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Title: Florida college farmer
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 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
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Full Text


The FLORIDA

COLLEGE FARMER
PUBLISHED BY THE AGRICULTURAL CLUB OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


DECEMBER, 1931 No. 3


Vol. III


si \\
-T71 6
*'-A %L, ra' ^iZ









GULF BRANDS
For 28 years and more the
blue Maltese Cross has been
a familiar sight in Florida
groves and trucklands. It is
the trade-mark of The Gulf
Fertilizer Company and the
symbol of guaranteed qual-
ity, of dependable fertilizer,
of integrity in business.
Behind this emblem are the unseen experience, the wide
knowledge, the tests in the laboratory, the trials in the
field, the facilities for manufacture, and the ability and
determination to make fertilizers which shall maintain
the reputation of GULF BRANDS."
WAREHOUSES
Bradenton Lake Wales Winter Haven Winter Garden
THE GULF FERTILIZER CO.
P. O. Box 2790
TAMPA, FLORIDA



We Announce
to Florida Growers that we have opened a depart-
ment to handle high quality seeds. Our seeds are
obtained from the best growers in the country and
will be marketed under the name of

X-CEL

SEEDS
Including Broccoli, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Cucumber,
Eggplant, Lettuce, Peppers, Tomatoes and other seeds
Write Us for Catalog Giving Prices and Full Information
JACKSON GRAIN COMPANY
DISTRIBUTORS
SEEDS, FEEDS & FERTILIZERS
Tampa, Florida


"Caterpillar"

TRACTORS








A Size

for every use


A hundred

uses for

every size








Burgman Tractor &
Equipment Company
No. 8 Riverside Viaduct
Jacksonville, Florida






THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Contents for December
FEATURES
Outlook for the Florida Citrus Industry
By C. C. Commander 3
Refrigeration Research in Florida
By Dr. A. F. Camp 4
Early Citrus History in China
By Prof. E. L. Lord 5
Water When Citrus Needs It
By R. M. Fulghum 7
Interesting Facts
By C. P. Hammerstein 8
Cover Crops
By Robert Frick 8


DEPARTMENTS
Editorials 6
Future Farmers of Florida 9
4-H Club 11



TODAY, as in the past, our
policy is to manufacture quality Fertilizer of
honest ingredients and priced accordingly.
Substitutes never enter our mixtures.

Orange Belt Brands are noted for
producing maximum crops of
quality fruits. And this year,
more, than ever, Quality Fruit
will command a premium.
Remember "There is a Difference in Fertilizer"


LYONS LITZER@

Tampa ELT Florida
OFFICE a. PLANT
805 Citrus Exc. Bldg. 35th St. and 4th Ave.
"QUALITY FERTILIZER FOR QUALITY FRUIT"


A RE you interested in
making your Lawn velvety,
your flowers more beautiful-
your shrubbery sturdy? Use
Vitalizer, the complete, bal-
anced Plant Food!


VITALIZER
(TRADE MARK)
A & G Brands of fertilizer
contain No Filler-Just the
exact number of pounds of
FERTILIZER to make
YOUR analysis.
Write for copy of booklet "Lawns,
Flowers & Shrubs", and our
latest Price List No. 66.
ATLANTIC & GULF
FERTILIZER CO.
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
P.O. Box 172


READ






lriba




Rn EA
C, 4ra


December, 1931





THE FLO IDA COLLEGE FARMER


Seald-Sweet





Mor-juce



CHAMPIONS/

M AINTENANCE of consistent pack and uniform grade,
plus intensive national advertising and sales, have made these
two brands recognized in all markets by the trade and consumer
alike, as the standard for Florida citrus. They are CHAMPIONS
of quality Ship your fruit under these brands and assure
yourself of the most efficient and result-producing packing and
sales service available in Florida.

And, remember ... all operations in the Florida
Citrus Exchange or any of its associations are
done AT COST. You get the profit.



FLORIDA CI'IT'RUS EXCHANGE
TAMPA, FLORIDA


December, 1931















THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER

"'Florida Firs" I



VOL III, No. 3 GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA December, 1931





Outlook for the Florida Citrus Industry

Present Cooperation Adjustments, Point to Promising Future


T HE coming years should hold
forth for the Florida citrus in-
dustry a future of such promise as
will be enjoyed by few other in-
dustries. In view of recent experience
and the possibly questionable pros-
pects of the present season, this may
appear to be over-optimism, or
"whistling in the (lark." I venture the
opinion, however, with full realization
of the present unsatisfactory situation
and due consideration of all the
factors involved.
Let me first state one of the princi-
pal reasons why 1 am so optimistic
toward the future. Citrus has a unique
position. It grew in the public favor as
a luxury; now it is evolving into a
common necessity. It has so many
uses that there are few occasions when
it is not appropriate. It is fitting at the
breakfast table, at luncheon and at the
dinner or banquet and is still attractive
without satiation as a refreshing bev-
erage or health drink between meals.
Considering this varied use, the
fears of over-production for many
years to come appear to me to be
ridiculous. The greatest combined
citrus crop produced in this country
has permitted only a small per capital
consumption.
This wonderful opportunity has not
come overnight so it may well be
asked why we have failed to reap the
benefits heretofore? Why, as has been
stated generally, is the industry in a
very unsatisfactory condition, in fact,
a very dangerous position?
It is in a dangerous position, we
must admit. For the past six years,
according to the reports of the Flor-
ida State Marketing Bureau, the value
of the citrus crop of Florida has re-
mained practically stationary, regard-
less of the size of the crop. More
actual money has come from several
of the smaller crops than from the
larger ones.
'Taking an average of the past ten
years, the state value averages about
$4 a box on a ten to twelve million
box crop; $3 a box on an eighteen
million box crop and $2 a box on a
crop of twenty-two or more million
boxes.
The producer, therefore, does not
get added revenue for added volume.
In fact, his net returns are practically
in inverse ratio to the size of the
crop. This is in spite of the fact that
the larger volume handled allows for
lower packing and sales costs.


by
C. C. ComInander
General Manager
Florida Citrus Exchange


Fear for Overproduction is Mere
Hoax
The over-used argument that the
law of supply and demand is directly
responsible for this situation is mere-
ly a subterfuge. Sufficient facilities to
increase demand in proportion to the
increased crop, supported by mer-
chandizing facilities which can control
the supply of the increased demand,
would make it possible for the grow-
ers to get the true value of the in-
creased volume.
Comparison of production and con-
sumption figures support my conten-
tion that fear of over-production now
or in the near future is ridiculous. The
combined citrus crops of the country
the past season totaled around 70,000,-
000 boxes or but very little more than
one-half box per person a year if all
of this fruit had been consumed in the
United States alone. Florida, how-


ever, shipped several million boxes to
Canada and Europe and California did
likewise. Does it appear logical that
one-half a box per person a year is
near the maximum limit of consump-
tion? I am sure that you will agree
that it does not.
However, under the existing con-
ditions, production is an important
matter. The citrus production of Cal-
ifornia, Florida and the Rio Grande
has increased from 1895, 1,120 percent
or an average of 32 percent a year.
This is to be compared with a mere
61 percent increase in population in
this country during the same period.
An examination of citrus acreage,
bearing and non-hearing, reveals the
fact that Florida is in a critical posi-
tion, as much of the potential increase
expected in production will come from
the maturity of her present non-bear-
ing acreage. Consider, too, that many
of Florida's bearing trees are young
and as they grow older an appreci-
able increase in the crop can be ex-
pected from them to be added to the
increase inevitable from those now
non-bearing.
A projection of the average total
increase of American citrus produc-
tion for ten years points to an ex-
pectancy of about 80,000,000 boxes in
1940 as an average total crop.
This tremendous citrus crop, of
which a large share will belong to
Florida, is entering a highly competi-
tive market. Fruit crops principally
competitive to Florida citrus are
apples. California citrus, peaches,
pineapples, grapes, bananas, canta-
loupes and prunes. The 1930 farm
values of these crops total $465,000.-
00 as opposed to the Florida citrus
total of $51,000,000.

Consumption of Citrus Fruits Very
Low
We find that of the chief fruits
selected by American consumers.
Florida citrus now receives only ten
per cent of this buying preference. Of
the average dollar spent by American
families for fruit, 28 cents goes to buy
apples, 20 cents to California citrus,
11 cents to peaches, compared with
the 10 cents for Florida citrus. The
balance of 31 cents is spread among
pineapples, grapes, etc.
Thus, to market this increasing
crop, the Florida citrus industry must
(Continued on Page 10)







THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Refrigeration Research in Florida


Latest Method of Food Preservation as Adapted

to Florida Fresh Fruits


TIN cans and artificial refrigera-
tion have revolutionized horticul-
ture from a purely local problem in-
volving either the individual farm or
the city and its immediate environs
into a complex business in which lo-
cations for production are picked
largely because of their suitability for
this purpose. Today tomatoes, a highly
perishable product, are on the market
in every town in both tin cans and the
fresh state for 365 days of the year.
Few realize that it was not until early
in the 19th century that the idea of
preserving foods by canning" and steri-
lizing them developed and that prior
to that time the keeping of foods of
a perishable nature was largely re-
stricted to drying or storing in cool
cellars or caves for short periods. The
tin can in a crude form appeared early
in the 19th century but it was nearly
the end of the century before the
present sanitary can with its efficient
capping equipment was developed.
The development of refrigeration
other than that obtained from natural
ice and winter weather conditions is
even more new. It was not until 1810
that artificial ice was manufactured
in a laboratory and artificial refrigera-
tion by means of ammonia and other
mediums did not come into general
use until about 1900. This story of the
development of refrigeration is one
of the most fascinating stories of our
recent scientific expansion. If you will
stop for a moment and enumerate the
canned and refrigerated products that
you enjoy on your table daily, you
can readily appreciate what this de-
velopment means to us at the present
time. Eliminate all canned goods from
your menu, obtain fresh fruits and
vegetables only when they are ripe
in your immediate locality and restrict
your meat to local slaughter houses
and your table would look sadly de-
pleted.
In those portions of the world
where the seasons are sharply distinct
and snow and ice cover the fields
during a large part of the year, the
development of both canning and re-
frigeration has been rapid. This has
been naturally accelerated by the de-
sire to have available at all times of
the year those products that are pro-
duced during the normal growing sea-
son. This movement has been greatly
aided also by the increasing desire for
fruits and vegetables in addition to
the meats and cereals that largely
constituted the winter fare of earlier
ages.
Apples today are refrigerated in
tremendous quantities so that they
are available practically 365 days in
the year and while at certain months
they may be rather high yet the crav-
ing for an apple can be satisfied.
Tomatoes are canned in enormous
quantities in those areas that produce
the finest and most luscious tomatoes
but as this is not enough they are
shipped from Florida at Christmas to
grace a Northern Christmas dinner


by
A. F. Camp, Ph. I).
Horticulturist
Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station



Dr. Camp's work for the past
two years on refrigeration of
tropical and sub-tropical fruit
and fruit juices has attracted
national recognition for the
Florida Experiment Station.



and they can be shipped because arti-
ficial ice has made possible the pres-
ent tremendous development in rapid
transportation of fruits and vege-
tables.
We read in old books of luscious
fruits carried for miles on horseback,
packed in precious snow from the
high mountains, that the whim of a
beautiful woman or a mighty monarch
might be satisfied or friendship won.
Today great trains carrying thousands
of cases of oranges, tomatoes, peas.
beans and even cabbages rush swiftly
across a continent to the end that
any of us can have available those pro-
ducts of a distant area and the cars
of those trains are refrigerated with
artificial ice.
The refrigeration of tropical and
sub-tropical fruits has been much less
studied than have the problems in-
volved in refrigerating of the products
of more temperate climates. Many of
these fruits are but little known
though destined to be at some future
time major articles of diet on North-
ern tables. Citrus fruits, bananas and
pineapples at the present time are as
well known already as apples, and
peaches and avocados are rapidly pro-
gressing toward the same goal. Many
others remain almost unknown-
mangoes, cherimoyas, papayas, man-
gosteens, breadfruit, guavas, sapotes,
lychees, Eugenias and Monsteras are
all fruits popular in the more tropical
portions of the world and may soon
develop commercial importance, many
of them in Florida.
Many of these undoubtedly have a
peculiar cold sensitivity similar to
that of the banana, which fruit can-
not be chilled below 50F. without
injury. Both avocados and papayas
show indications of some such rela-
tionship in the little work that has
been done with them and some of the
others will doubtless fall in the same
category. This tremendously com-
plicates the matter of refrigeration.
All of these fruits will have to be
transported for long distances to the
centers of population and because of
their highly perishable nature they
will have to be refrigerated-but un-
der what conditions of temperature,
humidity, etc. still remains to be de-


termined. In this vast field of re-
search much will have to be done be-
fore many of these fruits will be avail-
able to the great markets.
Coming closer to home, we have our
own citrus industry unable to supply
fruit to the Northern market during
the summer months. The result is
that there are several months in
which the Northern buyers cannot
obtain Florida citrus and during the
same months much of our packing
and marketing machinery is compar-
atively idle. So far the refrigeration
of the fruit so as to carry it into this
summer market in good condition has
been a difficult problem and the re-
sults uncertain and too often unsatis-
factory. This condition is also aggra-
vated by the fact that some of our
varieties must be marketed within a
comparatively short time as they do
not stay on the tree well. The result
is that we have annoying surpluses
of certain varieties and there is no
sure way of carrying over fruits from
these peaks to periods when less fruit
is available. Nor is the problem a,
simple one for citrus fruits are highly
perishable and many complex prob-
lems will have to be solved before a
man may store his fruit for future
sales with assurance of success.
It is in this field that the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station is
carrying on at the present time some
very intensive research. A little over
a year ago construction was started
on an up-to-date experimental cold
storage plant. This equipment has
now been completed and preliminary
work done to furnish a basis for future
and more definite activities. Storage
rooms are being operated under ac-
curate control at the following tem-
peratures: 32, 37, 42, 48, 54 and 60
degrees Fah., thus providing a range
that goes above and below the ordi-
nary range for the storage of fruits
and vegetables. This furnishes the
possibility of having temperatures
both too high and too low for the best
keeping of a fruit, as well as hose
most favorable for storage, a condi-
tion that is necessary for careful ex-
perimental work. In addition to this,
equipment is available for studies on
freezing of juices and pulps.
Investigations are now in progress
on storage pitting of grapefruit and
oranges, the general relation of tem-
perature to keeping quality both as re-
gards the fruit itself and the preven-
tion of various types of decay, the
effect of wrappers of various types
including not only paper but also
parchments, metal foils, Cellophane
and other materials, and the effect
of the container and the method of
packing. In addition to this work al-
rcady in progress the work will be
expanded this season to include stud-
ies on the effect of maturity, variety.
rootstock and fertilizer practices and
the effect of various sterilizing and
other surface treatments on the prc-
(Continued on Page 7)


December, 19-I.C31








December, 1931


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER




Early Citrus History in China


China, The Home of Citrus Fruits


T HE native home of the citrus
fruits is the region extending from
India cast and north to southern
China and Japan, and cast and south
through the East Indies to the
northern Australian coast. This region
was also the home of two very
old civilizations, the Chinese
and the Aryan, and close to an-
other, the Assyrian, or Chal-
dean. There is no doubt that
these fruits were used by man
before he emerged sufficiently
from savagery to have a writ-
ten language. Although when
we use the term citrus fruits,
most persons think only of the
orange, lemon, mandarin, lime
and grapefruit, we must not
lose sight of the fact that there
are many other species in this
area which have been used by
the natives, but have only been
grown to a limited extent, or
perhaps are not found except
in the wild state. Tracing the
history of the citrus fruits
from these localities to their
present wide distribution
throughout the warmer por-
tions of the globe, is largely a .
history of people insofar as it
is concerned with migrations,
trade routes, and the rise and
fall of empires. One of the
fascinating things about the
subject comes from the fact
that the early history of citrus
lies in Asia and is concerned
with the history of the people
in the warmer portions of this
great continent.
The oldest book which treats of the
citrus fruits alone is the Chu Lu
written by Han Yen-Chih about 1178
A. D. This describes the oranges of
Wen Chow in the Province of Che
Kiang. Han Yen-Chih refers in his
preface to the Chinese authors Chu
Yuan (314 B. C.), Seu-Ma Ch'ien (145-
185 B. C.), Li-Heng and many other
Chinese authors who have written of
the oranges of Giangsu and Hupeh.
Han Yen-Chih was from the north
and the governor of Wen-Chow. He
felt that the earlier authors had
neglected Wen-Chow when they
were extrolling the quality of the
oranges of other parts of China. He
says "Wen-Chow was very late in
beginning the culture of these fruits,
but although late in starting, it has ex-
celled all other places in the quality
of its oranges. Such is the unmeasur-
able extent of evolution, in the course
of which some things are brought
forth and others become extinct." He
bewails the loss of scholarship since
the time of the Chin (A. D. 265-419)
and the T-ang (A. D. 618-905) dynas-
ties, as the result of which the oranges
of Wen-Chow do not get a square
deal. His work is an attempt to
remedy this defect. He describes
about 25 different fruits. After his
description of the various varieties,
he gives methods of culture, planting,
earthing up, transplanting, treatment
of diseases, irrigation, harvesting,
storing, utilization, and medicinal
uses. His attempt to explain the ex-


by
E. L. Lord
Professor of Horticulture


ceptional quality of the oranges in a
certain small area in Wen Chou is
worth quoting, "How can we explain
the principle controlling these
things?" say that it is because Wen
Chou and other places near the sea
are rich in nitrogen but places
like Ku Su, etc., are all near the sea
and are rich in nitrogen. So why is
Wen Chou only affected? Evidently
he believes that some rich soils con-
taining plenty of nitrogen near the
sea produce the best oranges, but he
is unable to account for the fact that
all of them do not.
The Chen Kan, or genuine Kan
orange of Wen Chou, is a very fine
type of mandarin which is never found
outside of this area. It is a large,
soft, spherical fruit, which, while of
fine quality, is too tender to be ship-
ped any distance or to be kept in
storage, For four centuries the best
oranges of China were called Wen
Chou because of the reputation of the
Chen Kan. When the Satsuma man-
darin was introduced into Japan, the
Japanese gave it the name Unshiu,
their pronunciation of Wen Chou,
believing it to be the same as the
Chen Kan, although it is quite differ-
ent. Hen Yen Chilh describes the Li
Chih Chu orange as the principal
variety of the orange in Fuhkien.
This fruit has a wrinkled surface sim-
ilar to the fruit of the Li Chil,
whence its name. The author also
says "There is a saying that when
the Chu orange tree is brought across


the river Huai the fruit reverts to the
Chih (Poncirus trifoliate). Can things
within the vegetable kingdom be
transformed? Those doubtful state-
ments are due to the confusion of
names. There are many instances
of this class."
He also quotes from the
Chinese Herbals with regard to
the Sour Orange. He says that
it has an acrid taste, is warm-
ing in its effects in the system
and is not poisonous. These
fruit have the power to remove
fever in the region of the
chest, regulate digestion, and
stop coughing. If these are
taken as a remedy for a
long time their effect will pen-
etrate even into the spirit.
They will also cause the body
to become light and prolong
life. (A wonderful remedy
for over-weight?)
The earliest reference to
small red mandarins is also
given by Han Yen Chih. "The
early Chu orange has its heart
already vermilion at the begin-
ning of autumn." This early
orange is very sweet when
other oranges are still sour.
A late mandarin is described
under the name of Tung Chu.
The fruit of this variety is
picked when all other oranges
are gone. These oranges bloom
at the same time but fruit at
greatly different times. In this
connection he quotes an old
poem:
"The green plum and the
willow blossom early while the peach
and red plum flower later, although
the east winds bring but one kind of
spring." 4
In discussing the culture of these
fruits he suggests that the trees
should be planted about seven or
eight feet apart and cultivated with a
hoe four times a year. In the winter
time mud from the river bottoms
should be spread about the roots of
the trees and in summer they should
be irrigated and fertilized with liquid
manure. Those who succeed in mak-
ing the leaves abundant and fruit
plentiful will be regarded as the best
gardeners. His method for grafting
is a kind of crown graft described
much earlier in a work compiled from
still older records by Han O of the
T'ang dynasty (eighteenth century
A. D.).
He believes that the tap root is a
source of trouble. In his chapter on
earthing up and transplanting he
recommends that when the tree
reaches a height of two or three feet
the tap root should be cut off at the
bottom and the tree replaced in the
ground with a piece of tile inserted
beneath the tap root and the soil re-
placed. He believes that if the tap
root is not cut off when it begins to
grow it will penetrate into the earth
beneath the tree and the tree will not
he vigorous.
His discussion of the proper method
of gathering the fruit is worth quoting
(Continued on Page 12)







THIE F L0 IIII A COLLEGE F A ME i


The Florida College Farmer
ESTABLISHED 1930
Published by the Agricultural Club
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAIN ESVILLE
COPELAND NEWBERN, JR...... I.dilor-in-Chief
MIILToN B. MAR(co ........ Business Manager
J (\ ( looni JN ...... Circulation Manager
EDIT( )RIAI STAFF
Richard L. Brooks........ Managing Editor
Raymond Rubin ......sst. Managing Editor
F. W. Barber.................... 4-H Club
W. W. Roe .............. .. .Future Farmers
Harry Brinkley ................ Hlorticulture
J. A. McClellan ..... ..........P.. poultryy
Clyde Bass ............... -Animal IHusbandry
John W. Covey. ............ .. Copy Editor
Hugh Dukes................... .Exchange
BUSINESS STAFF
Clark Douglass..Associate Business Manager
M. C. Futch ......... 4sst. Business Manager
Albert (Gu. ......... .lsst. Business Manager
William Guenther... lsst. Circulation Manager
E. Roberts....... .sst. Circulation Manager
Robert Gill.............. .Publicity Director
FACULTY ADVISORY C()MM IT'TEI''
C. H. Willoughby, Chairman
W. L. Lowry R. M. Fulghum
PUBLISHED MONTHLY DURING THE SCHOOL YEA\R
Subscription One Dollar
Application filed for entry as second-class
matter at the p. .'. i ', ., at Gainesville, Florida




VOLUME 3 DECEMBER, 1931 NUMBER 3




Florida Gold... Citrus

When we think of the Rocky Mountain states, we
think of rich deposits of gold, silver and other milu-
erals, and of the vast wealth won from the depths of
mother Earth. Florida, too, has its gold. The great
citrus groves are the mines from which our golden
treasures come.
Citrus is Florida's greatest and most important in-
dustry. The 1930 value of the citrus crop was more
than $51,000,000. Florida is first in the production of
grapefruit, and second in the production of oranges.
The citrus of this state is recognized to be of a supe-
rior quality, and is in great demand. There are thou-
sands of groves throughout the state, producing untold
thousands of oranges and grapefruit and other citrus
fruits. So much for the present.
Thirty-three per cent of the students of the College
of Agriculture at the University are specializing in
citrus. They realize the future that is to be found in
this field, and are preparing themselves for it. These
young men have faith in Florida and its major indus-
try, and theirs will be the burden of carrying on the
work that has been done and is being done. The Uni-
versity of Florida is conscious of the importance of
citrus. It is the only university in the South that


offers extended work in this lield. It is training men
to meet the needs that must arise in the future.
As the population of the United States increases,
the demand for Florida citrus will grow, and more
and more money will flow into the state. A greater
prosperity and a happier citizenry will be the result.
In spite of the present success of the industry, and
the promise of a brilliant future, there are grave prob-
lems demanding solution. (;rowers must concentrate
on improving the quality of their product. It is not
enough to be good ; it is necessary to strive to be better.
There are other problems, even more pressing. Market-
ing conditions are perhaps the paramount issue at the
present time. In our editorial last month, we called
attention to the necessity for cooperation. The citrus
growers are particularly remiss in this matter. The
greatest competition to the Florida citrus industry is
within. Until this is changed, the industry must pro-
gress, if at all, in spite of itself. California citrus is
marketed by a state-wide body, in the hands of which
is the control of almost the entire production. This
organization has the money to widely advertise its
product, to insure uniform quality, and to maintain a
high standard of prices. The individual growers of
Florida cannot hope to compete with the state (of
California. If they would pool( their resources, act
jointly for their common good, and give their fullest
support and cooperation to their leaders, the story
would be different. If they fail to do this, the industry
will suffer tremendously.
There are problems for the future, as well. There
seems no reason why citrus fruits should not be avail-
able throughout the entire year. This involves im-
proved storage facilities, improved methods of market-
ing, and improved production methods. 'There is no
reason why there should not be a greater per capital
demand for citrus products. In many parts of the
country, almost no citrus is consumed .-An extensive
and well planned advertising campaign is imperative.
People must be educated to the value of citrus, its
healthful properties, its delightfully refreshing quality,
its usefulness. Citrus fruits should be necessities, not
luxuries. These are but a few of the probllems which
tomorrow's leaders of the industry must solve. ()nly
the heartiest and sincerest cooperation among the
growers of the state can bring about their solution.
'[The College Farmer is confident that these issues
will be met, and that a real solution will be found,
and that the citrus industry of Florida will become
more and more important and more and more valuable,
and that the golden fruit will bring wealth and happi-
ness to our state. We are sure that the leaders of the
industry will always be, as now, capable and sincerely
interested in the future of their vocation, and that they
will meet squarely every problem that arises, and work
together for the best interests of themselves, of their
industry, and of their state.


Tlie conservation of available natural imanaures ul-
timately will become a necessity, says a Califolrnia
farm magazine. It is far better to start 1now rather
than when a critical period is upon us.


My community is the place where my home is
founded, where my children were educated, where my
income is earned, where mnv friends dwell and where
my life is chiefly lived. I have chosen it, after due con-
sideration, from among all the places on earth. It is
the home spot for me. Here let me live until death
claims me. Then let my neighbors say I was a friend
to man.-Selected.


December., 19.31








THE FLORIDIIA COLLEGE FARMER


December, 1931


Water When Citrus Needs It

Timely Advice for Future Successful Crops


M ANY citrus trees are thirsty at
times, though the average in
liriula get more than 50 inches iof
rainfall annually. The trouble is that
()ld Mother Nature takes somewhat
of a vacation in the spring and many
times in the late fall. Then it is that
the trees are likely to drop their
bloom and fruit, and even suffer
permanent injury.
To insure an ample supply of water
at all times most growers will have
to use some type of irrigation. Thus,
the money invested in grove irriga-
tion might he considered as tile pay-
ments on an insurance policy. Before
we take out such a policy let us see
what the chances are that we will
need it and what it will likely cost.
Still fresh in our minds is the un-
usually dry October and early Novenm-
ber that the Florida citrus belt has
had this year. Rainfall at 'Tanipa
during October was ahout .55 inch. At
Gainesville it was .16 inch. Those are
typical examples of the rainfall over
the state for the same period. Coim-
pared with other years, an average ,,f
about 4 inches should have fallen dur-
ing the month.
At least 3 inches of rainfall per
month is needed, when properly dis-
tributed, to take care of the needs of
the citrus tree, E. F. DeBusk, citri-
culturist with the University of Flor-
ida Agricultural Extension Service,
has observed. When the trees get
much less rainfall for even a few
weeks they are likely to drop much
bloom and fruit. The real effect goes
further than that, he explains. "We are
beginning to take into consideration
the effect upon size and quality of tile
fruit, the economic use of fertilizers,
the cover crop and consequent effect
upon the organic constituent of the
soil, and the permanent effect upon
the tree as manifested by dead
branches and its susceptibility to
disease and insect attacks."

Continuous D)emand for Moislture
Since 3 inches of rainfall is needed
in the grove each month, let us see
just what the chances are that they
will fall. Mr. DeBusk has studied re-
ports of the Weather Bureau, from
the Florida citrus area, over a 35-year
period, and has compared the actual
rainfall with the amount needed each
month. This study shows that there
was an insufficient rainfall during tenl
of the Januarys, sixteen of the Felru-
arys, twenty-four of the Marchs,
twenty-five of the Aprils, fifteen of
the Mays, two of the Septeimbers,
ten of the Octohers, twenty-three of
the Novembers, and ten of the De-
cembers.
No chain is stronger than its weak-
est link. The weakest link in the
Weather Bureau reports so far this
year has been October and early
November. Growers need not lie told
of the damage. They call see it. li
many periods are to be as dry as ths,.
grove irrigation would be good in-
surance. The weather men have
shown us that during the last 35
years there has been an insullicient
amount of rain for our citrus about


by
1R. M. Fulghum
Assistant Agricultural
News Service Editor

half of the time, as can Ie seen in
the study just given.

Rainfall Poorly Distributed
It isn't the amount of rainfall dur-
ing a given period that counts, but it
is the distribution. Florida's average
monthly rainfall is more than 4
inches, but too much of it comes inl
the summer rainy season. The dis-
tribution of rainfall within the month
is also very important. Going further
into the study, Mr. DeBusk found that
in many months there was a heavy
rainfall near the first and a need for
irrigation during the latter part, yet
the rainfall for the month was well
above 3 inches.
The thousands of lakes scattered
over the Florida citrus belt afford
one of the cheapest sources of irriga-
tion water. Mr. DeBusk, who has
leen working with growers over the
entire area for the last eight years,
estimates that irrigation water can he
delivered to more than 75 percent of
the groves in the state under a total
working head of less than 100 feet,
thus assuring irrigation at a low cost.
Another of the most desirable sources
of irrigation water is the artesian
well. These flowing wells can he dlug
in mnany areas of the state.

Methods of Irrigation
Several methods of applying the
water to the grove are being used in
the state, the most common known
as the flooding method. By this
method the water is carried through
a permanent main, or pipe, to the
highest part of the grove where there
are outlets and from them the water
is distributed over the grove through
movable canvas hose or smaller pipes.
It may be distributed from the mains
through ditches or furrows, but on
many of our sandy soils water will be
wasted by this method.
In the application of irrigation
water it must he remembered that the
soil is the reservoir that holds the
water. It has a limited water-holding
capacity, determined by its fineness
and its organic content. The water-
holding capacity of the soil and the
percentage of moisture at the time of
irrigation should le known. Tlhe
depth and concentration of the root
system may be determined by digging
a few holes in the grove and noticing
the roots.
Al acre-inch of water is the tciin
used to express 27,000 gallons per
acre at one application. If the mois-
ture-holding capacity of the soil is
about 9 per cent the top foot will
absorb about all acre-inch. The
second acre-inch will wet the second
foot, and so on down. If more water
is applied than is needed to satisfy
the water-holding capacity of the
soil to the depth of the root system
it passes oni downward.


The soil, or reservoir, gives up
this water in proportion to the root
concentration. After the soil has been
wet to the entire depth of the root
system, one or more additional appli-
cations may be needed to rewet the
top 14 to 18 inches, or the area of
highest root concentration, before ad-
ditional water will he needed in the
lower root area.
From a practical standpoint, the
only forces that operate in the distri-
bution of water in the soil are gravity,
adhesion of water to soil particles, and
surface tension of the water film.
Leading growers have learned that
they cannot depend on the horizontal
spread of water, which suggests the
importance of uniform distribution in
the grove. If the soil in any part of
the grove is not wet, the roots in
that area may die from lack of mois-
ture while surrounding areas are wet.
Distribution of water in the grove is
one of the most important factors to
ellicient and economical irrigation.
Economy in irrigation demands
that we deliver the needed water to
the tree at the lowest possible cost
per acre-inch. The cost of irrigation
will be different for almost every
grove, but along with the use of
common sense and simple economy
irrigation is a good insurance policy.
The cost of equipment and operation
will depend upon the size of the
grove, the topography of the soil.
distance from the water source, and
other less important factors.

Cost of Irrigation
Mr. DeBusk estimates that it will
usually cost between $30 and $100 per
acre to install a recommended irriga-
tion system. The equipment needed
will be some type of a centrifugal
water pump, an engine to pull it, the
main pipes, and secondary movable
pipes or hose. Many times the engine
does not have to be purchased as the
farm tractor or some old automobile
engine may he used in its stead.


Refrigeration
(Continued from Page 4)
vention of decay, and on the fruit
itself. All of these studies will include
studies on the physiology of the fruit
and the effect of the various treat-
ments on the changes that take place
in the fruit during storage. All of these
things are aimed at one goal and that
is the development of feasible and
practical methods of holding citrus
fruits in storage and putting on the
market a first-class product from the
storerooms.
The results of this work will not he
limited entirely to the problem of
cold storage, many of the lessons ibe-
ing of value to those involved in the
transportation of the fruit. This is
particularly true of those engaged in
the export trade where the period of
transportation is comparatively long
and the time necessary to assemble a
shipment longer than the period ordi-
narily required.








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


December, 1931


IN the management of the citrus
grove, the use of a cover crop is a
very important item.
The advantages of cover crops can
be discussed under two main heads:
(1) Those which affect the physical
condition of the soil, and (2) those
affecting the fertility of the soil.
(1) Those which affect the physical
condition of the soil:
Cover crops add humus to the soil,
which greatly increases the water-
holding capacity of the soil. By their
use, hard layers do not form readily,
and clay soils do not become com-
pacted. Moisture is removed from
the soil in rainy seasons, and surface
washing is prevented.
(2) Those affecting the fertility of
the soil:
Cover crops prevent the leaching of
nitrates in periods of extensive rain-
fall. Nitrification is promoted. They
add plant food to the soil, and break
up the plant food already in the soil,
making it available.


Cover Crops

By

Robert W. Frick, '34


There are two main varieties of
crotalaria grown in Florida. C. specta-
bills and C. striata. There has been
quite some discussion as to the ad-
vantages of one over another, but in
a properly managed and well sprayed
grove little difference should be
shown.
Crotalaria is especially desirable as
a cover crop on account of the large
amount of coarse organic matter pro-
duced per acre. It reseeds itself very
readily, and when receiving enough
moisture grows rather rapidly.
On the heavy hammock groves ol
Florida and on the richer types oi
soils where there is already an avail
able supply of nitrogen, leguminous;
plants need not be grown as covel
crops. On this type of land it is fai
more satisfactory to allow weeds anm


grasses to come up as volunteers and
use these as a cover crop.
Other cover crops suitable for
Florida conditions are beggarweed.
velvet beans, cowpeas, and natal
grass.
Cover crops are usually divided into
nitrogen collectors amn nitrogen con-
sumers.
To the first group belong the leg-
uminous plants, such as crotalaria,
beggarweed, velvet beans, etc.
To the latter belong all other
plants save the leguminosae.
For Florida conditions in general.
the leguminous plants are the best. In
addition to getting all the nutrients
tied up in the cover crop back to the
soil, additional nitrogen is obtained
from the nodules on the roots.
Of the leguminous plants Crotalaria
is by far the best for a cover crop.
When once established under favor-
able conditions, it reseeds itself year
after year.


Interesting Facts as Observed Stink Bugs Go To
Citrus As Drouth
bu Hurts Cover Crop


Seems like the gods of mental tel-
epathy were operating their forces for
the advancement of the citrus industry
and agriculture as a whole, in that the
writer, upon his return from the Uni-
versity of Florida, attending Farm-
ers' and Fruit Growers' Week, had
the opportunity of listening to many
of the leaders of this State speak upon
the subject of fertilization, and found
upon his desk a letter from Mr. P.
E. Howard, Chemical Engineer, of the
Bureau of Soils, U. S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D. C., with
a bulletin containing some very inter-
esting facts on the same subject.

Some very fundamental facts are
given by him in his bulletin "Survey of
the Fertilizer Industry," circular No.
129, in which he announces the histor-
ical background, present manufactur-
ing conditions and world consumption
of fertilizers. Analyzing the most in-
teresting data, that being our use and
the cost of fertilization, we find that
Florida, with an area of 1,182,000 acres
harvested, used 794 pounds of fertil-
izer per acre during the year 1928.
This gave us 468,907 short tons of fer-
tilizer at a cost of $15,568,000.00, with
a crop value of $89,239,000.00. This
estimate discloses the fact that we
spent $174.45 for every thousand dol-
lars of crop value, or 17.44 per cent
of the value of the crops for fertiliza-
tion. In submitting these figures,
there is no other State in the Union,
or probably country in the world, that
consumes half of this amount. North
Carolina is the only other common-


wealth that is even close to us in the
consumption of plant food. They av-
erage 389 pounds per acre. This table
computed by Mr. Howard shows that
California, our sister state, uses in her
agricultural and horticultural pursuits
an average of 48 pounds of fertilizer
per acre with over five million acres
planted or harvested, an accumulated
value of $528,159,000.00 and a final
cost of $7.61 per thousand dollars crop
value. Seemingly, there is a great
field for study on this particular point,
in that the U. S. as a whole on her
358,000,000 acres harvested, uses an av-
erage of 44 pounds per acre. In pre-
senting this paper to the Florida Col-
lege Farmer, it is our sincere hope and
desire that some student will use it
as a basis for his thesis in a research
problem in the use of fertilizer from
the standpoint of greater efficiency to
growers of Florida. We realize, of
course, that Florida soils are very
light and that leaching has its delete-
rious effect upon the pocketbooks of
the farmers and growers of this State.
However, with a study emanating
from the citrus and particularly the
soil experts at the University and the
students under them, we may have a
presentation of interesting facts which
may aid us in this most important
phase of agricultural pursuit in Flor-
ida. Perhaps through a detailed study,
we may be able to procure some rem-
edy and thereby economically and
scientifically save not only for the
producer but for the consumer as well
on the completed products grown in
the State of Florida.


The stink bug situation is becoming
serious in many citrus groves because
much dry weather has caused them to
leave the cover crop and attack the
fruit, explains J. R. Watson, entomol-
ogist with the Florida Experiment
Station.
Mowing the cover crop now would
only make matters worse. The bugs
prefer the cover crop blooms to citrus,
but over most of the citrus belt Cro-
talaria striata has stopped blooming
and in many cases has dropped its
pods. In such cases the bugs will be
forced to go to the citrus for food.
They will suck the juice from the rip-
ening fruit and cause it to fall quick-
ly. Even if the fruit is ripe, molds
and rots are likely to set in where the
fruit is punctured and prevent it from
going to market.
At this time of the year the bugs
prefer Satsumas. Parson Browns,
Tangerines, and Pineapple oranges.
It is unusual for them to do much
damage to Valencias and grapefruit.
No satisfactory spray has been
found to control these bugs. Even if
there were a safe spray, Mr. Watson
says it is much cheaper to collect the
hugs in pans or nets and kill them
with kerosene. He suggests a muslin
cloth net about three feet in diameter
and on a long handle. The bugs
should be shaken off into the net and
the net dipped into kerosene. By such
a method the bugs in an average
grove can be collected at a cost of
about three dollars per acre, he said.
There is little danger of stink bug
damage if the cover crop is Crotalaria
spectabilis. In most cases it has
about ripened its seed and there are
no stink bugs on it.


Berries shipped from Florida to
New York by airplane, get the "ber-
ries" for the farmers quicker.


C. P. Hammerstein
Flamingo Groves, Hollywood, Fla.







December, 1931


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Future Farmers of Florida


Jewell Carr, age 18, of Jay, Florida,
is the winner this year of a trip to
Kansas City with all expenses paid by
the L. and N. railroad. This trip is
offered to students living in territory
or counties through which the L. &
N. Runs. The trip to Kansas City is
on the occasion of the Live Stock
Royal and the National Congress
Future Farmers of America which
takes place November 14-20, 1931.
Each teacher of Vocational Agri-
culture eligible to enter students in
this contest was asked to send the
project record book of their 'best
student to the State Supervisor of
Agricultural Education, Tallahassee,
Florida.
The winning student was tlen se-
lected on a score card basis. The
winner, Jewell Carr. made a total of
92 points out of a possible 100 and
had the following projects: 3 acres ot
cotton; 3 acres of corn: and one sow.
The sow is registered and had
seven pigs which were also registered.
The total value and sales on this sow
and litter amounted to $110.00. The
total expenses were $40.79, which left


Items of Accomplishments
Scope
Yield per acre
Cost per unit
Total man hours
Total Receipts
Net Profit
Labor Income
Labor Income per hour
Return per $ invested
Hours of self labor
General average of school gr
Sc,
Item
Accuracy of Records
Completeness of book
Scholarship
Net Profit
Return per $ invested
Labor income per hour
Scope
Cost per unit
Pictures of project work
Hours of self labor

Totals


a net profit of $69.21. Total labor re-
quirements for a year were 67 hours.
The cotton made a yield of 554 lbs.
of lint per acre at a cost of 5 cents per
lb. and is now worth $6.90 per hundred
at Jay. Jewell is holding the cotton
for sale at a later date. At the time
of completing his records he rated his
cotton at 6c per lb. for lint and $9.00
per ton for cotton seed. It required
278 man hours to produce his cotton
crop.
The corn made a yield of 52 bushels
per acre and was sold for 75 cents per
bushel. Jewell used the corn as pay-
ment oni a fertilizer debt of his
father's, based on a previous contract
rate of 75 cents per bushel and has
his receipts to show for this, should
anyone question this apparently in-
flated value as compared to present
market prices of corn. It cost him
30 cents per bushel to produce the
corn and required 96 man hours of
labor.
In the following tables one will find
a more complete analysis of Jewell
Carr's accomplishments.


Corn
3 Acres
52 Bu.
29 .c
96
$118.13
$71.45
$77.60
.75c
$2.53
62
"ades (scholarship)
ore Card Rating
Value
11
10
9
12
10
8
10
10
10
10

100


Projects
Cotton
3 Acres
554 lbs. lint
.05c
278
$108.72
$23.37
$34.57
.084c
$1.27
112


Score made
11
10
9
12
9
7
8
8
10
8

92


Hogs
1 Sow
7 pigs
$5.83
67
$110.00
$69.21
$75.86
$1.04
$2.69
67
90

by Jewell Carr


F. F. F. Boy Wins Trip to Kansas City


lITU'rl F RMER CLASS o(o)M


Lake Placid Organizes
Future Farmer Chapter
The members of the agricultural
class of the Lake Placid school met
recently, and with the assistance of
L. D. Stewart, agriculture teacher in
the public schools of the county, or-
ganized a chapter of the Future
Farmers of Florida. It will be known
as the Lake Placid chapter. The or-
ganization applied to J. F. Williams,
Jr, who is state supervisor of agricul-
tural education, for a charter for the
chapter. It is hoped that the chapter
will receive their charter soon, so that
they will get down to real accom-
plishments.
The following chapter officers were
elected at this meeting: President,
Ernest Eures, of Hicoria; vice-presi-
dent, Lawton Roberts, Lake Placid;
secretary, Alden Howard; treasurer,
Henry Skelton, Lake Placid. Prof. L.
D. Stewart was elected advisor to the
chapter. The executive committee is
composed of Henry Skelton, Wallace
Hope, and Bobbie Rice.
The chapter is planning a full year
of activities, but the organization will
lay particular stress on the study of
citrus fruits. They will be directed
in this work by Prof. Stewart and a
group of local citrus men.


Avon Park Organizes
Future Farmer Chapter
Avon Park High School's ninth
grade, or rather, the boys of the ninth
grade, all of whom are taking instruc-
tions in agriculture, have organized
as the Future Farmers of Florida.
Recently the Future Farmers met to
perfect their organization by the elec-
tion of officers and setting the time
for future meetings. Ralph Heim was
elected president. The remaining of-
ficers are Charles Bost, vice-presi-
dent: John Jackson, treasurer; Wil-
liam James, secretary; Earl James,
reporter; L. D. Stewart, advisor. H.
L. Bishop, Woodson Sadler and An-
drew Hewell compose the executive
committee.
For the present regular meetings of
the Future Farmers of Florida are to
be held every second and fourth Wed-
nesday night at 7:20 o'clock. At the
meeting Wednesday the chapter re-
ceived its charter officially, having re-
ceived the charter from Tallahassee
previously. Later on manuals will
be received from the Farm Journal
in Philadelphia. These manuals are
very necessary as instructions for
holding meetings in a parliamentary
manner are contained in them. (From
Sebring American).





%RESPESS ENGRAVING CO.
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
Photo- Half Tones
Engora1ersPI S gfIC Zinc Etchings
Artists ColorPlates








THlE FLOIIIDA COLLEGE FARME'Th


D)ecemnber, 1931


Citrus Outlook
(Continued from Page 3)
increase this percentage of preference
on the part of the consumer. Ninety
per cent of America's fruit interests
actively promote their own products
opposing this increase.
Poor Marketing Control
Another important factor to con-
sider to get a thorough understanding
of the situation is the distribution of
Florida citrus. Examination of dis-
tribution figures shows a very irregu-
lar per capital distribution in compar-
able markets. This indicates failure
to take advantage of marketing op-
portunities.
For example, distribution figures
for 1930 show that the distribution
for each 100 of population was 53
boxes in Philadelphia; only 44 per
100 persons in New York and a
meager 27 per 100 persons in Chicago.
These are comparable markets as also
are the following with each other.
This distribution in Baltimore was
07 boxes per each 100 persons, only
35 in Washington, 18 in Rochester and
17 in (Grand Rapids. Take still another
group; it was 51 boxes per 100 per-
sons in Chattanooga, only 25 in At-
lanta and 27 in Memphis.
Does this not show something woe-
fully lacking? Admittedly it does.
What then are the causes and their
remedy?
The underlying cause can be sumi-
med up in one statement: lack of con-
trol. All other reasons are attributive
or are out-growths of the one basic
cause of this situation.
Thel Florida grower is and always
has been furnishing his own competi-
tion and it is destructive, cut-throat
competition. He permits the existence
and operation of numerous private
operators who in most instances are
too small to have any cognizance of
market conditions or who in no way
can contribute to organized distribu-
tion, sale and advertising of Florida
citrus. The profits of most of these
operators are derived from packing
and selling and is usually the same
whether the sale price is high or low.
Others, in the seasons when fruit can
profitably be purchased, speculate.
making in addition to the packing and
selling profits a considerable propor-
tion of the high fruit return which
normally should go to the grower.
With both types, the season's profits
depend upon the volume sold and
this fact invariably results in move-
mient of fruit regardless of the market
supply or price and also in indiscrim-
inate price-cutting as is evidenced by
the numerous reports of our sales rep-
resentatives season after season.

Need for Central Cooperative
Organization Obvious
This menacing distributive and
sales condition which I have pre-
viously cited will continue as long as
the growers make it possible for
shippers to operate principally for
their own packing, selling and specu-
lative profit, cutting prices under
those maintained by the grower's co-
operative whose purpose is to main-
tain prices commensurate with the
full value of the fruit and to return
growers a fair margin of profit.
Control made possible by a unified
industry would correct the marketing
evils. However, with 55 per cent of
the crop split up among more than
100 operators, competing with them-


Florida Poultrymen
Winners in National
Chick Growing Contest
Five Florida poultry raisers have
recently won national recognition and
a cash award by their success in
raising chicks entered in a $2,000 chick
growing contest conducted by the
I'oultry Tribune, leading poultry mag-
azine.
More than 7,000 poultry raisers
representing every state in the Union
entered 2,137,000 chicks in the con-
test. Each prize winner had to raise
a high percent of the chicks started,
keep a good record, and write a good
letter telling how they were raised.
The winners are all listed in the No-
vember Poultry Tribune.
The Florida poultrymen winning
cash prizes were Mrs. A. V. Earnist,
Crescent City, E. L. Hall, Orlando,
Mrs. F. A. Merrihew, Clermont, E.
H. Laney, Sanford, and Mrs. R. B.
Ricketts, St. Petersburg. Each of
these winners received $5 ill cash.


corner Florida Dean
Writes Bulletin on
Citrus in Brazil
C opy of a new citrus bulletin on
citrus culture in Brazil, written by Dr.
I'. 11. Rolfs, former dean of the Flor-
ida College of Agriculture and direc-
tor of the Experiment Station and
'Extension Service, has been received
at tile Experiment Station The former
dean's daughter, Clarissa Rolfs, is co-
author. Dr. Rolfs is now technical
consultant on agriculture for the state
Ofl .inas (;eraes in Brazil.


Pi Della Epsilon
Initiates New Men
Pi Delta Epsilon national honorary
journalistic fraternity recently initi-
ated the following new men: Copeland
Newbern, Jr., editor of The Florida
College Farmer; Win. Harry Joubert,
managing editor of the Alligator, and
Heskin Whittaker, editor of the Com-
merce and Journalism Bulletin.
These men have been very promi-
nent ill journalism work on their re-
spective publication.

selves as well as the 45 per cent under
cooperative control, it is inevitable
that the evil situation will exist.
The primary need of the industry
is the development of an organization
competent to handle the situation and
apply a sales control based upon
common sense merchandising princi-
ples. These fundamental principles
are: standardization of grade and
pack, organized control of distribu-
tion, price maintenance, advertising
and new market development, and de-
velopment of by-products.
I believe that experience the world
over indicates that the cooperative
type of organization represented by
the Florida Citrus Exchange and its
affiliations is the only one peculiarly
adapted to all phases of the situation
and which can be quickly developed
to do thle job.
Why select the Exchange?
Because it already has a complete
organization throughout the state;
because it is controlled by growers
through representatives elected from
all sections of the state: because it
has the departmental organization to


Secretary Hyde
Urges Prevention
of Farm Fires
Secretary of Agriculture Arthur M.
Hyde makes a plea to farmers and
rural community residents of the
United States to reduce the huge an-
nual lire loss on farms estimated at
$100.000,000 in property and 3.500
lives.
Thlie Secretary pointed out that
every lire prevented represents that
much gain for a community. The re-
duction in the average farm fire loss
is equal to that much increase in
the agricultural income. Farm fire
property losses are about one-fifth of
those for the nation and the loss of
life is about one-tenth. A majority
of the farm fires are preventable, Sec-
retary Hyde declared. He mentioned
as the principal causes of farm fires;
defective chimneys and tlues, sparks
on combustible roofs, lightning, care-
less use of matches anld smoking,
spontaneous igniti(on of agricultural
products, careless handling and stor-
age of gasoline and kerosene. defec-
tive wiring, and improper use of elec-
trical appliances.
Local organization, backed up by
individual effort, is one of the most
effective means of reducing farm and
rural community fires, Secretary Hyde
said. He urged communities to organ-
ize for lire protection wherever feas-
ible. He urged farm clubs, schools,
and other civic organizations to call
attention to the danger and needless-
ness of fires and to follow up with
collective organization for their con-
trol.

I)amage caused by forest fires ill the
United States last year reached an
rstimattd total of $65,968,350, not in-
cluding damage to young growth, wild
life, watershed values and other in-
tangible values which could inot be
measured ill dollars and cents.

Federal meat inspectors have exam-
ined annually from 42 to 79 million
food animals and their carcasses dur-
ing the past 25 years. Octoberr 1 marks
the 25th anniversary of this service to
the American people.

handle all phases of merchandising
the entire crop; because it already
handles 45 per cent of tile crop; be-
cause of its nationally advertised
brands, "Scald-Sweet" and "Mor-
juce," are recognized by the trade in
all markets as standards of depend-
ability; because its national sales or-
ganization permits the handling of
non-competitive accounts during the
off-season, allowing the maintenance
of a high caliber force at reduced
overhead; because it has the only
growers' financial organization in the
state and because it is the only
agency operated at cost solely in the
interest of the growers.
Returning to my first statement of
a future of promise-re-occurring
profitless seasons are awakening the
growers and the state more than ever
before to a realization of the condi-
tion into which the industry has been
allowed to drift. It needs only definite
understanding and realization to bring
about a correction of the underlying
causes. The readjustment period in
the citrus industry is at hand-a
promising future naturally will follow.









December, 1931


FLORIDA


S4-H CLUB NEWS


The National 4-I1
Club Congress
On November 27, six girls and
three boys, representing the finest and
most outstanding 4-H club workers
in Florida, will leave to attend the
National 4-H Club Congress and In-
ternational Livestock Exposition held
in Chicago. The party, chaperoned
by three extension workers, will be
made up at Albany, (eorgia.
These boys and girls are winners in
Florida, and we sincerely believe they
will bring back their share of honors
to the Sunishine State.
The girls who will mialke the trips
are Hilda Hall. Lake County, Miriani
Ivey, St. Johns County, Eunice Nixon,
\lachua County, Shelley Mac Thomlp-
son, Jefferson County. Agnes White,
llolmes County, andi Betty Mcl)aniel.
Jackson County.
Miss Hall, the state health champion
will compete for the national health
championship. Miss Ivey, the state
clothing champion, will enter in the
style dress review. In the national
food judging contest will he Miss
Thomlpson, state winner in food con-
servation. Agnes White, state home
improvement winner, will enter tile
furnishing judging contest, and Betty
Mcl)aniel, the best club girl in the
counties traversed Iby the L. and N.
Railway, will enter in the clothing
judging contest.
The boys to make the trip are W.
W. Bassett, Jr., of Jefferson County,
who exhibited the champion far bar-
row at the State Pig Club show; Den-
nis Bradley of Escambia County, the
best club boy in the L. and N. terri-
tory; and Lamar Hartsfield, champion
calf club member in Leon County.
The L. & N. Railway gave two of
the trips and the following organiza-
tions each gave one; State Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Chicago Mail
Order Company, Volusia County
Fair. Kerr (Glass Manufacturing Cor-
poration. Monitgomery Ward and
Company, Armour and Company, and
the banks of Leon County.
Four Florida club girls have sent
canning exhibits to the club congress.
They are Aleese Hamrich. Aucilla;
Sybil Rowman. Chattahoochee; Ida
Gadsen, Lloyd; and Lorene Duffey.
Oneco. A home improvement exhibit
has been sent by Clara Surrency, ot
Brewster.
The State cotton club winners will
also send an exhibit of cotton to the
exposition. They are Herman Jones,
Tom Betl Bell. James Hattaway, Le-
roy Thorpe, and Murdock Ray.
Otho Young and Ellsworth Murphy
of Lake County and three boys from
Alachua County are sending up ex-
hibits of sweet potatoes.


Limit your kill instead of kill your
limit seems to be the order of the
day for duck hunting this year.


County Contests
This is the time of the year when
all good club members finish their
projects, complete their record books,
and hope that their exhibit will will a
trip or prize of some kind. The re-
ward for a year's work and thought
is now being realized by many boys.
Only the best can win, but with every
honest club boy doing his part to
make the best better, who knows who
will win until records are graded and
exhibits judged.
.t the present time county club
contests have been held in most Iof
the counties where active 4-11 club
work is a part of the extension lpro-
ralm.


The South Florida Fairl
Again 4-H club work will have a
large part in the 1932 South Florida
Fair. Last year 220 feet of exhibit
space was filled with excellent corn
and cotton exhibits. This year an
extra 20 feet will be used for cotton,
and an exhibit of dairy club animals
will be made.
This year's premiums that are go-
ing to be offered are quite attractive,
and many club boys are working hard
in preparing their exhibits. Last year
John Hentz of Liberty County won
$67 mo his 70 ears of corn. John spent
(over two) days selecting his exhibit
but as anyone can see it surely paid
him well.


d~p~ I-


.4-11 CLUBj BOYS I'l~u't CALF~t FOR Si-tow RiNG;


There has been a Ilost gratifying
increase in the quality of exhibits
and the percentage of members coin-
pleting their year's work. The ex-
hibits of corn have been exceptional
considering the unfavorable weather
during the year. In Union and Brad-
ford Counties the boys with corn
projects exhibited 70 ears each in ad-
clition to the regular 10-ear exhibit.
whilee the number of large exhibits
was not as large as a few years ago.
the quality was above the average.
One local club deserves special at-
tention. The Archer Club in Alachua
County turned out 100'/. Every nem-
ber turned in a complete record. This
performance is indeed something to be
proud of, and we hope the Archer
Club will ble an inspiration to other
clubs.
Not all of the counties have held
their contests as yet, but when all
have been held, the 4-H club boys of
Florida will have completed a very
successful year.


Lighting Plant for

West Florida

4-H Club Camp

4-H club work never marks time,
but is ever improving and living up to
its motto to make the best better.
The West Florida Camp on Choc-
tawatchee Bay will fall heir to a
complete electric light plant. This
plant has been used at the Florida
Egg Laying Contest in Chipley. How-
ever. connections have been made
with a power line, and the plant will
be installed at the club camp. When
the club boys and girls start camping
next summer, they will find their
camp well lighted with electricity.
The plant is amply large enough
for all requirements, and from now
on the boys and girls can have their
own picture shows.


06.


THE FLOBIDA COLLEGE FARMER








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


December, 1931


Citrus History
(Continued from Page 5)
literally. "After two or three evcn-
ings of frost all the fruit should be
clipped off with a scissors. Select a
clear, sunny (lay and for pickers use
a group of several tens of people.
Use a small scissors for removing the
fruit from the branches, cutting them
off even with the surface of the skin
and carefully placing them in a basket.
To protect them from injury one must
be very careful for fear that the skin
be cut, causing the volatile oil to
escape, when the fruit will usually
spoil. The fruits with which this oil
comes in contact will likewise be af-
fected. The fruit must be kept away
from all liquor fumes. All pickers
must not dare to drink liquor during
the whole day." (Early industrial
pressure toward prohibition).
While most of the varieties de-
scribed by Han Yen Chill are man-
darins, it must not be understood
that Southern China (lid not have
other citrus fruit at very early times.
The mandarins are native to the area,
hut other species were brought in at
early dates. The Limeng, Canton
Lemon, or Rangpur Lime (Citrus
limonia Osheck) was introduced in-
to China from the Malay region be-
tween the years 960 and 1279 A. 1D.
This is not the Mediterranean Lemon
(Citrus Limon, Burm.) which is en-
tirely distinct, but confused by many
authors.
While the citron is not ;I native of
China, but rather of the Malabar
coast and adjacent islands, it was in-
troduced into China before 300 A. I).
and was widely known throughout
China and Japan. The most curious
form of citron is that known as the
fingered citron or the Hand of
Buddha. This form has each segment
with a covering of rind projecting
from the apical end like fingers. It
was probably introduced into China
from India by the Buddhist monks.
The citron is of much interest in
tracing the spread of citrus fruits.
The fact that it was slow to decay
made it the first citrus fruit to reach
the Mediterranean countries. Both in
China and in the Mediterranean basin
it acquired a semi-religious value.


Editor's Note-This is the first of a
series of articles on early citrus his-
Story, written by Professor Lord for
The Florida College Farmer.


Chickens Poorly
Housed May Get
Colds and Roup
Chickens may take cold just as hu-
mans if they have to stay in wet, damp
quarters, poorly ventilated houses, or
roost in drafts this fall and winter.
Colds are simply nasal catarrh and
are recognized by watery discharges
from the eyes and nasal passages,
dullness, and diminished appetite, ac-
cording to Dr. E. F. Thomas, assist-
ant veterinarian at the Florida Ex-
periment Station. Birds with lowered
vitality, such as those naturally weak
or infested with worms, are far more
susceptible. Wormy birds should be
treated, and the weaklings should be
culled out.
The control for colds lies in simply
removing the cause. One pound of
Epsom Salts per 100 hens, given in
the water they will drink in a day,
is a good treatment. In bad cases
spraying or washing the head with
antiseptics may be advisable.
Roup, likely to follow colds, is
caused by a contagious organism, he
explained. It is recognized by the
offensive roup odor, and thick mucous
discharges from the eyes and nasal
passages. The cheesy mucous may ac-
cumulate in the eyes, and parts of
the head often swell.
The spread of roup can be prevented
by quickly removing all affected birds
from the flock, cleaning and boiling
or disinfecting drinking vessels, using
some antiseptic in the drinking water,
and cleaning and disinfecting the
houses.
Treatment of individual birds should
be similar to that recommended for
colds, but badly infected birds are
such a menace to the rest of the flock
that the best treatment would be to
kill and burn them.

Let's Protect Corn from Weevils;
Carbon Bisulphide Does It
What's the use to work and slave.
Making crops we then don't save?
The little blackish corn weevil
Is not at all a small evil.
Give him a (lose of "high life" gas.
His dirty work will then be past.


New Citrus Disease
Bulletin Published
Experiment Station
A new and complete bulletin about
citrus diseases has just been published
by the Florida Experiment Station
here. It is number 229, and free copies
are available.
All of the diseases that are likely
to be found in Florida citrus groves
are discussed in this 216-page bul-
letin. More than 100 pictures of the
diseases discussed are shown. It also
contains a complete spray program
for both diseases and insects.
The authors are Dr. A. S. Rhoads.
associate plant pathologist, and E. F.
DeBusk, extension citrus pathologist.


Too Many Deer
Charles Warren, a resident of the
Atlas district of Napa County, Cali-
fornia, believes that something will
have to be done to reduce the num-
her of deer which are now feeding oil
ornamental plants such as roses and
vines around his house, as well as on
trees in the orchard. He reports that
deer came in recently, when he was
not at home, and ate all the leaves
from his rose bushes, the buds from
his chrysanthemums, and his petunias
to the ground. Mr. Warren believes
that the killing of the bucks only will
not solve the problem. There are at
present too many does which have to
find food somewhere. Reducing their
numbers would help the situation con-
siderably.-California Cultivator.




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THIS ISSUE OF THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER PRINTED BY THE DREW PRESS







THE FLO()RIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Exchanges

Finding the name of a Villa Park,
California, girl in a box of oranges he
was unpacking in a London store,
prompted a young British subject,
Sidney Morris by name, to write to
Miss Elva P. Atterbury, and tell her
that he has had a dream of going to
California, loll in the shade of an
orange tree, and strum a banjo. Ac-
companying his letter was a photo-
graph of himself which shows him to
be of better than the average looks.
He asked Miss Atterbury for a picture
and a long letter.-"California Citro-
graph." __
The $15,000 experiment of W. J.
Howey to determine if citrus fruit
could be held indefinitely in steel tanks
filled with inert gas under a partial
vacuum, failed last month when air
leaked into the tanks, causing four
cars of fruit to decay. The Lake
County grove owner had built the
tanks, railroad car size, at Howey-in-
the-Hills in hope of finding a way to
store Florida fruit and distribute it
during the summer months. A smaller
experiment, similar in nature, located
in Detroit, was said to have been more
successful.-"Florida Grower."

"We farmers of Florida have got
to come back to sane, live-at-home
farming," says Spuds Johnson.


Blow to Agriculture
"Were the farmers out your way
hard hit by the storm?"
"Were they! Filling station receipts
fell off 50 per cent."-Stray Bits.

Never yet have we heard a satisfac-
tory description of heaven, nothing to
compare with a resort folder.

Executive Director Lucas of the Re-
publican national committee blames
the Democrats with the depression.
He's right-the Democrats didn't vote
right in 1928.
Florida's 1932 automobile license
tags will be black with orange numer-
als. An order for 465,000 plates has
been authorized.

Once upon a time apes had long
thumbs, and if this hitch hiking keeps
up. man will, too.

Department of Agriculture records
show that agricultural prices decreas-
ed 33 per cent last year. This is be-
low the pre-war level.


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PINEBREEZE
EGG MASH
Iodine Vermicide for Worms
Iodine Suspensoid for
the Health of the Flock
Price List of All Grains and Feed
Sent Weekly on Request

Howard Grain Co.
Jacksonville, Florida


December, 1931












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The College

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For catalog and full in-
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Dean or (Secretary)
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE




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