Title: Florida college farmer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00075980/00010
 Material Information
Title: Florida college farmer
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30cm.
Language: English
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Subject: Agriculture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Apr. 1930)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1960?
Numbering Peculiarities: Suspended with v. 3, no. 5 (May 1932) and resumed with Dec. 1935 issue. Suspended with v. 9, no. 4 (may 1941) and resumed with New series v. 1 (summer 1948).
General Note: Published by Agricultural students at the University of Fla.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00075980
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01569450
lccn - 55047167

Full Text





University Library

Vol. II OCTOBER, 1931

^ t<,\


No. 1

.. WA .- -- 1 1 11 - I

.u~ r ~;nrarp-~----

For 28 years and more the
blue Maltese Cross has been
a familiar sight in Florida
groves and trucklands. It is
the trade-mark of The Gulf
Fertilizer Company and the
symbol of guaranteed qual-
ity, of dependable fertilizer,
of integrity in business.
Behind this emblem are the unseen experience, the wide
knowledge, the tests in the laboratory, the trials in the
field, the facilities for manufacture, and the ability and
determination to make fertilizers which shall maintain
the reputation of" GULF BRANDS."
Bradenton Lake Wales Winter Haven Winter Garden
P. O. Box 2790

We Announce
to Florida Growers that we have opened a depart-
ment to handle high quality seeds. Our seeds are
obtained from the best growers in the country and
will be marketed under the name of


Including Broccoli, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Cucumber,
Egg Plant, Lettuce, Peppers,Tomatoes and other seeds

Write Us for Catalog Giving Prices and Full Information
Tampa, Florida



A Size

for every


A hundred

uses for

every size

Burgman Tractor &
Equipment Company
No. 8 Riverside Viaduct
Jacksonville, Florida



Contents for October

Welcome to the Students of Session 1931-1932 3
MAJOR W. L. FLOYD, Assistant Dean of the Agriculture College
welcomes the new and old men back to school.

Milk Goats 4
H. W. LAND writes on the history, varieties, diseases and
economic advantages of milk goats in Florida.

Florida Grape Industry 5
DR. CHARLES DEMKO, Secretary and Treasurer of Florida
Grape Growers Association, tells the history and progress of
the grape industry in Florida.

The Place of Sheep on Florida Farms 7
C. H. WILLOUGHBY, professor of animal husbandry, points out
importance of sheep in Florida livestock industry.

The Ways in which Insects are Useful to the Farmer 8
JOHN A. MULRENNAN, '32, tells of the economic value of insects
to the farmer.

Tropical Beauty 2
One of the many beautiful scenes on the University Campus.

The entrance of the University of Florida Library.

Future Farmers of Florida 9

Over the State with Extension Work 10
Florida 4-H Club 11


i Hotel Hillsboro
Large, Well Ventilated Rooms
"Top O' The Town" Dining Room
Soda Fountain Cafeteria
Meet Your Friends for the Big Game November 14th

AJ RE you interested in
making your Lawn velvety,
your flowers more beautiful-
your shrubbery sturdy? Use
Vitalizer, the complete, bal-
anced Plant Food!

A & G Brands of fertilizer
contain No Filler-Just the
exact number of pounds of
YOUR analysis.
Write for copy of booklet "Lawns,
Flowers & Shrubs", and our
latest Price List No. 66.
P. O. Box 172



0 nmr -


October, 1931



"'Florida Firs't"


Welcome to the Students of Session 1930-1931

T is with pleasure that we welcome
the students to the College of
Agriculture for the session of 1931-32.
Your serious looks and earnest expres-
sion indicate that you come realizing
the importance of what you are under-
To the Freshmen, just starting into
a new and untried experience, many
things will be different from High
School and not like you expected to
find them. You will be thrown more
on your own initiative, be allowed to
determine when and how much outside
study you do, the test being put
mainly on whether you accomplish
the work assigned. You have looked
forward for sometime to coming to
college, had dreams and fancies about
it; parents and friends have planned,
counseled and perhaps sacrificed that
you might come. It is largely up to
you to attain what is expected of you.
Make a daily program of work right
away, giving due time to study, refer-
ence reading and recreation. Eat reg-
ularly; sleep enough to "knit up the
raveled sleeve of care" each night; and
start each new day with vim, vigor
and determination to fill it with worth-
while effort.
To the older ones, coming back to
take up again your college activities,
we are glad to see you back; your
hardened muscles and coats of tan in-
dicate that you have spent much of
your vacation out of doors. Many no
doubt at work, which was an applica-
tion of some of the principles and
scientific knowledge acquired in your
last year's courses. We trust you did
some constructive, logical thinking
along with your muscular efforts, and
have come back eager to know more
of the how and the why that per-
plexed you. New duties, new respon-
sibilities and broader visions of life
await you, and deeper insight into ag-
ricultural methods and possibilities.
We commend all students, both new,
and old, for your wisdom in deciding
to take agriculture in a State like
ours, under circumstances and condi-
tions that exist today, provided you
are interested in farm life and desire
to know it more fully and successfully
We are in an economic depression;
agriculture has felt it longer than any
other industry, hence in recent years
there has been an increased movement
from country to city. Today the move-
ment has changed. Many who in the
days of industrial activity received
"high wages in mills and factories are
turning back to the country, others


Major W. L. Floyd
Assistant Dean of Agricultural College


would do so were they able to get
started on the farm again.
I recently made an auto trip through
eleven States; found bountiful crops
in all, and farmers busy with harvest-
ing. The story of difficulty in selling
at a profit, produce to be marketed,
was common to all. But with well filled
barns, sleek farm animals, abundance
of fruit, vegetables and other farm
products, they are not worrying about
the approach of winter so far as food
is concerned. Other periods of de-
pression have come and gone. So will
this one, when or how we know not.
The law of supply and demand will
gradually work out the necessary ad-
justment; some way will be found for
the surplus of the farm to be taken
by the hungry and thinly clad who
need it, and the farmer will continue
to be the best fed, the most resource-
ful and the most independent worker
in America.
There has been a trend of population
southward in recent years. Florida
ranked second in increase during the
past ten years. With a subtropical
climate and responsive soil, the grow-
ing of fruits and winter vegetables is
important and usually profitable.

Practically all farm operations car-
ried on elsewhere are possible here.
There is but little more than 5% of
the area of the State in cultivation,
much more land, therefore, awaits de-
velopment. Progress in cattle tick
eradication is making cattle raising
more attractive; the use of cover crops
and other methods of soil improve-
ment is reducing expense of produc-
tion; the control of forest fires and
practice of proper reforestation will
make it possible for cut-over pine
lands to produce timber and turpentine
to swell the value of forest products.
Scientific investigation has recently
demonstrated that young pines con-
tain no resin, they are, therefore, valu-
able for paper making. Under the long
growing season here they increase in
size more rapidly than in cooler cli-
mates, hence interest is developing in
growing slash pine for paper produc-
These are suggestions of possibili-
ties which await the energetic,
thoughtful, trained agricultural worker
with mind alert and hand strength-
ened for the task of developing the
resources which lie about him.
You are already picked men. Think
of the number who entered high
school with you, whose training has
already ended. While in college the
selecting process will continue, so
that not more than one in four will
graduate. From those who continue
to the end conspicuous leaders of the
future will come. Florida needs such
leaders; her progress and development
depends on such men. Make the most
of your opportunities now in the form-
ative period of life, that you may be
ready to act well the part which
awaits you.
We are aware of the fact that not
all who study agriculture go back to
the farm. It is not expected that they
do so. As teachers, demonstration
agents, research workers, inspectors
of all sorts, both State and National,
to keep out foreign pests and diseases,
to keep quality of produce up to
standard, to check fraud and misrep-
resentation; and in many other places
and ways they are doing valuable
Those who do not take up any
phase of agricultural work in after life,
are not necessarily to be censured. As
merchants, bankers, manufacturers or
other business men, they deal with
farmers and are better able to do so

(Continued on page 9)


Milk Goats

T HERE are very few milk goats
in the Southern States, on the
other hand there may be found large
numbers of the Common or American
goat. The Common goat is smaller
and does not produce any surplus of
milk as do the true dairy goats with
which they should not be confused.
The milk goat also should not be con-
fused with the Angora goat, whose
principal value lies in its coat of hair.
The breeding and production of
goats plays an important part in the
agriculture of many European
countries. They are found in large
numbers in England, Switzerland,
France, Italy and Spain, where they
are quite often referred to as the
"poor man's cow". There are approx-
imately twenty-five thousand regis-
tered milk goats in the United States;
however, no accurate count is avail-
able. The largest number of the milk
goats in this country are found in
California and the other far Western
States. Comparatively few milk goats
are found east of the Mississippi.
The first recorded importation of
milk goats into this country was in
1893, when four head of Toggenburgs
were imported from England. There
have been very few importations in the
last few years due to the rigorous
quarantine regulations to prevent the
spread of foot-and-mouth disease. The
most important and popular breeds in
this country today are of Swiss
The Saanen is one of the most pop-
ular breeds; it comes from the Saanen
Valley in Switzerland. The majority
of the animals of this breed are horn-
less, but individuals with horns are
not rare. In color they are pure
white; they are generally very short-
haired. The Saanens are the largest
of the Swiss breeds, and they are very
prepotent, making an excellent cross
with Common does.
The Toggenburg is another Swiss
breed. The Toggenburg is probably
more numerous in this country than
the Saanen. They, like the Saanens,
are generally hornless. They are
brown in color with a white streak
down each side of the face and marked
with white on the underline and legs.
There are both short-haired and long-
haired Toggenburgs. The Toggen-
burgs are also very prepotent and
when crossed on Common does very
good results are obtained.
The Nubian from Northern Africa
is peculiar in that it has large droop-
ing ears and a convex face. Their
hair is very fine, and they are not as
hardy as the Swiss breeds. The color
is black, dark brown, or tan and
white markings may be found. They
are very good milkers, the milk hav-
ing slightly more butterfat than that
of the Swiss breeds.
The Anglo-Nubian, a cross between
the Nubian and the native English
goat; the French Alpine, and the


H. W. Land, '33

Murciana, a Spanish breed, are also
found in this country, the latter being
found in very small numbers.
A purebred doe of any of the milk
breeds should produce four quarts of
milk per day, some does produce as
much as eight quarts, and the world's
record for one day's milking is slightly
over twenty pounds, about ten quarts.
A good grade doe should be expected
to give at least three quarts per day.
The largest official record of produc-
tion by a doe over a period of one
year has been 4350 pounds of milk
containing 138.56 pounds of butterfat.
The lactation period may be ex-
pected to last over a period of ten
months. A representative doe should
give from three to four quarts of
milk when first fresh and be produc-
ing one quart per day at the end of
nine or ten months. I have known of
does that gave as much as one quart
per day after milking over a period of
twenty months.
The average percentage composition
of goat's milk shows that it contains
about one per cent more butterfat than
cow's milk. The fat globules in goat's
milk are much smaller than those in
cow's milk, thus making it more
easily digestible. Due to the size of
the fat particles, the cream rises very
slowly and a special separator is
needed to separate the cream from the
milk. The milk is pure white in color
and has no offensive odor if it is kept
clean. The does have no offensive
odor whatsoever, but the bucks do
have a bad odor; the does and bucks
should not be allowed to run to-
gether for this reason.
Goats have never been known to
have tuberculosis, and consequently
there is no danger of the milk carrying
this disease. The milk is often pre-
scribed or people that have tubercu-
losis and it has helped effect a cure in
many cases. The milk is also pre-
scribed for babies that are not capable
of digesting other foods. Goat's milk
is reported to have an alkaline re-
action in the stomach, whereas cow's
milk has an acid reaction. Some sci-
entists doubt the truth of the above
statement; however, goat's milk sells
for anywhere from twenty-five cents
to one dollar per quart in the larger
cities. It is used largely by hospitals
and sanitariums, and it is being pre-
scribed by an increasing number of
physicians, for certain cases.
Milk goats reach the peak of their
production at the age of three years,
and their milk yield will start to drop
at the age of six or seven years.
Production will depend mainly upon
their early care and the age at which
they are bred. Young does should

not be bred before they are fifteen
to eighteen months of age, as early
breeding stunts their growth. The
breeding season begins in the late
summer and extends to early spring.
Does usually remain in heat one to
two days, and the period between
heats varies from five to twenty-one
days. The gestation period is 150
days and the number of kids varies
between one and five, two being the
usual number.
Goats should be provided with a
warm, dry barn, as they are susceptible
to pneumonia and other diseases
caused by exposure. The buck should
be provided with separate quarters.
Goats do well on a pasture which
contains lots of heavy brush and thick
undergrowth; however, they will graze
on a sod pasture. When they are not
milking they need very little feed in
addition to a good pasture. When
there is no pasture available, they
should have an abundance of alfalfa or
some other good legume hay. Milk-
ing does do well on most any of the
commercial dairy mixtures. A feed
with about 16% protein is most desir-
able. The feed must be fresh, clean
and not too dusty.
A milking doe on pasture should get
from one to one and a half pounds of
concentrates twice a day, according
to milk production. If there is no
pasture available, they should get
about two pounds of alfalfa hay per
day in addition to the concentrates.
At the New York Experiment Station
at Geneva the average cost of feeding
a goat per year was $11.05. In a
California experiment the cost of pro-
ducing a gallon of milk was 6.4 cents.
Fresh, clean, cool water should be
kept before them at all times, also a
supply of rock salt. Common baking
soda may be put on the licking boards
before the goats. The soda aids in
keeping the goat's digestive system in
Does should be milked twice a day.
It is best to milk them on a stand
about one and a half or two feet high.
The udder should be washed before
each milking and every possible pre-
caution taken to keep the milk clean.
The udder should be milked dry at
each milking or there will be a ten-
dency for the doe's production to drop
and she will gradually dry up. When
the does are first fresh, the bag is often
hard and lumpy; the lumps should be
gently rubbed out at every milking.
The milk should be strained imme-
diately after milking and cooled to a
temperature of 50 degrees F. as soon
as possible.
The young kids are generally sep-
arated half of the day from the time
they are a month old until they are
about six months old, when they are
weaned entirely. The kids are allowed
to eat concentrates as soon as they
(Continued on page 12)

October, 1931

October, 1931


Florida Grape Industry

FORTY-FIVE years ago several
hundred acres were planted to
grapes in different sections of Florida.
About three hundred acres were
planted around Orlando. Niagara, a
white northern slip skin kind, was
the principal variety planted. Dela-
ware and Ives were some of the other
Transportation was the trouble in
those days. Some fine crops were
grown, but it took too long to get
them to market and upon arrival the
grapes were in poor condition,
which in turn brought poor prices
and before very long the grape acreage
consisted of only a few scattering
small vineyards.
In the year 1899 the U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture determined to
see whether California or European
grapes could be successfully grown in
Florida, and Baron Von Lattichau, of
Earlton, near Gainesville, was chosen
to superintend the experiment at his
place in Earlton. He received 500
vines of about 125 varieties all grafted
on Vitis Riparia and Vitia Rupestris.
After five years of trial they came
to the conclusion that grapes could
not be grown here in Florida. Re-
ports show that the tops made a good
growth, also fruited well, but the roots
in time died out.
About this same time T. V. Munson,
of Dennison, Texas, started to breed
grapes and in his lifetime bred many
hundred different varieties, and to-
day if it were not for his work, there
would not be any grapes grown in a
commercial way in Florida. About
fifteen years ago some of the Munson
hybrids were introduced in Florida
and many of them did real well and
before very long grapes were again
planted, more each year, until today
we have over 5,000 acres growing in
the State, and Lake County with about
2,500 acres planted to grapes, is the
largest producing County. R. W.
Munson and Carman were the two
principal kinds first planted, and about
seven years ago the Beacon was
planted in a commercial way, and also
some Niagara, which were grafted.
There are many acres in different
sections of Florida that are suitable
for grape culture.
Good high pine land seems to be
the best suited for the general grow-
ing of grapes. With better air drain-
age the vines are more disease resist-
ant, but they lack some of the vigor
compared to grapes grown on lower
land, such as hammock, etc.
To overcome this lack of vigor
from growing grapes on high pine
land, the selection of the proper root
stock is very important, when plans
are made to plant the vineyard. A
few of the varieties that are being
successfully grown on high pine land
today, some of them the fruit is of
commercial value, and others only as

Dr. Chas. Demko

Secretary and Treasurer of
Florida Grape Growers Association


a root stock. At the present time we
will only consider them from a root
stock value, and are as follows:
Marguerite, Hebermont, R. W.
Munson, Beacon, Edna, and Carman.
A number of changes have been
made in the past seven years with our
different varieties, and it looks like
we will find a number of new kinds
being planted and grafted in the next
five years.
We have in our experimental vine-
yard, located near Altoona, Lake
County, over one hundred different va-
rieties of grapes, twenty are slip skin
kinds, mostly Munson hybrids, and
over eighty different meaty European
or California kinds; have also five new
Florida hybrids, of the following
crosses: America and Simpsoni, Mer-
cidel and Simpsoni, Edna and Simp-
soni, and female Simpsoni and Mar-
guerite. Many of the vines of these
hybrids are over one-half inch in di-
ameter and have laterals over ten feet
long, and the plants are 42 months
old from seed planting.
Our aim being to try and breed a
more acclimated and vigorous grow-
ing root stock for our sandy soil.
Most of the root stocks that we are
using today were bred two thousand
miles from Florida.
New land that has had melons or a
cover crop of some kind planted on it

the year before, or old land that is
rich in humus, is best suited to plant
a young vineyard on, as the grape
plants should make a good growth
the first season (to get best results).
Grapes can be planted from Decem-
ber 15th to February 15th. Ground
should be well prepared, and if a
cover crop is growing on it, it should
be plowed under in early Fall, so
that it has time to rot before planting
time. Crotalaria is a very good cover
crop for grapes.
Care should be taken when planting
the vineyard that all rows run north
and south, width of rows can be from
ten to eleven feet wide, and plants
planted from seven to ten feet in the
drill, using 450 to 550 plants per acre.
It will be money well spent to water
all plants when planting.
The three-wire Munson canopy trel-
lis is best suited for Florida. The
trellis will have to be built the first
season, if slip skin varieties are
planted, to be grown in a commercial
way. All European varieties will
have to be grafted and the root stock
can be trained on a stake the first
season, as the root stock is cut back
to one inch from the ground at
grafting time, and the trellis can be
built the second season.
The slip skin kinds, like Carman and
Beacon come into bearing in a com-
mercial way in almost thirty months,
European kinds that have to be
grafted, in forty months.
Planting an acre of grapes costs
from $300.00 to $400.00, and it will
cost from $50.00 to $100.00 per acre
per year to take care of same, hiring
all work done.
Grapes are sprayed from two to
seven times per year, depending on
age and variety, and 100 gallons of
material will spray from 900 to 1,000
grape plants. It will take one man
about one hour to fill tank with water,
grease and oil engine and get it all
ready, and it will take 11/ hours to
spray 100 gallons of material, using
three men on the outfit. Cost of
spraying about $2.50 per acre. 4-4-50
Bordeaux spray is used, and when
grape plants are old enough to bear,
just as soon as the grapes start to
color, Neutral Copper Acetate, a
stainless spray, is used, mixing two
pounds to fifty gallons of water.
Each grape plant will receive 1'/-
pounds of commercial fertilizer, mak-
ing three applications of 5-8-3 the first
season, adding one additional pound
each year until a total of five pounds
per plant is being applied. Just as
soon as the grape vines begin to bear
more potash is needed.
The local markets are being well
supplied with Florida grapes, gnd
our future plantings should be of such
varieties that are early and can be
shipped to Northern markets, and be
(Continued on page 12)


The Florida College Farmer
Published by the Agricultural Club
COPELAND NEWBERN, JR.. .. Editor-in-Chief
CLARK DOUGLASS ......... Business Manager
WILLIAM GUENTHER .... Circulation Manager
Richard L. Brooks..........Managing Editor
Raymond Rubin......Asst. Managing Editor
F. W Barber. ................. 4-H Club
Milton Marco. ................... Extension
W. W. Roe................. Future Farmers
Harry Brinkley ................ Horticulture
J. A. McCelland.................... Poultry
Clyde Bass.............. Animal Husbandry
Clarke Dolive .............. Campus Editor
John W. Covey. ............... Cop-'. Editor
Hugh Dukes ..................... changee
S. W. Wells .... Associate Business Manager
J. W. Gooding, Jr...Asst. Circulation Manager
G. F. Bauer....... Asst. Circulation Manager
C. H. Willoughby, Chairman

W. L. Lowry

R. M. Fulghum

Subscription One Dollar
Application filed for entry as second-class
matter at the postoffice at Gainesville, Florida


Welcome Freshmen

To the incoming class of 1935 we extend a hearty
welcome. Your support in carrying on the various
activities of the Agricultural College is needed, and
you, in turn, in order to secure the most from your
college training, need to take part. In order to be-
come a "well-around" student you must participate
in more than mere book study. Many of the extra-
curricular activities are of a more practical value, and
the training that you may derive from such activities
may prove to be invaluable.
Of course, you are not to neglect your work, for it
really is important that you get what is prescribed in
the curriculum, but most of us waste time that we
might spend in some activity which would be for the
betterment of our college and ourselves.
You made one of the greatest decisions of your life
when you decided upon what career you would follow.
You are to be congratulated upon your selection of the
College of Agriculture of the University of Florida inl
which to continue your academic training. In years to
come, you will pride yourself in that decision, if you
take advantage of the opportunities which it offers.

The Florida College Farmer is the Ag students'
publication, supported and published by them. The
Staff is putting forth an honest effort toward making
it merit the support of every student in the Ag Col-
lege. Align yourself with the activities of the Florida
College Farmer and help us make it a greater magazine.

Ag Club
The first meeting of the Ag Club was attended by a
good crowd, both of old and new men, and all of
them showed commendable interest and spirit. The
College Farmer is glad to see this attitude expressed
so early in the year, and hopes that the members will
continue to take an active part in the organization.
There is no activity within the Agricultural College
that will be of more profit to the College or its stu-
dents than the Ag Club, and if it continues as it has
begun, a most successful and prosperous year is in-

The largest force in the world organized to deal
with agriculture is the United States Department of
Agriculture. It consists of approximately 25,000 em-
ployees, of whom 15,000 are permanent, full-time
workers, while 10,000 are employed jointly with State
governments or civic organizations. The annual pay
roll is approximately $36,000,000.00.

The Florida National Advertising Counsel was or-
ganized last month under the auspices of the Florida
State Chamber of Commerce. The purpose of this
organization is to advertise the residential and indus-
trial advantages of Florida in a national way. Thomas
A. Edison, Governor Doyle E. Carlton, and David A.
Schultz were named as vice-presidents. The president
will be named at a later date.

Mr. J. A. Woods, vice-president and director of
sales, Armour Fertilizer Works, states that last year
the fertilizer industry made and sold over eight million
tons of fertilizer in this country. This would fill
400,000 ordinary freight cars and would make a train
3,400 miles long. Such a train would reach from New
York to San Francisco and have 400 miles left over.

Sixty or more of the farmers in Pasco County are
this fall planting cucumbers for pickling. These are
being raised under a contract which guarantees them
75 cents a crate.

The first all-steel packing house is said to be located
at Largo, Florida. It is being built by the Largo Asso-
ciation to replace the one destroyed by fire several
months ago. Not a foot of wood will be used in its
construction. It is 156x191 feet in size, and will cost
about $80,000.

The greatest conqueror is he who overcomes the
enemy without a blow.

Those who know do not speak; those who speak do
not know.

Power is not shown by hitting hard or often, but by
hitting straight.

Every man does his own business best.

October, 1931

October, 1931


The Place of Sheep on Florida Farms

WE find from the Federal census
that Florida compares very
favorably in number of sheep with the
other Southeastern States, having a
larger number than any State south of
Tennessee, except Alabama. The
figures for 1929 showed 59,000 sheep in
Florida worth $4.30 per head, and for
1931 the number dropped to 56,000
head, valued at only $3.20 per head,
making a total valuation of $182,000.
Since the number of sheep in the
United States has been steadily de-
clining for the past five years on ac-
count of the low price for wool, we
consider it a good record that we are
not losing our sheep as rapidly as
many of the other States.
Sheep have always held a rather im-
portant place in our Florida live stock
industry, particularly in certain
counties of the State. Most of our
sheep are kept in counties of North
and West Florida from the Suwannee
River to Pensacola. The group of
counties in West Florida, from Es-
cambia to Washington, were reported
in 1927 by the State Department of
Agriculture, as containing about
41,000 head of sheep, worth $180,000.
Another group of counties in South
Central Florida, from Volusia and
Osceola to Polk and Manatee, con-
tained about 14,000 head, worth
Most of our sheep are used for wool
purposes exclusively, and are kept
under range conditions on large areas
of low priced land. This method of
keeping sheep requires a surplus of
land to permit frequent changes of the
range in order to secure necessary
feed, and to avoid trouble from disease
and parasites. In the hills of North
and West Florida sheep are allowed to
run loose on the range and cut-over
lands with very little cost or trouble
on the part of the owner. These lands
are not fenced and may belong to
large land or lumber companies, or
may have been abandoned and al-
lowed to revert to the State for taxes.
The principal expense in this sort
of work is from occasional visits to
the flock, and the annual roundup for
shearing and for gathering a few sheep
and lambs to be sold. The losses in-
curred in this method are high, but the
income from the work is nearly all
profit. Some flocks contain from 500
to 1,000 sheep, but the majority con-
tain from 100 to 300 head.
The breeds used are not very well
marked, probably there is more orig-
inal Merino blood than any other
kind in the State, but this has been
allowed to run down to the point
where most of our sheep are merely
classed as native or Florida sheep of
no special blood lines. A great point
in favor of the Florida sheep is the
fact that they have become accus-
tomed to the Florida range, and are
able to make their way and survive
under the conditions of life in which


C. H. Willoughby
Professor of Animal Husbandry

they are placed. These sheep are
usually vigorous and hardy, and form
a very good foundation for use in
grading up with well-bred rams.
The wool clip of Florida sheep runs
from three to six pounds per year,
probably most flocks will shear a
little under four pounds per year. At
the present price, 15c to 20c per pound
for wool, this is not a highly attrac-
tive proposition unless one happens to
own several thousand head.
The difficulties encountered in sheep
raising are about the same as in
other Southeastern States. The danger
from roaming, worthless dogs is al-
ways with us, in addition to wild
hogs and buzzards that cause a good
many losses at lambing time.
The West Florida Counties that
keep a good many sheep, seem to
have the dog problem under control
by co-operation with neighbors and
the occasional use of a good shotgun.
The greatest losses at present seem to
be losses of lambs at lambing time
and from intestinal parasites of both
young and old sheep.
In Washington and Walton
Counties much progress has been
made in treating the sheep three or
four times a year with the usual
remedies for intestinal worms. Mr.
York, the County agent, reports
great reduction of losses with adult
sheep, and a much better lamb crop
when this worm treatment is syste-
matically followed.
Sheep are naturally best adapted to
rolling or mountainous lands and a
rather dry, well drained soil. This,
of course, makes it rather difficult to
handle sheep on much of our low, wet
prairie lands, as they are inclined to
trouble with foot rot, and the con-
ditions favor more rapid increase of
parasites of all sorts. But these mat-
ters can be controlled just as readily
as cholera in hogs or salt sick in
cattle, and there is no reason to be
discouraged about the industry.
We need more sheep on Southern
farms! They are one of the best
grazing animals known to the world,
and they will graze on many different
sorts of forage, including a great many
weeds and coarse plants. Every
farmer who has fenced fields and
keeps some livestock could use fifteen
or twenty-five sheep and never miss
the feed they would require, in fact,
would find them useful in using
roughage that would otherwise be
wasted. Sheep build up soil fertility
more rapidly than any other farm an-
imal except the hog. In nearly all
states we can figure that the wool clip,
even at low prices, will just about pay

for the feed and care of the adult ewe,
this leaves the lamb as extra clear
profit on the transaction. If a market
can be developed for lambs at weaning
time, for $3.00 to $5.00 per head, this
would make a handsome profit for our
sheep man. In order to increase the
use of lamb it will be necessary to
advertise this meat and prove its good
qualities to new customers.
The way to secure a good lamb crop
is by taking proper care of the ewes at
lambing time and getting the young
lambs well started and out of danger
from their numerous enemies. Sheep
in good condition will frequently bring
a lamb crop of 90% and sometimes
100% or more on account of the twins
that are dropped.
As to the breeds that are well suited
to Florida, they are somewhat limited.
Undoubtedly the Merino is more use-
ful than any other one breed, but we
find the Hampshire to be entirely satis-
factory in Florida and also the Dorset
breed. Some of our breeders are using
Southdown rams to good advantage,
and a few are using the Ramboillet or
French Merino. From our present ex-
perience we are more inclined to ad-
vise using the Hampshire and Dorset
breeds as leaders. The Shropshire
and the larger mutton breeds have
never seemed to succeed well under
Florida conditions.
Pure bred stock for breeding pur-
poses are rather scarce in Florida, we
usually find it necessary to buy reg-
istered stock in North Georgia, Ala-
bama and Tennessee. Young reg-
istered rams will cost anywhere from
$25.00 to $50.00, ready for service, and
can be used two or three years in the
average flock.
The principal need is to develop a
market tor well fattened lamb. at a
decent price, and at a time of year
where there is a shortage of lambs on
the general market. The U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture reports that
early lambs can be made ready for
market in Alabama and Florida in the
months from April to July, when there
is shortage of this kind of meat on
the general market. If individual
farmers would group together in work
of this sort these spring lambs could
be shipped through co-operative asso-
ciations to the large markets.
Further details on feeding and hand-
ling of sheep can be secured from the
circulars and bulletins of the Florida
Experiment Station and the Florida
State Department of Agriculture, and
also from the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture at Washington,
D. C.

Treating vegetable seed with corro-
sive sublimate (1 to 1,000) before they
are planted is good insurance for the
truck grower.


October, 1931

The Ways in Which Insects are Useful to the Farmer

SO much has been said of insects
as to their destructiveness that we
may be in danger of forgetting the
fact that some insects have very bene-
ficial attributes which could never be
estimated. We learn from the Year-
books of Agriculture that this small
class of animals contributes over one
hundred million dollars annually to
the world's commerce in the United
States alone. From this we can see
that there are some insects that are
useful to the farmer in an economic
The secretions of insects that are
valuable are silk, beeswax and shellac.
There are several insects that produce
silk but only one species that produces
silk that is of commercial value, and
that is the silkworm, which is the
larva, or "worm stage" of the moth
(Bombyx morbi Linn). Beeswax is
the secretion coming from hypoder-
mal glands found on the under side
of the honeybee's abdomen. Shellac
is a secretion formed from the hypo-
dermal glands found on the back of a
tiny species of scale insect found in
India, which is related to our fruit
pest, the San Jose scale.
Many bodies of insects are used as
pigments in paints and are also used
in medicine. Cochineal, a beautiful
carmine-red pigment, is made from the
dried pulverized bodies of a scale in-
sect (Coccus cacti Linn), that lives on
prickly pear. This substance is used
as a cosmetic or rouge, for decorating
cakes, for coloring beverages and med-
icine; it has also the properties of re-
ducing pain when taken internally,
The two insects whose bodies are used
in medicine are the honeybee and
blister beetle. The best known of the
blister beetles is the so-called Spanish
fly (Lytta visicatoria Linn). This in-
sect has in its blood a substance
known as cantharidin, which is an or-
ganic compound. This compound at
the present time is used in treating
certain diseases of the urino-genital
system and in animal breeding.
From the honeybee we get a prepa-
ration known as "specific medicine
Apis" which is extracted from honey-
bees by putting them in alcohol while
they are intensely excited. This ex-
tract is used by many physicians for
the treatment of diphtheria, scarlet
fever, erysipelas, dropsy, and other
One of the greatest values derived
from insects is the fact that some of
them are essential carriers of pollen
from one plant to another. Without
these insects the farmer would be at
a loss in growing many of our fruit,
vegetable, ornamental flowers and field
crops. Such crops as beans, peas,
melons, squash, and such field crops
as clover, buckwheat, cotton and to-
bacco depend mainly on visits of in-
sects to carry the pollen to the stigma
and so make possible the fertilization,
without which no seed or fruit would


John A. Mulrennan, '32

form. Flowers that depend on the in-
sects for pollination can be recognized
generally by their well developed
corollas of conspicuous size, or by
showy color and odor.
It has been estimated that the
bumblebees and honeybees are worth
tens of millions of dollars a year to
the American farmers. The two insects
are very important in the pollination
of clover. In Australia it was found
impossible to obtain seed from red
clover until the bumblebees were im-
ported into that country.
One of the most striking illustra-
tions of the dependence of plants upon
insects is found in the history of the
introduction of Smyrna fig into the
United States. Prior to 1900, figs
grown in this country were of in-
ferior quality compared to those im-
ported from Asia Minor. A careful
study of the situation revealed the re-
markable fact that the palatability of
the Smyrna fig is dependent upon the
pollination of the flower by a small
wasp (Blastophaga psenes Linn).
This wasp was imported from Algeria
into California. Today we find that
the American figs are equal to those
grown in Asia Minor.
Insects serve as food to many birds
and fish. Some of our greatest com-
mercial fish depend on insects as their
food. Nearly all of the song birds,
nighthawks, kingbirds, orioles, swal-
lows and a good many of the game
birds use insects as their diet.
All that has been said as to the
value of the insects enumerated
above is insignificant compared with
the good that insects do by fighting
among themselves. There is no doubt
that the greatest single factor in keep-
ing plant-feeding insects from over-
whelming the rest of the world is that
they are fed upon by other insects.
Man will probably never be able to do
as much in controlling his insect
enemies as his insect friends do for
These insect eaters, or entomo-
phagous insects, as they are called, are
advantageously considered in two
groups known as predators and para-
sites. Predators are insects (or other
animals) that catch and devour smaller
or more helpless creatures (called the
prey), usually killing them and getting
a single meal. The prey is generally
either smaller, weaker or less in-
telligent than the predator. Parasites
are forms of living organisms that
make their homes on or in the bodies
of other living organisms.
We have three kinds of parasites--
primary, secondary, and tertiary. If
we have an injurious insect such as
the Gypsy moth, any parasite attack-

ing it is primary for the Gipsy moth,
and helpful to man. This parasite may
be attacked by another which is then
secondary to the Gypsy moth and
harmful to man. A parasite that would
attack the secondary parasite would
be known as a tertiary parasite of the
Gypsy moth, and would be in this
capacity beneficial to man.
Some of our most valuable entomo-
phagous parasites are the Tachinid
flies, Ichneumon wasps, Braconid
wasps, Chalcid wasps, and egg para-
sites belonging to the family Scelion-
Our greatest known entomophagous
predators are the dragonflies, aphid
lions, ground beetles, lady beetles,
flower flies and syrphid flies. These
insects are the greatest friends that
the farmer has. The Australian lady
beetle saved the citrus industry in
The cottony cushion scale was un-
wittingly introduced into California in
1868. It soon became a most serious
pest of citrus, spreading rapidly over
the State, and by 1890 had killed
hundreds of thousands of trees, and
threatened to wipe out the citrus in-
dustry over the entire State. The
United States sent an entomologist to
Australia to search for natural enemies
of this insect. A beetle was found to
be holding this insect in check there.
The beetles were introduced into Cal-
ifornia and in less than a year and a
half the scale had been checked. The
beetles have since nearly eliminated
the worst of the citrus insects that
have visited California.
In conclusion I would say that there
are some real values that are to be de-
rived from insects. Without the ser-
vices of the useful insects, human wel-
fare would be at a standstill.




1952 W. University Avenue
Phones 9106 and 198-W


Photo- IOwi Half Tones
Engvatie.rs S ICWce Zinc Etchins
Artists Color Plates


Alachua Future Farmers
Spend Summer Outing
At Daytona Beach
One of the activities in the program
of work as outlined by the Alachua
Chapter, Future Farmers of Florida,
at the beginning of last year's school
term, was to have a summer camp.
The chapter went to work with dif-
ferent group projects to earn money
with which to purchase equipment
and finance this outing.
One of these group projects was the
operation of a Farmer's Co-operative
Packing House. The boys graded,
packed, loaded and marketed cucum-
bers for some of the farmers of
Alachua Community. For this work
the boys charged 221/,c per crate,
which was 17V-ic per package cheaper
than other packing houses were charg-
ing. From the profits earned in this
manner the boys were able to buy
three large tents, folding cots and
other camp equipment.
Through buying and selling hogs
the boys earned other money which
helped to finance the trip.
The Chapter spent the last week in
July at Daytona Beach. A local
school bus was used in transporting
the boys to and from the beach. A
small Ford truck with trailer was used
to carry provisions and camp equip-
ment. Each boy contributed some
farm produce, such as chickens, lard.
potatoes, syrup, etc. Two experienced
Negro men camp cooks took care of
the kitchen and also added pleasure
to the camp in other ways.
The tent was pitched on the beach
adjacent to the zone patrolled by the
Life Guards.
The boys enjoyed bathing, sun-
baths, fishing, hiking and games on the
beach, and trips were taken to nearby
points of interest.
Much of the success and pleasure of
the trip was due to the co-operation
of the Chamber of Commerce and the
City officials of Daytona Beach.
G. W. Dansby and W. T. Loften,
agriculture teachers, were in charge of
the boys on this trip.

Plans Complete for
Purebred Hereford
Sale at Crestview
Plans for a sale of purebred Here-
ford cattle at Crestview on October 22
have been completed by W. J. Sheely,
extension agent in animal husbandry,
and County agents of West Florida.
From 12 to 15 registered bulls and
8 to 10 heifers will be auctioned by the
Seminole Hereford Farms, Donalson-
ville, Ga.

Florida Pen Wins as Egg Chiefland Organizes
Contest Sets New Record F. F. F. Chapter

With a Florida pen and a Florida
bird in the lead, the fifth Florida
National Egg Laying Contest came to
a close here September 23. The 580
birds played an average of 205 eggs
during the 51 weeks, according to an
announcement just made by E. F.
Stanton, supervisor. This is tour eggs
better than the average for either of
the previous contests.
The silver loving cup for the high
pen was won by Pinebreeze Poultry
Farm, Callahan, Florida. The 10 birds
had a record of 2,595 points for 2,480
eggs. This pen took the lead at the
first of the contest and never released
it. Two pens were entered by this
farm, and six of the monthly records
were won by them.
The second high pen was owned by
W. A. Seidel, San Antonio, Texas,
with 2,456 points for 2,379 eggs. An
entry from Gilbert's Chipley Hatch-
ery, Chipley, Florida, was third with
2,415 points for 2,515 eggs. This pen
was first in number of eggs laid, but
was third in points.
Pinebreeze was the owner of the
bird that won the highest record, and
thus won another loving cup. The bird
played 310 eggs for as many points.
A Seidel bird was second with 307
points for 297 eggs. A bird owned by
Pratt Experiment Farm, Morton,
Pennsylvania, played the most eggs.
For 321 eggs she received 296 points.
Forty-six birds have a chance to lay
300 or more eggs during the 12
months, and they are being kept at
the contest until October 1. When
the contest closed four birds had played
over 300 eggs, and four had over 300
The sixth contest begins October 1,
and several days before that date 77
pens had been booked. The fifth con-
test had six different varieties, while
10 will be represented in the sixth.
The new varieties are White Minorcas,
Buttercups, Columbian Wyandottes,
and Speckled Sussex, while Rhode
Island Reds, White and Silver Wyan-
dottes, Barred and White Rocks, and
White Leghorns were represented in
the fifth contest.
The 58 pens in the fifth contest
came from 17 States. Twenty-one of
them were owned by Florida poultry-

Store grain in rat- and mouse-proof
bins or cribs. These rodents eat and
waste a good bit of grain in a year
if allowed entrance to the bins.

Keep the pullets growing, and don't
force them into laying too soon.

The newly-organized Chiefland
Chapter of the Future Farmers of
Florida, of which M. B. Jordan is
local Advisor, began fulfilling its pro-
posed program for 1931-1932, on the
night of September 19th. In order to
acquaint the community at large with
the type of work which these boys
plan to accomplish, a mass meeting
of the farmers was held.
In planning this meeting, the boys
invited such outstanding speakers as
H. S. Wilson, Attorney from Bronson,
Dr. Ouida Davis Abbott, head of the
Home Economics Department of the
Florida Experiment Station, and Dr.
A. L. Shealy, head of the Animal
Husbandry Department of the Florida
Experiment Station, to appear on their
As an opening attraction, the Levy
County Ramblers, a five-piece string
band, composed of Future Farmer
boys, cordially welcomed the gather-
ing crowds, with their old-timey
"square dance" tunes.
J. W. Hudson, President of the
Chapter, read the Future Farmer ob-
jectives which the boys had set as
their goal for the ensuing year. After
this, Mr. Wilson gave an inspiring
talk on Vocational Agriculture. He,
being an ex-teacher of agriculture, was
well qualified to make the talk. As
second speaker, Dr. Shealy outlined
in a very simplified manner the mod-
ern sanitary system of raising hogs.
Mrs. Abbott then spoke, primarily to
the ladies, on "Fitting Modern Stand-
ards into a Present-day Home," which
was one of the high lights of the
Following these talks, the winner
of a huge chocolate cake was decided,
Miss Alberta Thalgot, our local
science teacher, holding the lucky
Our County agent, N. J. Albritton,
said a few words, followed by W. J.
Sheely, of the Extension Division,
closing our program.
There were approximately three
hundred people present, and if all the
Future Farmer objectives are as suc-
cessful as this meeting, their 1931-1932
program will be well worthwhile.

Welcome Students
(Continued from page 3)
by understanding their methods and
problems. They are recognized as hav-
ing that culture which college training
and association gives and are better
qualified thereby for places of respon-
sibility and leadership wherever
We wish for you all a busy,
pleasant, successful college year.

October, 1931


October, 1931

Over the State with Extension Workers
___________________ _______________ ___________ -- I

Florida Produces
129,000,000 Bulbs
During Past Year
During the past season Florida
nurserymen produced approximately
129,000,000 narcissus bulbs, according
to inspection records just announced
by J. C. Goodwin, nursery inspector
with the State Plant Board. Accord-
ing to the best figures available this is
about 45 per cent of the total produc-
tion in the United States. A year ago
Florida's production was about
The inspection records show that
about 30 per cent of this crop is of
marketable size and quality. Florida
bulbs are finding a welcome in North-
ern markets, and are rapidly replacing
those formerly imported.
Federal regulations require that
bulbs be inspected for nematodes and
bulb flies. For the first time this year
nematodes were found on Florida-
grown narcissus. Ten nurseries were
affected, but these bulbs have been
treated. The State is still free from
bulb flies, which cannot be said of
other major producing States. Mealy-
bugs usually give some trouble, but
this year they are scarce, the inspec-
tion records show.
Green Cove Springs was the lead-
ing producing section; about 43,000,000.
being grown by nurseries in the vi-
cinity. The next largest producing
area was around Jacksonville, where
the production reached 29,000,000
Nurserymen around Daytona Beach
produced about 12,000,000, while San-
ford and vicinity had considerably
over 7,000,000, and the Hastings area
nearly 5,000,000.
As to varieties, paper whites led
with 107,000,000. There were about
18,000,000 Chinese Sacreds and
3,000,000 Soleil d'Ors, while the re-
mainder were Pearls, Monarques, and
A public tin can burying is one of
the features of a community improve-
ment campaign just begun here under
the direction of Miss Virginia P.
Moore, State home improvement
specialist, and Mrs. Grace F. Warren,
home demonstration agent. From the
mayor down to the youngest 4-H
Club boys and girls, all are joining in
the campaign to clean up vacant lots,
improve fences, paint homes, plant or
improve lawns, and landscape around
the houses.
Fifteen members of the home dem-
onstration club, under the captainship
of Mrs. S. P. Getzen, have pledged
themselves as leaders in the cam-
This is the first of a series of com-
*munity improvement campaigns that
is being planned in the State.

Fewer Citrus, More
Tung Oil Trees are
in State Nurseries
There are a million less citrus trees
and over two million more tung oil
trees in Florida nurseries than a year
ago, according to inspection records
just announced by J. C. Goodwin,
nursery inspector with the State Pant
Board. There are 1,846 nurseries and
they have a total of 46,000,000 plants
growing on 5,700 acres.
About 12,000,000 citrus trees are
now in nursery formation, compared
with 13,000,000 last year. Grapefruit
made an increase of about 400,000
trees, while oranges dropped that
much. The number of Satsumas
dropped a quarter million, and seed-
lings declined over 400,000 trees, while
tangerines and hybrids made lighter
There were 3,000,000 tung oil trees
ii the nurseries, compared with 900,003
a year ago.
The records also showed 8,000,000
ferns, 18,000,000 other ornamental
plants, 3,400,000 pecan seedlings,
about 800,000 grape cuttings, and a
quarter million miscellaneous plant-
ings now in nurseries.
The nurseries as a whole were.found
to be in good condition. Certificates
were withheld on only a few occa-
sions, and most of these cases were
due to scale insects. No major pests
were found.

Former Florida Man Given Promotion
E. G. Moore, until two years ago
assistant editor for the Florida Agri-
cultural Extension Service, has just
been promoted to the position of as-
sistant chief of the Press Service,
United States Department of Agri-
culture, according to word received by
J. Francis Cooper, extension editor.
Mr. Moore resigned two years ago to
become associated with the U. S. D. A.
Press Service, and his promotion
comes as recognition of his ability.

Holmes County
Holmes County gardens and pan-
tries are bulging with home-grown
food, according to Mrs. Bettie Caudle.
home demonstration agent. The large
number of gardens planted this year
look exceptionally fine, and unusually
large amounts of fruits and vegetables
have been canned for home use and
for market.
Mrs. Caudle recently visited 70
homes in the County, and stated that
in most of them she found between
700 and 800 jars and cans of fruits
and vegetables. One club girl had
canned 1,035 quarts besides saving a
considerable quantity of fruit juices.
That not needed will be sold to pro-
vide extra money.

Farm Real Estate
Situation in State
Among Best in U. S.
The percentage of farm mortgage
foreclosures and delinquent tax sales
in Florida ended March 15, 1931, was
smaller than those of all but three
other States, according to the August
issue of Crops and Markets, official
publication of the United States De-
partment of Agriculture. These forced
sales and related defaults in Florida
were only slightly over half as nu-
merous during that year as they were
during the preceding year. Only seven
other States showed declines, all small.
while most of the States showed ap-
preciable increases.
Voluntary sales of farms in Florida
decreased less than one farm per
thousand, while decided decreases oc-
curred throughout the remainder of
the United States in all except six
States. In Florida, 19.8 farms per
thousand were voluntarily sold or
traded during the year ended March
15, 1931, as compared to 20.5 the pre-
ceding year. The United States total
dropped from 23.7 in 1930 to 19.0 in
Out of each 1,000 Florida farms, 3.3
were sold for delinquent taxes in the
latter year, compared to 5.1 the
former year. The average for the
United States was 7.4 in 1931 and 5.1
in 1930. Mortgage foreclosures and
surrender of titles accounted for the
change of 4 farms per 1,000 in 1931 and
8 in 1930 in Florida; 18.7 in 1931 and
15.7 in 1930 for the United States as
a whole. The total forced sales and
related defaults in Florida-were 7.3
farms per 1,000 in 1931 and 13.1 in
1930; in the United States they were
26.1 farms per 1,000 in 1931 and 20.8
in 1930.

Leon County
Many Leon County farmers are
paying more attention to live stock
since the price of cotton and other
money crops are so low, reports G. C.
Hodge, County agent. Many of the
farmers are asking Mr. Hodge to
visit their farms and help plan a live-
stock program. Eight farmers asked
for such visits during one week, re-

Wakulla County
Four purebred young Angus bulls
have just been brought to Wakulla
County by as many farmers and
County agent Henry Hudson. They
were purchased from J. B. Simonton,
Micanopy, who is one of the State's
leading Angus breeders.

Supply the sow and the fall litter of
pigs plenty of green feed for grazing.


October, 1931




4-H Club Broadcast
On November 7th the finest and
most outstanding 4-H Club girls and
boys in the country will broadcast a
club radio program over a nation-wide
hook-up of the N. B. C. Chain, in
which all member stations will co-
operate. The main part of the pro-
gram will come from Washington, but
club boys and girls from the different
States will give 30-minute programs
over their home stations. Three of
our own stations, W.J.A.X., W.I.O.D.
and W.F.L.A., will co-operate in
broadcasting programs over the State
of Florida. An outstanding Florida
4-H Club boy and girl will speak
over each station at the same hour.
Our home station, W.R.U.F., here at
the University, will broadcast a cam-
plete club program at the same time
as the national broadcast. With such
a complete coverage of the State,
every farm home with a radio should
have no trouble in picking out one of
four excellent programs.

State Pig Club Show
The State Pig Club Show will be
held in Tallahassee on October 27 and
28. The number and quality of ani-
mals shown last year was very good,
but it is hoped that the show. will be
even better than last year. The num-
ber of pig clubs has increased con-
siderably and the competition should
be keen. At this show the winners
of the Armour and Co. trip to Chicago
and the Thomas E. Wilson gold watch
will be selected.

Summer Camp
The summer camp is growing in
popularity year by year, until today
no summer is considered complete
without its camp. 4-H Club boys
from 22 Counties attended club
camps this summer. The 4-H Club
camp in West Florida was kept open
for eight weeks. This camp was
started in 1927 on Choctawatchee Bay
with a few cabins. Each year the boys
have improved the grounds, and new
buildings have been built and
equipped, until today it is the model
camp of Florida.
The Florida College Farmer will be
read by the 252 boys who attended
the fifteenth annual short course held
at the University last June. We hope
that many of these boys will be en-
couraged to come to college. Ar-
rangements were made whereby each
boy attending will be given a year's

4-H Club Scholarship
Our old tried and true friend, the
Florida Bankers Association, which
gives three $100 scholarships to the
Agricultural College every year, will
be glad to hear that four boys have
entered the University this Fall, on
their scholarships. They are Gray
Miley, of Hillsborough County,
Samuel Bradshaw, of Pasco County,
Charles Stearns, of Lake County, and
John Hentz, of Liberty County. We
old Club boys bid these four boys a
hearty welcome, because we know that
4-H Club boys are the kind that keep
on digging until they succeed. Not
one of our boys has ever failed to
make the grade, and we have every
reason to believe that these new ar-
rivals will come up to this standard.
Arlington Henley, an outstanding
Club boy of Walton County for the
past several years, has been working
in the (Animal Husbandry Depart-
ment of the Experiment Station dur-
ing the summer, and has registered
in the College of Agriculture this fall.
All of our College 4-H Club boys are
working at least a part of their way
through college, not from choice, but
because they have to.
Not all of our 4-H Club boys who
made good records at home have con-
tinued their agricultural education in
college. Allen Phelps, Jefferson
County, and HerTnan Goetter, of Es-
cambia County, are both in the En-
gineering College, so perhaps some
fine day in the future we will have two
famous farm boy engineers.

The Reason Why
In answer to the question, "Why
4-H Club work?" the bulletin of the
Agricultural Commission, American
Bankers' Association, gives these
Because 4-H Club work developed:
C-haracter, by responsibility
L-oyalty, by an interest in the home
and community
U-nderstanding, by working with
B-usiness methods, by doing business
W-ork habits, by showing the joy of
O-riginality, by opportunity for in-
R-esourcefulness, by overcoming ob-
K-indness, by care and ownership of

New Farmers' Bulletins
New Bulletins of general interest to
the farmer of Florida, published by
the Florida State Experiment Station,
at the University of Florida, are listed
The Blakemore Strawberry, No. 433,
by A. N. Brooks and R. E. Nolen.
Powdery Mildew of Crepe Myrtle,
No. 435, by Erdmon West.
Orange Rust of Blackberries, No.
436, by Erdmon West.
Brown Patch of Lawn and Golf
Greens and its Control, No. 437, by
George F. Weber.
Pear Blight and its Control, No. 438.
by George F. Weber.
Fig Rust and its Control, No. 439,
by George F. Weber.
Formaldehyde Seed Treatment for
Loose and Covered Smut of Oats, No.
440, by A. H. Eddins.
Florida farmers may obtain copies
of these bulletins free by writing to
the Florida Experiment Station at
Gainesville, Florida, and stating the
name and number of bulletins wanted.

Agricultural Club
Holds First Meeting
The Agricultural Club of the Florida
College of Agriculture held the first
of its series of nineteen thirty-one
meetings Monday night in the club
room of the Agricultural building.
A club attendance record is believed
to have been established at this meet-
ing, which proved to be exceptionally
interesting as well as enjoyable.
President Greenman, of the Agri-
culture Club, called the meeting to
order and sufficed such business mat-
ters as were presented before the club.
Wilmon Newell, Dean of the Col-
lege of Agriculture, was introduced as
speaker of the evening by the pro-
gram chairman. As his talk for the
evening Dean Newell gave a detailed
summary of the work, past and pres-
ent, that is carried on by the experi-
ment stations throughout Florida.
Species of successful experimenta-
tions were passed around to the mem-
bers of the club as an illustration of
the work that has been accomplished
by the extension staff.
This information proved to be very
valuable to the members present be-
cause of the number of men in the ag-
ricultural college who intend to make
extension work their vocation.
Many interesting and helpful topics
are to be discussed in the future and
all agricultural students and anyone
that may be interested in such work
are urged to attend these meetings.


October, 1931

Florida Grape Industry
(Continued from page 5)
able to meet competition and bring
the grower a fair return.
Some of the European or meaty
kinds that look promising are Chas-
selas Dore, Chasselas Fontainebleau,
Chasselas Rose Royal, Chasselas Ne-
grepont, Chasselas Rose de Falleaux.
These are all French table grapes.
Japan has a climate a lot like ours,
in the summer time, and they grow
Madeline Angevine, a white, early va-
riety, and which looks very promising
with us.
Ribier, a large black grape, that is
one of the highest priced varieties on
the market today, is the most promis-
ing variety we have and with it
Florida should build a real grape in-
At the last session at Tallahassee
an appropriation of $10,000.00 was
allowed for a full-time Grape Path-
ologist for two years to work on
grape diseases. This is the first time
the grape industry has ever received
any help from the State of Florida,
and the grape industry should be
greatly benefited.
Congress made an appropriation for
grape experimental work to be done
in the Southeastern States. A Pomol-
ogist from the Department of Agri-
culture, Washington, D. C., will visit
Florida this Fall to find out the differ-
ent needs of the grape industry here.
The Government help will also be
greatly appreciated and needed, and
all in all the future of the grape in-
dustry looks very good.
The grape industry of Florida is
well organized. We have two asso-
ciations that are functioning real well,
one, the Florida Grape Growers' As-
sociation, has been working on the
information of grape growing in
Florida for over ten years, and the
selling end is handled by the Florida
Grape Growers' Exchange, a Grow-
ers' Co-operative association.

State Dairy Sale to be at
Gainesville in
The annual sale of the State Dairy-
men's Association will be held here
November 17, according to an an-
nouncement just made by the commit-
tee in charge. About 25 young cattle,
some of the best in the Southeast.
will be auctioned on this occasion.
These cattle will come from the lead-
ing dairies of Florida, as well as other
sections of the Southeast.
All animals offered will have reg-
istration papers and health certificates.
The heifers will all be over six months
old, and all the bulls will be at least
one year of age. All bulls offered
will be from Register of Merit dams.
The present consignment list con-
tains nine Jersey heifers, six Jersey
bulls, five Guernsey heifers, three
Guernsey bulls, one Holstein bull and
one Holstein heifer.

Possible to Have
Green Lawns All
Winter in Florida
It is possible to have a green lawn
all winter in sunny Florida, says G. E.
Ritchey, assistant agronomist with the
Florida Experiment Station. This can
be accomplished by sowing a little
Italian rye grass seed on the regular
lawn just before it begins to turn
Three to four pounds of the grass
seed should be scattered on each 1,000
square feet of lawn, and about the
middle of October is usually the best
time to do it. This amount should
not hurt the old lawn but should be
enough to make the lawn look green
this fall and winter. The seed should
be worked down into the old grass
with a brush or rake. The lawn
should then be given a good watering.
It is well to sprinkle about one-half
inch of soil over the lawn after the
seed are sown. Keep the lawn well
watered until the seed have germinat-
ed, and then it may be treated as any
other lawn. Two or three pounds of
some quickly available nitrate fertili-
zer per 1,000 square feet each month
will help to produce the desired rich
If there is no grass on the yard
prepare the soil well, and thoroughly
rake into it three or four pounds of
rye grass seed per 1,000 square feet.
It is advisable to add stable manure,
good muck soil, or cottonseed meal
while the ground is being prepared.
Kentucky bluegrass and red top are
other winter grasses, but they are not
as popular in Florida as Italian rye
grass. They are more susceptible to
the disease known as brown patch, and
will grow more slowly.

Milk Goats
(Continued from page 4)
The goat's hoofs should be trimmed
every month, especially in sections
where the ground is soft. In their
native habitat where the ground is
rocky they keep their hoofs worn
down. If their hoofs are not trimmed
regularly, they will become lame and
often they are not able to walk.
The goat's worst enemy is the
stomach worm. Worms often cause
the goat to fall off in milk produc-
tion and they will also cause them to
lose weight. Stomach worms are
treated by drenching with a copper
sulphate solution, complete directions
being given in U. S. D. A. Farmer's
Bulletin 920. Goats are quite sus-
ceptible to pneumonia. Malta Fever
is very serious in some sections of
the West.
The price of milk goats varies be-
tween twenty-five and seventy-five
dollars for grade does to as high as
two hundred and fifty dollars for
purebred registered does.
The official registry association is:
The American Milk Goat Record As-
sociation, with headquarters at Vin-
cennes, Indiana.

The following references will prove
helpful to anyone that would like ad-
ditional information:
Richards, Irmagarde.
1921. Modern Milk Goats. J. B. Lip-
pincott Co., Philadelphia.
Pegler, H. S. H.
1909. The Book of the Goat. L.
Upton Gill, 170 Strand, London.
Shaw, Edward L.
1918. Milk Goats. Farmer's Bulle-
tin No. 920.
Voorhies, Edwin C.
1926. Care and Management of the
Milk Goat.
California Agricultural Extension Ser-
vice, Circular 6.

Prevention Salt Sick Ex-
plained in New Bulletin
A prevention for the condition in
cattle known as salt sick is explained
in a bulletin recently published by the
Florida Experiment Station. This
trouble, the greatest single cause of
loss to the cattle industry in the State,
is due to a deficiency of iron or iron
and copper in the ration, the investi-
gators have found.
The earliest livestock work of the
Station, in 1888, was with this condi-
tion. Since that time considerable
work has been done to obtain the re-
sults just announced. The findings
coincide with the experience of many
cattlemen, who have found that cer-
tain pastures would cause the trouble
and that if the affected cattle were
moved to certain other pastures they
would recover.
Salt sick symptoms are a general
run-down condition, loss of appetite,
a reduced volume of blood which may
have as low as one-fourth the normal
amount of red pigment, and flabby,
pale internal organs.
When affected animals were given
a mineral mixture of iron and traces
of copper the condition was overcome
in all but advanced cases. Recently
over 300 badly affected test animals
had been brought back to a normal
condition with this supplement. The
mixture used was made of 100 pounds
common salt, 25 pounds red oxide of
iron, and 1 pound finely ground cop-
per sulphate. This mixture was
placed in a box beside a box of com-
mon salt and the cattle given free
choice of them. If this practice is
followed the animals will not take too
great an amount of the iron-copper
For advanced cases a stock solu-
tion made by dissolving 1 pound of
ferric ammonium citrate and 2/
grams of powdered copper sulphate
in 1 gallon of water is recommended.
Mature cows should be given 3
ounces per day, smaller animals 2
ounce-, of this solution. It may be
given as a drench or placed in the
drinkir g water.
The authors of the bulletin, which
is number 231, are Drs. R. B. Becker,
W. N. Neal, and A. L. Shealy, of the
Animal Husbandry Department. Free
copies are available.


Students of the College of Agriculture have contributed 100% in subscriptions
to the magazine.
We now want PAID SUBSCRIPTIONS from every County in Florida.
by the monthly visits of the COLLEGE FARMER are:
The 4-H Club boys and girls.
Students of Smith-Hughes High Schools.
County Farm and Home Demonstration Agents.
Teachers of Smith-Hughes and other High Schools.
Chambers of Commerce, County and City.
County Newspapers, City Dailies.
YOUNG FARMERS who wish to prepare for brighter days.
OLDER FARMERS who are willing to keep step with the progress of the age.
Send in your subscriptions quick, get all nine issues of the COLLEGE FARMER for One Dollar
Bill. Write us a letter also telling us what you want to know, the COLLEGE FARMER will try
to hand it to you.


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