Dix Arnold.
and Dr. W. G. Kirk have shown and
are showing the practicality of citrus
by-products in the ration for poultry,
cattle, and hogs.
Although of preeminent value to
Florida agriculture in its present
status, the citrus industry yet is to
approach an ultimate perfective state.
this being the reward of 100% utiliza-
tion of its by-products.
Regardless that mention was made
in 1910 of the use of dried citrus fruit
by-products for livestock feeding, not
until comparatively recently were def-
inite steps taken at the Florida Ex-
periment Station in determining the
value of this material as a feedstuff.
Initiative research illustrates that
citrus cannery refuse is of inestimable
value to the citrus industry; that this
refuse, when processed, is of like value
to livestock farmers inasmuch as its
use in the ration gives, first, better
quality of stock, secondly, better quali-
ty of product. and thirdly. reduces
The amount of citrus available for
the manufacture of livestock feed is
tremendous. From 730.000 cases of
citrus canned in the 1927-'28 season.
this phase of the industry has grown
to 6.131.155 cases canned ul to April
10, 1937 during the 1936-'37 season.
Amounting to 50 pounds for each field
box of fruit processed at the cannery.
the peel, rag, and seed-the ingredients
used in the production of livestock
feed-have been a liability to the can-
nery, creating an expense for their dis-
posal. During the past season, 40% of
the total grapefruit production lnmh
been tinned. Upon making investiga-
tions, leading fruitmen proclaim that
of the fruit now marketed, 10% is of
such low quality that it does not pay
marketing expenses. As a result of
competition from low grade fruit the
market for the higher grades of fruit
is thereby injured.
Resulting from a study conducted
by Dr. C. V. Noble, Economist of the
Florida Experiment Station, it has
been found that 8% of the orange
crop, 13% of the grapefruit produc-
tion, and 10% of the tangerine output
is left in the grove-never to be utilized
in any manner. It was found, more-
over. that 2.75% of oranges, 3.37% of
grapefruit, and 4% of tangerines tak-
en to packing houses find their way to
the cull pile.
The greatest volume of this part of
the citrus crop has never been utilized.
except for a small quota that has been
used as fertilizer. But this waste fruit
should be put to use so that it will
return more than fertilizer value to
the grower, for fertilizing groves with
cull fruit and cannery refuse neces-
sitates the hauling of the material to
the grove and distributing it over the
ground-an expensive operation. Too.
decay is slow and numerous objections
can be attributed toward this practice.
Including (1) the amount of fruit
that drops and is left in the grove.
(2) the low grade fruit that reaches
the market and does not pay expenses.
(3) the amount accumulating on the
cull pile, and (4) the refuse from can-
neries, approximately 25% of the
citrus crop is available for the manu-
facture of livestock and poultry feeds.
Should this huge quantity be utilized
in such manner, not only would the
citrus industry considerably bolster its
amnnal income, but the livestock and
poultry producers would reduce their
feeding cost with a parallel increase
in the quality of their product!
That citrus interests are becoming
aware of the potentialities of this by-
pi'oduct is proved by the fact that
citrus feed processing plants are now
in operation at Tampa, Lake Alfred,
and IIaines City. whereas construction
is underway at the present for erection
of additional plants at Snnford. Or-
lahdo. Tampa. and Fort Pierce.
A conservative estimate of the total
citrus pulp and meal production for
this season is 15000 tons with a T)ns-
sible production of 05.000 tons. This
15,000 ton figure is quite likely to be
exceeded, for one processor alone plans
an 8.000 ton production.
Fl''id; poultrymen and livestock
men have suffered entensively due to
the necessity of importing grains from
the Corn-Belt. With the substitution
of citrus feeds, such importations will
appreciably decrease, placing Florida's
livestock and poultry industries on a
more secure foundation.
"In what manner is citrus processed
for conversion into livestock feed?"
is doubles a question formulating in
the minds of many readers. For the
feeding of livestock, citrus pulp. a
feedstuff produced by macerating and
drying the peel, rag. and seed residues
resulting from canning citrus juice and
hearts, is used insofar as it has been
found that no better results accrue
from grinding the feed into a meal.
For poultry, however, the pulp is
ground into meal.
Difficulties that presented themselves
when citrus was first processed have
now been overcome and three distinct
types of feeding material are obtain-
able: (a) Pulp showing characteris-
tics of the original peel, (b) a shred-
ded type pulp similar to beet pulp, and
The mechanism involved in drying
cannery refuse is this: Refuse is pass-
ed through corrugated rollers that tend
to disintegrate the fibrous structure
of the peel and remove part of the
water. Upon leaving the rollers, the
refuse is conveyed to a five-compart-
ment drier heated by an oil furnace.
Suction fans maintain air circulation.
The material is heated in the first com-
partment to near the boiling point
while being agitated by rotary paddles.
With continuous agitation, it is passed
from compartment to compartment
until discharged at the outlet with
10%, or less, moisture content. One
processor in the state has recently in-
stalled a gigantic drier with dimen-
sions of S feet in diameter and 55 feet
Work has been carried on continu-
ally since 1932 by Dr. W. M. Nenl,
Dr. R. B. Becker, and P. T. Dix Arnold.
Florida Experiment Station on the
feeding value and nutritive properties
of citrus by-products as a feed for
cattle. Recently these investigators to-
gether with Dr. W. G. Kirk have start-
ed work alonir similar lines with hogs.
The conclusions derived from the
first part of the study which covered
the digestibility and composition of
nutrients of dried grapefruit and dried
orange cannery refuse and the feeding
value of the grapefruit refuse for
growing heifers were very favorable.
The palatability of the grapefruit pulp
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
was very excellent in all instances.
The composition of dried grapefruit
refuse was: 91.77% dry matter, 4.94%
crude protein, 11.94% crude fiber,
69.30% nitrogen-free extract, 1.06%
crude fat, and 4.23% ash. The respec-
tive averages for the digestibility of
dried grapefruit refuse was 24.83%
protein, 71.52% fiber, 92.43% nitrogen-
free extract, and 79.37% fat. The total
digestible nutrients per hundredweight
of dry matter, thus, were 82.80 pounds.
The composition of dried orange peel
was: 86.05% dry matter, 5.84% crude
protein, 10.64% crude fiber, 64.74%
nitrogen-free extract, 0.69% crude fat,
and 4.13% ash. The digestibility was:
36.57% crude protein, 93.1% for crude
fiber, 88.51% for nitrogen-free extract,
6.59% for crude fat. As a result, 80.82
pounds of digestible nutrients per
hundredweight of dry matter are avail-
able in dried orange refuse. We may
conclude, therefore, that citrus pullp
is an excellent energy feed, and for
that reason is placed in the class of
high carbohydrate concentrates, but
that it is low in protein.
In this first study, the ration was
composed of dried grapefruit refuse,
sugarcane and sorghum ensilage, and
cottonseed meal, the grapefruit being
a substitute for cottonseed meal. It
was noted that animals fed citrus pulp
developed a beautiful, glossy coat and
showed a general appearance of ex-
cellent thrift and health.
In more recent work that has been
under progress from 1934 to the pres-
ent, it has been found that regardless
of the fact that animals received a
ration consisting of 80% citrus-4 parts
citrus pulp to one part of 41% cotton-
seed meal-and were given no rough-
age and were not allowed to pasture,
they nmde excellent growth and were
always in good condition. This experi-
ment has demonstrated that citrus
pulp may be used as a partial sub-
stitute for hay, and ensilage, or pas-
ture when they are scarce, as well
as a source of energy. The beef pro-
duced from these animals was of ex-
cellent flavor, and the body fat was
light in color as is desirable in high-
At the present, trials are being con-
ducted to determine the comparative
value of citrus pull) ad beet pulp for
milk production. When question of the
comparative value of the two. Doctor
Neal replied, "Although beet pulp is
the most noteworthy competitor of
citrus pulp, the citrus product is ap-
preciably superior due in part to its
giving total digestible nutrients at low-
er cost than beet pulp." As to whether
or not the citrus material imparts any
undesirable odor or flavor to milk,
Doctor Neal states that only fresh.
noi-processed fruit refuse imparts a
flavor since volatile oils responsible
for citrus flavor in milk are volatiliz-
ed and removed from the feed during
the drying process. Hence, the com-
mercial product does not possess this
undesirable characteristic. He also em-
lhasizes that one should not overlook
rle high calcium content of the pro-
duct since this aids materially in over-
coming calcium deficiencies found in
so many dairy rations.
Dairymen have quickly foreseen the
value of citrus pulp and a large num-
ber are. therefore. incorporating it inl
their rations. Doctor Neal states that
several states other than Florida are
utilizing the material in increasing
Professor Norman R. Mehrhof, Head
of Research and Teaching in the Poul-
try Department, College of Agriculture,
University of Florida, is conducting
extensive experiments on the utiliza-
tion of citrus meal ill poultry rations
for promoting growth in chicks, for
the production of market poultry, for
developing growth in stock preceding
maturity, and for use as an egg-pro-
ducing ration in adult birds. All ra-
tions used thus far have consisted of
varying levels of citrus meal--5, 10.
15. and 20%-as a substitution for
corn meal in all-mlash rations. Work
is being conducted upon Single Comb
White Leghorn birds since this breed
is predominant throughout the state.
The experiment dealing with the
affect of varying levels of citrus meal
upon rate of growth has been carried
out twice, and data is now being tabu-
lated on feed consumption and growth
changes in pullets andl cockerels. The
affect of citrus meal in various levels
has likewise been studied to determine
its effect, if any, upon neat quality.
Oni September 1, 1937, 96 pullets
reared onl citrus Imeal were phlced in
individual laying cages to determine
egg productivity. The birds will receive
the same citrus level as that given
throughout their period of growth.
Eggs laid by all birds will be examined
and measured to see the effect of the
ration oi all factors constituting egg
quality-weight of egg, shell strength.
shell porosity, color of yolk, per cent
thick and thin albumen, condition of
allbumen, and yolk index.
The pathological effect of the ration
ul)on the birds is being investigated by
Dr. M. W. Emmel, Poultry Patholog-
ist, Florida Experiment Station.
Another phase of the problem to be
studied will consist of rearing birds
upon rations containing no citrus meal
unlil maturity is reached, at which
time the birds will be placed under
floor management and will be allow-
ed to consume malsh and grain rations
suippileimented with citrus meal. Fur-
ther work will he directed toward sub-
stitution of numerous ingredients in
rations with citrus meal in addition
to substituting it for corn meal as has
been practiced to date.
Although this poultry investigation
work is in the preliminary stages as
yet, Professor Mehrhof expresses him-
self as being favorably impressed with
the showing that citrus meal has made
in all phases of his work undertaken.
Through the courtesy of the Suni-Citrus Products Company, we are able
to illustrate the beginning of an industry that will no doubt be of great im-
portance to the State of Florida in the very near future. The dryer as shown
above is being unloaded in Haines City, Florida. requiring three flat cars that
were coupled together for transportation. This particular dryer is eight feet
in diameter and fifty-five feet long, weighing approximately 160,000 pounds
with its driving attachments and equipment. When it is loaded with citrus,
the total weight is approximately 250,000 pounds, or a net capacity of nearly
fifty tons of undried products.
Already this dryer is in efficient operation, and during the coming pack-
ing season it should prove to be a great factor in the aid of the utilization of
Other plants that are in operation are located at Tampa and Lake Alfred.
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Citrus Commission Advertises Florida Fruit
By EDWIN B. WEISSINGER, '40
Since Florida's youthful citrus in-
dustry, a half century ago, began sup-
plying its products to national mar-
kets there has been present an always
increasing need for some administra-
tive body with supreme authority to
regulate the citrus industry of the
state. Too many enterprisers during
the formative years of citrus produc-
tion here resorted to premature ship-
ping, slipshod packing and sizing, and
general disregard of quality in order
to get their fruit on the market in
advance of competitors. This uneth-
ical behavior inevitably resulted in
Florida fruit acquiring a bad name
in many quarters. So much green,
sour stuff went out of the state that
the average Northern housewife didn't
have a nearly correct idea of how
Florida citrus fruit really should
Almost as outstanding a defect as
the industry's disregard of quality
was its disregard of advertising. The
average shipper took what he could
get for his crop, threw it on the mar-
ket and trusted to the fickle gods of
supply and demand that it would be
disposed of. And, in many and many
a year, these gods were unkind and
the Florida citrus man wept and grew
lean with much capital being made
of his misfortune in California and,
more recently, in Texas.
While the California Sun-Kist
orange flaunted itself before us from
the pages of Saturday Evening Post
and through manifold other media
Florida's oranges, in nearly every re-
spect superior, went for the most part
unheralded, unknown-and unsold.
Finally, a few years ago, the Florida
citrus industry realized that what
was needed was organization to match
organization, advertising to match ad-
vertising. Out of this realization was
formed the Florida Citrus Commis-
The Florida Citrus Commission was
created by an Act of the 1935 State
Legislature, for a two-year period.
This legislation was made permanent
by the 1937 Legislature. The Com-
mission exists principally to remedy
the two major weaknesses which were
evident in the Florida citrus industry
prior to its establishment; first to
administer the State citrus advertis-
ing funds, and secondly to promulgate
regulations under the maturity and
grade inspection laws. The Commis-
sion is composed of eleven members,
all of whom must be residents of
Florida and each one of whom must
have "been actively engaged in grow-
ing . citrus fruit in the state of
Florida for a period of five years im-
mediately prior to his appointment."
With such a qualification requisite it
was a foregone conclusion that the
Commission would be made up only
of skillful and practical citrus enter-
prisers. These eleven members are
appointed by the Governor following
recommendations by the Commissioner
of Agriculture; their regular term of
office is for two years.
In its analysis of what was needed
to lift our citrus industry out of the
Slough of Despond in which it wal-
lowed, the Florida Citrus Commission
decided upon two major remedial
measures; first, to standardize the
grade and pack of all shipments, thus
guaranteeing good quality of Florida
fruit, secondly, by advertising and
publicizing this fruit in order to in-
crease demand. The Commission al-
so regulates laws on coloring oranges,
maturity standards, and the bonding
and licensing of all buyers, shippers,
and canners. Under these regulations
all citrus enterprisers in Florida op-
erate. The actual inspection of Flor-
ida fruit shipments is under the di-
rection of the Honorable Nathan
Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture
for the state, and is handled by the
Citrus Inspection Bureau with offices
at Winter Haven. About 300 in-
spectors are employed in this work
at the height of the shipping season.
We are deeply indebted to the
Florida Citrus Commission for their
splendid cooperation in furnishing the
material for this publication. It is
through organizations like this one
that Florida will remain "The Nation's
The methods used by the Florida
Citrus Commission in advertising and
publicity were thorough and efficient.
A Sales Promotion Department was
organized which obtained the support
of the wholesale and retail trade in
promoting sales of both Florida fresh
and canned fruit. This campaign in-
cluded national promotion efforts of
the National Association of Food
Chains, representing about 37,000
chain stores, and the Independent
Food Distributors Council, represent-
ing about 152,000 independent mer-
chants. A national publicity campaign
was sponsored by the Commission,
supplementing the advertising pro-
gram with Florida fruit photographs,
stories, and recipes in newspapers and
magazines throughout the country.
All in all the Commission did a very
tidy job in making America Florida-
Results of this advertising and pub-
licizing can be arrived at by com-
paring the average annual net return
to growers in the five years preceding
the Commission's establishment, $6,-
410,674.00, with that received by grow-
ers during the Commission's first sea-
son, $14,717,619.00. While complete
records on the marketing of 1936-37
crops are not yet available, preliminary
estimates indicate that comparable re-
turns this past season will approach
$20,000,000. To make these figures a
little more vivid, it is disclosed that
in the 1936-37 season 50.6% more Flor-
ida grapefruit, 16.1% more Florida
oranges, and 51.4% more Florida
tangerines were consumed than in
recent previous years.
In addition to the slender appropria-
tion allotted to the Florida Citrus
Commission during the last legislature
(only $30,000 per year is allowed for
overhead expenses) the resources of
the Commission were in effect increas-
ed by the willingness of newspapers
everywhere to publicize Florida fruit
without charge and with no incentive
other than that it had news value.
Last season the amount of newspaper
space devoted to Florida citrus fruit
photographs, stories, and recipes with-
out cost was greater than the space
bought in newspapers for advertising
Epecially has Florida grapefruit
been publicized in every conceivable
way. One of the large newspaper fea-
ture syndicates recently carried a re-
cipe for making soup out of grapefruit
juice. And the Woolworth 5 & 10 Cent
stores in some sections of the country
are selling grapefruit playing cards,
scented with grapefruit perfume!
Taken in the aggregate the above
facts and figures make up a very im-
pressive testimonial to the industry
and achievement of Florida Citrus
This advertising is paid for by ex-
cise taxes levied upon each box of
citrus fruit packed in Florida. A tax
of one cent is levied upon each stand-
ard packed box of oranges; three cents
on each standard pack of grapefruit,
and five cents on each standard pack
of tangerines. All moneys collected
through this taxing program is expend-
ed on advertising, and all money re-
ceived from the excise taxes on one of
these three commodities is used in ad-
vertising that commodity. Taken col-
lectively, all of the funds used in
maintaining the Florida Citrus Com-
mission come from the citrus industry
and can be used only for the benefit
of the industry.
The Commission's first object and
reason for existence is to serve Flor-
ida's citrus growers. When it was
established about two years ago, Sep-
tember 10, 1935, the Commission faced
the enormous task of persuading more
than 20,000 growers and about 400
shippers to comply with the regula-
tions required by the new laws. Its
success in doing so was not through
arbitrary enforcement, but by convinc-
ing objectors of the real value of the
work planned and convincing them
that it was to their own interests to
serve voluntarily. The policy of work-
ing with those it serves has won the
confidence and good-will of the citrus
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
industry to the Florida Citrus Com-
mission and has thus increased its
power to serve.
An indication of the confidence citrus
growers repose in the Commission may
be gathered from the fact that not one
grower, shipper, or canner, raised a
dissenting voice to the re-enactment
of State citrus laws when the Senate
and House committee held a joint pub-
lic hearing on them last April. The
citrus industry in Florida was unan-
imous in approval.
There is this to be thought of in
any consideration of a program such
as the Florida Citrus Commission has
been administering; that supply and
demand must be synchronized if ef-
ficiency is to result. In other words.
advertising must he coordinated with
the distribution of fruit. No adver-
tising in the world can sell fruit un-
less the fruit is on hand for consumers
to buy. New markets must be de-
veloped as shipments expand; but in
any case advertising and distribution
must go hand in hand. The Commission
makes every effort to aid growers in
building up their own markets but
concentrates its advertising on con-
sumer localities where seasonal supply
of Florida fruit is assured.
Briefly, according to Mr. Marvin H.
Walker. Secretary of the Commission.
its major policies for the 1937-38 sea-
son are as follows:
(1) To accept the full responsibility
delegated to it by State laws in ad-
ministering these laws and establish-
ing policies for the benefit of the
industry, in cooperation with the
(2) To proceed with a harmonious
and progressive program under which
growers, shippers and canners can
continue to work together for the pro-
tection and advancement of their
(3) To do everything in its power
to stop green fruit shipments which
have destroyed early markets and cost
the growers of the State millions of
(4) To continue to work for an
equalization of citrus fruit transpor-
tation costs, so that Florida crops can
be properly distributed, particularly in
Central and Western states.
(5) To continue the policies of ad-
vertising, merchandising and publiciz-
ing Florida fruit that were developed
and proved to be so successful in the
last two years.
The present members of the Florida
Citrus Commission who will supervise
the accomplishment of these policies,
selected from the seven Citrus Dis-
tricts of Florida, are: John D. Clark,
Waverly; B. L. Kilgore, Clearwater;
John M. Knight, Vero Beach; John
Maxcy, Frostproof; W. M. Moseley,
Fort Pierce; Phil C. Peters, Winter
Garden; W. L. Spivey, Floral City;
C. E. Stewart. DeLand; Thomas B.
Swann, Winter Haven: L. F. Thomas,
Palmetto; and E. C. Welles, Arcadia.
With these men of the Florida Citrus
Commission cooperating with the grow-
ers, canners, and shippers of Florida:
with the United States Government
cooperating with this Commission; one
is not optimistic in comparing the
present invigoration of the Florida
citrus industry to a renaissance, a
rebirth, of enthusiasm and progress.
Our industrial lag is ended and only
rapid and tremendous advances are
indicated for the future.
enough to worry
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give such uniformly
good results that farm-
ers cross this worry off their list when
they apply NACO to their crops.
NACO Brands bring CONFIDENCE
and ease of mind...they bring results.
7lUl i FERTILIZERS
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THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
My home farmn is more or less of
a side line business to my family. My
father is a mechanic by trade and
lives on a farm mainly because he
likes the quietness of the country and
because it lowers the cost of living.
The major crop on our farm is
citrus; in fact, this is the only cash
producing crop grown on our farm.
Our grove covers an area of approxi-
nately eighteen acres. In this grove
we have two hundred fifty seedling
oranges, sixty-five valencia oranges,
and seventy-five grapefruit trees.
The farm being, as it is, a side line
with imy father, has resulted in the
fact that our cultivation and fertiliza-
tion methods are ill-planned and car-
ried out. This fact is reflected very
vividly by the yield that we receive
from these trees. Our yield this year
was only two-hundred ninety-four
boxes of fruit from the entire three
hundred ninety trees. Although we can
lay part of this low yield to the fact
that our trees were severely damaged
by the freeze in December, 1934, I do
not believe that this one factor alone
can be blamed, especially since we
consider that the State's average yield
of citrus is approximately one hun-
dred fifty boxes of fruit per acre and
also that the trees have had nearly
three years to recover from this freeze.
In fertilizing our groves we gener-
ally follow a program which, I imag-
ine, most people would classify as a
complete program. That is, in fertiliz-
ing our grove we usually put out a
complete fertilizer. In the spring of
the year we usually put out about a
ton and half of a 10-10-10 fertilizer.
Then in the last summer or early fall
we usually put out about two to two
and one-half tons of a 4-6-8 fertilizer.
Following both the spring and fall
applications of fertilizer we usually
plow our grove with a grove plow
which will turn the dirt about three
to four inches deep. Then, about one
to two weeks after the plowing is
complete we run an acme harrow over
the ground. Twice during the last four
years we have sowed crotolaria seed
in our grove following the spring plow-
ing and harrowing but in both in-
stances we have done the fall plowing
and harrowing before the plants had
time to reseed.
In criticising our past method of
fertilizing, I would consider the fol-
lowing main points:
1. It is too expensive per pound of
2. Not enough plat food has been
supplied, especially nitrogen to rebuild
the growth since the freeze.
3. No soil conditioner has been sup-
plied which is essential for function-
ing of the plant food elements.
4. No attention has been paid to
supplying the trees with the so-called
"rarer" plant food elements.
5. Lack of attention to cover crops.
In buying our fertilizer for the past
several years we have paid on an
average of forty-eight dollars ($48.00)
per ton for the 4-6-8.
In putting out a ton and a half of
the 10-10-10 fertilizer we have sup-
plied three hundred pounds of nitrogen,
three hundred pounds of phosphoric
acid, and three hundred pounds of
potash, at a cost of seventy-two dol-
lars, ($72.00). In putting out two and
one-half tons of 4-6-8 fertilizer we
have supplied two hundred pounds of
nitrogen, three hundred pounds of
phosphoric acid, and four hundred
pounds of potash, at a cost of ninety-
two dollars and fifty cents, ($92.50).
In other words, we have during the
year supplied our grove with five-hun-
dred pounds of nitrogen, six hundred
pounds of phosphoric acid, and seven
hundred pounds of potash at a cost of
one hundred sixty-four dollars and
fifty cents, ($164.50). By using the
materials nitrate of soda, superphos-
phate, and nitrate of potash, we would
have to use 3125 pounds of nitrate of
soda, 3158 pounds of superphosphate,
and 1400 of muriate of potash to sup-
ply the same amount of plant food we
are now supplying. Figuring nitrate of
soda at thirty-eight dollars, ($38.00)
per ton, superphosphate at twenty-
two dollars ($22.00) per ton, and muri-
ate of potaslh at thirty-six dollars
($36.00) per ton, the above materials
could be bought as follows: nitrate
of soda, fifty-nine dollars and thirty-
eight cents ($59.38) ; superphosphate,
thirty-four dollars seventy-three cents
($34.73) ; and muriate of potash,
twenty-five dollars twenty-cents
($25.20). In other words, the same
plant food we are now supplying for
one hundred sixty-four dollars and
fifty cents ($164.50) could be supplied
for one hundred nineteen dollars and
thirty-one cents ($119.31), a saving of
about fifty dollars ($50.00) per year.
In fertilizing our grove I believe
we should quit fertilizing on an acre-
age basis and fertilize according to
the size of the tree, and in the future,
since I am carrying this grove as my
Future Farmer project, I expect to
carry out the recommendations of the
State Experiment Station and my agri-
cultural teacher. I expect to follow the
following program: In the spring I
plan to put one-fourth pound of ni-
Fertilizing My Home Grove
By RUFE HUERMAN, WAUCHULA CHAPTER, F. F. A.
trate, followed in the summer with one-
fourth pound of muriate or sulphate
of potash per foot spread of the tree.
Then again ill the fall I expect to put
the same as the summer application.
The soil in our grove tests a ph of
approximately 4.2, which, according
to the information of my teacher, is
too acid for most efficient fertilizer
action. I believe I can materially im-
prove our grove by adding about five-
hundred pounds of dolometic limestone
per acre each year until this ph read-
ing has climbed to between 6 and 7.
which is normal for citrus production.
In the past program of fertilization
we have paid no attention to supply-
ing our trees with the so-called "rarer
elements" which may account for the
large amount of fruit dropping and
fruit splitting we have each year. I
propose to correct this condition by
supplying these elements by using as
far as possible only natural fertilizers
as nitrate, superphosphate, and dolo-
Inetic limestone from our Florida
mines, and by seeding our grove with
a crotolaria cover crop. In the future,
I expect to do nearly all of my culti-
vating with a tractor and disk. I
expect to disk the grove only often
enough to keep the cover crop from
becoming too large. I expect to quit
disking early enough in the summer to
allow my cover crop to reseed itself
I am hoping that by following the
program as I have outlined it here,
with such changes as my teacher
inigllt recommend from time to time.
that I can not only raise our yield, to
that of the State average, but also
Master Future Farmer
Contest Held Annually
The Florida Association, F. F. A.,
has inaugurated an annual event to
select the "Master Future Farmer"
in the State of Florida each year.
Any active member is eligible to enter
Prizes will be awarded as follows:
State winner (not eligible for district
prizes)-$100.00. District winners: 1st
-$15.00: 2nd-$10.00: 3rd-- 5.00; 4th
Points will be gained on perfection
of project work. leadership, coopera-
tion, FFA activities, and scholarship.
The State winner in this contest will
be eligible to compete in a National
contest for the title. "Star American
Farmer". A total of $1,200.00 will be
awarded winners in this contest.
Mr. A. R. Howard, vocational agri-
culture teacher in Hardee county, has
completed his Master Teacher's Re-
port and plans to have it entered in
the Southern Region contest soon.
Noveber 197 TE FORID COLEG FAMERPoac 9
Future Farmer Flashes
Homestead: Due to the heavy rains
in October, Adviser G. N. Wakefield
of the Homestead Chapter, F. F. A.
reports that projects in truck crops
have been delayed.
Largo: Members of the Largo Chap-
ter, with their Adviser, Mr. G. C
Howell, have undertaken a coopera-
tive poultry project. Profits from fry-
er sales will go into the Chapter;
Chiefland: Sta'e Future Farmer
President Earl Faircloth, Chiefland,
was a visitor last month to the Agri
cultural Experiment Station at Gaines
ville. Earl plans to enter the General
College as a freshman next fall.
Bushnell: Members of the Bushnell
and Webster chapters have undertak-
en a project in swine production. Ad-
viser Ben L. McLauchlin plans to pur
chase 50 purebred Poland China and
Duroc-Jersey gilts before the project
Redland: Congratulations to Redland
F. F. A.'s and their Adviser, Mr. M.
A. Baker. These wide-awake Future
Farmers have just completed and dedi-
cated a new chapter house which will
be used for their chapter meetings and
Gainesville: The Collegiate Chapter.
F. F. A., at the University of Florida
is underway for a successful year.
With the annual program of work
completed and membership consisting
of 40 wide-awake members, some very
interesting programs are being put on.
Sanderson: Adviser E. M. Creel and
his judging team have returned from
Kansas City where they competed in
the National judging contest held for
vocational agriculture students.
Radio: On Friday, October 15. the
Graceville chapter put on a radio pro-
gram over the Dothan, Alabama, radio
The Bushnell and Webster chapters
put on a radio program over the Or-
lando radio station on September 21.
On October 1 and 14 the Monticello
and Aucilla chapters put on a radio
program over the Thomasville, Geor-
Banquet: The first Fu'ure Farmer
banquet of the year was held by the
Bushnell and Webster chapters on
Tuesday, October 11. The principal
speaker was United States Senator
Claude Pepper, who was introduced
b)y Mr. Colin English, State Superin-
tendent of Public Instruction. There
were approximately 400 people present
at this banquet.
Meetings: On October 9 there was
a meeting of the District Federation
of Future Farmer chapters in District
III, held at Alachna. There was a
good attendance of the chapters in the
Chapters: The Flor'da Association
has just chartered 31 new Future
Farmer chapters, bringing the total
number of active chapters of the State
up to 90 for the fiscal year 1937-38.
Expands in Florida
In line with the rapid expansion of
vocational agriculture throughout the
high schools of the United States, Flor-
ida is keeping her pace. This rapid
growth is clearly shown by the organ-
ization of 14 new departments over
the State during the past year.
Georgia Future Farmer Wins
Tri-State Speaking Contest
The sub-reginoal FFA public speak-
ing contest was held in the Senate
Chamber of the Capitol Building at
Tallahassee on Friday evening, August
Advisers and representatives from
every FFA chapter in District II of
the Florida Association were present.
Orien Brooks, Dacula, Georgia, who
spoke on the subject, "Rural Electrifi-
cation", was winner and will represent
Alabama, Georgia, and Florida in the
Southern Region contest. Marcus
Grace, Marianna, spoke on the subject,
"Soil Conservation" and captured sec-
ond place. Roy Fuller, Notasulga, Ala-
bama, representing his State, spoke on
the subject, "Reclaiming Our Lost
Florida Well Represented
At National Convention
J. Lester Poucher, sophomore in the
University of Florida, was elected
president of the national F. F. A.
organization at the tenth annual con-
vention that was recently held in
Kansas City, Mo. Two years ago he
served as president of the Florida As-
sociation, F. F. A., and last year was
selected as the most outstanding col-
lege of agriculture freshman in North
Myron Grennell, Homestead, and
John Jones, Jr., Sanford, received the
American Farmer degree, the highest
achievement that can be attained in
Florida's F. F. A. championship
judging team and adviser of Sander-
son, together with Earl Faircloth, Eli
Read, Messrs. Miley, Loftin, and Ten-
ney also made the trip.
PRODUCERS OF EARLY
FRUIT MAKE MONEY
ITRO HOSK A
Enable grower to produce the
earliest fruit of finest
Jackson Grain Co.
How can a man come to know him-
self? Never by thinking, but by doing.
Try to do your duty, and you will
know at once what you are worth.
ATTEND NATIONAL F. F. A. CONVENTION
Included in the picture are: Mr. W. T. Loften, Mr. A. W. Tenney, Mr.
E. M. Creel, Mr. Gray Miley, Earl Faircloth, Myron Grennell, J. Lester Poucher,
John Jones, Eli Read, and the Sanderson judging team.
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
TO MAKE THE BEST BETTER
Florida 4-H Clubs Boys and Girls
State Council Completes a
Most Successful Year
At the 4-H Club Short Course held
in Gainesville, the Florida Boys' 4-H1
Club Council convened to begin its
second year of organization. The
counties represented this year were
increased to 21 as compared with last
year's 13, with 40 delegates present
as compared with last year's total of
25. This group represented 3382 club
boys of the over 4,000 enrolled over
One of the first matters before the
assembly was the election of officers.
They are as follows: President, Fred
Goetter of Escambia County; First
Vice-President, Ormond Hendry of
Madison County. Second Vice-Presi-
dent, Adin J. Maltby of St. Johns
County; Secretary, Eugene H. Boyles
of Suwannee County; Treasurer, How-
ard Hughey of Madison County.
The State Council as a part of the
program for the coining year is offer-
ing a large silver loving cup to the
county making the most proportion-
ate progress, or sets the highest stand-
ard in organized 4-H club work dur-
ing the year 1937-38. Some of the
things to be considered will be:
1. Per cent of available club mem-
bers enrolled in club work.
2. Number standard clubs organized
and number of standard clubs raised
to gold or purple seal clubs.
3. Number of social meetings held
during the year.
4. Money raised per club member
by group action.
5. Per cent of those enrolled who
complete their projects.
G. Number of members represented
in the Acheivement Day program.
A few of their other goals are, as
1. Asking county and local report-
ers to send in news for publication
in the Florida College Farmer.
2. Encourage the organization of
more County Councils.
3. Have more local clubs know the
requirements for standard clubs, gold
and purple seal clubs.
4. Recommend that all money rais-
ed be done by group action.
5. Urge club officers and County
Agents to allow only the boys who
have their record books up-to-date to
6. Recommend that if possible the
county councils raise the money to
send their delegates to the State Coun-
Last year's officers, it was decided,
are to act as advisory members to the
Executive Committee, except those whc
were re-elected, and J. Lee Smith is
to continue to act as Counselor to the
The year 1937-38 to date has proven
to be a most successful year, and has
more than measured up to everyone's
expectations. This organization hap-
pily looks forward to making even
more and greater progress than last
4-H Club Swine Producers
Awarded Trip to Chicago
Two of Florida's champion swine
producers were awarded trips to the
National 4-H Club Congress, and the
International Livestock Exposition at
the West Florida Exposition which is
held annually in Tallahassee. One of
these outstanding prizes was given to
the boy who is the Champion Swine
Producer in the state by Armour and
Compa-ny. Prior to 1932, the exhibitor
of the grand champion fat barrow,
was awarded the trip but when they
offered the trip again for the first
time in six year, it was decided to
award it to the best swine producer
in Florida. The other trip was given
to the boy who showed the grand
champion fat barrow at the West
Florida Fair. Eugene Boyles exhibited
the grand champion barrow last year,
and in consequence, was awarded the
Besides these two trips, there were
also substantial cash prizes given
away. The competition was very keen
for the two trips, and the other awards,
with many counties competing.
Alachua County's poultry judging
team will also make the Chicago trip.
The boys of this team are: Dan
Roberts, Robert Douglass, and Stan-
ley Rosenberger. This team won high
honors at the Central Florida Exposi-
tion in Orlando last spring from 12
other teams. Their trip is given by
the Florida Chain Store Association.
They will enter the National 4-H Club
Poultry Judging Contest while in the
These five winners will leave Jack-
sonville on November 26, bound for
Chicago. While there, they will attend
the National 4-H Club Congress, held
in conjunction with the International
Live Stock Exposition. They will visit
one of the packing plants, make a 50
mile trip of the city, and join in the
festivities given the some 1,500 boys
and girls present. They will also visit
some of the most outstanding places
there, as, The Adler Planatarium and
the Field Museum.
Suffer Loss in Death
Of County Agent Gomme
Clearwater, Fla.-The state's agri-
cultural circles suffered a distinct loss
in the death of County Agent William
Gomme at his Clearwater home on
October 5. Mr. Gomme, 56, had been
in Florida extension work almost con-
tinuously since 1914, having served
as county agent in Lake, Polk, Duval,
and Pinellas Counties. During 1918-
19 he was district agent for southern
Born in Hampshire, England, June
8, 1881, Mr. Gomme became a nat-
uralized American citizen in 1906.
He was with the U. S. Department
of Agriculture from 1907 to 1914.
Through many years of experience,
Mr. Gomme had built an enviable
reputation as a fair exhibitor, judge,
and manager. At the time of his
death he had just returned home from
judging at the Alabama State Fair
in Birmingham, and was laying plans
for the Pinellas County Fair. of which
he was manager. He had placed out-
standing exhibits at the Florida State
Fair in Tampa for years.
At June Short Course
At the annual 4-H Club Short
Course, held in June of this year,
Billy Mowat of Bay County. Eric Mills
of Marion County, and Gayle Diamond
of Brevard County, representing West-
ern, Central, and Southern divisions
of Florida respectively, won the three
Banker's Scholarships. These scholar-
ships, worth $100.00 each, are given by
the Florida Bankers Association. This
is the twelfth year that these scholar-
ships have been awarded and during
this time, have enabled many worthy
boys to begin a college education.
These scholarships are awarded to
those making the highest grades on an
intelligence examination, given at the
Short Course. Ninety-two boys took
the examination this year.
Adin J. Maltby won the Hasting
Potato Growers' Scholarship, which is
open to boys residing in Flagler, Put-
nam, and St. Johns Counties. Maltby,
who is from St. Johns County, is en-
rolled in the University of Florida as
William Goethe, also of St. Johns
County, was awarded the $100.00
scholarship given by the Model Land
Company of St. Augustine.
-EUGENE H. BOYLES, '41.
It is a great error to take oneself
for more than one is, or for less than
one is worth.
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
4-H Club Work With State's Rural
Youth Receives National Praise
Declaring that "Florida has fine 4-
H'ers, too," the National 4-H Club
News for September pays tribute to
this state's 4-H club work as conducted
by county and home demonstration
agents. The front cover is devoted to
pictures of 4-H camp activities in
The pictures, taken at Camp Tim-
poochee, located on Choctawhatchee
Bay in West Florida, depict the 4-Hs,
as they are stressed in camp. The
raising of the flag every morning be-
fore breakfast might be called the
Heart H. The Hand H representation
shows the boys learning self-reliance
by painstaking care of their cabin.
The Health H shows a life-saving
class on the beach. The Head H is
illustrated in a view of a kangaroo
court, which is set up to administer
discipline. This sets forth a well round-
ed and highly beneficial program.
A two-columnn article has the fol-
lowing comment, in part:
"Though famed as a producer of
line citrus and other fruits, leader in
the development of tung oil produc-
tion, of the alligator pear, mango,
guava and papaya, of the gorgeous
poinsettia, the oriental 'fish-pole' and
other strange and intriguing products
of the soil, and as a winter resort
de luxe, Florida may also rightfully
boast of the rank of its 4-H club work.
"Under the 20-year leadership of
R. W. Blacklock a program has been
developed to meet the peculiar needs
of the state's rural youth which is
yearly winning larger numbers of
boys and girls and greater support
of its people. Enrollment and achieve-
ments reached new heights this year.
More than 4,000 boys are conducting
regular projects-largest in the his-
tory of Florida 4-H club work-and
attendance at the recent short course
of delegates from 36 counties is a
"The Silver Jubilee Short Course
for 4-H Club Girls, held this summer
at the Florida State College for Wom-
en at Tallahassee, is another mile-
stone in the state's 4-H history. Over
500 girls and 101 local leaders and
home demonstration agents had a
week's course of intensive instruction
in poultry, gardening, food conserva-
tion, home improvement, clothing,
self-improvement, music, news report-
ing and recreational subjects, under
the direction of Miss Mary E. Keown,
state home demonstration agent, who
heads the girls' club work.
"No end of stories are told by Flor-
ida club leaders of the good use to
which their boys and girls put the
training gained in club work-train-
ing in the four H's which is bringing
the more abundant life to farm and
village homes in a manner which
promises best results for the individ-
ual and for society."
National 4-H Club News is pub-
lished by The National Committee on
Boys and Girls Club Work, Inc., of
Chicago. It is circulated widely in
every state alnd territory.
-EUGENE H. BOYLE, '41.
Treat Yourself to the Best
COLLEGE INN BARBER SHOP
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W. H. STRICKLAND
BEN DAY PLATES
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OCALA AND GAINESVILLE
Growers' and Shippers'
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T he t36 SOUTH com at i 3nAIN
36 SOUTH MAIN ST.
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
* IN GATORLAND 0
Interesting Campus News Notes
Under the guidance of Mrs. Ida
Keeling Cresap, Librarian, the Florida
Experiment Station Library has de-
veloped with tremendous rapidity since
1923, at which time it was composed
of a mere shelf of books, comparative-
ly speaking, until at present it occupies
a preemient position among all agri-
cultural libraries in this country. In
the early fall, additional space was
allotted the library making possible
the installation of a closed-stack sys-
tem which is influential in increasing
the efficiency of the staff as well as
affording better services to persons
utilizing the facilities of the library.
Regardless of this expansion, the
library is taxed, nevertheless, with
reference to seating capacity and
clerical aid. Especially is this true in
the evenings due to students making
greater use of the library this year
than ever, and due also to the new
Junior Class entering the College of
Agriculture from the Lower Division.
Estimates by the library staff point
out that 50% more students are using
the library regularly this semester
Inasmuch as an ideal education con-
sists not so much of the acquisition
and the maintenance of a vast amount
of knowledge but rather of a knowl-
edge of how and where to go about
securing information as the occasion
may arise, libraries should occupy a
fundamental position in any educa-
tional institution. Thus, if students of
agriculture have at their disposal an
adequate library, from it will be ac-
quired a lasting education.
To this end does the Experiment
Station Library serve the student of
the College of Agriculture. It con-
tributes a significant portion of his
education although not through the
medium of the classroom. Through it,
the student acquires a store of knowl-
edge that is not forgetable, for a
printed page has no memory for
Inconceivable is the education ob-
tainable in the Experiment Station
Library. Should one require agricul-
tural information that is now histor-
ical, it is to be found here, for books
published as long ago as 1646 are on
its selves; should one require world-
wide information, it is to be found
here, for agricultural publications are
received regularly from 80 foreign
nations-virtually every spot on earth:
should one require detailed informa-
tion about our own nation, it, too, can
be found here, for material is received
daily from every state; and should
one demand agricultural knowledge
of an unlimited character, it can be
sought easily from among the ap-
proximately 825,887 index cards on
file in the card catalog.
However great or minute our prob-
lems, the library staff is always at
our service to solve our problems and
contribute to our education. But to
one end must we, as students, strive.
and that is to uphold the rules and
regulations of the library, for although
its services are available to the stu-
dents of the College of Agriculture,
its primary function is to serve the
researchers of the Experiment Station.
-0. K. MonRE, '38.
Marshall Leads Alpha Zeta
Under the leadership of Sidney P.
Marshall, Alpha Zeta, national honor-
ary agricultural fraternity, plans
many activities during the year that
will be beneficial to the students in
the College of Agriculture.
Among those activities to be spon-
sored by the fraternity are monthly
radio talks, entertainment for alumni
during Homecoming, and the annual
Ag. College week-end. The fraternity
also plans cooperation with the other
organizations of the College in mak-
ing for a more desirable institution.
S. P. MARSHALL
Serves As Adviser On
College Farmer Staff
Having previously served as vice-
president and as an executive com-
mittee member, J. Frances Cooper,
Agricultural Editor of the Florida Ex-
periment Station, University of Flor-
ida, was recently elected President of
the American Association of Agricul-
tural College Editors. Mr. Cooper was
further honored by winning first place
in the feature story exhibit which is
a regular highspot of the convention.
Mr. Cooper's story dealt with the
truck producing activities of farmers
who have come to Florida from other
Ag Library Widens
states being entitled. "The Yanks Are
Coming." In this exhibition class, Iowa
ranked second, while Ohio was award-
ed third place.
Mr. Cooper's recognition results from
13 years of untiring effort in the ad-
vancement of agricultural journalism
during his period of membership with
Still further credit should be be-
stowed upon Mr. Cooper in-so-far as
he did a neat job of advertising for
the state by; first, being influential
in attracting this outstanding group
to the state, and, secondly, for so ef-
ficiently giving the members a taste of
Florida hospitality, beauty, and clim-
ate as was accorded them in their trip
throughout South Florida which con-
stituted a feature of the Silver An-
niversary Convention of the organi-
As a result of his far-reaching
journalistic achievements, the staff of
The Florida College Farmer pays
tribute to Mr. Cooper. In having a
man characterized by such activities
serving as adviser to our staff, we feel
deeply grateful inasmuch as our as-
sociation with him should ingrain
better writing abilities into each of us.
School of Forestry
Has Many Objectives
The Department of Forestry of the
years 1935-36 and 36-37 is now a
School of Forestry. Under the leader-
ship of Professor II. S. Newins, as-
sisted by Professors ,T. W. Miller, Jr..
and P. W. Frazer, the School of For-
estry has advanced to its present
This year the school has new quar-
ters on the fourth floor of the Horti-
culture Building. The new location
has 4 offices. 4 classrooms. 1 store-
room, 1 laboratory, and 2 rooms for
The teaching staff has also been in-
creased this year. The additions in-
clude Dr. E. A. Ziegler of Franklin
and Marshall college e and (olumbia
University, who is teaching several
courses in Forest Economics. Dr.
Ziegler also holds a commission as
Colonel in the Reserve Officers Train-
ing Corps. Mr. Bob Swinford. who
graduated from Purdue in 1937, and
Mr. Wilbur DeVall, who graduated
from Syracuse in 1937. are here on
graduate fellowships. These men are
both teaching in the Ranger School.
The enrollment in the School of
Forestry has increased rapidly and at
present we have 32 students enrolled.
This year 9 men will candidates for
degrees in forestry. They will be the
first men to get a degree in forestry
from the University of Florida.
The Forestry Club is also active this
year under the leadership of Dick
Neumann as President. The other of-
ficers of the club are: Vice-President.
Paul Kendricks; Secretary-Treasurer
Bol Pryor: Reporter, Donald Plank.
The club plans to sponsor a field
day event this year. This field day will
be held on the Austin Cary Memorial
Forest. There will be events such as
logrolling, wood cutting, tree climbing.
and many others.
Noveber,193 THEFLORDA OLLEE FAMERPa ae 13
The club has its regular meetings
every Tuesday evening at 7 p. n. The
program committee is active and has
a very interesting speaker on each
The Forestry Club is also sponsor-
ing a Yearbook for the School of For-
estry. This annual will contain pic-
tures of the students and pictures of
various outstanding events of the
year. This will be the initial publica-
tion of any book of this sort by tlhe
School of Forestry.
-ARTHUR A. RICH, '38.
Ag College Organizations
Actively Engaged at Present
With a full schedule of work for
the coming year, each club of the Ag
College is doing a lot of efficient work.
The presidents of the various organ-
izations are: Alpha Zeta, S. P. Mar-
shall; Ag. Club, R. F. Tucker (1st
quarter); Thyrsus, W. O. Babb; F. F.
A., J. C. Driggers; N. E. S., Mrs. J. H.
Carrington; Toreador, S. P. Marshall;
Forestry, R. T. Neumann.
An Ag College Council has been
organized by representatives of the
various organizations with S. P. Mar-
shall, chairman, and Dr. P. H. Senn,
REUBEN M. REAMS
To us, his life was as a radi-
ant flower that had just burst
into full bloom, ready to give
to the world all of its beauty
The plant has a number of organs
which conduct its various functions,
just as the animal body is made up
of organs, each having work to do.
Not the least of the plant's organs
are the leaves, which are food mak-
ing and transpiratory organs. The
three primary functions of the leaf
are: the manufacture of carbohy-
drates, which is known as photosyn-
thesis, the synthesis of nitrogenous
foods, and transpiration or the liber-
ation of water from the plant.
The principal leaf components are:
epidermis, stomata, mesophyll and the
intercellular space. The epidermis
covers the entire surface of the leaf
and has the ability to retard trans-
piration. The epidermis of the leaf
has two kinds of cells, ordinary epi-
dermal cells and guard cells: the lat-
ter having the power to open and
close the stomata. These guard cells
are always found in pairs and the
opening between them is the stoma.
These stomata act as a passage-way
for the following gases: oxygen, car-
bon dioxide, and water vapor. The
mesophyll cells are green and are able
to carry on photosynthesis.
It is necessary that we have a clear
conception of osmosis or osmotic pres-
sure before continuing with the func-
tion of the citrus leaves. When a
dilute solution or pur0 water is sepa-
rated from a concentrated solution by
a semi-permeable membrane, the weak-
er solution passes into the more con-
centrated solution-this process being
known as osmosis.
The passing of the water and
nutrients from the ground through the
roots, trunk and stems to the leaves
is by osmotic pressure.
Photosynthesis is the process of
carbohydrate manufacture. There are
many kinds of carbohydrates manu-
factured in plants, but all are derived
from one, which is sugar. The raw
materials from which sugar is manu-
factured are water and carbon diox-
ide. The water comes from the soil
and the carbon dioxide is absorbed
from the atmosphere. Air is taken
into the leaves through the stomata
and oxygen is liberated in the same
way. Light must be present in the
process of photosynthesis. After the
raw materials are manufactured into
food it is then carried to the roots,
trunk and stems and Btored, some
being used in the growth of the plant
and in the production of fruit.
The leaves constantly liberate water
into the atmosphere in the form of
water vapor. This is known as trans-
piration, and the rate can be cut down
by the condition of the plant as well
as by environmental conditions. Some
environmental conditions that reduce
transpiration are: scale-insects, dust
and smoke settling on the leaves, and
occasionally sprays, such as oil emul-
sions. Some internal conditions such
as light, relative humidity, tempera-
ture and air movement affect the rate
Care must be exercised with the
treatment of leaves or the growth of
the plants will be seriously retarded.
just the same as animal growth and
health will be retarded if their in-
ternal organs are injured.
The College of Agriculture of the University of Florida
OFFERS TRAINING IN VARIOUS LINES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND LEADERSHIP
Two Years General College Followed by Two Years in Applied Agriculture
Leading to B. S. A. Degree, with Specialization in the Following Fields:
Only college in Southeast offering full courses in citrus and sub-tropical fruit culture.
School of Forestry offering a B.S. Degree in Forestry.
Ample opportunity to develop talents through extra-curricula activities.
DEBATING, DRAMATICS, ORATORY, BUSINESS, POLITICS.
For catalog and full information write:
DEAN, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Citrus Leaves and Their Functions
By E. W. STEPHENS, '38
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Of the Class of 1937, a large num-
ber are teaching vocational agricul-
ture in towns throughout the state,
and one in Indiana. W. E. Bishop is
teaching at Jasper, T. Marable Love
at Chipley, E. E. Bone at Fernandina,
C. S. Glenn at Kathleen, H. A. Hen-
ley at St. Cloud, J. C. Holm in Indiana,
Ben McLaughlin at Bushnell and C.
L. Townsend at Sopchoppy.
Many of the men are continuing
their studies at the University of Flor-
ida and other institutions. A. R. Cox,
Jr., is doing postgraduate work here
in Poultry Husbandry. W. S. Valen-
tine, who was graduated with honors,
is doing graduate work in the Agron-
omy Department. R. S. Dyal is the
Graduate Assistant in the Agronomy
Department in the College of Agricul-
ture. B. W. Hundertmark is working
on an Agronomy major in graduate
work here. P. R. Seller is doing gradu-
ate work in the Agricultural Eco-
nomics Department. Miss K. V. Wheel-
er, the first women to obtain a Bachelor
of Science in Agriculture at the Uni-
versity of Florida, is continuing her
work in Entomology as a graduate,
while acting as an assistant in the
Entomology Department of the Experi-
ment Station. G. F. Vollmer is doing
graduate work in Entomology at
L. S. U.
Besides Wayne Valentine, two other
men were graduated with honors. Fred
Yancey and Jorge Guerra Deben.
The former is working with Dr. O. C..
Bryan, the last head of the Agronomy
Department in the College. in the Lime
Products Company at Bartow, Fla.
Jorge Guerra is reported to have re-
turned to Cuba. Win. H. Krome and
G. F. Westbrook, Jr., were both gradu-
ated with High Honors. Bill is doing
citrus caretaking at his home and
George Westbrook is employed in the
Citrus Laboratory at Lakeland, doing
L. B. Anderson, Jr., is in a grove
management business at Winter Haven.
J. L. Barton is in the nursery business
with his father at Glen St. Mary. W.
W. Bassett, Jr., is the new Assistant
County Agent in Lake County with
headquarters at Tavares. O. B. Griggs
is working with the United States De-
partment of Agriculture at Laurel,
Miss., on the White-Fringed Beetle
control project. W. H. Moore is doing
work in Agronomy at the Belle Glade
Experiment Station. C. A. Root is
working for the Niagara Spray Com-
pany in Tampa, while R. V. Swartsel
is working for the Lyons Fertilizer
Company in Lake Wales. Nels Benson
is assisting in Soil Chemistry at Ex-
periment Station here.
Hamlin Brown, '36, is working as
graduate assistant in the Department
of Agricultural Economics. He was
married to Miss Mildred Rogers.
daughter of Prof. Frazier Rogers of
the College of Agriculture, on Sept. 5
of this year.
M. C. Futch. '36, is doing postgradu-
ate work in Animal Husbandry. L. S.
Maxwell is Assistant County Agent in
Orange County with headquarters at
Orlando. W. P. Hunter, who was do-
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
ing work on his masters degree here
from 1935-36, is working for the Rohm-
Hass Company in Orlando as a re-
Milledge Murphy of the Class of '35
is Assistant State Entomologist in
Georgia, with headquarters in Atlanta.
He is on the verge of getting married
to a girl in Mississippi, as invitations
to the wedding have been received by
various people in the College.
Howard Matthews, '35, is working
at Graceville on the Soil Conservation
Project there. J. M. Brownlee, '35, is
doing graduate work in the Entomol-
ogy Department in the College, hoping
to get his masters degree in June. Gus
McGriff, '35, is working for the U. S.
D. A. in Gainesville on the Sea Island
cotton project. Emmett McGriff, '35,
is in the Mapping Division of the Soil
Conservation Project in Gainesville.
T. K. McClane, Jr., '35. is County
Agent for Bradford County with head-
quarters at Starke. W. W. Simmonds.
'35, is teaching Vocational Agriculture
at Inverness. W. W. Stirling, '35, is
in the citrus caretaking business with
his father at Davey. M. B. Futch, '35.
is County Agent for Baker County,
Macclenny. Kent Littig. who took his
masters degree in Entomology in 1935.
is working for the U. S. D. A. at
Florala, Ala., on White-Fringed Beetle
R. E. Norris. '34. was appointed re-
cently to succeed Mr. C. R. Hiatt as
County Agent of Lake County with
headquarters at Tavares. He had been
the Assistant County Agent up to that
time. J. O. Rowell. '34, is now the
Extension Entomologist for North
Carolina, with headquarters at Raleigh.
J. A. Jones, '33, is in Rural Reset-
tlement work at Lake City. Aubrey
Hudson, '33, is Assistant County
Agent in Madison County with head-
quarters at Madison. F. D. Yaun, '33,
is County Agent for Liberty County
with headquarters at Bristol.
-JULIET H. CARRINGTON, '38.
25 Scholarships Offered
Leading Farm Boys of Fla.
By Sears-Roebuck Co.
On August 26, the Committee of
Scholarships and Awards selected
twenty-five boys who were to receive
Sears-Roebuck Scholarship awards
valued at $100.00 each.
The winners of the scholarships are:
Eubanks Barnhill. J. Fielder Bell.
James W. Beardsley. Eugene H.
Boyles, Harold E. Brewer, Harold E.
Clark, Kenneth A. Clark, Lake W.
Coleman, Cecil M. Crutchfield. A. Lee
French, Jr., Leon Goodwin, Myron G.
Grennell, Jeff Hargraves, Carl Hend-
ricks, Philip P. Hurst, John R. Jones.
J. C. McCormick, Robert C. Morris,
Russell C. Peeples, Jr.. Wendel Pat-
rick. Franklin S. Perry. Burgess Rand.
Cecil Shine, Jr., and Curtis Ulmer.
Each of these boys plans to enter
the College of Agriculture when he has
finished in the General College.
-EUGENE H. BOYLES, '41.
Melotte gives you not
only the sensational, ex-
elusive, Suspended, Self-
Balancing Bowl feature,
but also 100% Stainless
Steel in every part that touches
milk. Only 18 discs. Longer wearing.
Can't rust. Easier turning. Auto-
motive type overhead oiling system.
New precision straight cut gears.
Instantly removable bowl chamber. I
Convenient to use. Lowest upkeep
cost. And-the best skimmer of all.
Trade in That
Trade in your old cream wasting separator now.
Pay for your new Melotte on our easy terms offer
out of the extra cream checks you get. Ask for
our big Trade Allowance! Come in or phone today.
Equipment & Supply Dept.
Howard Grain Co.
Chesnut Office Equipment
COMPLETE OFFICE OUTFITERS
e. tL. les & Sons
Jewelers, Silversmiths, Opticians
Studio of .
Beyond the Campus
November, 1937 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER Page 15
Controlling Citrus Pests by Spraying
By JULIET CARRINGTON, '38
Anyone who grows citrus knows that
there is no spray schedule put out
which can be followed strictly. Each
grove has different pests occurring
under varying conditions, making it
necessary to use the spray recommen-
dations at the discretion of the man-
ager of the grove. On the other hand,
the pests usually appear at well de-
fined seasons of the year and are at
their worst at this time. It is then
that the spray schedule becomes of
As given, there are two combina-
tions sprays which may be used at
the same time against fungi and in-
sects. These sprays save labor and
operation costs. By knowing which
are the best against specific pests,
they are of great value to the grower.
In spraying for any type of pest, it
is essential to get a thorough cov-
erage of the tree, being sure to pene-
trate within the foliage to the trunk.
This is true because most of the pests
prefer reduced light conditions and
consequently are found either on the
under sides of the leaves or on the
trunk and inner branches.
In using the dormant sprays, a bor-
deaux-oil mixture is preferred for use
against the Florida red scale and the
purple scale. This spray will also
take care of melanose and scab. If
there are rust mites at this time, a
1/% oil in bordeaux may be used or
the bordeaux-wettable sulfur. Of
course, lime-sulfur with wettable sul-
fur is always good against this pest.
The same thing can be used against
purple mites and six-spotted mites.
One must be very careful in apply-
ing the post-bloom sprays. If bor-
deaux must be used, it should be pre-
pared with 1 gallon of bordeaux mix-
ture to 50 gallons of water, and ap-
plied when the fruit is very small.
from about March 25 to April 15. It
should be used alone for melanose
and scab. The combination sprays
are again used to control both insects
and fungi. Unless deemed absolutely
necessary toward saving the crop, the
late spring sprays may be omitted.
This should be considered carefully,
as the income from the crop will of-
ten not justify the expenditure at this
Summer sprays from May 15 on in-
to the fall are usually economically
justified. The seriousness of the in-
festation must be taken into consider-
ation. If an oil emulsion is used
against scale-insects, whiteflies, mealy-
bugs and purple mites, it must be
used at a lower strength than in the
winter, to prevent burning of the
foliage and fruit. One to one and
two-thirds percent actual oil is recom-
mended. The oil should always be
used according to the manufacturer's
recommendation on the package. As
usual, lime-sulfur, using 1 gallon to
70 gallons of water, is recommended
for the control of scale crawlers, rust
mites and purple mites. Five to 10
pounds of wettable sulfur added will
render the spray more efficient. Care
must be taken in using this spray al-
so, as there is burning after the use
of it in the summer. It is best to
apply it in the cooler hours of the
In the fall, scale-insects and white-
fly seem to emerge with a good deal
of violence, so that a "clean-up" spray
is recommended to take care of these
pests. Moreover, the scale and also
rust mites will disfigure fruit which
is hanging on the trees and detract
from its market value. Therefore,
spraying for these pests is usually im-
portant. The trees may be dusted at
this time with sulfur better than in
the summer when there are continual
rains which often wash off the dust
almost as soon as applied; thus mak-
ing it rather a costly process, while
at the same time obtaining almost no
The late fall and early winter
sprays usually are necessary because
of rust mite damage to fruit hanging
on the trees of the mid-season and
late varieties. This spray is not al-
ways necessary as the infestations of
rust mites at this time are variable.
It is again a question of whether or
not the spray application is justified
on the grounds of maintaining the
quality of the crop.
We have endeavored roughly to fill
in the gaps, as it were, in the spray
schedule given above. It must be re-
membered that spray applications
must he thorough to be effective and
that timing has a great deal to do
with the percentage of control ob-
tained. In spraying for aphids, for
instance, it must be done at the first
moment they are noticed on the young
foliage. as it is useless to spray for
them after the foliage is badly curled.
one oF the largest and most
complete plants in the Southeast
ROSE PRINTING CO.
ROSE BUILDING TALLAHASSEE
Printers Publishers Bookbinders Rulers
Have been making better crops for the Flor-
ida Growers for over a quarter of a century.
They are known for their value-not because
they are cheaper.
We make Better Quality Brands as good as
scientific research, good materials, and care-
ful manufacturing methods direct.
You will be pleased with them. Ask any
user. If there is no agent in your communi-
ty, write us.
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
Page 16 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER November, 1937
"THEY MOO FOR MORE"
Is not due to luck or accident. Before we erected our factory, we
submitted samples to the dairy experts of the Florida Agricultural
Station and the Georgia College of Agriculture, who told us what
was the best type of pulp to manufacture.
Florida and Georgia roughages are deficient in Minerals.
n ti*Citrus 1tp is the only citrus feed which has these
needed and valuable minerals.
Ask most any Dairyman who fed it last spring and he'll have more
THEY MOO FOR MORE"
SUNI-CITRUS PRODUCTS COMPANY
Haines City, Florida
Our family has been growing citrus in Florida continuously since 1908.
NORFOLK, VA. CHARLESTON, S. C.
THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER