Title: Florida college farmer
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 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text
W -~ -


The FLORIDA


COLLEGE FARMER
PUBLISHED BY THE AGRICULTURAL CLUB OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA


I"
















I' I


Auditorium with College of Agriculture in background


NOVEMBER, 1931


Vol. IIl
61
*T7- fc
^'"s


I I
AAyt


No. 2


%62.









GULF BRANDS
For 28 years and more the
blue Maltese Cross has been
a familiar sight in Florida
groves and trucklands. It is
the trade-mark of The Gulf
Fertilizer Company and the
symbol of guaranteed qual-
ity, of dependable fertilizer,
of integrity in business.
Behind this emblem are the unseen experience, the wide
knowledge, the tests in the laboratory, the trials in the
field, the facilities for manufacture, and the ability and
determination to make fertilizers which shall maintain
the reputation of GULF BRANDS."
WAREHOUSES
Bradenton Lake Wales Winter Haven Winter Garden
THE GULF FERTILIZER CO0
P. O. Box 2790
TAMPA, FLORIDA



We Announce
to Florida Growers that we have opened a depart,
ment to handle high quality seeds. Our seeds are
obtained from the best growers in the country and
will be marketed under the name of

X-CEL

SEEDS
Including Broccoli,Cauliflower,Cabbage,Cucumber,
Eggplant, Lettuce, Peppers, Tomatoes and other seeds
Write Us for Catalog Giving Prices and Full Information
JACKSON GRAIN COMPANY
DISTRIBUTORS
SEEDS, FEEDS & FERTILIZERS
Tampa, Florida


"Caterpillar"

TRACTORS








A Size


for every


use


A hundred

uses for

every size








Burgman Tractor &
Equipment Company
No. 8 Riverside Viaduct
Jacksonville, Florida






THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Contents for November

FEATURES

Florida State Marketing Bureau 3
Neill Rhodes, Assistant Commissioner of Florida State Marketing
Bureau, tells of the organization and advancement of the State
Bureau.

A Trip to California 4
R. H. Howard, Instructor of Agriculture Economics, California
Along Agricultural Lines as Seen by an Agricultural Economist.
Foundations 5
C. P. Hammerstein, National Resources and Their Part in
Florida's Agricultural Future.
Advantages of Livestock Judging. 7
Aubrey J. Hudson, '33, Advantages to the Animal Breeders in
Practicing Type and Production.
Growing of Watermelons 7
Clyde Bass, '33, Important Factors in Mellon Production as
Practiced by Florida Growers.


MISCELLANEOUS
Cover
Auditorium with College of Agriculture in background.
University Horticulture Grounds 3

Farmers Must Live at Home to Meet Low Prices 12


DEPARTMENTS

Over the State with Extension Work 8

Future Farmers of Florida 9

Florida 4-H Club 11


When in TAMPA, FLORIDA,,
WE INVITE YOU TO LIVE AT THE

Hotel Hillsboro
(LARGEST ALL-YEAR HOTEL)
Large, Well Ventilated Rooms
"Top O' The Town" Dining Room
Soda Fountain Cafeteria
Meet Your Friends for the Big Game November 14th
THE HILLSBORO
C. J. JACKSON, Mgr.


JA RE you interested in
making your Lawn velvety,
your flowers more beautiful-
your shrubbery sturdy? Use
Vitalizer, the complete, bal-
anced Plant Food!


VITALIZER
(TRADE MARK)
A & G Brands of fertilizer
contain No Filler-Just the
exact number of pounds of
FERTILIZER to make
YOUR analysis.
Write for copy of booklet "Lawns,
Flowers & Shrubs", and our
latest Price List No. 66.
ATLANTIC & GULF
FERTILIZER CO.
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
P. 0. Box 172


READ







r trtiba







UHtn-rn


November, 1931






























I'*.


University Horticulture Grounds

As Florida's Beauty Appears in Winter


I -













THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER

"Florida First"



VOL. III, No. 2 GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA November, 1931


The Florida State Marketing Bureau


Florida Strides Forward in

National Marketing Service


TO acquaint College Farmer read-
ers with the many different types
of marketing assistance the Florida
State Marketing Bureau has rendered
and now offers the Florida Agricul-
tural Industry, probably mentioning
the few services not requested of it
would be advisable-for there is hard-
ly any marketing activity that has not
been in demand. Sometimes requests
for information or help border on
comedy, deal with conditions remote
to marketing-and some letters re-
port reverses and distress. The
Bureau recently was requested to
send a gold inspector to examine a
gold mine on the farm; to advise the
amount of paint on all the exterior
work in Florida annually; and once we
were requested to feed and water a
coop of hens over Sunday and sell
Monday. However, most of the de-
partment's activities are along well
defined lines.

Rapid Growth-Large Personnel
The Florida State Marketing Bu-
reau was established in 1917 and its
growth and expansion has been rapid.
A number of producers that use regu-
larly some feature of our work, prob-
ably do not realize the many special
lines of endeavor in effect to serve the
Florida Agricultural Industry.
The personnel of the Bureau con-
sists of the Commissioner, Assistant
Commissioner, four Marketing Spe-
cialists-Fruits and Vegetables, Live-
stock and Field Crops, Dairy and
Poultry Products, and Market News,
and the inside clerical force. The
Commissioner, in addition to general
supervisory work of the Bureau.
spends much of his time in the field.
attending farmers' meetings and con-
ferring with individual producers,
shippers and associations in connec-
tion with marketing Florida products.
The Commissioner is so well known
in the State that perhaps no further
mention of his duties is necessary.
Until two years ago most of the detail
and actual marketing service was pro-
vided by the Assistant Commissioner
and the clerical force. However, four
specialists have since been added to
the force who spend most of their


By
Neill Rhodes
Assistant Marketing Commissioner


NEILL RHODES


time in the field with some grower
and some detail is timely in connec-
tion with their activities.

Co-operative Buying and Selling
Many individual fruit and vegetable
growers need information and help in
grading, packing and other details in-
cident to marketing their crops. Many
sections have groups of farmers that
wish to organize to co-operatively buy
supplies and market their products.
The Marketing Specialist in Fruits
and Vegetables devotes most of his
time to this important work.
The importance of the livestock in-
dustry, and also that of Field Crops,
is recognized by the Bureau. The co-
operative car-lot sales of hogs and
cattle, whereby the producers secure
the benefit of the highest market bid
on the date of sale, have, under the
close attention of our Livestock and
Field Crop Marketing Specialist, be-
come very popular and are in great
demand. This specialist aids in grad-
ing the hogs or cattle, loading, ship-
ping and all necessary details Con-
tributing to this feature the Bureau


issues a semi-weekly Livestock Mar-
ket Report covering Chicago and all
the important Southeastern markets,
keeping the Florida producer of hogs
and cattle informed with reliable data
as to receipts, prices and complete
market information. Much the same
type of service is given Field Crops in
grading, packing, loading and market-
ing.
Poultry Division Added
Another feature of the Bureau's
work in already great use, and rapidly
extending to new sections, is that of
the Poultry and Egg Marketing
Specialist. Regular car-lot and truck-
lot poultry schedules have been ar-
ranged, resulting in larger volume
sales, better prices and quicker re-
turns. Highest bids are solicited by
the Bureau for these sales at certain
loading stations on given dates, and
the best prices advertised among the
poultrymen in the territory to be
served, so that the producer knows
exactly the price he will receive. The
fact that he sees his poultry weighed,
is paid cash for it at the car side on
the basis of the highest quotation pos-
sible to get, and has his coop returned
immediately proves highly satis-
factory. This service has encouraged
Florida buyers to use Florida poultry,
and therefore aids both buyer and
seller. To further help and inform the
Florida poultryman of prevailing mar-
ket conditions, a special page of our
daily Jacksonville vegetable reports is
devoted to quotations on Florida
markets and several of the larger
Northern markets, as New York,
Philadelphia, Chicago, etc.

Florida News Service Leads
In all the activities of these various
Marketing Specialists, they work in
co-operation with the County Agents
or other agricultural leaders in the
different communities of the State.
The Market News project no doubt
covers more sections and serves in
all its aspects a greater number of
people than any other project of the
Bureau. There is no excuse for any
fruit or vegetable or livestock or
(Continued on Page 10)








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER




A Trip to California


November, 1931


W E are glad to report a success-
ful and beneficial trip to Cali-
fornia by motor, over the Southern
route, going out and coming back
through the Middle Western States,
traveling in nineteen different States
and covering a total of 7,233 miles.
The party left Gainesville, Florida,
on the morning of June 13th and
stopped that night in Gulfport, Miss.
The total miles for the first day was
526. This mileage, however, was not
the greatest number of miles travelled
in a single day but was much above
the average. The greatest number of
miles traveled in a single day was
from Phoenix, Arizona, to Oxnard,
California, a total of 554 miles. We
went by way of Gulfport and Jackson,
Miss.; Shreveport, La.; Dallas, Fort
Worth and El Paso, Texas; Phoenix,
Ariz., and Los Angeles, Cal., then to
Berkeley, Cal., where the University
is located. Several stops were made
at different points of interest along
the way. The principal stop made en
route was at El Paso, Texas; there
we crossed the Rio Grande River
into Juarez, Mexico. For the novelty
of it we had dinner that night
in Mexico, and saw some of the
night life. The side trip to our
neighboring country was of great in-
terest, as their customs and practices
as well as business organizations are
so different from those in the United
States.
It took seven and one-half days of
actual driving, covering 3,178 miles, to
make the trip out to Berkeley where
the University of California is located.
The university site comprises more
than 500 acres, rising from an eleva-
tion of 200 feet above sea level to
about 1,300 feet. The major portion
of the campus, however, is located
at the lower altitude. Large and mag-
nificent buildings are very common.
most of which were gifts of native
Californians and alumni of the Uni-
versity. One rather recent building
that adds a great deal to the campus
is the International House-a resi-
dential and social center for foreign
and American students, made pos-
sible by the gift of Mr. John D.
Rockefeller, Jr. Accommodations
have been made for approximately
450 students without discrimination
as to race, color, sex or religion. The
charge to occupants is supposed to be
cost of operation. University stu-
dents, other than those living in the
House have access to most of the
activities promoted and fostered by
the social manager of the House.

Berkeley has an ideal summer cli-
mate. Extremes of heat or cold are
very unusual. The average tempera-
tures are about 65 degrees in the
summer time, and seldom reach more
than 80 degrees. During our stay in
Berkeley there were only five days
that we did not have heat in our


By

R. H. Howard

Instructor in
Agricultural Economics


Included among our Florida
men who did graduate work
at other Universities and Col-
leges this summer was R. H.
Howard. He chose the Uni-
versity of California to work
on his Ph.D. in Agricultural
Economics.
The party that made the
trip by motor with Professor
Howard was Professor J. L.
Wann, of the Agricultural
Economics Department in the
Agricultural College, Mr. G.
C. Roberts, of Lady Lake, who
is principal of the Weirsdale
High School and is doing
graduate work in Agricultural
Economics at the University
of Florida, all of whom did
graduate work at the Uni-
versity of California this
summer.



rooms night and morning. Just back
and across the mountains (less than
ten miles away, however), it was very
common to have more than 110 de-
grees of heat. Berkeley, located on
the eastern shore of San Francisco
Bay, has a wonderful scenic outlook
over the bay, the neighboring plains
and mountains, the ocean and the
Golden Gate. Around this bay is
very thickly populated with numer-
ous towns and villages adjacent to
each other. They are built so close
together until there is practically no
marked difference or separation of
these towns.

After spending six weeks in Berke-
ley, California, we began the return
journey, Saturday, August 1. On our
way back we visited a great many out-
standing and historical places. Among
them were Reno, Yellowstone Na-
tional Park, Shoshone Dam and Pike's
Peak. We were very much disap-
pointed with the town of Reno, Ne-
vada. Had planned to spend the
night there, but as we were unable to
tell any difference from it and some
of the other Western towns we drove
on to the next town.

Things seem to be very much de-
pressed in California, as well as most
of the other States that we went
through. Agriculture in this State is
confronted with numerous problems
and readjustments. The relatively
low prices that farmers have received
for their crops for the past three


years, compared with other industries,
has reduced real estate values and in
many cases prevented farmers from
paying their debts. This is not only
true in California, but other States as
well. Banks and other leading agen-
cies have acquired thousands of
farms. The great crash came three
years ago when farmers failed to get
sufficient income from their farms to
pay their bills. Since that time con-
ditions have been growing worse.
Their production for most crops, and
particularly so with fruits, has been
increasing while prices have declined.
Their farms are like a good many
we have in Florida, specializing in
growing a single enterprise, thus mak-
ing the farmer entirely dependent on
the returns from a single product,
which may be good or poor.

This type of farming is even more
common in California than Florida. I
understand, however, from confer-
ences held with County Agents, that
a great many farmers in this State
are diversifying their system of farm-
ing this year, which seems to be the
most logical thing to do under present
economic conditions. Although Cali-
fornia is handicapped greatly in mak-
ing shifts, not only financially, but the
amount of water available often pre-
vents readjustments. The cost and
the amount of water available at the
present time prevents a great many
changes from fruit to crop produc-
tion which has a more favorable.out-
look at the present time, according
to the opinions of farmers, County
Agents and extension economists in
California, but requires more water,
and in most cases it is not available.
However, hundreds of acres of
peaches are being pulled up this year
so that general truck crops might be
planted. We did not hear any rumor
in regard to pulling up citrus trees.
In some of the areas depending upon
irrigation water, the supply has been
reduced to the point where some farm
plantings have had to cease. They say
that the shortage is due to less snow
and rain in the mountains during the
winter, which flows down the rivers
and valleys in the spring and into the
canals where it is used for crop pro-
duction.
General business conditions in most
towns in California were fair. Com-
paratively few business houses and
stores were unoccupied.
It is believed that we were in the
State of California when it was at its
best from the standpoint of its annual
agricultural crops. Good many of
their fruits were being harvested, but
often the returns were not sufficient
to give the farmer a profit.
(Continued on Page 12)








November, 1931


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER



Foundations

No Institution is Stronger than

its Foundation


T HE strength, permanency and
solidity of a structure, an institu-
tion, a business, or, in fact, agricultural
and horticultural pursuits, depend to
a degree, upon its foundation. Experi-
ence and history teaches us emphati-
cally that such activities built upon a
firm foundation lead toward perma-
nency and prosperity. Coincidentally,
in the horticultural world, we find
orange groves planted to their adapted
clime and upon the soils that are
rightly fitted, together with intellect-
ual citriculture applied throughout the
year, produce quality fruit year after
year and greatly aid the citrus indus-
try in its annual rise toward perma-
nency and success. Orange growing
in the State of Florida has a most ro-
mantic career. Its history is most in-
teresting. The future holds much for
those growers who apply themselves
and through proper procedure, pro-
duce quality fruit for the ever expand-
ing markets of the North and East.
This was notably obvious during the
gathering of the growers recently at
Gainesville, (University of Florida)
during Farmers' and Fruit Growers'
Week by those attending the citrus
seminars. Here individual growers
from every county in the State, rep-
resenting the various soils and condi-
tions upon which oranges are grown,
exchanged ideas and practices which
were extremely beneficial.
Great emphasis was placed upon
soils, plant food, moisture and in gen-
eral oitriculture. Papers read from all
areas, seemingly had a fundamental
thought that the more organic the
foundation the healthier and more pro-
ductive the results. Many indicated
that a gradual transposition of their
light, sandy soils into a heavier
humus-containing body was produc-
ing greater benefits. Not only was
it true that cover cropping was
practiced more widely, but that or-
ganic materials from other areas were
being hauled into the groves for
mulching purposes. The paper pre-
sented by the writer mentioned sev-
eral instances of this, particularly of
the practice of adding three tons of
alfalfa hay to the acre in several of
the more productive orange areas of
California, and summed up his knowl-
edge of the excellent growth and pro-
duction of oranges during the summer
months of June, July, and August, on
the higher elevations of muck soils
of the Everglades of Broward County.
These soils, we mentioned, were nat-
urally rich in organic matter, contain-
ing over seventy-five per cent, and an-
alyzed as follows: 2.17% nitrogen,
3.17% lime, 18% phosphoric acid, 13%
potash, 1.47% iron oxide, .18% magne-
sia, .38% soda, .51% sulphuric acid,
75.65% organic, and 16.16% moisture.
Endowed by nature with all of these
virtues, together with the fact that


by
C. P. Hammerstein
Flamingo Groves, Hollywood, Fla.


these rich black soils were laid upon
a heavy layer of sand (silica) and
these two having a porous, oolitic
limestone base, qualified this particular
area for orange production purposes.
This excellent limestone base not only
provided for an excellent porportion
of calcium to sweeten these heavy
soils, but almost superhumanly pro-
vided an underground tiling system,
which day after day replenishes the
sub-stratas of the sand and muck with
the life-giving waters that are most
important in the production of quality
fruit.
The Everglades, rich in plant
foods, and an everlasting source of
water supply, and being located in the
sub-tropics adjacent to the Atlantic,
containing the miraculously warmth-
giving facilities of the Gulf Stream
in the winter months, and the balmy,
cool breezes provided by the trade
winds during the summer months, en-
able the oranges grown there to have
a gradual, twelve months' growing pe-
riod throughout the year. No cold
shocks to hasten maturity, no extreme
heat or dry periods to retard struc-
tural growth, provide for a natural
maturity of the late Valencias and Lue
Gim Gongs in the months of June,
July and August, when the citrus in-
dustry of Florida had depleted her
wares. Naturally, knowledge of prop-
er foundations and provisions aiding
nature was applied, and now one of
the most interesting orange sections
of Florida, in fact, the Everglades, is
now taking a very firm hold for the
foundation of an interesting structure
for the summer production of quality
oranges.
With the economy of production
,that has been proven and the
marketing of the fruit during the sum-
mer months, indicating the topping of
all fruits upon the New York Auction
Market by $1.00 and $1.50 a box, indi-
cates the measure of increased profits
for the growers over many other
orange growing areas. This wide mar-
gin is again expanded when one
notices the news items of the day,
mentioning the opening of the deep-
est port in the State and that reg-
ular scheduled sailings of passenger
and transportation lines will enter
Port Everglades this month, an-
other practical saving in moving the
crops from this area is very gratifying
to the owners of groves in Broward
County. The present freight rate by
rail today is $1.24, and from all indi-
cations this will be cut approximately,
fifty per cent. by all-water transporta-
tion to the most desirable markets of


the North and East. Seemingly this
area is most excellently adapted for
profitable and progressive production
of oranges rich in the foundation
upon which the groves are built,
adapted to this genial climate which
matures its fruit during the months
when quality oranges are in the most
demand, and moved to the consuming
markets at a saving, all of which, in
the final analysis, reduces the much
heard of over-head, and rendering to
the grower the profits he justly and
rightfully deserves. We commend the
work of the State in such work as it
is performing for the advancement and
success of the citrus industry and kin-
dred agricultural pursuits. We realize
that through these efforts and activi-
ties the success of the citrus industry
of the future depends upon the intel-
lectual and scientific performances of
quality grove-building and horticul-
tural care. A program so laid out, as
to eliminate waste, prevent leaks, to-
gether with a greater co-ordination
of cultural activities and liberal co-op-
eration in the marketing of quality
fruit, will eventually place Florida
where she rightfully belongs. We have
all the essentials needed, we have
benefited by the past, and with proper
procedure, organization, and effective
work, Florida shall build upon her
great foundation a structure of
strength, stability and success.

Anderson Heads
Agriculture Club

Election for Months of October
and November Held

The primary issue before the Ag-
riculture Club Monday night, Oct. 5,
1931, was the election of officers for
the months of October and November.
President Greenman took charge of
the meeting and after carrying on the
current pending business, called for
the election of officers.
As a result of the election the in-
coming officers of the Agriculture
Club are:
President, Oliver Anderson.
Vice-President, William Lawless.
Secretary-Treasurer, Hugh Dukes.
Reporter, Raymond Rubin.
Critic, Jack Greenman.
An impromptu talk was given by
the newly elected President, Ander-
son, who outlined the Club's program
for the next two months. Mr. Ander-
son expressed the need of unfailing
co-operation between the members of
the Club and the officers.

Dr. A. F. Camp, recently returned
from a month's stay in Honduras.
While there he studied the agricul-
tural problems of that section.







THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


The Florida College Farmer
ESTABLISHED 1930
Published by the Agricultural Club
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE
COPELAND NEWBERN, JR...... Editor-in-Chief
CLARK DOUGLASS .........Business Manager
\VILLIAM GUENTIIER.... Circulation Manager
EDITORIAL STAFF
Richard L. Brooks......... Managing Editor
Raymond Rubin ..... Asst. Managing Editor
F. W. Barber ................... 4-H Club
Milton Marco. ................... Extension
W. W. Roe................. Future Farmers
Harry Brinkley ................ Horticulture
J. A. McClellan ................... Poultry
Clyde Bass............. Animal Husbandry
Clarke Dolive............... Campus Editor
John W. Covey ............... Copy, Editor
Hugh Dukes ..................... Exchange
BUSINESS STAFF
Nelson Murray. Associate Business Manager
James Wittenstein...Asst. Business Manager
Jack Gunthrie...... Asst. Business Manager
J. W. Gooding, Jr...Asst. Circulation Manager
G. F. Bauer .......Asst. Circulation Manager
FACULTY ADVISORY COMMITTEE
C. H. Willoughby, Chairman
W. L. Lowry R. M. Fulghum
PUBLISHED MONTHLY DURING THE SCHOOL YEAR
Subscription One Dollar
Application filed for entry as second-class
matter at the postoffice at Gainesville, Florida




VOLUME 3 NOVEMBER, 1931 NUMBER 2



Co-operative Marketing

Life is dependent upon co-operation. All of our
complex modern society is very closely bound up,
each part with every other part. The present world
depression is a very good example of this. Failures
of normal conditions in such wide-spread places as
China, South America, and Europe were immediately
re-echoed in America. We can easily see why this
should be. Our coffee comes from Brazil, and our
sugar from Cuba. If there is a drought in either
of these countries, we feel it immediately. Without
co-operation, our modern civilization could not exist
at all. In our commercial life, co-operation is partic-
ularly essential. America's position as the industrial
and financial leader of the world is said to have been
gained through the ability of Americans to work to-
gether for a common cause and the benefit of all'-
in other words, through the ability to co-operate.
Cooperation is as necessary in agriculture as in any
other industry. Farmers who grow commodities for
market and expect to compete with the low prices
in this time of depression will have to organize new
marketing associations in unorganized territories and
to co-ordinate the activities of existing organizations
into larger- units. Regional sales organizations will
have to be established in important shipping areas.


These regional sales units should be united into na-
tional organizations. By collective action, farmers
can extend their marketing system, strengthen their
position in bargaining on central markets, develop a
credit system that will make them more independent,
and improve their chances of adjusting production to
prevent troublesome surpluses.
Co-operation was encouraged by the Federal Govern-
ment's Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929. Large
scale marketing of farm produce has been definitely
increasing. Today, more than a million American
farmers have been educated and made to understand
the value of unified practice of collective action in
the disposal of his crops.
Co-operative selling is giving the farmer sound, day
by day insight into the law of supply and demand.
He observes that the buyer takes only what he needs,
and he is learning the wisdom of bringing only a
corresponding amount to market. The psychological
effect is inevitable. It will not be immediate, but it
will come.


Toreador Club

Students in Animal Husbandry at the University of
Florida, realizing special advantages are to be de-
rived from a student organization, having in view
the development of a greater knowledge of livestock
and a greater interest and comradeship between stu-
dents; have organized a club to fulfil this need. The
Toreador Club was organized to serve this purpose.
The objects of the club are:
1. To put on "Florida's Little International" (a
livestock exhibit).
2. To broaden our knowledge in Animal Husban-
dry.
3. To demonstrate the benefits derived from better
management, breeding and feeding of livestock.
4. To encourage and promote the livestock indus-
try in the State of Florida.
Several interesting and educational trips to packing
houses, livestock shows and fairs have already been
planned for the .members of the club.

If growers would arouse a dormant democracy and
put to work democratic institutions, such as educational
agencies, they could then build a popular mind which
would lead them out of economic and business delin-
quency.

Big crops don't mean big money-concentrate on
quality, not tonnage.

The farmer who keeps posted on the best methods
practiced by others, and who in addition, knows his
own farm, is the one who stands to make a profit
one year with another.

The solution to our marketing problems are im-
portant. The solution of our production problem are
imperative.

It is hoped that with all this turmoil about market-
ing organization and marketing systems, the farmer
will not lose sight of the fact that the first essential
of any successful marketing program is the produc-
tion of quality products.

The true spirit of Co-operation is not "You do
this!" but rather "Let us do this."

Less paternalism and more fraternalism will favor-
ably affect agriculture.


November, 1931








November, 1931


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Advantages of Livestock Judging

Type and Production Determining

Factor in Animal Breeding


In attempting to cover this very
broad subject, I will only give things
in a general way. It would be foolish
to try to do otherwise in such a short
discussion, as we have entire books
published on this subject.
In all forms of life there is a ten-
dency for the offspring to resemble
the parents. There are also variations
according to the laws of heredity. We
are able to profit by these variations
by selecting animals that suit our need
and taste; thus we have attained the
development of the present types and
breeds. This process is known as ar-
tificial selection. The law of average
gives us a fifty-fifty proposition in tak-
ing advantage of these variations. We
want to alter this record somehow, and
we are doing this by stacking the
cards against old man chance. This
card-stacking is in the form of good
sound livestock judging. Each time
we eliminate a scrub and replace him
with a pure-bred sire, we have dealt
an ace from the bottom and thereby
changed our proposition to a thirty-
.seventy one instead of the old one
given us by the law of average.
With the eyes of the South, and
Florida in particular, turning to some
phase of the livestock industry, the
need for more trained leaders in live-
stock judging becomes greater. The
farmer of the South has been fight-
ing a one-arm fight entirely too long.
The one arm he has been fighting with
includes high priced fertilizer, labor
and land, with general farm crops and
cotton doing the larger part of the
scrapping. The arm he has had tied
behind his back during this fight is
the production of livestock. The time


Aubrey J. Hudson, '33


is here when we must do one of two
things: we will either have to take
both arms in this fight or admit we
are licked by old man poverty.
Livestock judging is an age-old
practice; a practice that is essential
to the continued progress of the live-
stock industry. Along with the other
very valuable experiences handed
down to us from the stockmen of the
past, we have the records of type and
production. What is type? We know
that it requires a certain kind of ani-
mal to produce beef and quite a dif-
ferent kind to produce a large flow
of milk. For this reason two distinct
kinds of cattle have been developed-
beef cattle and dairy cattle.
The beef animal has certain charac-
teristics which stamp it as an animal
that will produce meat rather than
milk; we call this combination of char-
acteristics "beef type." The dairy cow
possesses certain characteristics which
make her valuable as a machine for
producing milk, thus we have the
"dairy type." In like manner we have
the "bacon type" and the "lard type"
in hogs; the "mutton type" and the
"wool type" of sheep; the "draft type"
and the "light type" of horses.
Type and production-"together
they stand, divided they fall." The
types are represented by many breeds.
For example, the dairy type is repre-
sented by the Jersey, Holstein, Guern-
sey, Brown Swiss, Dutch Belted, Ayr-
shire and a few other breeds. From


the above statements we may define
type as that combination of character-
istics which make an animal highly
useful for a specific purpose. Within
the different breeds we have certain
characteristics that are common only
to animals of that breed, which is
called "breed type." Breed type usu-
ally includes color, size and the gen-
eral makeup of the animal. Breed
type is very helpful in judging animals
of any kind.

One should understand the common
terms used in livestock parlance, such
as scrub, crossbred, grade, purebred.
A purebred is an animal whose sire
and dam are eligible to be registered
in a recognized breed association. A
grade is an animal having one pure-
bred parent. A crossbred is an ani-
mal whose sire and dam belong to two
different breeds. A scrub is an animal
whose sire and dam do not belong to
any recognized breed. This last term
is somewhat misleading. There are
purebred "scrubs," and I dare say they
are the most dangerous kind of scrub
in the livestock industry.

A good livestock judge becomes ex-
pert after much study and constant
practice. The knowledge gained by
such study will be a source of satis-
faction and financial profit throughout
life. Wise buying and selling, proper
selection of stock for breeding and
feeding, a knowledge of the excellence
of his animals and their value, ac-
quaintance with the market classes,
and a more intelligent interpretation
of market quotations, will aid any
farmer in placing his business on a
firmer and more profitable basis.


Growing of Watermelons


For best results watermelons should
be grown on a sandy loam soil. The
soil should be thoroughly drained.
Old fields that have fallowed for years
are excellent for watermelons. If wa-
termelons have been planted on this
soil before, at least a seven-year inter-
val should elapse before the crop is
planted again. Land that has never
grown melons before is preferable.
About six or eight weeks before
planting time the soil is broken to a
depth of six or eight inches. The soil
is usually broken with a tractor or a
two-horse plow. The purpose for this
early plowing is to allow plenty of
time for the vegetation that was plow-
ed under to decay. If the field has a
good wind-break it is permissable to
harrow the filed before the rows are
laid off. If the field is not protected
from the wind, it is best to leave the
field unharrowed, as the vines will


by
Clyde Bass, '33

have some vegetation to cling to after
they have grown to some length. Just
before time to plant, the rows are laid
off eight, ten or twelve feet apart.
Sometimes the rows are laid off in two
directions but it is a common practice
to plant the seed in a drill. As soon
as the rows are laid off the fertilizer
is broadcast. If the fertilizer is put
out by hand, a small opening plow is
run down the furrow to mix the fer-
tilizer with the soil. The purpose of
mixing the fertilizer with the soil is
to avoid having too much fertilizer be-
neath the young plant. After the fer-
tilizer has been distributed it is cov-
ered by throwing two furrows on it
with a small turn plow. The fertilizer
is covered to a depth of six inches.


About four or five days after the
fertilizer has been covered the seed
are planted at a depth of on inch.
They are planted about ten feet apart
in the row. After the first planting
more seed are planted regardless of
whether the first have germinated or
not. From four to eight seed are
planted in each hill at each planting.
No more seed are planted unless frost
kills these plants. Planting in Flor-
ida begins during the first part of
January in the Southern part of the
state. In the Northern part, planting
begins about the first of February. Af-
ter all danger of frosts is over the
plants are thinned to one in a hill.
Some farmers leave two plants in each
hill if rows and hills are wide apart.
Best results are obtained, however, by
leaving one plant in each hill. The
plants are plowed with a siding plow
(Continued on Page 12)








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


November, 1931


Over the State with Extension Workers


Lever Speaks
At Extension
Agents' Conference
A plea for unstinted and whole-
hearted cooperation among farmers
was made in a recent radio address
over WRUF by A. F. Lever, former
congressman from South Carolina
and now with the Federal Farm
Board. Mr. Lever was attending the
annual conference of Florida county
and home .demonstration agents. He
is co-author of the Smith-Lever Act
which made federal funds available for
county agent work 17 years ago.
Discussing the present depression
as world-wide and affecting every in-
dustry, he said that many industries
were hit harder than agriculture.
"The cause for this depression are
involved in a hundred factors, and
the remedies suggested are almost as
numerous," he declared. "The dan-
ger to agriculture lies in the natural
tendency of the human race to em-
brace panaceas when distress is upon
us. There is no safety in any plan
or program having for its objective
the ultimate betterment of agricul-
ture which is not predicated upon
sound, fundamental economics.
"Governments, state and national,
can do and are doing much in the di-
rection of undertaking to guide ag-
riculture into safe waters and to re-
strain it from following false leader-
ship and will-of-the-wisps."
He further urged whole-hearted sup-
port of the Board in its effort to car-
ry out the fundamentals of policy and
procedure laid down by the Agricul-
tural Marketing Act of 1929. "After
all, there is no help so efficient as
self-help. Cooperative marketing or-
ganizations, which are the real hope
for a better agriculture and a richer
and happier rural civilization, cannot
'help unless farmers themselves are
willing to organize such association
and to work in harmony with their
fellows. The Farm Board is working
through the cooperatives. The farmer
must learn to think in terms of co-
operation."

Nassau County
The silver loving cup for the high
pen in the Florida National Egg Lay-
ing Contest was won by Pinebreeze
Poultry Farm, Callahan, Florida. The
10 birds had a record of 2,595 points
for 2,480 eggs. This pen took the lead
at the first of the contest and never
released it. Two pens were entered
by this farm, and six of the month-
ly records were won by them.
Pinebreeze was owner of the bird
with the highest record, and thus won
another loving cup. The bird played
310 eggs for as many points.
The 58 pens in the fifth contest
came from 17 States. Twenty-one of
them were owned by Florida poultry-
men.


Cattle Tuberculosis
Eradication Work
Started in Several
Counties
Work looking to the eradi-
cation of bovine tuberculosis
in Florida was started on
October 1 by the State Live
Stock Sanitary Board and the
Bureau of Animal Industry ot
the United States Department
of Agriculture. The work is
under way in Monroe, Marion,
Alachua, St. Johns, Flagler,
Volusia and Putnam Counties.
While tuberculosis is not
as prevalent among cattle of
Florida as in many other
States, these definite plans for
the eradication of the disease
are similar to plans being fol-
lowed in other States.
The counties in which the
work is being conducted have
been quarantined, and all
cattle entering the area will
do so under the restrictions
of the State Live Stock Sani-
tary Board and the Bureau ot
Animal Industry.



Santa Rosa County
Over $1,150 has been added to the
home improvement fund of Mrs. G. W.
Boles, Santa Rosa County farm
woman, during the past three years
through the raising of turkeys, reports
Miss Eleanor Barton, home demon-
stration agent. Some of this money
was invested in two brood sows, and
they have added $300 more profits to
the fund. With this money Mrs. Boles
has purchased a 20-acre farm and
built on it a neat and conveniently ar-
ranged home.
Farmers in Santa Rosa County
bought 5,000 pounds of Austrian win-
ter pea seed during September, Coun-
ty Agent John G. Hudson reports.
They will be planted in the near fu-
ture at the rate of about 30 pounds
per acre.

Walton County
Four years ago there were about
four commercial poultrymen in
Walton County. Today there are over
60, and they own 30,000 birds, reports
County Agent Mitchell Wilkins.

Jefferson County
Over 10,000 containers of fruits,
vegetables, and meats have been saved
since January 1 by 46 Jefferson County
women who have just reported to
Miss Ruby Brown, home demonstra-
tion agent. Most of the women are
planning to use this food in the home.


Live-at-Home Plans
Emphasized by
Extension Talks
Believing that Florida farmers will
have to produce more of their living
at home during the period when their
incomes from cash crops are reduced,
the Florida Agricultural Extension
Service gave a series of radio talks on
live-at-home subjects. These talks
were made by extension, College, and
Experiment Station workers each
Monday and Friday from October 9
through November 6. They were on
the air over WRUF between 12 and
12:45 noon, the regular hour for the
farm program.
Beginning the series Friday, Oc-
tober 9, Dr. Wilmon Newell discussed
"The Farmer and the Business Situ-
ation." Specific examples of how
farmers in certain counties are coping
with the situation were then given by
the county agents from those coun-
ties.
On Monday, October 12, W. T. Net-
tles discussed "Building the Rural
home," and Dr. C. V. Noble gave facts
about what the farmer receives and
pays for food products.
The home garden was featured Fri-
day, October 16. Dr. J. E. Turling-
ton discussed its value, A. P. Spencer
gave a list of crops for the Florida
garden, and D. E. Timmons told of
outlets for the surplus garden and
truck products.


Dade County
Dade County vegetable growers are
beginning to practice diversification,
County Agent C. H. Steffani recently
explained.
Up until two years ago tomatoes
were about the only truck crop grown.
Over 18,000 acres in the county were
planted to this crop in 1927-28, and
about 12,000 in 1928-29. In 1929-30
the acreage dropped to 6,000, and last
season it was about 5,000.
At the same time, other vegetable
crops were being planted. During the
season 1929-30 about 1,500 acres of
such crops as potatoes, cabbage,
squash and beans were planted. Dur-
ing the past season this acreage was
increased to about 4,000.
The introduction of manganese sul-
phate to the calcareous soils which
made it possible to grow the other
crops, together with the low price for
tomatoes, he said, was responsible for
the shift. Manganese was introduced
into the area due to experiments by
the Florida Experiment Station and
the U. S. Department of Agriculture.
He further explained that during the
1930-31 season, 49 cars of mixed veg-
etables were shipped from Miami,
against six the previous season. Forty-
four cars of potatoes and 34 of cab-
bage were also shipped during the
past season.








November, 1931


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Seminole F. F. A.
Chapter State Winner
For the second year in succession
the Seminole Chapter of the Florida
Association, Future Farmers of
America, at Sanford, has been judged
the most outstanding chapter in the
State. This honor was won in com-
petition with 36 other Florida chap-
ters, and carries with the honor a
cash prize of $25.00 donated by the
Chilean Nitrate of Soda Educational
Bureau, and awarded by J. F. Baze-
more, State Manager.
This chapter's report is now entered
in the National Contest sponsored by
American Farming of Chicago, and for
which there is $1,000.00 in prizes
offered to the four best chapters in
the nation.
Some of the most interesting fea-
tures of accomplishment, by this live
organization of school boys, who are
studying vocational agriculture in
Sanford, are given below:
1. Average number of projects per
boy-2.33.
2. Percentage of projects continued
from last year-50%.
3. Average number of acres per
boy in projects-1.2.
4. Average number of live stock in
projects-3 sows.
5. Average number of poultry in
projects-60 pullets and 42 hens.
6. Average labor income per boy
from projects-$106.39.
7. Percentage of boys with full
project ownership and full finan-
cial participation-92%.
8. Average investment per boy in
farming-$144.92.
9. Average savings accounts of
members-$9.87.
10. Average stocks and bonds owned
by members-$16.66.
11. Average savings or assets other
than investment in farming-
$36.79.
12. The chapter has a thrift bank and
100% of the members deposit in
it.
A list of improved practices used
by the boys in their project work in-
cluded: (1) Balanced poultry rations;
(2) Modern poultry houses; (3) Im-
proved seed corn; (4) Fertilizing prac-
tice based on experimental data; (6)
Top dressing corn at knee high; (16)
Close culling of poultry flock; (7) Im-
proved brooding practices; (8) Cro-
talaria as a cover crop; (9) Syste-
matic sanitary poultry program; (10)
Co-operative buying of feeds; (11)
Improved hog farrowing house; (12)
Feeding poultry grain in hoppers;
(13) Using nicotine sulphate capsules
for worms; (14) Separating males
from pullets at three weeks; (15) De-
veloping home library; (16) Develop-
ing and using home farm shop; (17)
Disinfecting seed; (18) Layers hatch-
ed in March; (19) Treating corn for
weevils.


Average number of improved prac-
tices used per boy-8.1.
Farm skills acquired by the chapter
members included the following: (1)
Handling wood-working tools effici-
ently; (2) Putting handles in tools;
(3) Sharpening edged tools; (4) Op-
erating farm tractor; (5) Laying out
and plowing with tractor; (6) Adjust-
ing two-horse plow and plowing; (7)
Castrating pigs; (8) Mixing poison
bait; (9) Mixing paint and painting;
(10) Planning and building poultry
houses; (11) Testing soil and treating
for acidity; (12) Laying out and cut-
ting drainage ditches; (13) Treating
chickens for lice with sodium fluoride;
(14) Computing and mixing fertilizer;
(15) Plotting and mapping fields; (16)
Growing pine seedlings; (17) Mixing
and using concrete; (18) Testing
seeds for germination; (19) Packing
escarole.
Average number of farm skills ac-
quired per boy-12.1.
The co-operative activities engaged
in by the boys consisted of: (1) Buy-
ing 16,000 pounds of poultry feed co-
operatively; (2) 26 birds exhibited at
the Central Florida Fair; (3) Saved
$65.00 and financed a deep-sea fishing
trip; (4) Growing one acre of seed
corn; (5) Marketing a carload of es-
carole; (6) Buying 40 head of pure
bred hogs; (7) Conducting a soft
drink booth at the Sanford Fair earn-
ing $69.83 profit for chapter funds.
The most outstanding things done
by the Chapter in Community Service
follow: (1) Cleaning memorial tablet;
(2) Conducting a free educational pic-
ture show at the Sanford Fair with
3,000 people attending: (3) 225 soil
tests made for farmers; (4) At County
Farmer's Day the chapter put on a
"Live on the Farm" demonstration
booth; (5) Donated $5.00 to a com-
munity library fund; (6) Assisted in
Farmer's Day program by managing
the machinery and booths; (7) At the
county corn and poultry show, they
set up exhibits and fed the poultry,
earning $10.00 for chapter; (8) In-
creased interest in vocational agricul-
ture thereby gaining an increased en-
rollment; (9) Ten boys improved their
home farm shops.
The Leadership Activities partici-
pated in by the chapter members and.
the results are as follows: (1) Entered
a float in the County Farmer's Day
parade and won $10.00 for second
place; (2) Won $25.00 in 1930 State
Chapter Contest for first place; (3)
Chapter representatives won second
place in district speaking contest; (4)
At the Central Florida Fair F. F. A.
poultry division, the chapter won 5
firsts, 4 seconds and 3 thirds on their
exhibit.
The various positions of leadership
held by different chapter members fol-
-low: (1) F. F. A. State Executive
Committee member; (2) Vice Presi-
dent Student Council Sanford High


School; (3) Secretary County Poultry
Show; (4) Assistant Secretary County
Poultry Show; (5) Junior Steward of
DeMolay; (6) President of Sunday
School Class; (7) Vice President of
Young Peoples' Service League; (8)
The whole chapter are honorary mem-
bers of the County Chamber of Com-
merce; (9 Treasurer of DeMolay; (10)
Chairman Greater DeMolay Commit-
tee; (11) Patrol Leader Boy Scouts
of America.
The average school grade based on
the average grade of the chapter
members was 82.42%.
Notwithstanding all of the work
done by these boys they found time
to engage in some recreational activi-
ties also as will be seen by the fol-
lowing list; (1) Father and Son Ban-
quet; (2) Father and Son Deep-Sea
Fishing Trip; (3) Fish Fry for State
Agricultural Teachers; (4) Week-end
camping trip; (5) Visit with Trenton
Chapter at their Daytona Beach camp;
(Continued on Page 13)

"The Winner Speaks"
The winning boy in the State-wide
Vocational Forestry Course, Fred
Kirkland, son of a tenant farmer living
in Okaloosa County, in a few simple
words describes his work in the for-
estry course. He will receive a trip
to Kansas City, November 14-20, with
all expenses paid.
"I did my first forestry work un-
der the instruction of Professor M.
A. Baker, Agriculture teacher at Ba-
ker High School, Baker, Florida.
First, I was taught how to do the
work of gathering and caring for pine
seed, planting and caring for seed
beds, transplanting young trees, etc.
Then, I began doing some of the ac-
tual work.
"I selected a site for my seed bed
convenient to water. After preparing
and planting my bed, I began water-
ing it three to four times each week,
unless there was rain enough to keep
it moist. The seed germinated nice-
ly, but, when there were about three
hundred up, something began biting
the young trees off just above the sur-
face of the bed. I tried to find some
insect about the bed that could be do-
ing the damage, but I failed to do so.
I sprayed the young trees twice with
Bordeaux Mixture. I don't know
that the spray stopped the pests, but
they ceased to damage the plants af-
ter destroying two or three hundred
of them. I have cared for my bed
as best I could, and have a nice bed of
young trees at present.
"During the year I helped prepare
a plot for the setting of young trees
furnished by the State and also a
burned and unburned plot. In the
burned and unburned experiment, 612
slash pines and 31 longleaf pines were
killed on the burned half acre. We
set about one and one-half acres of
(Continued on Page 10)








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


November, 1931


Marketing Bureau
(Continued from Page 3)
poultry shipper anywhere in Florida
not being thoroughly posted on mar-
ket conditions. The Market News
Specialist of the Bureau has charge
of the daily Miscellaneous Vegetable
reports issued from the Bureau
throughout the vegetable shipping
season. These Jacksonville reports
were sent last season to more than
2,000 shippers every day. The Market
News specialist also covers the Jack-
sonville fruit and vegetable, and
poultry and egg market daily, supply-
ing the press with regular reports. In
addition to this comprehensive mar-
ket information sent by daily mail re-
ports, telegraph and telephone, the
Market News specialist last season
gave over Station WRUF two broad-
casts daily, supplying the shippers
with shipment, passing and complete
market information. No other State
has as complete market news service
as Florida. In addition to the Jack-
sonville daily reports, covering all
miscellaneous vegetables being
shipped from Florida, a number of
field stations are operated. A special
citrus daily service is provided at
Winter Haven; a special celery ser-
vice at Sanford; a special miscella-
neous vegetable service on the Lower
East Coast; a special strawberry ser-
vice at Plant City; a special celery and
mixed vegetable service at Bradenton;
a special potato service at Hastings; a
special watermelon service at Lees-
burg. All these special field stations
are located in areas of greatest con-
centrated tonnage and serve growers
in both the immediate and more dis-
tant areas with complete market
data, including: shipments, passing,
diversions, arrivals, cars on track, un-
loads, prevailing market tone, supply
and demand and quotations, and also
give the f. o. b. cash track prices and
conditions at shipping point. The
Market News work in Florida is con-
ducted on a co-operative basis be-
tween the Florida State Marketing
Bureau and the U. S. Department of
Agriculture.
To provide a medium for the sale
or exchange of offerings, by, among.
and for the farmers, the For Sale,
Want and Exchange Bulletin was
created. It is sent regularly on the
first and fifteenth of each month to
more than 20,000 farmers and shippers.
No charge is made for listing permis-
sible advertisements. Seeds and
Plants, Farm Implements and Ma-
chinery, Poultry and Eggs, Livestock,
Farm and Grove Products, Miscella-
neous and Wanted are the classifica-
tions carried.

Standard Products Bureau
A shipping point inspection service
is provided by the Bureau, co-operat-
ing with the U. S. Department of Ag-
riculture, for fruits and vegetables,
supplying the applicant with a dis-
interested, impartial certification of
loading, size, pack, quality, grade,
condition, etc., which is acceptable in
U. S. Courts as prima facie evidence.


Poison Ivy Remedies
and Preventives are
Simple and Effective
There are ways to cure as well as
prevent the itchy blisters caused by
poison ivy-some times called poison
sumac, and poison oak-and related
plants, says Dr. W. B. Tisdale, plant
pathologist with the Florida Experi-
ment Station.
One of the best remedies known
is described by Dr. J. F. Couch in the
October Scientific Monthly. It is
based upon the principle of oxidizing
the poison in the blisters. The blisters
should be broken with a sterile needle
and treated with a 5 per cent. solution
of potassium permanganate.
A good preventive measure, ex-
plained by Dr. Couch is to bathe the
hands and arms in a 10 per cent. solu-
tion of glycerin or a 3 per cent. solu-
tion of copperas before going into
the woods. If one has come in con-
tact with ivy, prompt and thorough
washing of the exposed parts with hot
water and soap may prevent trouble.
If irritation begins, scratching it only
tends to spread it and make it go
deeper. It should be treated at once.
White sumac, or thunderwood, is
closely related to poison ivy, but per-
sons are not as likely to come in con-
tact with it. It grows mostly in dense
hammocks and is a rather tall bush.

This service has been responsible in
improving the grade and pack of
Florida fruits and vegetables, and is
particularly essential in view of the
Federal Perishable Agricultural Com-
modities Act.
The Florida State Marketing Bu-
reau as regular routine supplies lists
of buyers and dealers specializing in
fruits, vegetables, field crops, poultry,
eggs, and in fact almost every con-
ceivable product; advises of the re-
sponsibility of dealers in all agricul-
tural lines; advises as to crop and
market conditions and prospects; and,
in short, performs every marketing
service except actual, direct, personal
handling of products in the Bureau's
name. It might be repeated-there is
no charge for the services of this
Bureau.
Only the major features of our
work could be mentioned in a brief
article, consequently the organization
of the Bureau and only the major
lines of endeavor could be outlined.
It will be noted that for personal con-
tact in the field, there are available, in
addition to the Commissioner, who di-
vides his time between inside and out-
side work, a Specialist in Fruits and
Vegetables, Livestock and Field
Crops, Dairy and Poultry Products.
The Assistant Commissioner, having
been with the Bureau since the first
day it was organized, handles the in-
side office detail and the business ad-
ministration of the Bureau, and
handles the office work of the various
specialists while they are in the field.
A Specialist in Market News further
serves the growers and shippers of
fruits, vegetables, poultry, eggs, live-
stock, etc., with complete market news


Citrus Crop Estimated
At 28,500,000 Boxes
Florida's citrus crop for the coming
season is estimated at 28,500,000 boxes
by H. A. Marks, statistician for the
U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Oranges, including tangerines, are es-
timated at 16,500,000 boxes, and grape-
fruit at 12,000,000 boxes.
The total crop last season was
around 35,000,000 boxes-about 19,-
000,000 oranges and 16,000,000 grape-
fruit.
Compared with last season the crop
is from two to three weeks later.
The average fruit is a little smaller,
but it is still growing. The reports
show that dropping and splitting of
fruit is no heavier than last year.

Go out into the world and hustle,
young man, then, in the course of
years, you may have enough nioney to
return to the country and live the rest
of your days.-Florida Grower.


F. F. F. News
(Continued from Page 9)

young trees, had very good luck with
them, and a nice percentage are living.
"As the result of my forestry work
this year I have won first local prize
and the State prize of a free trip to
the National Congress of the Future
Farmers of America and the American
Royal Livestock Show to be held in
Kansas City, Mo., in November. I
am very proud of these prizes, the
State prize in particular.
"I expect to transplant my young
trees next year and keep them grow-
ing. I want to do all that I can in
protecting our forests because I can
see wherein they must be cared for
and protected, or our supply of timber
will soon be exhausted."
Note: The damage Fred refers to
when his seedlings were just sprout-
ing was the disease "Damping Off,"
not an insect. This may have been
introduced in the surface soil used to
cover the seed.


from the Bureau office, and in addi-
tion, the State is dotted with field sta-
tions to more completely serve the ag-
ricultural industry with market infor-
mation. To further round out the
service, supplementary features are
carried, as the For Sale, Want and
Exchange Bulletin, Shipping Point In-
spection, etc., etc.
The Florida State Marketing Bu-
reau would have received far more
credit had this article been prepared
outside the staff, for modesty forbids
that even all its accomplishments be
listed. Mention of services rendered
was for the purpose 'of further ac-
quainting the agricultural industry of
Florida with the type of marketing as-
sistance and information available
from the Bureau. I am prompted to
close this article the same as practi-
cally all letters leaving the Bureau, in-
viting the farmers and shippers of
Florida: To call on us whenever we
can be of service.








November, 1931


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


FLORIDA


4-H CLUB NEWS


What Our Old 4-H Club
Boys are Doing
Most of our 4-H club boys working
to make the best better in every way.
sometimes wonder what the future
holds in store for them, what will they
be doing after they are too old to
be club boys. Many, especially out-
standing boys, finish high school and
then go on in the search for more
knowledge that they may raise the
standard of the American farmer.
Perhaps a trip to the Short Course
at the University of Florida, together
with a small scholarship, has been the
inspiration for many a boy to leave
the farm and go to college. Once here
they never fail but climb to the top
fighting to win. And today 4-H club
boys are scattered all over the world
in every walk of life-as leaders.
The following men are old 4-H club
boys, only a few of the many we have
been able to keep track of.
Three men. John Henry Logan, C.
R. Hiatt, and J. G. Kelley, have been
recruited from our ranks and are now
county agents.
We can't all be county agents so
Milledge Baker is a Smith Hughes
teacher.
Back in the old days of 1916-19
when club work was just starting in
Florida, George Blowers was a cham-
pion pig club boy of Marion County.
Today our old friend is located in
China connected with the National
City Bank of New York.
Not all of our old 4-H club boys
continue in agriculture by any means.
Buel Roche, who once entered the Col-
lege of Agriculture at the University
on a Banker's Scholarship, decided
that he liked another profession bet-
ter. Now he is a doctor.
But some of our boys have gone
back to the farm, with every intention
of becoming leaders in their profes-
sion. Emory Williams is farming at
our back door here in Alachua
County. While Ernest Young, who
was the first boy to represent Florida
at the Moses Leadership Training
School in Springfield, is now farming
in Madison County.
Our old friend, Billy Mathews.
whom all the Short Course boys re-
member with pleasure, is teaching
English in Orlando. If all goes well
Billy will be back with us next sum-
mer to help make a better and more
interesting Short Course.
All 4-H club boys, especially those
of West Florida, will remember, with
pleasure, Leland Hiatt, who helped
Mr. Blacklock for so many years at
the summer camps as a recreational
leader. He now has charge of the


printing department at the Florida
Industrial School for Boys at Mari-
anna.
Once outstanding 4-H club boys in
their home communities, Alvin Spur-
lock and Russell Henderson, have
graduated from the University of
Florida and are now taking their
masters work. Alvin in economics
and Russell in agronomy.

Trip to the National Dairy Show
Milk being a farm product and one
of the most healthful foods to be had
for either young or old, has been re-
ceiving a great deal of publicity of
late years. Various companies, cor-
porations, civic clubs, extension work-
ers and the like have stimulated the
consumption of milk in every way pos-
sible, so that today everyone knows
the health value of milk. Out of 31
contestants from Florida, the Cream-
ery Package Products Corporation
awarded Dupont Magill a free trip to
the National Dairy Show for the best
essay on "My Visit to a Milk Plant."

The. Start of a College Education
The International Harvester Com-
pany, the farmer's trusty friend for


many years, is giving 4-H club work a
mighty boost onward and upward. It
is such worthwhile prizes as these
that make club boys realize the op-
portunities that are waiting for them
if they really try. Only the very best
are eligible to win, but the prize is
worth fighting hard for and who
knows who will win.
In honor of the 100th anniversary
of the invention of the reaper by the
old pioneer, Cyrus McCormick, the
International Harvester Company is
giving 100 $500 scholarships to club
boys and girls in the United States.
With such a scholarship the entire ex-
penses for the first year in college
will be paid for 100 outstanding girls
and boys in 4-H club work. To be
eligible for one of these scholarships
one must be in his senior year in high
school, and have been one of the out-
standing leaders of 4-H club work in
the Southern States. His project
work must be backed up by leadership
in his community.
SOut of 850,000 4-H club girls and
boys in the United States 100 are go-
ing to receive $500 scholarships. We
hope and see no reason why a Flor-
ida boy or girl cannot win at least one
of these awards.


4-H CLUB Boys STAGE FAIR


__ ___~ _~








THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


November, 1931


Eddins Transferred
From Corn to Potato
Disease Investigation
Dr. A. H. Eddins, corn disease in-
vestigator with the Florida Experi-
ment Station, has been transferred
from here to Hastings where he will
work with potato diseases, effective
October 15, the State Board of Con-
trol has just announced.
Dr. Eddins will continue the work
of Dr. C. M. Tucker, who resigned
August 1 to work with the University
of Missouri. He has been with the
Station for 3% years, and is the au-
thor of the Station's bulletin about
corn diseases in Florida. He has also
written a press bulletin about fumi-
gating oats for smut.
R. K. Vorhees has been appointed
assistant plant pathologist to con-
tinue the corn disease investigations.
He received an M.S. degree from the
University of Florida last June, and
for the past year has been working
as graduate assistant to Dr. Eddins.
For a thesis he presented a discus-
sion of Fusarium wilt of corn.


Trip to California
(Continued from Page 4)
Leads us in Fruit and Truck Crops
It might be interesting to know that
California produces from one-third to
one-half of all the commercial fruits
produced and marketed in the United
States. They produce from 58 to 62
per cent. of all the citrus, 86 to 93
per cent. of grapes, almost 100 per
cent. of olives, 97 per cent. of walnuts,
95 per cent. of apricots, one-third of
the peaches and large per cent. of
numerous other crops. According to
statistics compiled by the University
of California, that State produces ap-
proximately one-fifth of all truck
crops sold commercially. The total
of 139 cultivated commercial crops
grown in California will explain the
relatively high per cent. of the total
production in the United States as
compared to about half this number
and some less of crops for most
States engaged in truck crop produc-
tion.
It is generally accepted that the
economic factors of production are:
land, labor and capital. Owing to the
relative scarcity of water in 57 per
cent. of the area under cultivation in
California, water might be considered
as one of the most important factors
in their production. Their rainfall has
a wide variation from 2 inches in the
Imperial Valley, where a great deal
of farming is being carried on, to 120
inches in some sections of Hombolt
and DeNorte Counties, which is in
the northern portion. The San
Joaquin Valley, another one of Cali-
fornia's fertile valleys, located about
in the central part of the State from
northern to southern boundaries, only
gets about 12 inches of rainfall a
year. So from this you can appreciate
the importance of water for crop pro-
duction in California.


Oranges on Arsenate
Sprayed Trees Lower
in Vitamin C Content

Oranges produced by trees sprayed
with lead arsenate not only differ in
chemical composition from normal
oranges, but suffer a considerable loss
of Vitamin C content which is re-
garded as such a highly desirable con-
stituent of oranges, Dr. E. M. Nelson
and Mr. H. H. Mottern, of the Bureau
of Chemistry and Soils, U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, recently told
members of the American Public
Health Association in session at
Montreal.
Doctor Nelson's statement followed
completion of a series of experiments
in the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils
which have demonstrated that besides
causing a considerable loss of the
valuable Vitamin C, spraying orange
trees with lead arsenate reduces the
acidity of the juice and decreases the
sucrose with a corresponding increase
in invert sugar. The principal orange-
producing States have laws prohibit-
ing the use of arsenical sprays on this
crop.
The spraying of oranges with lead
arsenate involves no danger from
arsenic poison, according to the find-
ings of the bureau, which disclosed
no arsenic in the edible portion of the
orange, following many applications
of spray to orange trees.
Another interesting fact brought
out by the recent investigation of the
Department of Agriculture's chemists
which Doctor Nelson announced is
that the processing of oranges, by the
heat method of the department's Plant
Quarantine and Control Administra-
tion, to destroy larvae of the Mediter-
ranean fruit fly during the recent
eradication campaign against that pest
did not change the character of the
sugars, citric acid, or Vitamin C con-
tent of the fruit.

Growing Watermelons
(Continued from Page 7)

after they have been thinned. The
middles are plowed out with a turn
plow in order to put the plants on a
small bed. After the middles have
been run out in one direction the
plants are plowed in the other di-
rection, provided the rows were
checked. If the rows were not check-
ed the melons are plowed again in the
same direction. When the melons are
sided for a third time a second ap-
plication of fertilizer is given them.
Usually about a hundred pounds per
acre is put out at this application. If
too much high grade fertilizer is used
at this application it will cause the
melons to have white heart and there
is no market for such melons. After
the fertilizer is put out it is covered
with a small turn plow. The melons
from this time on are worked just
enough to avoid turning the vines for
the next working. When the melons
are "laid by" they are supposed to be
on a bed. Harvesting begins about
a month after the inelons are laid by.


Farmers Must
Live at Home
to Meet Low Prices
Florida farmers must meet the pres-
ent low prices for their products by
cooperating and living at home, Col-
lege of Agriculture workers recently
explained in the first of a series of
radio talks about making a living at
home.
Opening the series, Dean William
Newell explained, "Florida farmers
are in about the best shape of any-
one. They still have their homes to
give them shelter, their livestock and
poultry to give them meat and eggs,
their fields to provide feed for live-
stock, their gardens to feed their fam-
ilies, and the best climate on earth.
Business depressions can't take these
away from the farmer."
Now is the time, he said, for farm-
ers to be thankful for these things
and grow more of them. It is the
time for them to plan ahead, econo-
mize, and organize just as big busi-
ness has done.
Modern times have caused the
farmer to farm for money. W. T.
Nettles, district extension agent ex-
plained. "To this end he has been
farming, and thus has filled the world
with a surplus and found himself in
want. It is time to about-face and
farm to build a home and make a
living first, then make good the need-
ed cash." Such farming, he asserted,
will build a rural home with its tradi-
tions and influences, and one in which
there is pride of ownership.
When present prices are compared
with pre-war levels, farmers in the
United States are paying 27 per cent.
more for their living and production
necessities, and receiving 28 per cent
less for what they have to sell, de-
clared Dr. C. V. Noble, agricultural
economist. "Thus, the farmers' dol-
lar has a purchasing power of ap-
proximately 56 cents when measured
in the relationship of what he has to
sell and what he needs to buy. At
the same time industrial wages are
107 per cent above pre-war levels."
In Florida, he added, the picture does
not seem as dark, since the leading
groups of commodities, fruits and
vegetables, are relatively higher in
price than other farm products.
In view of these facts, a live-at-
home program for farmers was never
more important than at the present
time. Those who have been follow-
ing such a program are now able to
say, "Well, I ain't got no money, but
got plenty of hog and hominy." Well
might they add milk, eggs, and vege-
tables.


-, -t--


2eRESPESS ENGRAVINGS CoA.
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
Photo- aOffi / Half Tones
Endrateirs 'tICe Zinc Etchings
Artists Color Plates







November, 1931


THE FLORIDA COLLEGE FARMER


Aquarium Fish
A collection of tropical fish has been
given to Mr. Watkins, in charge of
the horticulture grounds by the Tropi-
cal Aquarium of Miami, Florida.
This collection of fish are making
their home in the green glass house
on the Horticulture grounds. In the
varieties were Mexican Swordtails,
native of Mexico; Heterandia For-
mosa, native of Florida; Mouth
Breeders, native of Africa; Blue
Moons, Guppiis, natives of China;
Good Eyes, native bf Florida; Rosary
Barbs, and Fantail Goldfish.
Tropical fish are becoming more
popular over the country every day,
because of their many peculiar habits.
They bring forth their young in many
different ways, some of the young are
born alive, some by egg, some are
nest builders, while the Mouth Breed-
ers (Silaxia Heudelote) bring forth
the young through their mouth.
Among the most popular of the
tropical fish are the Siamese Fighting
Fish. They are characterized for
their fighting with one another.
They are of many colors. Some of
the most popular varieties are Betta
Splendas; Corn-flower, Blue Bettas,
and the Betta Combodias.
Clark Thompson, a student attend-
ing the University of Florida, and en-
rolled in the Agriculture College, is
connected with the Tropical Aquarium
of Miami, and it was through him
that this gift was made.


Seminole F. F. A. Chapter
(Continued from Page 9)
(6) Party at the chapter adviser's
house; (7) Social hour after chapter
meetings; (8) Boxing practice hour;
(9) Seventy-five per cent attendance
at the State Convention in Gainesville;
(10) Party for Freshmen in chapter
room.
The boys held chapter meeting
twice monthly of one and one-half
hours duration per meeting. 84 per
cent of the membership attended
meeting regularly with many guests
from time to time. There were thir-
teen active members in the chapter
and six honorary members in 1930-31
school year. A much increased mem-
bership is expected this year.
Note: The Homestead Chapter,
Homestead, Florida, G. N. Wakefield,
Adviser, won second place and the
Laurel Hill Chapter, Laurel Hill, Flor-
ida, G. W. Pryor, Adviser, won third
place in this State-wide F. F. A.
Chapter Contest.,

Records of economical and profit-
able production, where dollars do the
talking, are better and far cheaper
than so-called Official Records.-The
Holstein Breeder and Dairyman.

One way to make soil more produc-
tive is to grow leguminous cover crops
and plow them under. Austrian peas
and hairy vetch are proving popular
with West Florida farmers for this
purpose.


TropicalFish
All Varieties
Also Goldfish, Snails, Plants
and Supplies

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL
WE SHIP ANYWHERE
For Information Write
The Tropical Aquarium
982 South West 3rd Street
Miami, Florida





The Thomas Co.

HARDWARE AND
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Agents for
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GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA






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fruit and truck will bring added profits.


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The College

Of
Agriculture
of the
University of
Florida

offers the best training for
Florida boys in all lines
of agricultural production
and leadership.
Four year course leading
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Dean or (Secretary)
Of
College of
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
GAINESVILLE


435 E. BAY ST.


JACKSONVILLE, FLA.




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