Title: Florida college farmer
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00019
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00019
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text

THE


Florida College Fa


Agricultural Students at the University of Florida
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
DECEMBER 1, 1936


F C I A L


\ \


C I T R U S


Publisher by


VOL. V


NO. 1


Y. i: .


C D


I S S U


~sr,







Page 2 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER December, 1936


FLORIDA'S GOLD MINE

Properly grown, the citrus crop of this State represents a. veri-
table gold mine.
Gold signifies a fineness of character and quality-there is
never any substitute for pure gold. There should not be any
substitute for the materials that help to bring out the gold of
the orange.
Receivers of fruit up North, and Buyers in Florida are beginning
to judge the quality of citrus fruit by testing for eating quality
and flavor.
Quality fertilizer will produce such crops of oranges, grapefruit
and tangerines for you

Lyons Fertilizers Have Been Doing This Job For Growers
All Over The State For Many Years. It Can Do The
Same Job For You.


Lyons Fertilizer Company
Tampa, Florida


A BRAND for I


vety PURPOSE


Whatever you're growing
citrus, truck crops, flowers, grass or
ornamentals you'll find a Gulf
Brand to suit your exact needs. *
Made from only the finest materials
-always perfectly blended, Gulf Brands assure your crops the
maximum in plant food value. Try Gulf Brands on your
crops this year. You'll find them cheaper in the long run.


Let the Gulf Field Man help you with your soil problems

THE CULF FERTILIZER 00
P. O. Box 2790


Florida

Qrower



"The

Magazine

of

Florida"


A generation of service
to the agricultural in-
terests of a great State.


SUBSCRIPTION
PRICE
$1.00 A YEAR



Published Monthly

by


FLORIDA
GROWER PRESS

Tampa

Special Subscription Rate For
Limited Time Only
3 Years For $1.00


TAMPA, FLORIDA


December, 1936


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Page 2







THE. FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


EDITORIALLY SPEAKING


1936-37 POLICY
This issue of THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARM-
ER ushers into office a new staff and new policies.
It is the earnest desire of the Editor to give you, the
students of the College of Agriculture, a publication
which you will enjoy and be proud of, but this can
only be accomplished with your wholehearted sup-
port.
The staff for this year has not yet been completed
and it needs some more good men. It is not necessary
that you have past experience on publications, but
only that you be willing to work and learn. It is our
job to train you for future editors and business man-
agers. It is your job to come to us and give us the
opportunity. This is a chance to get something from
college that you will never obtain from a textbook,
and it will be experience that will be of great assist-
ance to you in later years.-W. W. B.


FLORIDA'S GOLD MINE
Few people have any idea of what the orange has
meant and still means to Florida. The lure of its
gold, framed in glossy foliage, has brought people to
our state. It has been inseparably tied into our de-
velopment and our up-coming. Boats have been


built to carry it to market;
down to the same end;
trails that have led to
plantings hidden away in
denser native settings of
Florida's glorious trees
have become broad high-
ways.
Still it accounts annual-
ly for half or so of our ag-
ricultural income. Great
industries depend upon it
for their very existence,
and little ones without
number cluster about it.
The orange means nails
and boxes and lumber and
paper and color and chem-
icals and fertilizers and
machinery and buildings
and oil and gasoline and
lands-all these and many
more. The bootblack feels
its existence, the banker
feels the pulsations of its
trade stimulus. To many
parts of Florida, the
orange is all, to all parts it


railroads have been laid


The Florida Cc

Published by representatives
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
GAINESVILLE,
EDITORIAL
WILMER W. BASSETT, JR.,
CLYDE DRIGGERS, '38 ..................
FRANK H. RICH, '38
ED W EISSINGER, '40 ..................
DEPARTMENT
WAYNE DEAN, '37
DONALDSON CURTIS, '40
W E. BISHOP, '37 ........................
MAx BRUNK, '38
REPORT
WAYNE VALENTINE, '38 .......
CHAS. CLYMORE, '38 ...............
OBr IS EVE '38 ........................
JULIET CARRINGTON, '38 ....
R. T. NEUMANN, '38
MOSELEY HENRY, '8 ...
SIDNEY MARSHALL, '37 ...........
CHARLES JAMISON, '40 ..............
BUSINESS
ARTHUR M. McNEELY, '37 ....
H C. LUNSFORD, '38 .....................
RANKIN COX, '37 ..................As
FACULTY ADVISOR
H. H. HUME,
C. H. WILLOUHBY
PUBLISHED FOUR TIMES DUR
Subscription F


is of vast importance. It must be cared for and
tended, the best of scientific thought must be
brought to bear upon it, to the end that Florida
may prosper. -H. H. H.


TO A FARMER
You know delights that cannot ever pass.
The pungent fragrance of a furrowed soil,
Wet after rain; the grateful rest from toil
That lingering evening brings; the fluffy mass
Of wood-smoke in the valleys, like a glass
Half-full of drifting liquid. Life may foil
Man's feeble, futile schemings, but her coil
Of pain is brief hope leaps like leaping grass.
And if an empty sense of living fills
Your heart with chilly doubting. If it press
With icy-taloned clutch your changing wills
And sweep them to a sea of fearfulness:
Look to the earth, look to the constant hills;
These God gave strength-your strength shall not be
less. E. W.


TRIED AND PROVEN
As in almost every publication, advertising plays
a very important part in the publishing of our mag-
azine. Every effort possible is made to present at-
tractive advertising. Real-
izing the potentialities of
allege Farmer the farm buying power
and knowing the special
of Student Organizations
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA appeal of the magazine to
FLORIDA the rural citizens and
STAFF youths of the state, pro-
37 ............... ..... ................E ditor
.....................Associate Editor gressive firms place adver-
Managing Editor tising with us regularly.
..............................Copy E ditor
L EDITORS The magazine has a defi-
Ag. College nite policy of affording as
4-H Club
........................Future Farmers much service as possible to
Alumni News the advertiser and pro-
ERS testing its subscribers by
........ ......................... Agronom y l
1g. Economics running only tried and
Horticulture proven, legitimate ads.
Entomology
Forestry That is, advertisements
Ag. Engineering that represent substantial,
........Animal Husbandry
...............Poultry Husbandry useful products, which we
STAFF ourselves would not hesi-
...................Business Manager tate to buy when we need
.........:..Circulation Manager
so. Circulation Manager them. We are well aware
tY COMMITTEE of our duty to our readers
lir ANa COOPE in thus suggesting and ad-
J. FRANCIS COOPER
vertising to them only the
CING THE SCHOOL YEAR
'ifty Cents best products.--W. W. B.


a


--7' 1-`------~-~~~ :'--I-I ~PTrCI~~~-~--I'~~ ~---i-ii-~ i---iiCliY.~


December, 1936


Page 3






THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


December, 1936


Compliments of . .



M ckesson-Groover-Stewart

DIVISION OF McKESSON & ROBBINS, INC.


Jacksonville Tampa Miami Orlando




t


The College of Agriculture of the University of Florida
OFFERS TRAINING IN VARIOUS LINES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND LEADERSHIP
Two Years General College Followed by Two Years in Applied Agriculture
Leading to B. S. A. Degree, with Specialization in the Following Fields:
Animal Husbandry Agricultural Education
Economics Agronomy
Agricultural Engineering Horticulture
Entomology Forestry
Agricultural Chemistry
Only college in Southeast offering full courses in citrus and sub-tropical fruit culture.
Department of Forestry established last session.
Ample opportunity to develop talents through extra-curricula activities.
DEBATING, DRAMATICS, ORATORY, BUSINESS, POLITICS.
For catalog and full information write:
DEAN, COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


7-


Page 4












The Florida College Farmer

Published by Agricultural Students at the University of Florida
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA

VOL. V DECEMBER 1, 1936 NO. 1


The Florida Citrus Commission

BY WILMER W. BASSETT, JR., '37


The 1935 State Legislature passed
an Act to stabilize and protect the cit-
rus industry and to promote the gen-
eral welfare of the industry and of the
State of Florida by creating a State
Citrus Commission, which is known as
the Florida Citrus Commission.
Members of the Commission are ap-
pointed by the Governor upon recom-
mendation of the Commissioner of Ag-
riculture. This Commission is com-
posed of 11 citrus men and resident
citizens. Each of these men must have
been actively engaged in, and must
have derived the major portion of his
income from, the growing, or growing
and shipping, of citrus fruit in the
State of Florida for a period of five
years immediately prior to his ap-
pointment to the Commission. At least
seven members of the Commission have
to be growers not connected with any
packing, shipping, or marketing agency
or association. The regular term of
office of the members is two years
from the date of their appointment.
To be able to carry out the purposes
of the Florida Citrus Commission the
State has been divided into seven Cit-
rus Districts. Each of these districts is
represented by a member on the Com-
mission. The Citrus Commission is a
corporate body and has powers to con-
tract and be contracted with, and has
the power to enforce and carry out all
provisions and requirements of the Cit-
rus Commission Law.
The Commission has the power to
establish standards for state grades of
citrus fruit and for the containers of
fruit. It may also regulate marks or
tags on containers shipped in and out
of the State of Florida. The law con-
cerning the maturity of citrus fruit is
also enforced by the Florida Citrus
Commission.
Since citrus fruit grown in Florida
comprises the major agricultural crop
of the state, it is realized by the Com-
mission that the expanding of markets
and increasing of consumption of or-
anges, grapefruit, and tangerines is of
public interest. Advertising laws have
been passed by the State Legislature
on these three citrus commodities and
the administration of these laws is one
of the duties of the Florida Citrus
Commission. An excise tax of one
cent on each standard packed box of
oranges; three cents on each standard
packed box of grapefruit; and five
cents on each standard packed box of


tangerines has been levied to cover all
costs of advertising. All money levied
and collected on each of these com-
modities is spent solely for advertis-
ing. All money received from the ex-
cise tax on one commodity is spent
exclusively for the advertising of that
commodity.
All advertising is carried on through
the Florida Citrus Commission. Exten-
sive advertising and sales promotion
programs are supported by a national
publicity campaign, in which maga-
zines, newspapers, radios, home econo-
mists and food demonstrators through-
out the country will be furnished with
special stories, photographs and reci-
pes of Florida grapefruit, oranges and
tangerines. The Commission, from time
to time, seeks the support of wholesale
and retail fruit dealers to get their co-
operation in promoting the sale of
Florida Fruit. In turn, the Commission
assists the dealers in special merchan-
dising activities.





EDITOR'S NOTE
Further information on the Florida
Citrus Commission can be obtained
from the 1935-36 Annual Report of the
Citrus Inspection Bureau. This report
can be gotten from the office of
Nathan Mayo.





The Florida Citrus Commission was
active in getting the industry to adopt
a marketing agreement for the pur-
pose of regulating Florida citrus fruit
in interstate commerce. The Florida
Citrus Marketing Agreement provides
for a Control Committee which is made
up of the same personnel as the Flor-
ida Citrus Commission, although it is
a separate and distinct organization.
The agreement provides for the regu-
lation of shipments by grade and size
and/or volume. Upon recommendation
of the Control Committee, the Secre-
tary of Agriculture issues orders regu-
lating the shipments of Florida fruit
in interstate commerce. The operation
of this agreement has been one of the
primary functions of the men who com-
prise the Control Committee.


The Federal Government, in addi-
tion to its activities with the market-
ing agreement, has promised to fur-
ther help the industry by purchasing
grapefruit for relief purposes. The
Government has announced that it will
pay 46c per box, loaded on the car, for
grapefruit, of which 31c per box must
be paid to the grower. This leaves 15c
per box for the shipper to cover his
services of picking, hauling, washing,
sizing, and loading of the fruit on the
freight car. The shipper will also
have to pay the grading, maturity, and
advertising taxes which amount to ap-
proximately 5c per box.
In financing this extensive program,
the Federal Surplus Commodities Cor-
poration has been allotted by the gov-
ernment one third of all revenue col-
lected on tariffs last year to buy up
surplus agricultural commodities.
Through this fund the Surplus Com-
modities Corporation will buy this
fruit for distribution to persons on re-
lief rolls. Purchases will be made in
an orderly manner throughout the sea-
son; having begun in a moderate vol-
ume they should increase to substan-
tial quantities as the season progresses
and conditions require. This procedure
is necessary in order that proper safe-
guards can be exercised to prevent
fruit so purchased from entering regu-
lar fresh fruit channels.
Another effect of the government
purchases will be to provide an addi-
tional outlet for grades and sizes which
cannot be shipped under prorates re-
commended by the Control Committee.
As fruit bought by the government will
be distributed through its relief agen-
cies, and not sold in primary channels
of trade, prorates will not apply to it.
The announcement of the govern-
ment purchase program should create
confidence in the cannery and term-
inal market buyer in that it should es-
tablish a minimum price at which
grapefruit can be obtained.
With the government cooperating
with the Florida Citrus Commission
through the Control Committee to sta-
bilize the "gold mine" industry of the
state under a unified program that
should also establish satisfactory mar-
kets, there is every reason to believe
that the production of citrus fruit in
Florida can be placed on a profitable
basis.


4, ''.








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


December, 1936


Competition of Florida Citrus Fruits

BY MAX E. BRUNK, '38


Low citrus prices in recent years
combined with current low prices for
grapefruit have caused the growers to
wonder what effect this year's large
crop, as well as subsequent larger
crops, will have on the industry as a
whole.
Citrus not only faces competition
from within the industry itself, but it
must also compete with an increasing
production of other fruits. Outside
the citrus industry apples are perhaps
the most serious competitor. The ap-
ple is the only fruit produced in the
United States that exceeds the pro-
duction of citrus. The last 15 years
has seen the tomato juice industry
build up a volume of over 10,000,000
cases annually. In addition, pineapple,
prune and other juices have enjoyed a
marked growth in recent years.
As shown in the following table, Cal-
ifornia production of oranges in-
creased 59 percent from 1919-23 to
1929-33. During this same time Flor-
ida orange production increased 56
percent, while the total average yearly
increase for both states during the 15
year period was 3.8 percent.
Florida and California Orange Year-
ly Production Averages in Boxes:
5 Year Periods Florida California
1919-1923 10,004,000 19.521,000
1924-1928 11,709,000 26,527,000
1929-1933 15,607,000 30,911,000
Figures from U. S. D. A. Bureau of
Agricultural Economics.
The following table on grapefruit
will show the increasing importance of
the Texas crop. During the period
from 1919-23 to 1919-33 Florida pro-
duction increased 63 per cent while
Texas production increased many fold.
For the same period there was a total
increase of 84 per cent for Florida and
Texas grapefruit.
Florida and Texas Grapefruit Year-
ly Production Averages in Boxes:
5 Years Periods Florida Texas
1919-1923 7,077,000 21,000
1924-1928 9,048,000 410,000
1929-1933 11,534,000 1,532,000
Figures from U. S. D. A. Bureau of
Agricultural Economics.
This increase in production in Texas
is of great significance, since Florida
during the period 1929-1933 produced
77 percent of the total United States
production as well as 65 percent of the
world's grapefruit. Florida produced
during this same period 33 percent of
the United States orange production
and 11 percent of the world's total or-
ange crop.
As a result of the many young citrus
trees just coming into bearing in for-
eign countries, American export trade
may be severely injured in future
years.
On October 9, 1936, the Bureau of
Agricultural Economics made the fol-
lowing estimates: "Total production of
Florida citrus for the season 1936-37
is estimated at 37.500,000 boxes of


which 21,000,000 boxes are oranges and
tangerines and 16,500,000 are grape-
fruit. This represents fruit' for all
purposes including shipment by rail,
boat, and truck, canning, and local con-
sumption. For the past season the to-
tal production was 29,500.000 boxes of
which 18,000,000 boxes were oranges
and tangerines and 11,500,000 boxes
were grapefruit." The estimate on
Texas grapefruit is 6,730,000 boxes as
compared with 2,741,000 boxes last
year. The report also stated that the
canning industry would use between
7,000,000 and 8,000,000 boxes of Flori-
da's grapefruit this year.
It is reported that this year's com-
mercial apple crop is but 75 percent of
the previous year's normal crop. The
decrease in the peach crop this year is
estimated at 83 percent, while the pear
crop was only a small increase. Thus
much of the severe competition caused
by these fruits is at a minimum this
season.
As a result of the trend in foreign
trade, possibilities for exporting part
of this year's large crob look favorable,
even though the long-time prospects
are not as promising. The imports of
grapefruit have dropped steadily from
257.000 boxes in 1920-21 to 55,000 boxes
in 1933-34 while exports have increas-
ed from 260.000 boxes in 1920-21 to
992,000 boxes in 1933-34. The recent
trade agreement (effective January 1,
1936) between Canada and the United
States which permits free trade on or-
anges during January through April,
should increase United States exports
considerably. During the years when
the tariff was 35c per cubic foot, Unit-
ed States orange exports to Canada
were more than to any other foreign
market. Just how great an effect the
rebellion in Spain will have on the ex-
ports of Spanish oranges is still a mat-
ter of speculation.
Florida grapefruit have an advan-
tage on the market because shipments
begin in early September reaching a
peak in February and end in August.
Texas fruit is on the market only from
October through March. Although pro-
duction in other states is comparative-
ly small, their fruit is marketed dur-
ing the entire year, with California
making most of her grapefruit ship-
ments in June. Only during the
months of August and September are
imports of any significance. These
shipments are from Cuba and Puerto
Rico, although strictly speaking the
movement from Puerto Rico is not an
import since the island is a possession
of the United States.
Seasonal competition in the orange
industry is far less favorable, because
orange shipments from California were
at a comparatively even rate through-
out the year. Florida does not get the
'inefit of the summer orange market
since its season is from October to


June. California makes the greatest
shipments in March, April and May;
however shipments exceed 4,000 cars
every month in the year. Florida ex-
ceeds this number of shipments only
in I)December. January and February.
As a result of freight rate difference
and because of California shipments
filling the more westward markets
first, Florida is forced to the eastern
markets. More than 50 percent of
Florida's marketed oranges and over
35 percent of the marketed grapefruit
- re sold in four states, namely: New
York. Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and
Maryland. Grapefruit marketed in
New York is thrown in direct compe-
tition with fruit from Puerto Rico.
Transportation expense from Florida
to the principal eastern markets is less
per box than from California, but the
rate per ton mile is considerably
greater.
In 1935 the State Legislature passed
the Orange, Grapefruit and Tangerine
Acts. These acts provide for an ad-
vertising assessment of 1 cent per box
on oranges, 3 cents on grapefruit, and
5 cents for tangerines. According to
data supplied by the Florida Citrus
Commission there will be approximate-
ly $450,000 raised on grapefruit and
$160,000 on oranges. These funds are
to be administered by the Citrus Com-
mission in advertising Florida citrus
fruits. The principal media used will
be newspaper ads, radio programs,
street car placards, and booklets.
This year Florida and Texas both
have the largest grapefruit crop they
have ever produced. The orange crop
in both Florida and California is very
heavy. But in the face of all this there
are numerous factors favoring the cit-
rus industry. Among these factors
may be listed: (1) The recent action
of the Federal Government in an-
nouncing that it will pay 46c for grape-
fruit loaded bulk into freight cars. Of
this amount shippers may deduct 15c
for picking, hauling, washing, inspec-
tion and advertising, leaving the
grower 31c net on the tree and thus
creating a bottom to the market. (2)
The efforts of the Florida and Cali-
fornia Control Committees to regulate
shipments. (3) A marked increase in
consumer buying power. (4) The low
production of competing fruits. (5)
The benefits to be derived as a result
of the advertising of Florida Citrus.
(6) The advantages of a lower freight
rate (8c per hundred wt. to central
markets effective November 16th) to-
gether with lower foreign tariffs. (7)
The increased purchases of grapefruit
for canning purposes. All these fac-
tors will tend to help in the disposal
of this year's large citrus crop.
(Most of the data upon which this article
is based were obtained from the files of Dr.
H. G. Hamilton, Professor of Marketing,
University of Florida. Helpful criticism was
received from the Economics teaching
staff.)


Page 6









EPoe 7


Citrus Insects and Their Control

BY JULIET CARRINGTON, '38


In Florida, one of the chief difficul-
ties in the economical production of
citrus fruits is the attack by insects
and their near relatives. These pests
constitute a menace to the future of
the industry and warrant the careful
attention of every grower.
The importance of the pests varies
in different parts of the state, thereby
making it difficult to pick any one that
is the most economic. However, there
are five which cause the major part
of the damage. These are Florida red
scale, rust mite, citrus whitefly, pur-
ple scale and aphids.

Florida Red Scale
Florida Red Scale is generally a
pest throughout the state. The female
insect is nearly circular, convex, a red-
dish-brown in color, and about one-
twelfth of an inch in diameter. The
male scale is smaller with a gray flap
on the posterior end. The female pro-
duces from 33 to 143 young. After
emerging from beneath the scale, the
scale crawlers wander around for a
short time. Then they settle down and
insert their beaks. Once the beak is
inserted, the female insect is unable to
remove it from the tissue, and the
scale forms over her. The male is cov-
ered with a scale while immature, but
emerges when adult as a winged in-
sect. During the larval stage both sexes
suck the protoplasm from the cells of
the leaves, twigs and fruit. A badly in-
fested tree may lose its leaves and the
branches may wither and die.
In the winter, this insect is con-
trolled by the use of a 2% dilution of
concentrated oil emulsion. This is pre-
pared by adding 4 gallons of the stock
mixture to 96 gallons of water. In the
summer, a 1%% dilution must be used
or the foliage may be burned. In using
a commercial stock mixture, the direc-
tions on the container should be fol-
lowed.

Rust Mite
The Rust Mite is the dread of most
citrus growers in Florida, particularly
during a dry summer. It is native to
Florida. This animal is not an insect,
but belongs to the same group as spi-
ders. It is extremely small, measuring
from 1/200 to 1/150 of an inch long.
It occurs in such numbers that the
surface of the fruit looks slightly dus-
ty. The mites injure both leaves and
fruit by sucking protoplasm from the
cells. The fruit damaged shows a rus-
seting which is characteristic of this
pest. The leaves turn silvery and some-
times curl. They do little damage in
cool weather, but hot, dry weather in-
creases the attack. As the life cycle is
only two weeks, there are many gener-
ations with an enormous increase of
individuals.
The standard recommendation for
control is 2 gallons of lime-sulfur (320
Baume) to 100 gallons of water. Three


to five pounds of wettable sulfur may
be added with good effect. Spraying
with this solution is not recommended
in very hot weather, as there will be
damage to the foliage. Dusting with 90
pounds of sulfur to 10 pounds of lime
may be substituted. Dusting produces
the best results when there is heavy
dew and the days are not too warm.
The six-spotted mite and the red mite
are also enemies of citrus in Florida.
However, they are not so important.
Both of these may be controlled in
the same manner as rust mite.

Common Citrus Whitefly
The Common Citrus Whitefly causes
more damage in some parts of the state
than others, but is present generally.
The adult is a tiny, mealy-white in-
sect with four wings. The nymph,
which does the damage, is a flat, ellip-
tical, scale-like object found on the
undersides of the leaves. There are
usually three generations in Florida.
The main broods in Florida are in
April, June and August. These insects
are also sap suckers in the nymphal
stage, checking the growth of the fruit
and tree, and weakening the latter.
The nymphs secrete much honeydew,
promoting the growth of sooty mold.
Two methods may be employed in
their control. Three species of fungi,
namely two yellow Aschersonia and
one red Aschersonia, live on the
nympths and destroy them. A grove
may be artificially inoculated with
these by placing 25 to 50 leaves carry-
ing pustules of the fungi in a pail of
water and stirring vigorously. The mix-
ture is strained into a clean knapsack
sprayer, which is then filled with
water, and the contents sprayed on
the undersides of the leaves. This is
done during the summer rains in June
or July.
The chief method of chemical con-
trol of whitefly is a 1% dilution of oil
emulsion, using 2 gallons of stock to
100 gallons of water. The first appli-
cation should be made in late April
or May, when the oranges are about
one inch in diameter; the second in
late August or early September.
Cloudy-winged whitefly and woolly
whitefly are also economic on 'citrus,
but not of such importance as the
common whitefly. The control for them
is the same as for common whitefly.

Purple Scale
Purple Scale is quite economic in
certain parts of Florida. It may be
distinguished from long scale by the
fact that it is broad at one end and
very slightly curved, whereas the long
scale is straight and symmetrical. The
female scale is brownish-purple, and
from 1/10 to 1/8 inch long. The male
scale is approximately one-half as long
and much narrower. Their habits are
similar to those of Florida red scale,
with the scale crawlers inserting their


beaks in fruit and leaves. There are
usually three generations and a par-
tial fourth in most seasons. The dam-
age done is similar to that inflicted by
Florida red scale. Oil emulsion may be
used in the control of this pest; a 2%
dilution is recommended. In case of a
severe infestation, two sprayings will
probably be necessary, with an inter-
val of a month in summer and six
weeks in winter.

Aphids
Aphids are everywhere and their
presence is a bane to the continued
existence of the new growth on a cit-
rus tree, or any other host plant. The
male aphids are winged in the adult
stage. The female aphids are usually
wingless during the growing season,
while food is plentiful, but they may
develop wings in the fall. The female
may reproduce without mating, and it
is little wonder there are such hosts
of aphids. The newly born aphids get
around very nicely by crawling, thus
finding new spots in which to insert
their beaks. They are piercing-sucking
insects and infest young, tender leaves
in such numbers that the new growth
curls up and then wilts.
Control is brought about by spraying
with nicotine sulfate, % pint and 3 to
5 pounds of fish oil soap to 100 gal-
lons of water. If the infestation is gen-
eral, the trees may be dusted with a
3% nicotine sulfate dust. If spotty,
they may be dusted with the same
dust, using a bellows type of hand
duster.
Some Other but less important
Pests occur on citrus. Cottony-cushion
scale is controlled by Vedalia, the Aus-
tralian lady beetle, which eats the
scale with apparent relish, as it is a
perfect control. Thrips infest the
blooms at the time of setting, and mar
the fruit. Control may be effected by
spraying with /4 pint of nicotine sul-
fate and 3 to 5 pounds of fish oil soap
to 100 gallons of water. Oyster shell
scale and all other scales may be con-
trolled by the Florida red scale recom-
mendations. Mealybugs are controlled
very well through the use of aliphatic
thio-cyanate sprays. Plant bugs may
be avoided somewhat by the use of
varieties of crotolaria which flower
late, when there are fewer plantbugs
to be attracted by it.
An excellent spray schedule was re-
leased this year by the Citrus Com-
mission. The broods of the various
pests have been estimated so that re-
commendations relative to the time of
spraying and type of sprays can be
given.

College
Chemistry Professor-"What can you
tell me about nitrates?"
Student-"Well-er-they're a lot
cheaper than day rates."


Paoe 7


December, 1936


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER









Page 8 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER December, 1936


Cross-section of a row of orange trees and grove heaters, illustrating the manner in which temperature inversion makes
effective grove heating possible. The diagram illustrates how the air is set in motion by the heaters and shows conditions
immediately after lighting heaters on a still night. After the heaters have been burning a few minutes the entire space
below the 25 foot level will have been warmed and the temperature equalized. The diagram shows how and why only the
lower strata of air require heating. Temperature data in column 1 show the average increase in temperature with eleva-
tion above the ground on cold night. Data in column 2 show the minimum temperature on the night of greater tempera-
ture inversion. Data in column 3 show the average temperature inversion on nights when heaters were burned. Data in
column 4 show the lowest temperature on the night of greatest temperature inversion.


Warm Air RooF Makes


Grove Heating Possible
By Eckley S. Ellison, Director Federal-State Horticultural Protection
Service, Lakeland, Florida.


On a clear, calm, frosty night there
is a relatively thin layer of cold air
next to the ground, with an increase in
temperature up to a height of from
300 to 800 feet. This natural condition,
technically called temperature inver-
sion, makes effective and economical
grove heating possible. The hot gases
leave the heaters at a high tempera-
ture, but rapidly mix with the sur-
rounding colder air so that the tem-
perature of the whole mass is not very
high. This slightly heated air mass
does not rise very far above the ground
before it is surrounded by air having
the same temperature. When this hap-
pens there is no tendency for a fur-
ther rise as the forces which caused
the warm air to rise in the first place,
that is, the pressure of the surround-
ing colder air, has been removed. The
warm air layer a short distance above


the ground acts as a roof which stops
the ascent of the heated air.
As a matter of fact, the problem of
grove heating is quite similar to the
problem of heating a room in a house.
When a fire is built in the stove it
warms the air near it, causing a rising
current of air which passes upward un-
til it reaches the ceiling and then
spreads outward and downward into
the room. Similarly in the grove, the
air warmed by the heaters ascends un-
til it reaches the "ceiling" and then
spreads outward and downward into
the grove. There is no attempt to heat
up all out-of-doors, as many growers
believe.
It is plain that the degree of tem-
perature inversion near the ground de-
termines the depth of the layer of air
that must be warmed to obtain a de-
finite increase in temperature at the


ground. If there is a rapid increase in
temperature with increase in eleva-
tion the surface temperature can be
raised several degrees more than when
the rate of increase is slight, the
amount of fuel consumed being the
same in both cases.
The degree of temperature inversion
varies greatly from night to night, as
it is mainly determined by the amount
of fall in temperature from afternoon
to early morning. If the afternoon tem-
perature is high and it falls to below
freezing on the following morning, the
amount of inversion is likely to be
great and it will be possible to raise
the surface temperature several de-
grees with only a portion of the heat-
ers burning. If, on the other hand, the
frosty morning follows a cold after-
noon then the degree of inversion will
be small and a much larger number of
heaters must be used to obtain the
same temperature rise in the grove.
Another very important factor in
grove heating is the amount of air
movement near the ground. When the
air is calm the air warmed by the
heaters remains over the fired area
(Continued on Page 16)


Page 8


December, 1936


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER








December, 1936


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Citrus Beginnings in Florida

By ORRIS R. EVER, '38


The first citrus fruit was brought
to Florida by the Spanish colonists
under Menendez, who settled St.
Augustine in 1565. Both sour and
sweet oranges were brought by them
and the seed were scattered by the
Indians. From this introduction many
seeds sprouted and grew into trees in
hammocks and about lakes and streams
in the north central part of the state.
Seedlings of the sweet varieties were
preferred and planted, but they were
more subject to cold than the sour
varieties and suffered more in exposed
areas. The most severe freeze in his-
tory occurred in January of 1886, and
trees fifty years old were killed at
St. Augustine and Mandarin. It is
believed that the wild seedling sour
orange trees in the hammocks were al-
so killed at this time.
Colonization of white settlers was
irregular in the early days and the
development of citrus culture was slow.
The newcomers planted a few seedling
trees about their homes from seeds
brought in from seaport towns, or ob-
tained them from their neighbors.
Transportation facilities were poor and
the methods of shipping and boxing
were crude, but the industry thrived
in spite of these handicaps. Some of
the fruit from trees so grown were
taken to the towns on occasional trips
during winter and traded for staple
goods. The idea of shipping the fruit
to Northern markets was unheard of
until about 1874.
The first fruit shipped was packed
in barrels and discarded packing cases
and transported by water. Very little
of this fruit reached the market in a
palatable state, but the demand grew
greater and greater.
The coming of the railroads did
much to stimulate citrus growing. The
adoption of the present type crate with
two compartments of one cubic foot
each, in 1875, contributed materially
in getting the fruit to market in sound
condition.
With the increase in planting came
the knowledge that trees of fine quality
could be increased by budding or graft-
ing onto stocks of either sweet or sour
orange trees. This made it possible
to produce marketable sweet oranges
on the wild seedling sour orange trees
in the hammocks. It also encouraged
men to plant nurseries of sour seed-
lings and bud them when they reach-
ed a proper size and transplant them
to land in groves of uniform type and
quality.
Until 1894 the majority of the groves
were planted in the north-central and
eastern part of the state. In the winter
of 1894-95 a severe freeze killed many
of these groves to the ground. Some
growers were defeated and moved
away to begin some other more fruit-
ful industry; others held on and nursed


the young shoots that sprang from the
base of the old trees and budded them
into suitable types. Still others real-
ized that it was too cold to raise citrus
in that section and they moved south-
ward. This gradual migration south-
ward has caused the citrus industry
to become located in the central part
of the state at present. The Ridge
section and the lower East Coast sec-
tions are particularly suited to citrus
culture. However each region has its
own requirements, advantages and dis-
advantages.
Today only trees of named varieties
that are known to be superior in
quality and adaptibility to certain lo-
calities and conditions are planted.
Many of these trees originated from
chance seedlings here in the state.
It was from the wild sweet seedlings
in the hammocks along the Indian
River and the region just north of it
that the Dummit and Indian River
varieties were taken. The superior
excellence of this fruit is still rec-
ognized today.
Due to the numerous varieties that
were devolped, the oranges placed on
the market exhibited every possible
characteristic known to this type of
fruit. Each grower planted the varie-
ties he liked best and there was no
way to group or classify the fruit as
to size, shape, color, or quality so that
the buyer could be sure that he would
get a continued supply of the same
fruit. The only possible solution for
such a problem was to standardize the
fruit by selecting only a few of the
very best varieties and planting them
exclusively for the greater part of the
market that had been developed. The
first step toward standardization was
made in 1916 by the Citrus Seminar,
a forerunner of Farmers' Week. The
committee on standardization was com-
posed of grove owners and nurserymen
who were to select a few of the out-
standing varieties, and plant only those
varieties. The varieties of oranges
chosen were: Parson Brown, Homo-
sassa, Valencia, Pineapple, Lue Gim
Gong, and Hamlin.
The Parson Brown, one of the earl-
iest varieties, originated at Webster
on the land of a Methodist preacher
known as Parson Brown. In 1874,
Captain J. L. Carney bought one of
five trees for eighty dollars for bud-
wood. Later his brother bought the
season's crop of another tree at one
cent per fruit. These strains of the
same variety were mixed so that this
variety is very variable as to size,
thickness of rind, etc. The first large
grove of this variety was planted on
Lake Weir about 1878.
The Homosassa originated in a grove
located on the shores of a lake bearing
the same name.
The Valencia, also known as "Valen-


cia Late", "Hart's Late", and "Hart's
Hardy", was introduced into Florida
at Palatka from the Thomas Rivers
nursery, London, England, by General
Sanford in 1870. Shortly afterwards
it was reintroduced by E. H. Hart of
Palatka directly from Parson's nursery,
Flushing, New York.
The Pineapple originated near Citra
in the grove of J. B. Owen. It was
named "Pineapple" because the flavor
of the fruit resembled that of the
Pineapple. Because of its deep orange
color, excellent flavor, and smooth
rind, it quickly became popular and
is today probably the most prized mid-
season Florida orange.
Lue Gim Gong is a variety resulting
from the hand pollinization of the
Valencia with pollen of the Mediter-
ranean Sweet. The breeding was done
by Lue Gim Gong, a Chinese horti-
culturist near DeLand in 1886. It was
first introduced and offered for sale
by the Glen St. Mary Nursery in 1912.
The Hamlin was found in a grove
planted in 1879 by Issic Stone near
Glenwood, Florida. It was planted
for Mary H. Payne and was later own-
ed by Manuel Hamlin. This variety
was named for Mr. Hamlin.
Grapefruit was probably brought to
Florida by Don Phillippe, a Spanish
nobleman, who planted seed which he
brought with him in 1809, near Green
Springs, in what is now Pinellas Coun-
ty. This fruit was grown largely as
an ornament until about 1880 when
Northern visitors came to know and
like it. The first shipment of grape-
fruit to Northern markets was made
between 1880 and 1885. This fruit was
shipped in barrels and netted about 50
cents per barrel. Following the freeze
of 1894-95 the price jumped to $15
and $20 a box.
Most varieties of grapefruit planted
commercially in the United States
originated in Florida, as Florida was
the pioneer in introducing it to the
market.
Duncan, the hardiest variety of
grapefruit, originated as a seedling
from one of Don Phillippe's trees. It
was introduced by A. L. Duncan, of
Dunedin, in 1892.
Triumph, one of the earliest grape-
fruit, originated on the grounds of
the Orange Grove Hotel in Tampa.
The original tree was killed in the
freeze of 1894-95.
Marsh Seedless originated on the
property of C. M. Marsh at Lakeland.
Its most outstanding characteristic is
its seedlessness. This variety is quite
popular in the citrus districts of Texas
and Arizona.
The Dancy tangerine is the most
popular of the kid glove type of orange
and is said to have originated as a
seedling at Buena Vista, St. John's
(Continued on Page 16)


Page 9








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


December, 1936


* IN GATORLAND g
Interesting Campus News Notes


Animal Husbandry Department


Establishes New Poultry Plant


A dream has been realized and the
Animal Husbandry Department has a
beautiful new laboratory building and
a newer and better location for the
chicken farm. The new 36 x 60' story-
and-a-half Poultry Laboratory Build-
ing is situated about two .blocks west
of the radio station. Professor N. R.
Mehrhof, head of the Department of
Poultry Husbandry, is directing this
great expansion of the department.
Every spare moment finds Professor
Mehrhof and his assistant, Professor
0. W. Anderson, busy at the farm ac-
tively engaged in the actual work. The
poultry students will have the satis-
faction of knowing that their profes-
sors are not only well versed in the
theoretical points of the science, but
are also experienced, practical poul-
trymen.
On the first floor of the new Poul-
try Laboratory Building are the class
laboratory rooms, an incubator room,
a battery brooder room where the or-
phaned chicks find all the comforts of
a hen's wing, two technical laboratory
rooms, an office, and a modern bath-
room. The second story will house
records, storage and four poultry stu-
dents.
The new poultry farm is between the
radio station and the Poultry Labora-
tory Building. At the location of the
old farm sat 14 perfectly good chicken
houses-perfectly good except that
they were in the wrong place. Then a
scientific farm was scientifically
moved to its new home. After the new
foundations had been laid, powerful
tread tractors scooted the lien houses
to their new and better site. Now they
are again filled to capacity with, ac-
cording to Professor Mehrhof, 600
birds of six different breeds. Profes-
sor Mehrhof said,
"Each of the chicken houses is 12 x
16' and is divided into two pens having
backyards which measure 25 x 45'.
These chicken houses and the labora-
tory building are situated on a well-
drained 15-acre plot of ground which
has been reserved for poultry."
Four student helpers assist Profes-
sor Mehrhof and one N. Y. A. boy has
also been assigned to this work.
The new Poultry Laboratory Build-
ing has been stocked with high-grade
accessories. The plant will hatch most
of the chicks in a new 1200-egg capa-
city mammoth incubator. Several ar-
tificial "mother hens," known as
brooders, furnish heat and a home for
the baby chicks. Both the incubator
and brooders are electrically heated
and have automatic temperature con-
trol.


The only material the chicks will
come in contact with will be metal:
wire floors, metal drinking fountains
and metal walls. All the equipment in
this building is of the latest scientific
type. Eggs will be cleaned with an elec-
trically operated buffer. Each egg will
be weighed on super-exact scales. Dur-
ing certain experiments, each chicken
used will have its weight checked on
these scales every few days. By
Charles Jamison, '40.

Dairy Laboratory Is
Under Construction

At the last legislative session an
appropriation was made for the con-
struction and equipping of a building
for the use of the dairy department
of the Agricultural College with the
provision for advanced work in dairy
manufactures and the addition of a
new instructor to the department. Dr.
L. M. Thurston, who received his Ph.
D. degree at Minnesota and who for
the past 13 years has been teaching in
Minnesota and West Virginia, was se-
cured as the new instructor.
Due to the fact that the first ap-
propriation was not enough, a request
was made of P. W. A. for additional
funds with which to complete the
building, which was very essential. The
request was approved and work will
soon begin on the structure which will
contain: a classroom, seminar room,
offices, large dairy laboratory, two
advanced teaching and research lab-
oratories, refrigeration and manu-
facturing rooms, and a meat room
and meat refrigerator. The building
will be ready for occupancy in the
near future as it is scheduled to be
finished in 35 weeks.
Under the appropriation two pro-
grams are to be carried out. The first
of these is teaching, and with this well
equipped building Florida's young men
who wish to major in dairy manufac-
tures work will find ample opportu-
nity for education along this line. As
this is the first time that comprehen-
sive dairy manufactures work has been
given in the state it will put an end to
the need of leaving the state for dairy
education. The second program to be
carried out is that of research and
one of the first problems to be delved
into is the utilization of the summer
surplus of milk.
The completion of this building will
mean another link in the chain that is
rapidly making the Agricultural Col-
lege of the University of Florida one
of the outstanding organizations of its
kind in the country.


Alpha Zeta On
Campus is Active

The honorary agricultural fraternity
of Alpha Zeta is entering its twenty-
first year at the University with 23
members. Orginally founded in 1916
as the fraternity of Phi Alpha Kappa,
it has succeeded each year in selecting
for membership the most outstanding
men in the college. To be eligible for
the distinction of membership, one
must be scholastically in the upper
two-fifths of his class and must possess
qualities which identify him as a
leader. Final selections are left with
the chapter which makes its decisions
based on these qualifications.
Alpha Zeta has for its primary aim
the promotion of leadership in the
college. How well this is being carried
out is demonstrated by the increase
in membership in the past few years.
This year, membership can well be
doubled, since the largest number that
has ever been recorded is eligible.
Alpha Zeta is proud to announce this
fact. It is a great mark of advance-
ment for the college.
The chapter intends to push more
vigorously its annual campaign to
demonstrate what the college can do.
Fostering the activities of the other
college organizations, sponsoring the
Ag College Night, promoting radio
talks, and publishing and issuing the
Yearbook of the College of Agriculture
are its regular duties, and this year
will show bigger and better results.-


Future Ag Students Are
In the General College

This year the general college offers
two courses that are deemed necessary
to gain admittance to the College of
Agriculture. They are C-6D, Animal
Science, and C-6E, Plant Science. The
two courses are most appropriate from
the standpoint of foundation training
in the general fundamentals of agri-
culture. They give a brief view of
many phases of animal production,
poultry husbandry, agricultural engi-
neering, economics, conservation, and
the production of economic plants. A
wide scope of subject matter is in-
cluded, to assist the student in choos-
ing the particular field of technical
agriculture in which he desires to
specialize.


College
"Papa," said the small son, "What
do you mean by college bred? Is it
different from any other kind of
bread?"
"My son," said the farther, "it is
a four years' loaf. It takes the flower
of youth and the dough of old.age."


Page 10








December, 1936


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Forestry Club Has
Progressive Prdgram

Starting its second year with a large
increase in membership, the Forestry
Club of the University of Florida is
enjoying a very active program of
meetings and events. The meetings
this year have been enlivened by an in-
creased membership and by an inter-
esting and educational series of pro-
grams.
A large group of prominent speakers
lave addressed the club this year. In-
.cuded in this group are: Dr. Jno. J.
Pigert, President of the University of
Florida; Mr. Donald Brewster, Con-
sulting Forester from Atlanta; Mr.
John Wallace, Director of Resettle-
ment Project at Brooksville, Florida;
Mr. H. N. Wilson, President, Florida
Forestry Association; and others. Mr.
H. N. Wheeler, Extension Lecturer of
the U. S. Forest Service, and Mr.
Harry Lee Baker of the Florida Forest
Service will address the club during
the next month. Other meetings have
featured motion pictures relative to the
most modern developments in logging,
transportation and logging engineering.
Plans are now being completed by
the club for an extensive tour of the
forest interests of the state, to be made
during the Thanksgiving recess. The
trip is planned to include visits to the
prominent industries dealing with
forestry, where the students can ob-
serve for themselves the latest methods
and developments in these industries.
Opportunity of seeing the application
of technical forestry will be given, as
two national forests are included in
the itinerary.
The trip is the first of a series of
"visual educational trips" intended to
better acquaint students with their
chosen profession.
R. T. Neumann, '38

Wilson Matthews Returns
From National Dairy Show

Wilson Matthews has recently re-
turned from a trip to the National
Dairy Show, which was held in Dallas,
Texas, in connection with the Texas
Centennial. Sidney Marshell, another
dairy student of the College of Agri-
culture, also made the trip with Mat-
thews.
Mr. Matthews was awarded the trip
as a scholarship by the Quaker Oats
Company. It was given on the basis
of scholarship, showmanship in the
Little International Livestock Show,
and a written theme on "The Dairy
Industry in Florida."
The National Dairy Show was held
in Dallas from October 10 through
October 18, and during this time Mat-
thews judged dairy cattle with 60 other
boys from different sections of the
United States.
The Texas Centennial exhibits were
visited, new friendships were made
with boys from various sections of
the country, and valuable knowledge
of dairy cattle was gained.


Ag Club Expects a
Very Prosperous Year

The annual series of Ag Club meet-
ings began Sept. 28, which was the
beginning of the 1936-37 school year.
The officers for the first quarter are
as follows: Waldo E. Bishop, presi-
dent, Sidney Marshell, vice-president,
and Raymond Tucker, secretary and
treasurer.
During the few weeks that the club
has been functioning, there have been
a number of distinguished persons on
the program. Dr. Wilmon Newell, Dean
of the College of Agriculture, was the
first to address the club. He was fol-
lowed by Mr. H. H. Hume, Dr. E. W.
Garris, Mr. Henry S. Johnson, Profes-
sor H. S. Newins, Dr. H. G. Hamilton
and Dr. J. T. Creighton.
The Ag Club has enjoyed several
social events a'd also has accomplish-
ed a great deal of work. An extensive
program has been mapped out for the
work of the club this year. The of-
ficers for the coming quarter are as
follows: Sidney Marshell, president,
Clyde Driggers, vice president, and E.
W. Stephens, secretary and treasurer.


N.E.S. Begins Year
With Good Programs

The Newell Entomological Society
has bright hopes for being a strong so-
ciety the first year after its establish-
ment on the campus. It has 18 pledges
this session, five of those being out-of-
state graduates in the Entomology de-
partment this year, and one other is
doing work in the department from F.
S. C. W. The society went on record as
unanimously supporting the Florida
College Farmer and guaranteeing 60
percent of its members to be subscrib-
ers.
The members of the Society have
been very fortunate in hearing the
addresses of outstanding speakers. Mr.
A. C. Brown, Chief of Grove Inspec-
tion for the State Plant Board, ad-
dressed the society on the different as-
pects of the work of the Plant Board
and of its achievements in eradicating
citrus canker and the Mediterranean
fruit fly-one of the most outstanding
pieces of entomological work ever ac-
complished.
Those who heard Mr. C. P. Burns of
the Rohn-Hass Chemical Company
gained a conception of commercial en-
tomology that was most inspiring. Mr.
Burns emphasized the openings and
interests commercial entomology holds
for young men interested in the sub-
ject. A representative of the Retort
Chemical Company not only gave the
society descriptions of methods in-
volved in the treating of timbers to
prevent termite infestation but invit-
ed the society to come and look over
their plant. Dr. W. E. Dove of the
Federal Bureau of Entomology ad-
dressed the society and many other in-
terested people.
--Kathleen Wheeler, '37


Igll /
USERS of NACO Brand Fer.
tilizers are so accustomed to
good results shown by these fine
fertilizers that they naturally
reach this conclusion when they
see a fine grove and crop. In
nearly every case they are right
....he did use NACO Brand
Fertilizers.






pesults*

FERTILIZERS
SEE THE NACO DEALER OR WRITE
NITRATE AGENCIES CO.
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA




FOR BIG CROPS AND

TIMELY MATURITY AT

LOW COST


USE



NI TRODpHOSK


* Most Plant-food per bag
* Most crop per unit of plant-
food
* Least labor in handling and
applying
* Lowest cost per unit of plant-
food

Send for booklet


Jackson Grain Co.

Stote Distributors

TAMPA, FLORIDA


Page 11








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


TO MAKE THE BEST BETTER

Activities of
Florida 4-H Club Boys and Girls


2500 Boys and Girls Enjoy Privileges


of 4-H Club Camps During Summer
By DONALDSON CURTIS, '40


During the past summer I, together
with about 2,500 other boys and girls,
vacationed for an entire week at one
of Florida's two 4-H club camps.
Camp McQuarrie, the one I attended,
is the Central Florida 4-H camp. It
is located on Crooked Lake, in the
Ocala National Forest, and can accom-
modate 120 boys, or girls, through each
of the 14 weeks of the summer camp
period. Camp Timpoochee, its related
organization, is situated on Choctaw-
hatchee Bay in Choctawhatchee Na-
tional Forest. It differes from Mc-
Quarrie in that it is "co-educational,"
having facilities so that 180 boys and
girls, in equal numbers, may spend
their week together. Needless to say,
both sexes concerned whole-heartedly
approve of this plan!
Last summer's session was more en-
thusiastically attended than any up
until now. Offering a welcome con-
trast to the monotony of daily routine
at home, our program for the day be-
gan at 6 in the morning when we rose
and went for a morning swim. Then
followed the flag-raising ceremony,
breakfast, inspection, work hour,
assembly and discussion; the morn-
ing's activities being terminated by
another swim just before noon.
After a substantial dinner-prepared
as are all the camp meals, by skillful
cooks under the direction of a dieti-
tian-an hour was allowed for a rest
period. To be strictly truthful, how-
ever, it usually was a period of acute
unrest, since most of us were engaged
in a great many activities and be-
grudged every minute taken away from
them. Some few of us may have folded
our hands in quiet composure during
the alleged "rest hours," but I doubt
it; there was far too much else to do.
The afternoon was mainly devoted
to recreation, especially athletic com-
petition. Every boy and girl in every
squad participated individually or with
a group and all grew more proficient
after a week's training. Swimming,
folk dances and games of all sorts also
helped make up our afternoon activi-
ties. Flag lowering was at 5:45, with
supper at 6:00. And to those of you
who think that summer camp is a place
where you starve slowly to death I
might add that a typical meal at Camp
McQuarrie contained three vegetables,
plenty of meat, a salad, bread, butter,
and dessert. I get hungry now every
time I think of it. I can assure you
that one doesn't lose weight at camp-
he gains it.


After supper we had another hour to
rest and recuperate from the strenuous
activities of the day. Then came what
was in many ways the high spot of the
daily program-the evening assembly.
During this period impromptu enter-
tainments were staged by each squad;
skits, short plays, musical programs.
Any talent in the form of musical
ability, elocution, imitations, etc., was
sure to be uncovered. Group singing
was an integral part of the evening
program. In this assembly on Friday
night were announced the names of
individuals and squads who had won
honors during the camp week. Clos-
ing evening assembly with a prayer,
we retired for the night. "Lights out"
was at 10:00.
So passed a typical day at Camp
McQuarrie, and the routine at Tim-
poochee is not perceptibly .different.
The joyous associations of friendships
we formed there, the training in self-
expression, leadership, and personality
development, will not soon be forgot-
ten. I think I have never spent a more
enjoyable five days than those at Camp
McQuarrie, and I'm sure my camp-
mates will agree with me on this.
In conclusion I might add that the
only requisities for entrance to one
of these summer camps are a year's
active membership in the 4-H club, a
complete record book handed in at the
close of that period, and the payment
of a nominal charge of two or three
dollars. I hope to see a lot of you
there next summer!


Club Boys Speak
To Florida Bankers


Two old 4-H club boys, G. T. Hug-
gins from Alachua county and Ben
McLauchlin from Marion county, ap-
peared on the program of the Florida
Bankers' Association at their annual
meeting, held this year in Tampa.
For the past ten years, the State
Bankers' Association has awarded
three one hundred dollar scholarships
to 4-H club boys every year. The
basis for the awarding of these schol-
arships is an examination given dur-
ing short course every spring. The
purpose of these scholarships is to
give 4-H boys a Start in college, since
they do not get the money until they
come to college.
In their talks to the Bankers' Asso-
ciation, these two club boys told how


much they, and all of the other club
boys in the state, appreciated the help
that the scholarships were giving to
boys that wanted to go to college.
Quoting from one of the speeches,
"It is evident that only deserving boys
have won Bankers' scholarships. Out
of the thirty boys that have been win-
ners, fifteen have graduated from col-
lege and eleven are attending college
now. Of these eleven boys, you find
some of the most outstanding men on
the campus."
Through these scholarships the
Bankers' Association is rendering a
great service to boys interested in
agriculture that need help to go to
college.


Club Boys Take Part
In Alachua County Fair

The 4-H club boys of Alachua coun-
ty came to town on Saturday, October
24th, and put on the most successful
club fair ever held in the 22 year his-
tory of club work in that county.
These boys had on display 230 ex-
hibits and 340 record books were
turned in by the club members.
The livestock exhibits were of high
quality. They consisted of fine dairy
animals, beef cattle, hogs, pigs, chick-
ens, turkeys and ducks. These exhibits
were put on display in the Central
Florida Auction Market, where the
fair was held. Crop exhibits, includ-
ing corn, peanuts, potatoes, vegetables
(grown and canned by the boys) and
other products of the field were also
exhibited.
Fred Craft, county agent, and his
assistant, Lamar Hatcher, who are in
charge of club work, estimated the
number of persons visiting the fair at
800.
The judges of the exhibits were R.
W. Blacklock, state boys' club agent,
H. G. Clayton and W. T. Nettles, dis-
trict agents; Aubrey Dunscombe,
assistant district agent, and Dan
Sowell, extension poultry specialist.


FORMER 4-H CLUB GIRL IS
HONORED AT STATE COLLEGE

Miss Margaret Delaney, former 4-H
club girl and now a senior at Florida
State College for Women, has been
signally honored by election to
Omicron Nu, honorary home economics
society on the campus. She is one of
two members from the entire college
chosen by this group so far this year.
Miss Delaney has been active in
the College 4-H Club since she en-
tered college, and has assisted in hold-
ing girls' short courses there each
June.


December, 1936


Page 12









December, 1936 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER Page 13


Club Boys Organize


At the last Boys' Club Short Course
in June 1936, a State Council of Boys'
4-H club work was formed. Each
county council was represented by two
of its members at the formation of this
state group.
Counties represented in this meet-
ing were: Alachua, Escambia, LaFay-
ette, Lake, Liberty, Jackson, Madison,
Palm Beach, Pasco, St. Johns, Santa
Rosa, Suwannee, and Walton.
The council is organized in this man-
ner; D. C. Hanks is president and
chairman of program committee. His
duty as chairman of this- committee
is to see that the program of work
adopted by the council is fully carried
out. The first vice-president, Wilber
Burden, is chairman of the publica-
tions and by-laws committee. The
duties of this committee are to suggest
by-laws and to secure news from the
county councils concerning their club
work which would be published as 4-H
Club news. The second vice-president,
Donaldson Curtis, is chairman of the
prizes and awards committee. His
duty is to find out what national and
state prizes are offered and to get the
various counties to qualify for these
contests and to encourage counties to
use the revised method of making
awards. The secretary, Eugene Boyles,
is chairman of the reports committee,
whose duty is to secure reports from
all counties of their year's work which
he should present to the state council
at their annual meeting in June. The
treasurer, Howard Hughey, is chair-
man of the budget committee. The
duty of this committee is to make a
budget and raise funds to satisfy that
budget.
It is the aim of the state .council to
establish county councils throughout
the state and to assist county councils
in establishing standard clubs. The
council urges that all county prizes
and awards be made by the plan ap-
proved by the council giving due credit
to number of years in club work, pro-
jects completed, exhibits, methods used
and results in all other club activities.
-Donaldson Curtis.

State Pig Club Show
Held in Tallahassee

The State Pig Club Show was held
in Tallaahssee from the 3rd of Novem-
ber, through the 7th. The counties
represented at the show were: Bay,
Leon, Jefferson, Madison, LaFayette,
Suwannee, Columbia and Pasco.
Sixty pigs that were bred and raised
out by 4-H club boys were shown.
Because of the keenest of competition
in showmanship on the part of the
boys and the quality of the pigs, the
judges had a very hard time choosing
the winners of the different classes.
The grand champion breeding gilt
was shown by Howell Bell of LaFay-


ite-Wide Council

ette county. The prize in this class
was a $100 scholarship to the College
of Agriculture. This scholarship was
given by Frank E. Dennis of Jackson-
ville. Eugene Boyles of Suwannee
county showed the grand champion
barrow and won a trip to the National
4-H Club Congress in Chicago.
The Pig Show was the biggest suc-
cess of any ever held in the state be-
fore. Mr. R. W. Blacklock, State Boys'
Club leader, said that he expected
there would be much more interest
shown in pig club work in the next
few years because of the steady ad-
vance in hog prices.


D. C. HANKS
President, State Council of Boys' 4-H
Club Work


4-H Shows and Judging
Contests to be Held

Late winter and early spring of 1937
will present two state 4-H club shows.
Prizes, both large and small, will be
awarded to the winners in each class.
The State Poultry and Egg show
will be held in Orlando on February
22-27 in connection with the Central
Florida Poultry Exposition. At this
show, there will be a 4-H poultry judg-
ing contest and 1st prize will be a $100
scholarship to the College of Agri-
culture.
In March, the State 4-H Baby Beef
Show and Judging Contest will be held
in Jacksonville in connection with the
Florida Fat Stock show. The grand
prize in this 4-H show will be a trip
to the International Livestock Exposi-
tion and National 4-H Club Congress
in Chicago next November.
These prizes should interest any 4-H
club boy and make him work just a
little bit harder.


Florida Sends Two
Club Boys to Chicago

Florida will be represented this year
at the annual National 4-H Club Con-
gress in Chicago by Francis Black of
St. Johns county and Eugene Boyles
of Suwannee county. Mr. R. W. Black-
lock, State Boys' club leader and Mr.
S. C. Kierce, county agent of Suwan-
nee county will accompany these club
boys.
Francis Black won his trip by show-
ing the grand champion 4-H club baby
beef at the Fat Stock show held in
Jacksonville last spring. Eugene
Boyles won his trip by exhibiting the
best fat barrow at the State 4-H Club
Pig club contest held in Tallahassee
the first week in November.
The National 4-H Club Congress is
held in conjunction with the Inter-
national Livestock Exposition. All
kinds of livestock will be shown at
this exposition from all over the world.
These boys that have won this trip
will spend seven days in Chicago and
will visit all points of interest in and
around this great metropolis. Over
1000 club boys and girls from all over
the United States will attend this con-
gress and exposition.

Lake City, Fla.-Increasing interest
among Columbia County farm boys
in 4-H club work has been noted re-
cently. County Agent Guy Cox ex-
pects a decided increase in club mem-
bership during the coming year.


Macclenny, Fla.-Tentative plans
for the construction of a Baker Coun-
ty 4-H club exhibit building are now
being considered, according to County
Agent Mabry Futch.


MVarianna, Fla.-Jackson County
4-H club girls are planning to plant
many pear trees and grape vines this
winter, in addition to their fall and
winter gardening, Mrs. Bonnie J. Car-
ter, home agent, reports.


DeFuniak Springs, FIa.-A county-
wide field day for 4-H club boys and
girls featured the opening of the new
Walton County community building,
according to Miss Eloise MoGriff,
home agent. A basketball contest, in
which nine teams participated, was
one of the highlights of the event.


DeLand, Fla.-The Port Orange 4-H
club for girls was the first in Volusia
County to receive a certificate of stan-
dardization. The certificate desig-
nating it as a standard club was pre-
sented to the members at a recent
meeting, MiNs. Marguerite Nborton,
home agent, reports.


Lake Butler, Fla.-Prospects for a
larger enrollment of 4-H club boys
during the coming year than this year
are good in Union County, says Coun-
ty Agent L. T. Dyer.


December, .1936


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Page 13








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


December, 1936


FUTURE FARMERS


OF AMERICA


Homestead Future Farmer Chapter Wins

Second Place in National Chapter Contest


Because of its outstanding F. F. A.
program of activities in the Southern
Region during the previous year, the
Homestead Chapter won second place
in the United States, first place in the
Southern Region and,first in Florida.
Below is a brief report by Tommy
Maffett on the chapter activities. The
Homestead chapter of the Florida F.
F. A. made up of 36 members appears
to have captured an alligator, skinned
it and bound with its skin a beautiful
340-page book telling of their accom-
plishments in the Future Farmer of
America program of activities. Catch-
ing the spirit of service in the F. F.
A., right from the beginning, these
boys dedicated their book and their
record of achievement to the citizens
of the Homestead community who
made their chapter possible.
Claiming for these citizens of this
community the distinction of conquer-
ing the last frontier in the domain of
Uncle Sam, these boys go on record to
show how inevitable it is that a chap-
ter of F. F. A. may be progressive in
such surroundings.
They show that the chapter acquired
the use of 47 acres of land where in-
dividual and cooperative projects were
undertaken by its members. They also
show that the chapter owns one trac-
tor, one tractor controlled disc har-
row, one potato planter, one tractor
cultivator, four battery brooders for
chick raising, two fattening brooders
for broiler fattening, and three poul-
try houses.
The report shows that the members
of the group joined cooperatively to
brood 3,000 chicks, to produce 91/2 acres
of crops, to manage and work a 10-
acre forestry plot upon which 1,000
mahogany trees were planted this year,
to purchase 10 tons of poultry feed, 25
tons of fertilizer and 600 bushels of
seed potatoes and to can 500 No. 2
cans of produce.
This report also shows that each
member carried an average of 5 pro-
jects, became proficient in an average
of 11 farm skills and introduced into
his work an average of 10 improved
farming practices. Thirty-one percent
of the projects were continuation pro-
jects from former years and the crop
projects averaged 6.4 acres in size.


The average labor income for these
boys from their project activities was
$213.61.
This outstanding chapter of the
Southern Region found time to play.
for their record shows that they pub-
lished a paper, "The F. F. A. News,"
held a dance, had an old-fashioned
chicken supper, and went on tour to
Kansas and while in route visited 23
F. F. A. chapters in Florida, Alabama
and Kansas. More remarkable is the
fact that in every project undertaken
almost 100% of the members partici-
pated. As a result they finished the
year with $827.50 to the credit of the
chapter, with an average investment
in farming for each member of $100.37
and an average savings of $36.00.


Aucilla Judging Team Ranks
Eighth in Poultry Judging
The Aucilla Judging Team, com-
posed of Marion Bishop, Griffin Bish-
op, and Jim McClung, who represented
Florida at the National F. F. A. Live-
stock Judging Contest held in Kansas
City, won eighth place in judging poul-
try.
This team won the trip to Kansas
City by scoring high in a similar con-
test held in Gainesville for all of the
chapters in the state. The approxi-
mate score of this team was 2,300
points out of a possible 3,000.
The boys on the team received prac-
tice in judging by actual participation
in judging livestock in their local com-
munity under the supervision of their
advisor, Prof. T. A. Treadwell, who
also accompanied them to Kansas City.
Enroute the boys visited the Texas
Centennial in Dallas, remaining there
two days, acquiring additional infor-
mation in the judging of livestock.
There were approximately 49 teams
represented at the National Judging
Contest, and in the final placing of all
classes, the Aucilla team ranked ap-
proximately midway in the group.
The Jefferson County School Board
donated 25 dollars each to the mem-
bers of the team as a partial means of
defraying living expenses, while the
National Association provided travel-
ing expenses.


Largo Chapter Places
High in State Contest
The Largo F. F. A. Chapter made
an outstanding record last year, ac-
complishing almost one hundred per-
cent of the goals set at the beginning
of the year.
A few of the major accomplishments
reached by the chapter were: Coopera-
tive buying program in which ferti-
lizer, seed and baby chicks were pur-
chased at a saving; won first place in
SLargo beautification contest; 100% at-
tendance at Father and Son banquet;
chapter supervised and carried out egg
laying contest; 75% of members made
exhibits at county fair; labor income
of $58.21 per member; started chapter
Thrift Bank; 2.3 projects per student;
four radio broadcasts; and held a
school board meeting night.

Fifteen to Graduate As
Potential Ag Teachers
Fifteen seniors in the College of Ag-
riculture are studying Practice Teach-
ing in the Agricultural Education De-
partment in order that they will be
qualified for positions as Smith-
Hughes teachers next year.
These men are: W. E. Bishop, Au-
cilla; E. E. Bone, Gainesville; J. A.
Brown, Palatka; C. S. Glenn, Home-
stead; H. A. Henley, DeFuniak
Springs; J. C. Holm, Plymouth, Indi-
ana; G. C. Johnson, Baker; D. W.
Kneeshaw, Bradenton; T. M. Love,
Tallahassee; W. W. Mathews, Ponce
de Leon; B. L. McLaughlin, Reddick;
F. C. Newsome, Blountstown; J. L.
Rhoden, Blountstown; C. C. Sellers,
Altha; and C. L. Townsend, Bell.

Wauchula F.F.A. Chapter
Makes Outstanding Record
Achieving almost every goal that
was set at the beginning of the year,
the Wauchula F. F. A. Chapter made
an enviable record during the past
year.
Outstanding accomplishments made
by the chapter are: 2.9 enterprises per
pupil; a cooperative buying campaign
in which twenty pure-bred hogs were
purchased; a school ground completely
landscaped; a booth at the Hardee
County Strawberry Festival; radio
broadcast over WFLA, Clearwater;
labor income of $125.00 per boy; 100%
attendance at the father and son ban-
quet; and 100% attendance at the
Florida Fair on Future Farmer Day.


Page 14









December, 1936 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER Page 15


Eighth Annual State Convention


Held in Gainesville, June 16-18


Future Farmers from all over the
state gathered in Gainesville, June 16-
18 for three days of recreation and
business. This is the eighth time that
the boys have assembled for an an-
nual state-wide convention.
Hon. J. A. Linke, National Adviser.
F. F. A. and Chief of the Agricultural
Education Service, U. S. Office of Ed-
ucation, visited the boys during the
entire convention and praised them for
the splendid work they were doing.
Among the recreational activities
sponsored during the .convention were:
diamond ball, swimming, harmonica
contest, livestock judging, fiddling con-
test, string band contest and public
speaking and quartette singing con--
test.
During the convention twelve boys
were awarded the Florida Planter de-
gree, which is the highest award given
in the state for outstanding F. F. A.
work. Those receiving this degree were
Marion Bishop of Aucilla; Hugh Rus-
sell Walker of Aucilla; Clois Rawler-
son of Plant City; Dan C. Stokes of
Baker; Boyd Coleman of Seminole;
John R. Jones, Jr., of Seminole; My-
ron Grennell of Homestead; Glenn
Steckel of John L. Butts Chapter; Bill
Miner of Apopka; R. D. Flowers of
Largo; Charles Nowlin of Tate; and
Oscar Watson of Jay. Because of their
kind services to the Future Farmers in
the state, the following men were
awarded honorary Florida Planter
keys: Hon. W. V. Knott, Mr. J. T. Dia-
mond, Mr. H. J. Malsberger, Mr. R. C.
Beaty, Mr. H. S. Priest, and Mr. A. W.
Tenny.
At the regular business meeting of
the association on the last day of the
convention, these officers were elected
for 1936-37: Myron Grennell, Home-
stead, President; Oscar Watson, Jay,
Vice-President; Charles Nowlin, Gon-
zales, Secretary; Marion Bishop, Au-
cilla, Treasurer; John R. Jones, Jr.,
Sanford, Reporter; Mr. J. F. Williams,
Jr., Tallahassee, Adviser.
The 1936-37 Executive Committee
will be composed of: William Miner,
Apopka, (Chairman), D. R. Flowers,
Merritt, and Glenn Steckel, Butts
Chapter.

Future Farmer Flashes
Tallahassee: The State Supervisor
of Agricultural Education announces
that new Future Farmer chapters
have just been organized at Ocala, In-
verness and Poplar Springs. The ad-
visers for the chapters are: Ocala, iM.
C. Roche; Inverness, W. H. Simmons;
Poplar Springs, P. S. Feagle.
Arcadia: The Desoto Chapter of Fu-
ture Farmers of America held a Hal-
loween carnival on the night of Oc-
tober 31.
Hastings: The Hastings chapter held
a parent-son banquet the 22nd of last
month.


Tallahassee: State Supervisor Wil-
liams announces that more than 1,000
baby chicks have been ordered cooper-
atively this fall by each of the follow-
ing chapters: Brooksville, Apopka, De-
Land, and P. K. Yonge Laboratory
School.
Gainesville: A meeting of the State
Executive Committee of the Future
Farmers of America was held here on
October 31.
Tallahassee: At the national F. F.
A. convention held in Kansas City Oc-
tober 18-22, Florida was represented
by Myron Grennel, president of the
Florida Association of Future Farm-
ers of America, and Lester Poucher,
past president. Florida Future Farm-
ers were represented in the livestock
judging contest by Marian Bishop,
Griffin Bishop, and Jim McClung from
the Aucilla Chapter, first place win-
ners in the state contest last June.
Lester Poucher of Largo received the
degree of American Farmer, the high-
est honor awarded by the National
Association.
Malone: The Malone Chapter of the
Future Farmers of America purchased
over 100 purebred Hereford cattle in
Kansas City and resold half of them
to farmers in Jackson County. They
also purchased a large number of pure-
bred feeder pigs from the drouth area
and resold them to the farmers in the
county.
Tallahassee: Tri-State Future Farm-
er public speaking contest was held in
Tallahassee Friday night, August 28,
John Calhoun of Alabama won in this
contest and represented Alabama,
Georgia and Florida in the Southern
Regional contest. Florida's represen-
tative was John Frederick of Home-
stead.
Washington, D. C.: Myron Grennel
of Homestead, President of the Flori-
da Association of Future Farmers of
America, participated in the National
F. F. A. radio broadcast from Wash-
ington, D. C., on August 29.
Baker: The Future Farmer canning
plant canned 18,000 cans of meat and
vegetables last year. This year they
have already canned 5,000 cans.


SUBSCRIBE
TO THE

FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER
4 Issues-50c


RIVERS BROTHERS

Dealers In

SEED, FEED,
FERTILIZER
AND

FARM SUPPLIES

Tallahassee, Florida


JIM LARCHE

CORRECT CLOTHES
Made For You

1866 W. University Avenue


Best Repair of Autos at Very

Reasonable Prices.

PROCTORS SERVICE STATION


Treat Yourself to the Best

COLLEGE INN BARBER SHOP

Hugh Edge


Very Courteous and Prompt
Service
GULF SERVICE STATION
Cor. of University and Eighth


(The 14##P6n4nn4g Company 3nc.
36 SOUTH MAIN ST.
Jackgonvillu Cylorida
ART SERVICE i PLATE SERVICE
BOOKLET COVERS HALFTONES
PHOTO LAYOUTS ZINC ETCHINGS
TRADE MARKS / COLOR PLATES
SPECIAL MAPS BEN DAY PLATES
PHOTO-RETOUCHING NEWSPAPER HALFTONES


December, 1936


Page 15


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER




















The soil is one of the most important
factors involved in citrus production.
This is indicated by the fact that
about sixty-five per cent of the cost
of producing this crop consists of soil
management and fertilizers.
In Florida, successful citrus groves
are found on many different types of
soils. The soils best adapted to citrus
are classified into two groups, namely
uplands and lowlands. The upland
soils are sandy with an open texture
thus allowing an extensive root system.
While such soils are low in natural
fertility, a satisfactory level of pro-
duction may be maintained by proper
cultural and fertilizer practices. Such
soils are easily managed and when
properly fertilized make good citrus
land. One of their chief advantages
is good air drainage, therefore in the
citrus belt, they are more free from
cold than the lowlands. One objection
is that the upland soils have a low
moisture holding capacity and often
require irrigation for the best produc-
tion.
The uplands are known technically
as Norfolk, Eustis, Orlando, Lakewood,
Gainesville, and Hernando soils, each
of which has special characteristics
and therefore special crop adaptations.
The Norfolk soils have a light gray
surface overlying a yellow or pale yel-
low fine sand which may or may not
be underlain with a red sandy clay
at a depth of three feet or more. The
native vegetation on this soil is usual-
ly black-jack oak and scattering long
leaf pine.' This soil contains only a
limited amount of organic matter and
constant care must be used to main-
tained a supply of organic matter from
cover crops or by hauling into the
grove. Although good groves have
been produced on the Norfolk soils
without the aid of irrigation, obser-
rations and trials have shown that
irrigation has been very profitable.
The Eustis soils are similar to the
Norfolk soils except that they have a
more reddish or brownish color and
the subsoil contains a larger amount of
clay material which adds to their pro-
ductiveness and water holding capacity
which makes it heavier. The Eustis
soils are considered among the best
soils in the ridge section for citrus.
The Orlando soils are closely related
to Norfolk soils but are somewhat low-
er in elevation. The surface is darker
and contains more organic matter than
Norfolk soils and is underlain with a
light gray to yellowish gray sand. The
water table is nearer the surface thus
giving this type a little better rating
for citrus than the Norfolk soils.
The Fort Meade soils are underlain
with pebble phosphate beds and are
very productive. Inherently they make
good citrus soil, but due to their low
elevation in the Peace River Valley


Page 16


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


and imperfect air drainage, they can-
not be used extensively for citrus.
The Lakewood soils have a light
gray surface, which sometimes appears
bleached, overlying an orange yellow
sand which may extend to a depth of
many feet. The native vegetation is
scrubby and consists of spruce pine,
dwarf evergreen oak, and scattered
rosemary. This soil is very low in
organic matter and plant food and,
due to its drought nature, requires
irrigation as well as heavy fertiliza-
tion. However, the air drainage is
good and in the southern part of Flor-
ida some good groves have been pro-
duced on this type of land where prop-
erly managed.
The Gainesville soils are derived
from limestone and have a chocolate
brown to gray surface sometimes con-
taining fragments of rock. This is a
good citrus soil, but only a small acre-
age of it is located where the climate
is mild enough for citrus production.
The Hernando soils are midway be-
tween Gainesville and Norfolk soils in
characteristics. The surface is a
brownish gray and may contain some
pebbles. They make good land when
located in the citrus belt.
The lowland soils are more fertile
than the upland group, but their in-
adequate air and poor water drainage
hinders their usefulness for citrus.
When they are protected from cold
and properly drained they make good
citrus land.
The Parkwood soils are probably
the best citrus soils in the lowland
group. They have a gray to black sur-
face which is underlain with a layer
of marl or shell. The native vegeta-
tion consists of cabbage palmetto and
heavy hammock growth. These soils
are very productive and abundantly
supplied with calcium. Citrus trees
grow very fast on them under favor-
able conditions of temperature and
water, and produce an excellent quality
of fruit. Their disadvantages are poor
air and water drainage.
Muck land has been used for citrus
where the water can be controlled,
and when they are protected from
cold.
The Bladen soils, when protected
from cold and properly drained, make
good citrus lands. They have a gray
surface underlain with a yellowish
mottled plastic sandy clay. This clay
subsoil has a high absorbing capacity
for plant food. The Bladens are gen-
erally known as grassy flatwoods but
may support a hammock vegetation.
The Leon soils have a gray surface
overlaying a light sandy layer which
rests on a brown hardpan at about 20
to 30 inches below the surface. This
hard pan prevents water from passing
down during wet periods or from rising
toward the surface during dry weather


December, 1936


Soils Adapted to


Citrus Production

By WAYNE S. VALENTINE, '38


and thus causes periods of either
flooding or drouth in the soil. These
soils are level and lack air drainage
and should be avoided for citrus pro-
duction.
The Plummer soils are also gray
flatwoods lands but do not have a hard
pan. They are locally known as
"crayfish" and "sandsoak" lands. They
are inherently poor and have poor air
drainage, thus rendering them unsuit-
ed to citrus production.
The Portsmouth soils occur in low
wet places. They have black surface
overlying a light gray sandy subsoil.
They are usually too low and cold for
citrus production.

Warm Air Roof Makes
Grove Heating Possible

(Continued from Page 8)
and the maximum results in raising
the surface temperature are obtained.
When the air is in motion, even though
it be moving only a few miles per hour,
the heated air is steadily carried away
and a greater amount of fuel must be
consumed to obtain the same effect on
the surface temperature. As the sur-
face air is practically never calm it is
important to have border rows of heat-
ers to protect trees on the windward
side of the grove.
Actual experiments have shown that
smoke from the heaters has very little
effect on the surface temperature in
the grove, and the influence of smudge
fires of damp straw or manure on the
temperature is practically negligible.
The belief held by many fruit growers
that the smoke "holds the heat down"
is without basis. As a general rule, the
smaller the quantity of smoke gener-
ated by the heaters the better the re-
sults of the heating will be.

Citrus Beginnings
(Continued from Page 9)
County. in 1871. It is a member of
the Mandarin group.
The Rough Lemon, so commonly
found in South Florida, was introduced
by the Spaniards. The fruit may have
some local value for making pies and
"ades", but its chief value is as a stock
on which to bud desired varieties of
oranges or grapefruit to be grown on
dry sandy soil. It is used extensively
in the Ridge section.
The Mexican, or West Indian, lime
was probably introduced by the Span-
iards. It grows wild in Florida and
is found in great numbers on the
Florida Keys. It is often called "key
lime".
There have been many other citrus
introductions that have not been men-
tioned, but with these few that have
been listed it is hoped that the reader
will get a brief picture of how Florida
began its citrus career.
Irish
"Rah for Ireland!" yelled Pat.
"Rah for hell!" roared a disgusted
Tory.
"Iverywan for his own country!'"
cane back Pat.








December, 1936 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER Page 17


Alumni Notes
Among our alumni to visit us during
homecoming weekend were: P. S. Fea-
gle, Graceville; B. R. Mills, Live Oak;
J. W. Gooding Jr., West Palm Beach;
L. T. Nieland, Milledge Murphy, Jr.,
John M. Brownlee, Gainesville; A.
Dwight Freeman, Sanford; Dan Mc-
Carty, Fort Pierce; Byron E. Herlong,
Leesburg; E. L. Ford, Orlando; G. C.
Howell, Live Oak; C. D. Newbern,
Brooksville; E. Atkins .Embry, Quin-
cy; W. T. Loften, Largo; O. M. Maines
Jr., Trenton; C. R. Shepard, Key
West; Dick Brooks, R. O. Crabtree,
Montgomery, Ala.; J. W. Friesner, J.
C. Cox, Winston Lawless, Lake Alfred;
J. Albert Bates, Seville; Need Smith,
Palmetto; A. M. Bissett, Plant City;
and R. J. Bishop, Bishopville.
Marriages
R. R. Mills to Miss Myrtle Land of
Live Oak.
A. Dwight Freeman to Miss Arline
Hiers of Tampa.
Announcements
J. W. Gooding Jr. is engaged to be
married to Miss Cristine McDaniel.
The wedding will take place in West
Palm Beach on December 28, 1936.
Births
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas H. McRorie
announce the arrival of Thomas III
on October 28, 1936, at Millbrook, N.
C. Tom is teaching vocational educa-
tion at the Millbrook School.

State Agents Hold
Annual Convention
County and home demonstration
agents opened their annual session at
the University of Florida on October
19. Fifty-four county agents and 34
home demonstration agents attended
this convention.
The purpose of these annual meet-
ings is to further the advancement of
agriculture in the state. This is ac-
complished by the study of the new
developments in agriculture, through
contact with other agents and the ex-
change of ideas. The bringing home
of these ideas to the people of the state
is invaluable to everyone concerned.
The topics discussed before the
agents included experimental results
and recommendations with beef cattle,
dairying, animal nutrition, dairy man-
ufacturing, swine, soil conservation
plans and procedure, 4-H club work,
citrus problems, farm credit, legumes,
and field crops, marketing, poultry
work, the vegetable industry and other
phases of Florida agriculture.
Among the prominent speakers were:
Jesse W. Tapp and C. A. Cobb of the
Agricultural Adjustment Administra-
tion, Dr. John J. Tigert, President of
the University of Florida, Dean Wil-
mon Newell of the College of Agricul-
ture, Honorable Nathan Mayo, Com-
missioner of Agriculture, Miss Julia 0.
Newton of the Farm Credit Adminis-
tration, and professors of the College
of Agriculture and Experiment Sta-
tion.


Photo Engraving
Originators and exclusive pro-
ducers of Foto-Craft Plates, the
Engraving Department of the
Tampa Daily Times is your most
dependable source of supply for
all types of photo-engravings.
ENGRAVING DEPARTMENT

Tampa Daily Times
DEWEY JANET, Manager
TAM P A, F L 0 RI DA


FOOTBALL


MISS. STATE
VS.

FLORIDA

Dec. 5
FLORIDA FIELD-GAINESVILLE

Kickoff 2:30 P. M.
FALL FROLICS WEEKEND-ALL UNIVERSITIES' DAY
Come and Meet YOUR Friends From YOUR School.
Prices:-Reserved Seats $2.75 and $2.50; General Admission $1.25
All Requests for Tickets Must Be Accompanied by Remittance.
Address:-Athletic Department, University of Florida





Cut Your Tire Bill in Half

WE HAVE PROVED WE CAN DO IT

We Guarantee Any Tire We Retread To Give Satisfactory Mileage.

The Re-Tread Tire Shop
L. F. LATIMER, Manager


Telephone 1213-J


569 West Main Street, North
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


December, 1936


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Page 17








Page 18 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


December, 1936


Feeding Poultry Flock for


High Winter Egg Production


A good feeding system is indispens-
able to high egg production. Obvious-
ly, no one feeding plan can be perfect
or even useable in every locality and
every season of the year. Likewise
other factors, such as housing and
availability of green feed, influence
the formulation of a good feeding pro-
gram. The Department of Poultry
Husbandry of the University of Flor-
ida, under the direction of Professor
N. R. Mehrhof, has by extensive study
and thorough investigation worked
out the following laying mash formula
for conditions encountered in Florida.
This formula is used exclusively at
the Florida National .Egg-laying con-
test:
Laying Mash
100 lbs. Wheat bran
100 lbs. Wheat middlings
100 lbs. Yellow corn meal
100 lbs. Ground white oats
75 lbs. Meatscrap (55% protein)
25 lbs. Alfalfa leaf and blossom meal
25 lbs. Dried milk
7 Ibs. Ground oyster shell
3 lbs. Salt
3 lbs. Sulphur

538 lbs. Total
Scratch
100 lbs. Cracked yellow corn
100 lbs. Wheat
(The amount of scratch to be fed
should vary. More is needed in cold
weather or when the hens are losing
weight. Too much scratch will lower
the total intake of protein, resulting
in lowered egg production).
The mixture itself is only half the
story. Certain other requisities must
be satisfied in order to produce the
greatest efficiency.
Since over one-half of an egg is
water, it is desirable that hens drink
all they will. Hens dislike dirty water;
therefore, they drink less when the
water is not fresh and clean, which
means fewer eggs and less vigor.
Studies in chicken psychology reveal
that hens do not readily adjust them-
selves to a change in the location of
watering vessels, therefore it is best
to establish certain definite places for
the water containers. Water is the
most common disease-spreading agent;
therefore clean water is the first rule
of sanitation, and probably the one
most often broken where running
water is not supplied. A thorough
scrubbing daily for the water pans is
time well spent.
Required supplements of almost
every chicken mash are: green feed
for succulence, bowel regulator, vita-
mins, and tonic; sardine or codliver
oil for vitamins "A" and "D"; oyster
shell for calcium carbonate to make
egg shell; granite grit (ordinary stone
is no good) to increase the efficiency
of the gizzard and to control worms;


and charcoal to absorb gases and keep
the stomach sweet. All of these things
except the oil are very cheap but
essential.
"The inevitable result of any form
of mismanagement is disease," said
Drumm, a noted present-day chicken
breeder. The majority of poultry dif-
ficulties are caused by feed troubles
or poor sanitation. Medicine cannot
correct these causes. It is up to the
poultryman.
Those who have an abundance of
milk and green feeds will be interested
in knowing that the University of Ken-
tucky reports a fair measure of suc-
cess on the use of a diet of green feed,
skim-milk and yellow corn.
Now is the time when eggs are real-
ly worth producing. Egg prices are
high, but it is well-to remember that
when spring comes, egg prices will
tumble as usual. One egg at present
is worth twice as much as one will be
worth next spring. This, indeed, makes
a little increase in production worth
considerable extra effort.


New Publications

The Florida Experiment Station an-
i-ounces the release of the following
publications:
Bulletin 299-Brown Rot of White
Potatoes and Its Control.
Bulletin 300-Manganese Deficiency
Affecting Beans.
Bulletin 301-Effects of Summer
Cover Crops on Yields and on the
Soil.
Bulletin 302-Field Characteristics
and Partial Chemical Analyses of
the Humus Layer in the Long Leaf
Pine Forest.
Extension Service Bulletins:
Bulletin 69-Buy Health with Your
Food Dollar.
Bulletin 85-Miscellaneous Tropi-
cal and Sub-Tropical Fruits.
Bulletin 86-Screw Worms in Flor-
ida.
Bulletin 87-Canning of Meat in
Florida.
United States Department of Agricul-
ture Bulletins:
Farmers' Bulletin 1045F, Rev.-Lay-
ing out Fields for Tractor Plowing.
Farmers' Bulletin 1762F Home
Canning of Fruits, Vegetables, and
Meats.
Circular No. 399C-Machine Place-
ment of Fertilizers for Snap Beans
in Florida.
Circular No. 392C-Diagnosing Bee
Diseases in the Apiary.

Conceit
Mistress-"Have you unimpeachable
credentials?"
Maid-"Well, mum, if I do say it
myself, there's very few men as don't
look twice at 'em."


----r-.-~-I---lr-r-m~-~---~ -_ ---;----------- -- -r;-rr --ri;-+-~-rr-ul*r-r--l--*-~--lr--









International

Harvester...
has built trucks for over 30 years.
The complete line includes 31
models in 91 wheelbases.
Here are six types:
Conventional 4-wheel trucks in
14 models and 41 wheelbases.
Two-speed rear-axle trucks in
4 models and 14 wheelbases.
Dual-drive 6-wheelers in 4 mod-
els and 12 wheelbases
Trailing-axle 6-wheelers in 5
models and 14 wheelbases.
Trailing-axle 6-wheelers with
2-speed driving axle--3 models
hand 8 heelbases. INTERNATIONAL TRUCKS
Cab-over-engine truck in I mod- INTERNATI
el and 2 wheelbases.
Year by year trucks become a more vital part of every farmer's equipment. The horse as
a tractive unit has all but disappeared from the city streets and is rapidly disappearing
from modern farms. According to the latest available Department of Agriculture figures,
there are more than 900,000 motor trucks on farms in the United States.

When You Invest in Tractor Power You Want to Be

F' ,BB- Sure of Many Things ...
You want your tractor to be of utmost
utility the year around; to be perfectly
"'r adapted for good work with many machines;
and to be of such lasting quality that it will
still be handling your work years from now.
International Harvester and your Mc-
Cormick-Deering dealer give you this as-
surance in fullest measure. Your choice of
a tractor in the McCormick-Deering line-
Whether it be orchard tractor, regular
wheel-type, crawler, or Farmall type-is the
most capable that money can buy. You can
bank on International Harvester experience.
Thirty years of progress, with both power
AND power machines, has made this Com-
pany the largest tractor builder in the world.
44N
*-- 3McC orfmickl-Deering 0-12 Tructor andl spla!ler at
"worlk in the Jlohn N. Tayllor grores at Largo.
Floridla.
For Information write to

INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER CO.
432-438 E. Bay Street, JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA


December, 1936


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Page 19






Page 20 THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER December, 1936


SOLE OWNERS
the

Giant MAHAN

Pecan
400 ACRES IN NURSERY
PECAN TREES
FRUIT TREES
EVERGREENS
AZALEAS
ROSES
CAMELLIAS
YOUR INQUIRES INVITED

MONTICELLO

NURSERY CO.
Monticello, Florida


Better Quality Fertilizers



Have been making better crops for the Flor-
ida Growers for over a quarter of a century.
They are known for their value-not because
they are cheaper.
We make Better Quality Brands as good as
scientific research, good materials, and care-
ful manufacturing methods direct.
You will be pleased with them. Ask any
user. If there is no agent in your communi-
ty, write us.



Trueman Fertilizer Company
Jacksonville, Florida


Printing---


one oF the largest and most
complete plants in the Southeast








ROSE PRINTING CO.

ROSE BUILDING TALLAHASSEE
Printers Publishers Bookbinders Rulers


Page 20


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


December. 1936




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs